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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.0

Introduction

This chapter emphasize on the introduction of this research study to give an overall
overview of the background of the study, the issues that are addressed in the previous studies,
why this research are being conducted, and the scope to conduct this study. This chapter are
divided into seven sections; background of the study, statement of problem, the purpose and
objectives of this study, research questions , the significance, and the scope of this study.

1.1

Background of the Study

Facebook is one of the way communications through internet connection where the
people have their own Facebook account to connect and interact with others. Basically,
Facebook is just an account for social network but nowadays, Facebook is also important as a
medium in business, work, education and etc. Regarding the statement, it means that the user of
Facebook come from different backgrounds of age, occupation, gender and etc. According to Lee
Wee Nean (2011), Facebook is considered to be a platform provider to users from all age and
levels to share different life experiences as well as keeping in touch with friends living in
different places or cultures.

Facebook has become the fastest-growing social network among Malaysian. Assistant
Minister of Youth Development, Datuk Dr. Stephen Rundi (2013) found out that 13.3 million of
Facebook users are Malaysian. This statistic puts Malaysia on the 8th spot in Asia and 21st place
in the world. From the statistic, those aged between 18 and 24 were the highest users,
contributing 34.5% followed by those aged 25 to 34 years is 29.5% and 13 to 17 years is 16.3%.

Facebook can bring many advantages for the users. According to Lee Wee Nean (2011),
users can expand their social networking and maintaining their relationship between friends or
even family members. Social networking is good for business and education, as the user need
more information from others and by using Facebook, the users can share the ideas and

information which can save cost and time in the process. Indirectly, creating a relationship with
new people thus, expanding their networking through Facebook.

1.2

Statement of the Problem

In the world of technology, Facebook is important for daily activities as to help the
people to find information easily and save time. Especially for the young people who always
keep up-to-date with information through social networking, Facebook. According to Gemmil
and Peterson (2006) states that socializing through internet has become a main portion of the
young adult life. This statement shown that young adult love to surf the internet and the most
activity that they like to do when connecting to internet is to sign in to Facebook.

Besides that, Facebook has become the mean communication tool among people of today
because they are easy to log in with their mobile phone at anytime and whenever they want.
Unfortunately, users will spend a longer time on Facebook chat, playing games, and so on. This
leads to a waste of time because all the time was used by facing Facebook and not for other
things.

Moreover, people can become addicted to Facebook because they are more interested in
spending a long time on Facebook than doing anything else. This addiction can be severe if the
teens do not do outdoor activities like sports, reading, recreational breakaway and etc.

Behavioural and emotional they will also be easier emotionally because there are no mixing
between friends and always alone surfing Facebook.

Facebook can also lead to bad behaviour if misused in ways its use. According to Jeffry
Rady Mohamad Ramli (2009) said that this is because some unscrupulous could provide
information that pornography, propaganda, false teaching and etc. This is of great concern
because adolescence is a potential heir to lead the country in the future. If they have bad attitude
and it gives a great threat to the country in the face of these teens. Thus, the role of parents is
very important in monitoring the daily activities of their children in the surf material available in
Facebook in existence.

1.3

Purposes of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the usage of Facebook among
undergraduates of Faculty Management students. We would like to conduct a study in
identifying the purposes of students using Facebook, and also their time consumption on
Facebook. On the other hand, studies have shown that Facebook if not wisely used, may bring
more harm rather than bring the positive things. The purpose of the study also is to assess the
current students knowledge on the effect(s) on using Facebook.

1.4

Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are:

1.5

1.

To identify the purpose of students using Facebook.

2.

To investigate how much time students spend on Facebook.

3.

To study the effects on the usage of Facebook among students.

Research Questions

The research questions of this study based on the objectives are:

1.6

1.

What purpose the students using Facebook?

2.

How much time students spend on Facebook?

3.

What are the effect(s) do the student face if they using Facebook?

Significance of the Study

Although currently there are an increasing number of Facebook users emerging from all
levels of society especially among undergraduates, the findings of this study are essential to help
students identify the purpose why they are using Facebook. The results of these findings could be
a reference to students on how they manage their time properly during studies. With the

information gathered from the study, the average time spent either on studies and Facebook
could be balanced for optimum satisfaction and efficiency in the university. Furthermore,
students will know the positive and negative effects of using Facebook as their social networking
sites.

1.7

Scope of the Study

The study focused on second year undergraduate students in each course from Faculty of
Managemen in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai. A total of 50 students from different
courses were selected randomly as respondents. The number of the respondents for each course
will be fixed proportionally to obtain a balanced sample which represents the entire faculty. The
courses that were involved in the study are Bachelor of Management (Technology) (SHAD),
Bachelor of Human Resource Development (SHAR), Bachelor of Management (Marketing)
(SHAF), Bachelor of Accounting (SHAC), and Bachelor of Psychology (SHAY).

