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# ELE637 Energy Conversion

## Chapter 1 Magnetic Circuits

Dewei(David) Xu
Electrical & Computer Engineering Department
Ryerson University

## ELE637 Energy Conversion - Dr. D. Xu

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Content

Basic equations
Magnetic equivalent circuits
Fringing effect
Inductance
Self inductance
Leakage inductance
Mutual inductance

Core losses
Hysteresis loss
Eddy current loss

Sinusoidal excitation

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## 1.1 Basic Equations

Two types of magnet
Permanent magnet
Electromagnet

Hdl = i
l

## where H is the magnetic

field intensity along path l

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## 1.1 Basic Equations

Core with winding

Assumption :
All the fluxes are confied to the core
The fluxes are uniformaly distributed in the core
Use Ampere' s law
Ni = Hl
where :
N # of turns of the coil
i current in the coil
F = Ni magnetomotive force (mmf)
H magnetic field intensity
l mean length of the core
Hl mmf drop
Ni
Then H =
[At/m] or [A/m]
l

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## 1.1 Basic Equations

Flux density and B-H curve
Case 1: Non-magnetic material core (copper,
aluminum, air, plastic, wood,)
B = 0 H

[Tesla]

[ m]

## where 0 = 4 10 is the permeability of free space, H

7

Other units :
1 Tesla = 108 lines/m 2 = 1 Wb/m 2
1 Tesla = 10 4 lines/cm 2 = 10 4 Gauss

Linear

Hl = Ni

l = Ni B =

0 Ni

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## 1.1 Basic Equations

Flux density and B-H curve
Case 2: Ferromagnetic material core (iron, steel,
ferrite,)
B = H = 0 r H

[Tesla]

where r =
is the relative permeability of the material
0
For example : r = 4000 for iron core.
Note : r = f (H ) is a function of H

Nonlinear
B

= 0 r
H

## Core with winding

Ni
B
Hl = Ni l = Ni B = 0 r

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## 1.2 Magnetic Equivalent Circuits

How to find flux

Assumption :
All the fluxes are confied to the core
The fluxes are uniformaly distributed in the core
Ni
Ni
Ni F
= BA = HA =
=
=
A=
l

l
A
where :

## flux in the coil [Wb]

F = Ni magnetomot ive force (mmf)

= l

A reluctance [A/Wb]

## l mean length of the core [m]

A cross - section area [m2 ]
Then :
F=

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## 1.2 Magnetic Equivalent Circuits

Analogous

Magnetic
equivalent circuit

Electric
equivalent circuit

## To solve magnetic equivalent circuit

Kirchhoff voltage and current laws (KVL & KCL)

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Example 1
Given: N1=700,
N2=200, r=, cross
section area of the
core: 2.5cm2.5cm
Find: and B in the
airgap when i=0.5A

i
N1

N2

Assumption :
All the fluxes are confied to the core
The fluxes are uniformaly distributed
on the cross section area

## ELE637 Energy Conversion - Dr. D. Xu

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Example 1
Solution:
Step 1: draw flux paths
Step 2: Find mmfs and reluctances along the flux lines
Step 3: Draw equivalent circuit
a

ab

b
c

N1

af

ad fe

bc

N2

cd

ed

ab
f

bc

F1 = N1i
ad

af
fe

cd

F2 = N 2i

ed

## ELE637 Energy Conversion - Dr. D. Xu

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Example 1
Solution:
Step 4: Simplify the
equivalent circuit

g1 = bc =

## = 636 103 A/Wb

g 2 = fe =

c 1

c 2

c 3

g1

F1

g 2

F2

0.05 102
lbc
=
0 A1 4 107 (2.5 2.5 104 )
l fe

0 A2

0.1 102
4 10 (2.5 2.5 104 )
7

Q c = r 0 =
c1 = ab + cd =
c 2 = ad =

lad

c Ac

c 3 = af + ed =

lab

c Ac

lcd

=0+0= 0

led

=0+0= 0

c Ac

=0
laf

c Ac

c Ac

Example 1

Loop 1 :

Solution:

Loop 2 :

F1 F2 1 g1 = 0

KCL
2
F1

g1

g 2
F2

(1)

F1 F2 2g 2 = 0

(2)

1 =

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F1 F2 N1i N 2i
=
g1
g1

= 0.393 103
636 103
F F2 N1i N 2i
2 = 1
=
g 2
g 2
=

= 0.196 103
1273 103
0.393 103

= 0.63 Tesla
B1 = 1 =
6.25 104
A1
=

B2 =

2 0.196 103
=
= 0.31 Tesla
6.25 104
A2

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Example 2

a c

## Given: cast steel core

with given B-H curve.
N=500 turns. Bg=0.8T.
Find:
(1) i=? to produce
Bg=0.8T.
(2) c and r of the core.
(3) If lg=0, find i to keep
Bg=0.8T.

b d

B[T ]
0.8

H [ A / m]

