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TU6RFP056

WITH TIGHT STRUCTURE AND HIGH DIRECTIVITY*

Tongning Hu #, Dong Li, Lei Cao, Bin Qin, Jun Yang, Tiaoqin Yu, Jiang Huang

Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, China

Abstract

The design of Cyclotron CYCHU-10 has been carried

out at Huazhong University of Science and Technology

(HUST). Because of the low centre frequency (99MHz)

of its RF system, we should choose suitable directional

couplers for the RF system which is supposed to be highdirectivity and tight-structure. This paper analyzes and

synthesizes kinds of directional couplers, especially

microstrip structure and lumped element coupler, for their

tinier volume at the low centre frequency compared with

other structures. The achievement of the high-directivity

with proposed configuration is carried out by adding an

inductor to decrease the even and odd mode phase

difference. Tight-structure is performed by the Lumped

elements, which is easy to fabricate due to the multilayer

microstrip line techniques used in MICs and MMICs.

INTRODUCTION

After the first directional coupler was reported, various

types of directional couplers consisting of one quarter

wavelength transmission lines (TLs) have been used in

many RF systems [1]. And many researches on the theory,

design, fabrication and simulation for the TEM-lines such

as coupled-line directional couplers were made and

numerous relevant papers were published [2].

Due to the higher level of integration of RF circuits on

a single substrate, microstrip directional couplers have

gotten much attention and been widely used for realizing

such directional couplers in the design of RF systems [3].

However, because of the inhomogeneity of microstrip

lines, the even and odd mode propagation velocities for

coupled microstrip lines are not equal resulting in poor

directivity, which becomes worse as the coupling is

decreased[4], it is necessary to apply phase velocity

compensation techniques to improve coupler directivity.

Several previously techniques have been used to resolve

the problem of poor directivity in parallel coupled

microstrip lines.

Generally speaking, the design theory for TEM TL

couplers is based on an assumption of the same phase

velocities of the even and odd propagation mode. This is

not suitable for coupled microstrip lines, since they have

unequal even- and odd-mode phase velocities. Previously

compensation techniques can be classified into distributed

and lumped compensation approaches.

The former is to modify the parallel coupled-line

structure such that the phase velocities of both modes are

equalized. Such as typical wiggly-line coupler which

increases the physical lengths of the adjacent edges of the

reactive components which are capacitive and inductive

compensation techniques. Compensated microstrip

directional coupler and the edge capacitors or inductors

added affect the odd mode by equivalent extension of the

TL electrical lengths, with almost no effect on even mode

[5].

Furthermore, lumped elements (LEs) are very attractive

in the sense of smaller size and lower cost compared with

TL circuits, due to their smaller element dimensions and

the multilevel fabrication process. With these

characteristics, the LE design methods have been already

applied to TL circuits such as a branchline coupler or a

rat-race [6].

COUPLERS

By taking the longitudinal symmetry, the TL directional

coupler can be divided into the even- and odd-mode TLs

[7]. And because the LE coupler circuit is fully based on

equality with a TL coupler in the both operations, the

proposed LE coupler model shown in Fig.1 has been

derived by investigating the both modes TLs.

Shown in following circuit figures, therere such

equalities as follows

Le1 Le 2 L1 / 2 L2 / 2

(1)

Ce1

Ce2

Ce3

Co1

Co2

Co

Ce4

(2)

(3)

___________________________________________

10435030)

#

nebaby@163.com

T28 - Subsystems, Technology and Components, Other

1677

TU6RFP056

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 2: (a) Even-mode equivalent circuit of LE

directional coupler. (b) Odd-mode excited circuit of it. (c)

Even-mode excited circuit of it.

The lumped equivalent circuit for the even-mode TL of

the parallel coupled-line coupler becomes also the evenmode equivalent circuit of LE directional coupler showed

by Fig.2. By analyzing the even-mode excited circuit of

LE directional coupler and that of parallel coupled-line

directional coupler with opened and shorted terminations

at each symmetrical plane, respectively, we can get the

input admittances as blew

jZCe

jY0etg

jZ C e

1

jwLe

(4)

2

jY0 o ctg

T

2

(5)

and T is the electrical length of the TL.