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0

Introduction

This chapter emphasize on the information, set of summaries found in the literature that
already been published and are related to this study. This chapter are divided into five sections
which are origin of Facebook, the importance, and the factors of using Facebook, there are also a
previous empirical studies done on Facebook and the conclusion that are can be extracted from
the previous empirical studies.

2.1

Origin of Facebook

Facebook is a leading social networking website which was launched on February 4,


2004 by Mark Zuckerberg. Zuckerberg founded The Facebook, as in was originally known,
with the support from Andrew McCollum and Eduardo Saverin. The statistics of the Facebook
shows there are more than 500 million active users and 50% of the active users log on in any
given day. It also shows that people spending 700 billion minutes per month on Facebook. From
there, we can observe the amount of time spent on Facebook and among of that, how much time
do university students or teenagers aged between 18 and 25 years old ( Bumgarner, 2007).
Nowadays, Facebook is not only available on computer but also through most mobile devices
like cell phones, Iphones and smartphones.

2.2

The Importance of Facebook

Facebook may have been built for students, but it's become an important part of everyday
life for people at any age. Hence, there are many importance of Facebook can be identified
throughout this study which are social, forum and group, games, business, and stalking.

2.2.1

Social

Social networking sites such as Facebook has turned into a global phenomena.
Users prefer to maintain their relationship and spend their time on it. According to
Murray and Waller (2007), social networking site allow users to connect and interact
with each other on a particular subject or just hang out together online. Facebook is
very essential for undergraduates life. It provides changes to reconnect old friends in
own social networking and some of them are done purposely to maintain friendship
rather than finding new friends (Ellison et al., 2007; Wiley and Sisson, 2006).
Meanwhile, half of college students try to let others knows them better (Wiley and
Sisson, 2006). It lets people comes from different walks of life and culture to come
together so as to share various experiences regarding the world around them. Even people
who have never met can be linked each other, even for those who are from very different
parts of the world. The significant differences when comparing users and non-users was
that Facebook users are more focus on social grooming (Tufekci, 2007). In addition,
Facebook provide interaction and personalized service based on users activities and
interest (Kwong, 2007).

Social networking sites Facebook traditionally share three common elements.


Individuals construct a public and semi-public profile within a bounded system,
articulate a list of others users with whom they share a connection and view and
transverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system (Boyd
and Ellison, 2007). The design attracts more users and thus increases popularity.

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2.2.2

Forum and Group

Undergraduates frequently create group on Facebook which enable those who


have a common interest and point-of-view to gather to a forum of discussion. Creator of
each group is responsible to regulate the privacy and editing of each group. They are also
a wall on each users profile page that allows friends to post messages for others to see.
Many users use their friends walls for living short temporal notes. This provides a
channel for the undergraduate to connect among classmates, and also as a convenient tool
to announce notification such like the dateline of passing up an assignment as well as a
sudden cancelling of a lecture class. Undoubtedly, Facebook is a useful and meaningful
resource for the undergraduates since it is used extremely often nowadays. Meanwhile,
Facebook users who are involved in universities or schools can announce upcoming user
events, maintain a personal journal or blog and develop a user calendar (Kwong, 2007).
Facebook users can join different group based on favorites and post events, and messages
can be exchanged between the users (Kwong, 2007).

2.2.3

Games
Games are creative and mindful expression of the human spirit which comes out

through the creation of activity that has an entertaining, flexible, instructive and
competing element. Some of the students using Facebook just because they love to play
social games on Facebook and they also think that it is one of the reason they have signed
up to Facebook.

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Di Loreto Ines and Gouaich Abdelkader (2011) stated that,


2009 was the year social games exploded into the mainstream consciousness.
While most of the focus on social games was due to MMORPGs (Massive
Multiplayers Role Playing Games) such as World of Warcraft (WoW), a large
part of social games awareness was generated by the rise of social games in
social networks. Although many social networks (such as MySpace and Bebo)
have contributed to the growth of this trend by featuring a growing range of
applications, Facebook is the social network where games applications have
had the hugest impact. For example, Farmville a land management game- has
76,677,249 active monthly users, Mafia Wars a kind of role-playing game24,650,755 active monthly users.

As in all real life games, the success of online games is dependent on their
playfulness i.e., all the elements of the (digital) design that engage peoples attention or
involve them in an activity for recreation, amusement, or creative enjoyment (Follett,
2007).