510

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Example 2
Solution:

ab

## (1) Use Ampere' s law : Ni = H c lc + H g l g = c + g

From B - H curve : Bc = 0.8T H c = 510 A/m

g1
cd

Ni

Bg

0.8
=
= 6.37 105 A/m
Q Bg = 0.8T H g =
0 4 107

g 2

## H c lc = 510 0.36 = 184A and H g lg = 6.37 105 0.003 = 1910A

F = Ni = H c lc + H g l g = 1910 + 184 = 2094A
F 2094
=
= 4.19A
N
500
B
0.8
= 1.57 103 H/m and
(2) c = c =
H c 510
i =

r =

c 1.57 103
= 1250
=
0 4 103

c
Ni

i =

F 184
=
= 0.368A
N 500

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Summary
Basic theory

## Right hand rule

Amperes law
Linear and nonlinear B-H curve
Flux, flux density and flux intensity

## Magnetic equivalent circuit

Reluctance
Magnetomotive force (mmf)
How to derive the circuit
How to use KCL and KVL to solve the circuit

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Example 3
Given:
soft cast steel core with
given B-H curve.
N=500 turns.
i=4A.
Dimension as shown

Find:

a c

b d

Flux density B

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Example 3
B-H curve for soft cast steel

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Example 3
Solution:

B
B-H
Hg = g
curve
0

## (a) Assume a flux density B

(b) Find Hc from B-H curve and Hg=Bg/0
(c) Calculate F=Hclc+Hglg
(d) Calculate i=F/N
(e) If calculated i given i, go to step (a) and try another B

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Example 3
(a)
B

(b)
Hc

(c)
Hg

Hclc

Hglg

(d)
F

1st try

4.08

2nd try

4.0

Done

## Q: How to find the B for 1st try?

A: Assume r=, then find B1. The actual B<B1
Q: How to determine the nth try is done?
A: If the relative error is small enough
Q: How to get (n+1)th try from the result of nth try?
A: Several numerical method, e.g. Newton-Lapson method

## ELE637 Energy Conversion - Dr. D. Xu

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Example 3
Method 2: Graphical method
Ni = H c lc + H g lg = H c lc +
B[T ]

0 Ni
lg

Bc = c H c

Bc = Bg

Bc

l
Ni
Bg = 0 c H c + 0
l
lg
g

1.08T

Slope

H c = 785 A/m

Bg

lg

l
Ni
Bg = 0 c H c + 0
l
lg
g

Bc = c H c
Bc = Bg

Y-axis intercept

H c [A/m ]

10

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## 1.3 Fringing effect

Fringing effect:
Bulging of the flux lines in the airgap

Effect
The effective cross section area of
airgap the reluctance of airgap
The flux density Bg<Bc, Bc is the flux
density in the core.

## When lg is very small (compared to

the width and depth of the airgap),
fringing effect can be neglect.
In practical, large airgap will be
divided into several small airgaps
to reduce the fringing effect.

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1.4 Inductance
Definition

N
i
i
where = N is flux linkage
L=

## the flux go through the coil

i the current in the coil

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## ELE637 Energy Conversion - Dr. D. Xu

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1.4 Inductance
Multiple coils system

i2

i1

l2

l1

l1

leakage fluxes

l2

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1.4 Inductance
Self inductances, leakage inductance & mutual inductance
N1
i1

N1
(
i1

L1 =

1
i2 = 0

) = N1

m1

l1

i1

where Lm1 =

N1 m1 N1 N1i1 N
=
=
i1
i1 c
c

N2
i2

N2
(
i2

L2 =

i1 = 0

l1

= Lm1 + Ll1

2
1

N1
i1

m1

m2

l2

) = N2

Ll 1, Ll 2 leakage inductance,
N2
i2

m2

Lm1 , Lm 2 Magnetizin g
inductance,

i2

L1 , L2 Self inductance,

l2

= Lm 2 + Ll 2

M Mutual inductance

N 2 m 2 N 2 N 2i2 N 22
=
=
i2
i2 c
c

where Lm 2 =

M=

N1
i2

1
i1 =0

N
or M = 2
i1

N1
i2

2
i2 =0

m2

N2
i1

N1 N 2i2 N1N 2
=
= Lm1 Lm 2
i2 c
c

m1

N 2 N1i1 N1 N 2
=
= Lm1 Lm 2
c
i1 c

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Example 4
B[T ]
0.5

H [ A / m]

350

## Given: given B-H curve.

NA=350, NB=150,
Bg=0.5T, A=410-4m2,
and two coils are in series
Find:
(1) Two values of i to
produce Bg=0.5T.
(2) Self inductance LA and
LB, mutual inductance M

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lA

NA

Assume

lB

No leakage fluxes,
lA= lB=0
No fringing effect

NB

## ELE637 Energy Conversion - Dr. D. Xu

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Example 4
Solution :
(a) F = H g lg + H c lc =

Bg

l g + H c lc =

0.5
0.15 102 + 350 0.3185 = 708.3 A
4 107

FA

FA

FB

FB

i
B

## mmfs of the coils add each other

F
708.3
i=
=
= 1.42 A
N A + N B 350 + 150

F
708.3
i=
=
= 3.54 A
N A N B 350 150

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## ELE637 Energy Conversion - Dr. D. Xu

