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INTRODUCTION

The existing Malaysia highways function with a most complicated and complex set of
interrelationships. The operating characteristics of this system are functionally dependent upon
the amount and types of users that require service. This is especially true at those points where
elements of the system come together the intersection. When traffic volumes increase or
change their nature (increase in the number of trucks and/or buses), it is usually the intersection
that first proves itself incapable of serving the added or altered demand. Consequently,
congestion and delays will increase and the worst case will be the accident experience. That is
theoretically and practically logical because the intersection is a concentrated conflict point
which generally functions at a lower capacity and level of service than any of the road segment it
serves.
Evidently, intersection in fact becomes a bottleneck to the satisfactory operation of the
adjacent highway system. Thus, a detailed study of qualitative road service at signalised
intersections can be conducted to assess the effectiveness of an intersection. Based on the results
of the study, appropriate decisions can be made as to the nature and degree of improvement
possible or justified.
Measure of effectiveness of traffic system elements operation can be indicated by the
level of service (LOS). LOS represents the qualitative and clear manner of describing the traffic
flow conditions. LOS is an approach of taking into account of several factors such as vehicles,
pedestrians, economical effects, environmental effect and etc. Based on those factors, the traffic
condition can be categorised into different grade of level of service.
The transportation LOS system uses the letters A to F to indicate the traffic condition,
with A is the best or free flow condition while F is the worst or most congested condition. LOS
A for signalised intersection indicates that no vehicle waits longer than one signal indication that
is the flow of the traffic is completely free. At the opposite, LOS F means backup from locations
downstream restrict or prevent movement of vehicle out of approach creating gridlock
condition.
Malaysia as a developing country, the effectiveness of the traffic system is indeed
important to create a smooth and stable flow for either the people or for the goods. Efficient
traffic networks enable people to reach their destination faster, and also ensure the goods to be
transported in quick and safe manner. There are a couple more advantages can be listed with the
increase of the effectiveness and efficiency of the traffic control system. Generally, those
advantages can be categorised as two major groups which are cost and time.

Jalan Kemuliaan I is situated in a residential area, commercial area with shop house and
close to the school area that is Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Taman Universiti. Hence, the

traffic system in this area is significantly important to sustain all the activities generated by the
customers of shop house,motorcycles,cars,school bus, and as well as the local residents. This
three arms junction can be considered as a busy road. The signalised system must be able to
distribute all the traffic flow in order to minimise the conflicts of vehicle as well as maximise the
satisfaction of all the road users. So, a case study will be done to evaluate and determine the
signalised control system to benefit all the road users for that particular cross junction.

METHODOLOGY
To study the qualitative service of an unsignalised intersection, it is essential to address the
problems that signify the importance of the study. The precision of identifying a field data is
significant to ensure the efficiency of the analysis of the study. A site at Jalan Kemuliaan 1,
Taman Universiti has been selected for traffic signal design proposal. The parameters for the
data analysis which will be collected includes traffic volume from every approaches, number of
lane for major road and minor road, width of each lane, types of vehicles, road gradient a turning
radius. Proper data collection enable the completion of a good study and analysis. Data will be
calculated with suitable assumption and analysis will be carried out based on ArahanTeknik
(Jalan) 13/87 (JKR,1987).

Figure 2.1 represents the flow chart of the study.

Identification of Data requirement


The data that will be collected during this study include:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Distribution of traffic flow from each approaches during peak hour


Number of lanes on major road and minor road
Width of each lanes
Road gradient
Turning radius
Types of vehicles

Selection of Location
A high traffic flow of anunsignalised intersection is required to fulfil the requirement for this
study. In addition, it is preferably for intersection with the following criteria:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

A)Major roads with high traffic volume


High conflicting traffic points
Traffic are prompt to accident
Traffic suffer from delay at intersection
Traffic consists of various types of vehicles

During the process of accessing and choosing all the possible study sites, JalanKemuliaan 1 in
Taman Universiti has fulfilled all the criteria needed for traffic signal installation. Various types
of vehicles can be found utilizing the intersection. High volume traffic is observed during peak
hour and traffic is susceptible to collisions.
Selection of traffic must have criteria in Warrant 1(b) Peak hour volume.
Warrant 1 (b) : Peak hour volume at a location where traffic conditions are such that for a
minimum of 1 hour of an average day, the minor street traffic suffers undue delay when entering
or crossing the major street.
Field Data Collection
The typical equipment were used on site during data collection such as tally sheet, inventory
sheet, stopwatch, measuring rope and stationary. Traffic from every directions were observed
and recorded in the tally sheet that had been assigned to each members of the group. Stopwatch
was used for intervals count down of 15 minutes each, for a total of 1 hour period. Throughout
the survey period at selected site, the following data and traffic flow were successfully collected
and observed:

a) Distribution of traffic flow


b) Traffic Volume
c) Road geometric characteristics, such as road gradient, turning radius, number of lanes,
lane width
d) Traffic condition, such as higher risk of accident from conflicting points
e) Excessive delay time from minor road entering major road

Selection of Date and Time


In order to obtain the highest volume of traffic, observation will be carried out on a normal
working day during peak hour. For this study, evening peak hour have been selected for data
collection from 5.30pm to 6.30pm on Wednesday.