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2.2.4

Business

Some of the features of the internet allows for shopping, searching for
information about products and service and buying. These activities are predicted to
continue growing in strength and volume. Whether the increase in internet usage and ecommerce will slow or continue to grow at its current pace, it will account for a
substantial amount of consumer spending (Blech G.E. and Belch M.A., 2004). For those
in a business-to-business market, Facebook effectively enhance and supports the selling
effort. The web has become a primary source of information for millions of customer
and business to business markets. User can determine if the offering satisfies their need
and if so request a personal sales call. In such cases both parties benefit from time and
cost savings. Improvements in one-to-one relationship with customers also occur. By
providing more information in a more timely and efficient manner, a company enables
customers to learn more about what it has offer, updates faster. This increases the
opportunity for cross-selling and customer intention, (Belch G.E. and Belch M.A.,
2004).

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2.2.5

Stalking

Lurking is so common on Facebook that the colloquialism Facebook stalking


has emerged in popular culture (Lyndon, Bonds-Raacke, & Cratty, 2011). Unlike early
perceptions of lurking, Facebook stalking is frequently it is discussed frankly in a
jesting way without negative implication. In lurking or stalking on Facebook to feed
their insecurities, individuals find source material for special reasons. It has become
obvious that in the digital era, an expected place for individuals to start their investigation
is on Facebook. Lurking on Facebook was significantly connected to emotional,
cognitive, and behavioral curiosity (Facebook stalking), (Katherine A. Lindner, 2008).

2.3

Factors of Using Facebook

Facebook has more than a billion members and half log in daily. According to the
research that are being done by the Psychology Department in University Of Michigan in 2013,
almost all the participants said they used Facebook to stay in touch with friends, but only 23%
said they used the social networking site to meet new people.

Facebook is an accepted means of communication. It is a never-ending virtual social


gathering filled with baby announcements, viral articles and videos, events, groups,
organizations and fan pages. Facebook are social networking sites to allow users to reconnect
and stay connected with other people. Facebook sites allow users to post messages on each

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others profiles, send private messages, and comment on each others photographs. Facebook has
also have an instant messaging feature that allows users who are online and logged into
Facebook to chat with other Facebook users, who are also online thus, keeping the users to stay
in touch with friends and family and build up connection with new people.

Hoffmann and Nadkarni (2012), stated that,


Facebook's 800 million monthly active users (soon to be 1 billion) use the service to fulfill two
basic social needs: the need to belong and the need for self-presentation.

Facebook allows users to do several things, among others to get into a group with people
with common interests and express themselves on their wall post on a group or page. Thus,
creating a feeling to belong in a community. Things like groups allow users to get some of that
feeling by joining. Thats probably the reason why groups and pages are so popular on
Facebook. Facebook allows users to do just that almost everywhere on the site. They can like
things and comment on almost everything (pictures, status updates, other comments, group and
page discussions etc).

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2.4

Previous Empirical Studies on Facebook

There are numerous studies have been conducted on Facebook. It mainly examines the
pattern of Facebook users and some touch on factors on event side effects on Facebook. Besides
that, it also indicates the influence of Facebook which is related to social networking.

A.Pempek et.al, (2008) conducted a study regarding college students social networking
experiences on Facebook. The study indicated the time spending on Facebook, how they use
them and the reasons. The results showed college students spent on 30 minutes per day on
Facebook. The second finding showed a college student use of Facebook to facilitate social
relationships and it is not including the stranger and family members. Lastly, the researcher
found that students interact through wall post and private chatting.

According to the researchers report, students use the social media site to cure a simple
ailment which is boredom. In addition to satisfying our "entertainment" needs, Facebook also
attracts us by providing an outlet for "interpersonal communication" and "self-expression. The
study, published in the Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, suggests that personality
type determines how an individual uses social media and that the reason for engaging with
Facebook can fluctuate over time. Researchers have long known that five broad categories drive
online activity: information seeking, interpersonal communication, self-expression, passing time
and entertainment. In the study led by Hunt, the goal was to see if the same measures drove
people to spend time on Facebook. The study confirmed that, with the exception of information

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seeking, all of the other behavioural factors that drive online activity hold true for Facebook,
with entertainment and time passing being two of the biggest drivers of Facebook activity.

Cheung et.al, (2010) conducted study on the determining why do students use Facebook.
The study focused on explaining why students use Facebook. The results show that the social
presence is a critical impact on intention to use Facebook. Most of the users prefer instant
communication and connection with friends which is the supporting fact. Besides that, group
norm is another reason. User will feel the core value of the group and similarly realized that they
risk high tendency to push them to the core value. It main be a significant influence on the
intention of Facebook. Five values being significant which is social related factors (maintaining
interpersonal interconnectivity and social enhancement) and entertainment value.

Rose et.al, (2008) conducted study on determining personality and motivations associated
with Facebook use. The study focused on examining the influence of personality and
competency factors. Furthermore, the personality variables will be identified which associated
with some aspects of Facebook users. First of the results showed from the Facebook that
individuals will maintain ties with their group. User with high on traits in extra version may
utilized Facebook as a social tool but they do not present is as and alternatives to social activities.
In addition, characteristics of users with openness and experiences would associated with a good
sociable through Facebook.

