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value of f will

S

S

their vector sum have the same magnitude as A or B?

1.91 .. A cube is placed so that Figure P1.91

one corner is at the origin and

z

three edges are along the x-, y-,

and z-axes of a coordinate sysb

c

tem (Fig. P1.91). Use vectors to

compute (a) the angle between

d

the edge along the z-axis (line

ab) and the diagonal from the

a

y

origin to the opposite corner

(line ad ), and (b) the angle

between line ac (the diagonal of

x

a face) and line ad.

S

S

1.92 .. Vector A has magnitude 6.00 m and vector B has magnitude 3.00 m. The vector product between these two vectors has

magnitude 12.0 m2. What are the two possible valuesSforSthe scalar

product of these two

vectors?

For each value of A # B, draw a

S

S

sketch that shows A and B and explain why the vector products in

the two sketches are the same but the scalarS products

differ.

S

1.93 ..S The scalar product of vectors A and B is +48.0 m2.

Vector A Shas magnitude 9.00 m and direction 28.0 west of south.

If vector

B has direction 39.0 south of east, what is the magnitude

S

of B?

1.94 ... Obtain a unit vector perpendicular to the two vectors

given in Exercise 1.53.

S

1.95 .. You are given vectors A 5.0n 6.5n and

S

S

S

B -3.5n 7.0n. A third vector C lies in the xy-plane. Vector C

S

S

S

is perpendicular to vector A, and the scalar product of C with B is

S

15.0. From this information,

nd

the components of vector C.

S

S

1.96 .. Two vectors A and B have Smagnitudes

A = 3.00 and

S

N 2.00N.

is

B = 3.00. Their vector product

A

:

B

-5.00k

S

S

What is the angle between A and B?

1.97 .. Later in our

study

ofSphysics we will encounter quantities

S

S

# C. S(a) Prove

represented

by

that Sfor any three

:

B

2

1A

S S

S S

S

S

S

vectors A, B, and C, A # 1B : C2 = 1A : B2 # C. (b) Calculate

S

S

S

S

1A : B2 # C for the three vectors A with magnitude A = 5.00 and

angle uA = 26.0 measured in the sense from the +x-axis toward

S

S

the +y-axis, B with B = 4.00 and uB = 63.0, and C with magniS

S

tude 6.00 and in the +z-direction. Vectors A and B are in the

xy-plane.

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

1.98 ... The length of a rectangle is given as L l and its width

a = Lw + lW. Assume that the uncertainties l and w are small, so

that the product lw is very small and you can ignore it. (b) Show

that the fractional uncertainty in the area is equal to the sum of the

fractional uncertainty in length and the fractional uncertainty in

width. (c) A rectangular solid has dimensions L l, W w, and

H h. Find the fractional uncertainty in the volume, and show

that it equals the sum of the fractional uncertainties in the length,

width, and height.

1.99 ... Completed Pass. At Enormous State University

(ESU), the football team records its plays using vector displacements, with the origin taken to be the position of the ball before the

play starts. In a certain pass play, the receiver starts at

+1.0n 5.0n, where the units are yards, n is to the right, and

33

+9.0n (in motion before the snap), +11.0 n (breaks downeld),

-6.0n 4.0 n (zigs), and +12.0n 18.0n (zags). Meanwhile, the

quarterback has dropped straight back to a position - 7.0 n . How

far and in which direction must the quarterback throw the ball?

(Like the coach, you will be well advised to diagram the situation

before solving it numerically.)

1.100 ... Navigating in the Solar System. The Mars Polar

Lander spacecraft was launched on January 3, 1999. On December

3, 1999, the day Mars Polar Lander touched down on the Martian

surface, the positions of the earth and Mars were given by these

coordinates:

x

Earth

0.3182 AU

0.9329 AU

0.0000 AU

Mars

1.3087 AU

0.4423AU

0.0414 AU

In these coordinates, the sun is at the origin and the plane of the

earths orbit is the xy-plane. The earth passes through the + x-axis

once a year on the autumnal equinox, the rst day of autumn in the

northern hemisphere (on or about September 22). One AU, or

astronomical unit, is equal to 1.496 * 10 8 km, the average distance from the earth to the sun. (a) In a diagram, show the positions of the sun, the earth, and Mars on December 3, 1999. (b) Find

the following distances in AU on December 3, 1999: (i) from the

sun to the earth; (ii) from the sun to Mars; (iii) from the earth to

Mars. (c) As seen from the earth, what was the angle between the

direction to the sun and the direction to Mars on December 3,

1999? (d) Explain whether Mars was visible from your location at

midnight on December 3, 1999. (When it is midnight at your location, the sun is on the opposite side of the earth from you.)

1.101 ... Navigating in the Big Dipper. All the stars of the

Big Dipper (part of the constellation Ursa Major) may appear to be

the same distance from the earth, but in fact they are very far from

each other. Figure P1.101 shows the distances from the earth to

each of these stars. The distances are given in light-years (ly), the

distance that light travels in one year. One light-year equals

9.461 * 10 15 m. (a) Alkaid and Merak are 25.6o apart in the

earths sky. In a diagram, show the relative positions of Alkaid,

Merak, and our sun. Find the distance in light-years from Alkaid to

Merak. (b) To an inhabitant of a planet orbiting Merak, how many

degrees apart in the sky would Alkaid and our sun be?

Figure P1.101

Megrez

81 ly

Mizar

73 ly

Alkaid

138 ly

Dubhe

105 ly

Merak

77 ly

Alioth

64 ly

Phad

80 ly

S

1.102 ... The vector r xn y n zkN , called the position vector, points from the origin 10, 0, 02 to an arbitrary point in space

with coordinates 1x, y, z2. Use what you know about vectors to

prove the following: All points 1x, y, z2 that satisfy the equation

Ax + By + Cz = 0, where A, B, and C are constants, lie in a

plane that passes through the origin and that is perpendicular to the

vector An B n CkN . Sketch this vector and the plane.

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