Data Processing and Analysis


The recorded data for the number of vehicles, distribution of flow, volume and types of vehicles
will be reduced into a table for calculation in either Microsoft Word or Excel spreadsheet. The
data will be analysed for a total volume of peak hour movement (veh/hr) and converted to
Passenger Car Unit (PCU) by using appropriate PCU value for each and every vehicles
classification.
The effective lane width value will be used to determine the saturation flow for each approaches.
The methodology also addresses the effect of gradient, turning radius, and the proportion of
turning traffic on traffic saturation flow, where an appropriate correction factor has to be
multiplied by the saturation flow to obtained the actual saturation volume.
Results and Conclusion
By obtaining the result from analysis of the unsignalised intersection on selected site, evaluation
can be carried out and a suitable traffic signal design can be proposed on the particular junction.
Suitable traffic signal system can be installed based on the data analysis, such as the number of
phases to reduce conflicting points, increase the traffic-handling ability and provide for a
progressive flow of traffic along the given route. At the end of the data analysis, a complete
cycle time with sufficient signal indications period can be obtained for every phases of traffic
movements, in order to provide right-of-way to vehicles on each approach for efficient traffic
movement and road users safety.

Traffic at Jalan Kemulian 1


Calculation
Jalan Kemulian 1

103

263
W

E
236

436

301

Traffic parameters:
Width of the road : 6.4m
Ft = 0.85
389

4 lanes (major and minor)


Flat road

First step is to assume that it has two phase between west and east and then south.
From the first phae we found out that conflict between west to south and east to west is:
263 x 389 = 102307 > 100000 veh/hr for 4 lanes not ok!
While we can see that all right direction is more than 100veh/hr therefore its not ok!
Thus we use 3 phase traffic signal.

Fasa

Dari

Ke

Q(kend/j)

103

263

236

389

236

389

205

378

310

205

378

525(6.4)=3360

525(6.4)=3360

525(6.4)=3360

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Qtotal
q (ukp/j)

366
83

qtotal
S (ukp/j)
Fg

227

Fr

0.93

Fl

1.0

1.0

1.0

Ft

1.0

0.85

1.0

Ssebenar

3124

2856

3360

Y=q/s

0.10

0.07

0.11

ymaks

0.10

0.07

0.11

Ytotal = 0.10 + 0.07 + 0.11 = 0.28 < 0.85 ok!!


Assume

R = 2 saat
A = 3saat
L = 2 saat

Tempoh antara hijau = I=R + a = 5saat


Jumlah masa hilang per kitaran = 2 x 6 = 12 saat
Tempoh kitaran optimum Co = (1.5x12 + 5) / (1-0.28) = 32 saat
0.75(32) < Co < 1.5(32)
24< Co < 48

Ambil Co = 40 saat
Tempoh hijau berkesan gn = yn(Co L) / Y
g1 = [0.10(40-12)] / 0.28 = 10 saat
g2 = [0.07(40-12)] / 0.28 = 7 saat
g3 = [0.11(40-12)] / 0.28 = 11 saat
Tempoh hijau sebenar Gn = gn + l + R
G1 = 10 + 2 + 2 = 14 saat
G2 = 7 + 2 + 2

= 11 saat

G3 = 11 + 2 + 2 = 15 saat
Tempoh hijau pameran kn = Gn a R
K1 = 14 3 2 = 9 saat
K2 = 11 3 2 = 6 saat
K3 = 15 3 2 = 10 saat

Results:
Time Frame:
Phase 1

Green

Phase 2

Green

Green

Phase 3
9s

12s

14s

20s

23s

25s

35s

38s

40s

Conclusion
It has been shown that following these principles when designing traffic signs will make
the signs more comprehensible. Minimizing the time and effort it takes drivers to interpret traffic
signs may help to reduce driver mental workload and frustration. It is also especially important to
attempt to follow the standardization principle because, due to the increase in globalization,
many drivers may be visiting internationally. It is also particularly important to follow the
principle of visibility because of the increasing average age, and thus vision difficulties, of
drivers.
From our investigation at Jalan Kemulian 1 we found out that it needs to put traffic signal
because the amount of flow is higher than it should be. Through analyzation and calculation we
manage to make three phase traffic signal for this road. The amount of optimum cycle is 40
second. We conclude that we manage to reduce the flow of the traffic conflict which can cause
more delay and increase rate of accident.

Design after analyzing. (complete design)

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Phase 1

Give Away

Phase 2

Traffic Signal

Phase 3