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Vasalou et.al, (2010) conducted a study on cultural differences, experience with social
networks and the nature of true commitment in Facebook. The analysis focused n the ultimate
goal of social networking designer in fostering a sense of true commitment in Facebook users.
There are three target behaviours which are creating value and content, involving others and
staying active and loyal will signaled with true commitment when users are engaged. Result
shows that staying active and loyal are no different, a slightly different result showed in
creating value and content and involving others. The scope of the study was Facebook users
from five countries which include US, UK, Italy, Greece, and France. Different results were
identified from the three target behaviour among five countries. In between US and UK,
participation from the UK was more significant. Meanwhile, the users from France were less
concerned in status updates and photographs. Besides that, the results found that users from
Greece think that status updates are not so important. Lastly, Greece is similar with US users and
conversely, there is a big difference between users from US, UK, French and Italian.

2.5

Conclusion from Previous Studies

Facebook is a social network for connecting people with those around them friends,
family, coworkers, or simply others with similar interests. One general conclusion is that
Facebook plays a significant role in supporting pre-existing social relations. Most of the study
shows that Facebook users are using it as a platform to maintain their relationship. On the other
hand, addiction of Facebook will bring a negative effect but there also a positive effect if used
the right way.

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CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0

Introduction

This chapter discusses the methodology of the research. This chapter will explain on the
research instrument that are used in this research, who are the respondents of the study, how the
research are being conducted and the analysis of data after the data from research instruments are
being obtained.

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3.1

Research Instrument

The research instruments are ways to gathering data and information. The research
instrument used for the research is of both quantitative and qualitative research methodology.

The instruments used to collect the qualitative and quantitative data from the
questionnaire. A set of questionnaire question are containing 15 questions divided into four
sections. There are two categories of questions used that is open-ended question and closedended questions. Open ended questions expect the respondents to give opinions, ideas,
suggestions or comment. For closes-ended questions requires the respondent to provide opinions,
ideas or comments based on the options provided in the same questionnaire. In this
questionnaire, the types of closed-ended question used are yes-no question, likert-scale,
listing/choice questions, ranking questions and categories questions. The different sections of the
questionnaire are divided into four which are personal information, usage of Facebook, time
usage and the effect of using Facebook. Refer to appendix A.

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3.2

Respondents of the study

The respondent of the study were second year undergraduate students from all courses in
the Faculty of Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. A total of 50 questionnaires are
distributed. The courses that were involved in the study are Bachelor of Management
(Technology) (SHAD), Bachelor of Human Resource Development (SHAR), Bachelor of
Management (Marketing) (SHAF), Bachelor of Accounting (SHAC), and Bachelor of
Psychology (SHAY).

3.3

Research Procedure

Before the actual data collection period, a pilot study was conducted to determine
whether the respondents understand the questions from the questionnaire. A total of five students
are involved in this pilot study.

During the actual data collection, questionnaires are distributed to ten respondents on
every course available in the faculty. A total of 50 questionnaires are distributed to five courses
involved which are; Techonology Management, Human Resource Development, Marketing.
Accounting, and Psychology.

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3.5

Data Analysis

After the data are collected through questionnaires, the data are analyses through the use
of manual calculator and Microsoft Excel software in the computer. The four sections of the
questionnaire; which are personal information, usage of Facebook, time usage and the effect of
using Facebook, are taken into consideration and the results are presented through tables, pie
charts, graphs, and charts.

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CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

4.0

Introduction

This chapter discusses about the result from the questionnaires responded by 50
participants. This chapter comprises into four sections which are demographic information, the
usage of Facebook, the time usage on Facebook, and the effect of using Facebook.

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4.1

Demographic Information

The profile of the respondents is looked upon in terms of gender and the course they took
at the faculty. All the respondents are a Facebook user.

4.1.1

Genders of Respondents

10%

Male
Female
90%

Figure 4.1.1 Genders of the Respondents

The Figure 4.1.1 shows the number of female respondents is ninety percent higher
compared to the ten percent male respondents. This is because the students in the faculty are
mainly dominated by female students.

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4.1.2

Course Taken by the Respondents

COURSE

NUMBER OF
RESPONDENTS (%)

Technology Management

20

Accounting

20

Marketing

20

Psychology

20

Human Resource Development

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Table 4.1.2 Course taken by the Respondents

The Figure 4.2 shows that the questionnaires are distributed equally between the
respondents according to the courses taken by the respondents in the faculty. So that, the
research could be carry out to identify the Facebook usage across the whole department in the
faculty. The courses are Technology Management, Accounting, Marketing, Psychology, and
Human Resource Development.