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Example 4
Solution :
(b) LA =

NA
iA

LB =

NB
iB

M=

NB
iA

N A N AiA
N A2
N A2
3502
=
=
=
= 34.6 mH
i A A,total A,total c + g 3.537 106

N B N B iB
N B2
N B2
1502
=
=
=
= 6.36 mH
iB B ,total B ,total c + g 3.537 106

N B N AiA N A N B
N AN B
350 150
=
=
=
= 14.83 mH
iA A
A
c + g 3.537 106

A
iB =0

B
i A =0

B
iB =0

l
0.3185
c = c =
= 0.557 106 A/Wb
c Ac 0.00143 4 104
B
0.5
where c = c =
= 0.00143 H/m
H c 350
g =

lg

0 Ag

0.15 10
= 2.96 106 A/Wb
4 107 4 104

N Ai A

N BiB

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Example 4
Q : Total L for additive mmfs
A:L =

(N A + N B )2
c + g

5002
= 70.6 mH (LA + LB )
3.537 106

## Due to no leakage inductance

L = LA + LB + 2 M
Q : Total L for substrative mmfs
A:L =

(N A N B )2
c + g

2002
= 11.31 mH (LA LB )
3.537 106

## Due to no leakage inductance

L = LA + LB 2 M
Q : Why M = LA LB ?
A : No leakage inductance : LA = LmA and LB = LmB M = LmA LmB = LA LB
Usually M LA LB

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1.5 Hysteresis
Hysteresis loop
Uniform distribution
Ni
H=
l
From Faraday' s law

i
+

## Br residual flux density

H c coercive force
B

## The B-H curve will

dB
d
d
follow a different
e=
=N
= NA
path when the current
dt
dt
dt
is reduced
t
e
dt ,
B=
NA
where A is the cross section area

Br
Hc

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1.5 Hysteresis
Hysteresis loss
Field energy
Input power :
dB
dB
d
= iNA
= HlA
dt
dt
dt
pdt = lA HdB = Vcore HdB

p = ei = i

B2 W t 2
B1 t
1

t2

B2

t1

B1

## W = pdt = Vcore HdB

where Vcore is the volume of the core

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## ELE637 Energy Conversion - Dr. D. Xu

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1.5 Hysteresis
Hysteresis loss
One cycle energy loss
Wcycle = Vcore HdB = Vcore ABH

## where ABH is the closed area of B - H hysteresis loop

Hysteresis power loss
Ph =

ABH

Wcycle

= Vcore ABH f
T
where f is the operating freqency and T is the period

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1.5 Hysteresis
Hysteresis loss
Empirical equation
n
ph = K h Bmax
f

[W/m3 ]

## ph hysteresis power loss per unit volume

K h , n constants, depending on core material, available
in various design handbook (n = 1.5 ~ 2.5)
Bmax maximum flux density
Summary : Hysteresis loss is proportional to f and ABH

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## 1.6 Eddy current loss

Eddy current
Along the closed path, apply Faraday' s law
d
dB
d
e=
,
=N
= NA
dt
dt
dt
where A is the closed area

Changes in B

= BA changes

ie

## Eddy current loss

p=

e2
, where R is the equivalent resistance along the closed path
R

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## 1.6 Eddy current loss

How to reduce eddy current loss
Use high resistivity core material
e.g. silicon steel, ferrite core
(semiconductor) i
Use laminated core
To decrease the area closed
ie
by closed path
e2
p = A2
R
B
Lamination thickness
0.5~5mm for machines, transformers at line frequency
0.01~0.5mm for high frequency devices

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## 1.6 Eddy current loss

Calculation of eddy current loss
Finite element analysis
Use software: Ansys, Maxwell, Femlab, etc
Empirical equation
2
pe = K e Bmax
f2

[W/m3 ]

## pe eddy current loss per unit volume

K e constant, depending on the core material and
lamination thickness
Bmax maximum flux density
f operating frequency
2
Summary : Eddy current loss is proportional to f 2 and Bmax

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## 1.7 Core loss and Sinusoidal

excitation
Core loss:
Pc = Ph + Pe , where Ph hysteresis loss, Pe eddy current loss

Assume

sin t , where

## and = 2f is the angular frequency

Use Faraday' s law

d ( m sin t )
d
d
=N
=N
= N m cos t = Em cos t
dt
dt
dt
where Em = N m is the amplitude of induced voltage

e=

Erms =

Em 2fN
=
2
2

= 4.44 fN

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## 1.7 Core loss and Sinusoidal

excitation
Relation between flux and induce voltage

Erms = 4.44 fN

i
+

Em

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Summary

## Some basic equations

Magnetic equivalent circuits
Fringing effect
Inductance
Self inductance
Leakage inductance
Mutual inductance

Core loss
Hysteresis loss
Eddy current loss

Sinusoidal excitation

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