Then

respectively. The results are given by

Ce

Le

Y0e

(a)

tg

T

2

1

sin T

2ZY0 e

(6)

(7)

compensation technique has been tackled by adding an

inductor Lo shown in Fig.3, to increase the odd-mode

input impedance of the equivalent circuit. Furthermore,

the odd-mode capacitor Co guarantees the backward

coupling behaviors of the LE coupler.

(b)

(c)

Figure 4: (a) Odd-mode equivalent circuit of LE

directional coupler. (b) Odd-mode excited circuit of it. (c)

Even-mode excited circuit of it.

Fig.4 shows the odd-mode equivalent circuit of the

proposed LE directional coupler. Although therere more

lumped elements used for odd-mode equivalent circuit of

LE directional coupler proposed, which can be analyzed

in the same way mentioned above, and the equations

corresponding with it have given as follows

1

T

(

2

)

j

C

C

jY

tg

Z

e

o

0

o

2

jZ ( Le Lo )

1

T

jZ (Ce 2Co )

jY0o ctg

2

jwLe

(8)

Co

Y

T

1 1

2 0o ctg Ce

2 Z Le Z

2

(9)

1678

Lo

TU6RFP056

Le (10)

In order to design a suitable directional coupler for RF

system of CYCHU-10, with the centre frequency being

99MHz. By using the configuration, design theory, and

the design formulas we have derived above, the LE

backward directional coupler has been designed and

simulated here. For accurate fabrication, the centre

frequencies for both cases have been set identically to be

99MHz. Design targets due to the requirements of the

presented RF system is showed in Table 1.

Table 1: Desired Targets of the Design

It is seen that the LE coupler has excellent coupling and

isolation characteristics with good loss and matching

performances in the bandwidth of 98.5-99.5MHz.

Targets

Values

-25dB

CONCLUSIONS

-40dB

-15dB

distributed elements have smaller size and lower cost,

large impedance transformation ratio capability.

Especially, in the case of coupling is low to -25dB, the LE

coupler obtains excellent directivity, carried out by adding

an inductor to decrease the even and odd mode phase

difference. And the multilayer microstrip line techniques

fabricated for the LEs performs tight-structure.

of ADS and Matlab under the condition of characteristic

impedance Z 0 50: and centre frequency fc=99MHz.

Simulation results of the proposed LE directional coupler

in the ADS circumstance have been shown by Table 2,

Fig.5 and Table 3, respectively.

Table 2: Element Values of LE Directional Coupler

Elements

Values

Ce

34.005pF

Le

38.010nH

Co

1.813pF

Lo

318.960nH

Targets

98.5MHz

99MHz

99.5MHz

-25.399dB

-25.409dB

-25.417dB

-46.473dB

-46.688dB

-46.357dB

-21.074dB

-21.279dB

-20.940dB

Loss

-34.252dB

-34.381dB

-33.963dB

Matching

-0.398dB

-0.400dB

-0.402dB

REFERENCES

[1] R.S.Elliott, An Introduction to Guided Waves and

Microwave Circuits, Prentice Hall, 1993.

[2] Malherbe, J.A.G., Microwave Transmission Line

Couplers, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 1988.

[3] BRIAN C. WADELL, Transmission Line Design

Handbook, Artech House, pp.93-95, 1991.

[4] Rajesh Mongia, Inder Bahl and Prakash Bhartia, RF

and Microwave Coupled-Line Circuits, Artech House,

Boston, London, 1999.

[5] C.-S. Kim, J.-S. Lim, D.-J. Kim, and D. Ahn, A

Design of Single and Multi-Section Microstrip

Directional Coupler with the High Directivity, IEEE

MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., pp. 1895-1898,

2004.

[6] A. Podell, A High Directivity Microstrip Coupler

Technique, G-MTT Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., pp.

33-36, 1970.

[7] Iwata Sakagami, Derivation of Two- and Threebranch Lumped Element Codirectional Couplers and

Their Frequency Characteristics, IEEE, 2005.

T28 - Subsystems, Technology and Components, Other

1679

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