4.2

Usage of Facebook

This part of the analysis will provide the results on the usage of Facebook among Faculty
of Management students. The elements that are being analysed are the time duration on how long
the respondents have been a Facebook user, the devices that are being used to log in to

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Facebook, to see whether they used Facebook during class period, the purpose of they use
Facebook, their involvement in Facebook group, and the reason they join that group.

4.2.1

Duration of Years Respondents as a Facebook User.

2%
Less than 1 year
32%

20%
More than 1 year
but less than 3
years
46%

more than 3 years


but less than 5
years

Figure 4.2.1 Duration of Years Respondents as a Facebook User

The Figure 4.2.1 is used to measure how long the respondents have been a Facebook
user. The result has shown that higher percentage of 46 percent of respondents have signed up to
Facebook for more than 3 years but less than 5 years. The lowest percentage is 2 percent which
is less than 1 year. Meanwhile, the percentage for the respondent who used Facebook for more
than 5 years is 32 percent and 20 percent for more than 1 year but less than 3 years. Higher
percentage using Facebook for more than 3 years is because on the year 2010, Facebook has
become a well known and popular social networking sites ever since. Thus, allowing students to
connect to Facebook more easily.

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4.2.2

Devices to Log In to Facebook

40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

38%

38%

18%
6%

Personal
Computer

Cellphone

Public Computer

Other Digital
Products

Figure 4.2.2 Devices to log in Facebook account

The Figure 4.2.2 shows that the devices respondents prefer to log in Facebook. The
respondents can choose more than one devices. The highest number of selected devices is 38
percent which consist of personal computer and cellphone. Meanwhile, number of selected
devices for personal computer is 18 percent and the lowest number of selected devices is 6
percent from the other digital products such as Ipod, Tab, Ipad, PSP and etc. The highest selected
numbers of devices are cellphone and personal computer. This is because many of the students
now acquire android and smartphone that makes them easily access the internet and while in the
room, they can access Facebook through their own laptop or personal computer.

4.2.3

Facebook Usage During Class Period

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36 %
64 %

Figure 4.2.3 Facebook usage during class period

The Figure 4.2.3 shows the results on the usage of Facebook among respondents during
class period. There are 64 percent of respondents who do not used Facebook in class meanwhile
there are 36 percent of respondents have used Facebook during class period. This shows that
many students are focusing on their studies during class instead of log in to social networks.

4.2.4

The Purpose of Respondents Using Facebook

ACTIVITIES / FREQUENCY
NEVER SOMETIMES OFTEN
STALKING
4
33
13
UPDATING STATUS
1
41
8
UPLOADING PHOTOS
2
35
13
GROUP DISCUSSION
3
20
27
GETTING INFORMATION
16
34
0
UPDATE ON CURRENT ISSUES
0
20
30
ONLINE BUSINESS
23
20
7
PLAYING GAMES
25
16
9
CONNECTING WITH FRIENDS
0
11
39
MAKING NEW FRIENDS
6
41
3
Table 4.2.4 Purpose of respondents using Facebook

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The Figure 4.2.4 shows the purpose of using Facebook among the respondent. The
respondent needs to rate the purpose of using Facebook according to the frequency of usage
which consist of often, sometimes and never. The first purpose is making new friends; there are 3
often, 41 sometimes and 6 never. Secondly, connecting with the existing friends has 39 often
and 11 sometimes. Playing games has 9 often, 16 sometimes and 25 never. Then, online business
has 7 often, 20 sometimes and 23 never. Next, update the current issues has 30 often and 20
sometime. Getting information has 34 often and 16 sometimes and for purpose of group
discussion has 27 often, 20 sometimes and 3 never. Then, uploading personal photos has 13
often, 35 sometimes and 2 never. Uploading status has 8 often, 41 sometimes and 1 never and the
last purpose is stalk other people has 13 often, 33 sometimes and 4 never. Many respondents
often use Facebook for group discussions, update on current isssues, and connecting with friends.
This is easier for the respondents to use Facebook as a source of interaction and getting
information as Facebook is fast and free medium to use. Many of the respondents never use
Facebook for online business and playing games. This is maybe because they dont trust social
network to do online business or they use different media for playing games or they do not seem
to be interested in both features.

4.2.5

Purpose for Joining Facebook Group

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72%

80%
60%
40%

28%

20%
0
0%
Academic

Non-Academic

Both

Figure 4.2.5 Purpose on joining Facebook group

All the respondents join groups in Facebook. The Figure 4.2.5 shows the results of the
purpose of respondents joining any Facebook group. There are 72 percent of respondents who
selected both academic and non-academic as the reason they join in any Facebook group.
Meanwhile, 28 percent of respondents selected only academic as the reason they join Facebook
group. This is because there are many Facebook group in this social networking sites. The
respondents may discuss on any issues related with academic or non-academic matters in this site
without any limitations.

4.3

Time Usage on Facebook

This section will provide the result of the data collected on the time spent by the
respondents on Facebook. The result will show whether the respondent log in to Facebook
everyday, and how many hours they spent daily on Facebook.

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4.3.1

The Number of Respondents Log In to Facebook Everyday

Log In to
Facebook
Everyday

32%
68%

Do Not Log In
to Facebook
Everyday

Figure 4.3.1 The Number of Respondents Log In to Facebook Everyday.

The Figure 4.3.1 shows that many of the respondents log in to Facebook everyday. 68
percent of the respondents admit that they use Facebook every single day. Meanwhile, 32 percent
of the respondents are not a frequent user of Facebook. This shows that Facebook has become a
trend in students to log in to Facebook. This may be due because all the information delivered to
students are through the medium of Facebook.

4.3.2

The Number of Hours Respondents Spend on Facebook Daily

less than 1 hour

6%
24%

more than 1 hour but


less than 3 hours

24%

more than 3 hours but


less than 5 hours
46%

more than 5 hours

Figure 4.3.2 The Number of Hours Respondents Spend On Facebook Daily.

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The Figure 4.3.2 shows the number of hours the respondents spend on Facebook daily.
The highest usage of Facebook is more than 1 hour but less than 3 hours daily which
representing 46 percent of the respondents. The respondents have the lowest preference on using
Facebook for more than 5 hours which is 6 percent. Meanwhile, the number of respondents who
use Facebook less than an hour, and more than 3 hours but less than 5 hours has the same
percentage which is 24%. The highest percentage of respondents using Facebook daily is for
more than 1 hour but less than 3 hours. This shows that respondents use Facebook at an average
usage of time period on Facebook.

4.4

Effect of Facebook

This section will provide the result of the data collected on the effect of Facebook on
students. The result will comprises on the perception of respondents whether the Facebook give
good influence or not to the students, whether they feel addicted to Facebook, the factors that
may contribute to their addiction and their suggestion on how to improve Facebook usage.

4.4.1 Perceptions of Respondents on Facebook Influence

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22%

Facebook give good


influence
Facebook give bad
influence

78%

Figure 4.4.1 Perceptions of Respondents on Facebook Influence

Based on Figure 4.4.1, the result clearly shows that most of the respondents agreed that
Facebook give good influence to students. Only a small fraction of the respondents disagreed. 78
percent of respondents said that Facebook give good influence and 22 percent of respondents
said Facebook gave bad influence. This shows that Facebook give a lot of advantages to students
rather than disadvantages.

4.4.2

Reasons Why Respondents Believe Facebook Give Bad Influence to Students

Create Addiction
27 %

18 %
Waste time

55%

Spreading rumors
and false
information

Figure 4.4.2 Reasons Why Respondents Believe Facebook Give Bad Influence to
Students

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Based on Figure 4.4.1, out of 22 percent of respondents believe Facebook give bad
influence to them, most of them (55 percent) said that Facebook usage is a waste of time,
according to Figure 4.4.2. This is because the students spend too much time indulging
themselves in Facebook and this could affect their studies. 18 percent of the respondents believe
that Facebook give bad influence to students as students may feel addicted to it because the
students spend too much time on Facebook will ultimately create an addiction to them.
Meanwhile, 27 percent of the respondents believed that the students have misused the usage of
Facebook by sharing and spreading rumors and false information before checking out from the
right sources.

4.4.3 Reasons Why Respondents Believe Facebook Give Good Influence to Students

50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

44%

18%
10%

Useful

13%

Encourage
group
discussion

Gain
Update
Information current issues

15%

Connecting
people

Figure 4.4.3 Reasons Why Respondents Believe Facebook Give Good Influence to
Students

34

Based on Figure 4.4.1, out of 78 percent of respondents believe Facebook give good
influence to them, according to Figure 4.4.3, most of them said this is because Facebook give
them the opportunities to learn new things by updating and sharing information regardless
whether it is for academic or non-academic matters. This could make the students more alert to
the academic and non-academic issues. 44 percent of the respondents agreed with this statement.
Meanwhile, 18 percent of respondents believe that Facebook give good influence to people
because Facebook can be one of the medium in updating with latest news or current issues,
making the students aware with their surroundings. 15 percent of respondents said that Facebook
brings good influence in terms of connecting and keeping in touch with people, creating a broad
networking access to gain great social influence as well as strengthening their relationships with
others while 13 percent of the respondents said that Facebook can encourage students to do
group discussion on Facebook that create a platform for suggestions and ideas for any related
topics that they have been discussing. Not only that it saves time, it is also convenient for
students to gain outside professional opinion if they do not understand a topic or certain issues.
Lastly, 10 percent of the respondents respond that Facebook give good influence to students
because Facebook is useful and give a lot of advantages rather than disadvantages to students.

4.4.4

Respondents Addiction to Facebook

35

16%
Addicted
Not Addicted
84%

Figure 4.4.4 Respondents Addiction to Facebook

Although majority of the students agreed that Facebook give good influence to the
students, most of them admitted that they are also addicted to Facebook. Based on Figure 4.15,
84 percent admit that they themselves are addicted to Facebook. Meanwhile, 16 percent of them
feel that they are not addicted to Facebook.

4.4.5 Factors That May Contribute To Facebook Addiction

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

42

39
29

Playing
Games

Updating
Status

36
31

31

Gossiping

Stalking

Uploading
Photos

Online
Shopping

Figure 4.4.5 Factors that May Contribute to Students Addiction to Facebook

36

According to Figure 4.4.5, the highest number of tick which is 42, uploading photos as
factor that may contribute to students addiction to Facebook. From the questionnaire in
Appendix A, the respondents may choose more than 1 answer for this question. The second
highest tick is updating status, meanwhile 36 ticks is online shopping. Gossiping and stalking has
the same value of 31, and the lowest tick is playing games. This shows that the students are keen
towards posting their photos and updating status.

4.4.6 Suggestion on How to Improve Facebook Usage

50%

44%

40%

33%

30%
20%

11%

11%

10%
0%
Involve More Proper Time
in Group
Management
Discussion

Restrict Age
User

Use for Good


Purpose

Figure 4.4.6 Suggestions on How to Improve Facebook Usage

Based on Figure 4.4.6, shows that respondents give suggestion on how to improve
Facebook usage. Many believe that if Facebook is used for good purpose, it could improve
Facebook usage. 44 percent of respondents said that if the user have well and good intention,
Facebook will serve for greater good purpose and do not hurt other people feelings. Thirty-three

37

percent respondents suggest that the Facebook user must have a proper time management and
know their priorities. They should spend more time doing important stuff such as studying rather
than immersed themselves in Facebook. Eleven percent of respondents suggest that Facebook
should have a limit on age user. They should restrict age user so that the children are not exposed
in the world of Facebook. Lastly, another 11 percent of respondents said that user should involve
more in group discussion in Facebook, discussing important topics on current issues or academic
matter to improve the usage of Facebook.

38

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0

Introduction

This chapter will be divided into two parts which are the conclusion of the findings in this
study and the recommendations that are suggested based on our opinion on the findings of the
study. The conclusion of the findings will give an overall overview of the study, restatement of
objectives, review of the finding and limitations of the study. On the other hand, the
recommendation will also be divided into parts which are recommendation based on the findings
and recommendation for future research.

39

5.1

Overview of the Study

This study investigated the usage of Facebook among Faculty of Management students in
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). Primary data were collected by randomly distributing
questionnaires to 50 students from different courses.

5.2 Restatement of Objectives

As mentioned earlier in the introduction, the objective of this study was to identify the
purposes of students using Facebook, and also their time consumption on Facebook. On the other
hand, the other objective is to assess the current students knowledge on the effect of using
Facebook.

5.3 Review of the Findings

The following conclusions can be drawn from the study. To begin with, all students in
Faculty of Management have their own Facebook account. There are several of reason they have
signed up for Facebook. The main purpose students using Facebook is connecting with the
existing friends, getting information and update on the current issues. Most of the students
logged in to Facebook everyday. They spend more than 1 hour but less than 3 hours daily.

40

On the other hand, most of the students agree that Facebook will bring good influence to
them, getting information, connecting with old friends, and updating current issues. Besides that,
Facebook also will create negative effect to students such as addiction which will make them
wasting a lot of time, procrastinate and delaying their assignments and self studies. From our
findings, the most favourable factors that may contribute to students addiction are eager to
update status, uploading photos and online shopping.

5.4 Limitations of the Study

The results of this study indicate that the most favourable factors that may contribute to
students addiction when using Facebook are eager to update status, uploading photos and online
shopping. However, there are also some limitations of this study such as these findings only true
for Faculty of Management students and cannot be generalized to other faculty in UTM, and it
will also lead to incorrect information. The other limitation is it will obtain limited information
and it may not provide the full view on the purpose of students using Facebook because the only
method to collect data was by distributing questionnaires.

41

5.5 Recommendations Based on the findings

Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, here are several recommendations to
be considered:
1.

Limit time wasted on Facebook breaks.

If students need to clear their minds so that they can stop delaying and get to business,
using Facebook to achieve more delaying won't fix things. It is their entire too easy five minute
Facebook break to turn into a half-hour to an hour Facebook "break". They should not let that
happen; they should do whatever it takes to make sure the mental break doesn't turn
into procrastination :
i. Set a timer if they have to.
ii. Ask their roommate, colleague, or friend tap their on the shoulder. If both of them
trying to break the habit, this can be a shared routine until they both break the habit.

2.

Use Facebook as a distraction only on occasion.

Take short breaks from tough assignments on occasion. Sometimes when students are
sitting in their dorm room working on that 15 page paper for their class, they need a
psychological break. If they find themselves drooling while blankly staring at the cursor on their
Word document, it may be time to take that break. Taking a quick look at Facebook can be a
good way to feel like they're connected to the outside world after being locked up doing

42

whatever task they may be doing. However, don't forget that Facebook isn't the only way to
break the psychological block; sometimes taking a 5 or 10 minute walk outside can help.

3.

Don't get too involved in the Facebook applications.

Students should beware of "time-swallower" Facebook applications. Many applications


of the like are an addiction, such as games applications. Not only are these applications a waste
of time for them, applications are for their Facebook friends as well. They should not waste their
own time and don't waste their friends' time. Mindless Facebook applications such as these
are addicting and can have they spending more time than anyone needs to be spending on a
social networking site.

5.6 Recommendations for Future Research

Since this study had only focused on students of Faculty of Management, UTM, it is
recommended that further studies be carried out on students from other faculty in UTM to see
whether there are any similarities in the findings. Furthermore, further research could also
explore the different reasons why students become addicted to Facebook and the effect of these
problems. Lastly, although Facebook is important, it might be a good idea to investigate the
physical and emotion effects of using too much Facebook on peoples daily life so that the public
will be more aware of the hazards of using it.

43

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46

APPENDIX A

QUESTIONNAIRE ON A SURVEY ON THE USAGE OF FACEBOOK AMONG


FACULTY MANAGEMENT STUDENTS IN UTM

47

QUESTIONNAIRE
A Survey on the Usage of Facebook among Faculty Management Students in UTM

This study seeks to investigate the usage of Facebook among Faculty Management students in
UTM. Many students spend countless hours immersed on Facebook rather than studying. The
results of this finding will be used to identify the purpose of students using Facebook , how much
time students spend on Facebook, and the effects of the usage of Facebook among students. The
data will be kept confidential.

SECTION A (Personal Information)


Please answer the following questions by ticking (/) in the appropriate box or write your answer
in the spaces provided.
1. Gender
Male

Female

2. Please state your course.


SHAC

SHAD

3. Do you have a Facebook account?


Yes

No

SECTION B (Usage of Facebook)

SHAF

SHAR

SHAY

48

Please answer the following questions by ticking (/) in the appropriate box or write your answer
in the spaces provided.
1. How long have you been a Facebook user?
Less than 1 year
More than 1 year but less than 3 years
More than 3 years but less than 5 years
More than 5 years

2. How do you usually log in to your Facebook account?


(You may choose more than 1)
Personal computer
Cellphone
Public computer (in cybercaf, in Library)
Other digital products (Ipod/Tab/Ipad/PSP/etc.)

3. Do you use Facebook during class?


Yes

No

4. What is your purpose of using Facebook?


(Please rate the following purpose according to the frequency of usage)
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Purpose
Making new friends
Connecting with the existing friends
Playing games
Online business
Update on the current issues
Getting information (e.g. recipe,
assignments)
Group discussion
Uploading personal photos
Updating status
Stalk other people

Often

Sometimes

Never

49

5. Do you join any group on Facebook?


Yes

No

If yes, proceed to Question 6. If no, proceed to Section C.

6. What is your purpose to join the group?


Academic

Non-Academic

Academic and Non-Academic

SECTION C (Time usage)


Please answer the following questions by ticking (/) in the appropriate box or write your answer
in the spaces provided.
1. Do you log in to Facebook everyday?
Yes

No

2. How many hours do you spend daily on Facebook?


Less than 1 hour
More than 1 hour but less than 3 hours
More than 3 hours but less than 5 hours
More than 5 hours

SECTION D (Effect)
Please answer the following questions by ticking (/) in the appropriate box or write your answer
in the spaces provided.

1. Do you think Facebook give good influence to students? Why? State your reason.
Yes
Reason:
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

No
Reason:

50

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

2. Do you feel addicted to Facebook?


Yes

No

3. Based on your opinion, what is/are the factor (s) that may contribute to students
addiction?
(You may choose more than 1)
Playing games
Updating status
Gossiping
Stalking
Uploading photos
Online Shopping

4. Please give suggestion (s) on how to improve Facebook usage.


________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

We would like to take this opportunity to thank our respondents for their assistance. Thank
you.

51

WORK SCHEDULE

Activities
Identifying
Topic of
Research
Preparing &
Presenting
Proposal for
Research
Discussing
and
Designing
Research
Instruments
Collecting
Data
through
Primary and
Secondary
Sources
Analyzing
Collected
Data
Drafting
Report
Preparing
for
Presentation
Presenting
the Report
Revising
Final report
Binding
Final

Week Week Week Week Week Week Week Week Week Week
1&2
3
4
5
6
8
9
12
13
14

52

Report