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S

S

and the momentum by p mv, it is easy to show that

2

K = p >2m. How, then, is it possible to have an event during

which the total momentum of the system is constant but the total

kinetic energy changes?

Q8.11 In each of Examples 8.10, 8.11, and 8.12 (Section 8.4), verify that the relative velocity vector of the two bodies has the same

magnitude before and after the collision. In each case what happens to the direction of the relative velocity vector?

Q8.12 A glass dropped on the oor is more likely to break if the

oor is concrete than if it is wood. Why? (Refer to Fig. 8.3b.)

Q8.13 In Fig. 8.22b, the kinetic energy of the Ping-Pong ball is

larger after its interaction with the bowling ball than before. From

where does the extra energy come? Describe the event in terms of

conservation of energy.

Q8.14 A machine gun is red at a steel plate. Is the average force

on the plate from the bullet impact greater if the bullets bounce off

or if they are squashed and stick to the plate? Explain.

Q8.15 A net force of 4 N acts on an object initially at rest for 0.25 s

and gives it a nal speed of 5 m>s. How could a net force of 2 N

produce the same nal speed?

Q8.16 A net force with x-component gFx acts on an object from

time t 1 to time t 2 . The x-component of the momentum of the object

is the same at t 1 as it is at t 2 , but gFx is not zero at all times between

t 1 and t 2 . What can you say about the graph of gFx versus t?

Q8.17 A tennis player hits a tennis ball with a racket. Consider the

system made up of the ball and the racket. Is the total momentum

of the system the same just before and just after the hit? Is the total

momentum just after the hit the same as 2 s later, when the ball is

in midair at the high point of its trajectory? Explain any differences between the two cases.

Q8.18 In Example 8.4 (Section 8.2), consider the system consisting of the rie plus the bullet. What is the speed of the systems

center of mass after the rie is red? Explain.

Q8.19 An egg is released from rest from the roof of a building and

falls to the ground. As the egg falls, what happens to the momentum of the system of the egg plus the earth?

Q8.20 A woman stands in the middle of a perfectly smooth, frictionless, frozen lake. She can set herself in motion by throwing

things, but suppose she has nothing to throw. Can she propel herself to shore without throwing anything?

Q8.21 In a zero-gravity environment, can a rocket-propelled spaceship ever attain a speed greater than the relative speed with which

the burnt fuel is exhausted?

Q8.22 When an object breaks into two pieces (explosion, radioactive decay, recoil, etc.), the lighter fragment gets more kinetic energy

than the heavier one. This is a consequence of momentum conservation, but can you also explain it using Newtons laws of motion?

Q8.23 An apple falls from a tree and feels no air resistance. As it is

falling, which of these statements about it are true? (a) Only its

momentum is conserved; (b) only its mechanical energy is conserved, (c) both its momentum and its mechanical energy are conserved, (d) its kinetic energy is conserved.

Q8.24 Two pieces of clay collide and stick together. During the

collision, which of these statements are true? (a) Only the momentum of the clay is conserved, (b) only the mechanical energy of the

clay is conserved, (c) both the momentum and the mechanical

energy of the clay are conserved, (d) the kinetic energy of the clay

is conserved.

Q8.25 Two marbles are pressed together with a light ideal spring

between them, but they are not attached to the spring in any way.

move free of the spring. As the marbles are moving away from each

other, which of these statements about them are true? (a) Only the

momentum of the marbles is conserved, (b) only the mechanical

energy of the marbles is conserved, (c) both the momentum and

the mechanical energy of the marbles are conserved, (d) the kinetic

energy of the marbles is conserved.

Q8.26 A very heavy SUV collides head-on with a very light compact car. Which of these statements about the collision are correct?

(a) The amount of kinetic energy lost by the SUV is equal to the

amount of kinetic energy gained by the compact, (b) the amount of

momentum lost by the SUV is equal to the amount of momentum

gained by the compact, (c) the compact feels a considerably

greater force during the collision than the SUV does, (d) both cars

lose the same amount of kinetic energy.

EXERCISES

Section 8.1 Momentum and Impulse

truck whose speed is 12.0 m>s? (b) What speed would a 2000-kg

SUV have to attain in order to have (i) the same momentum?

(ii) the same kinetic energy?

8.2 . In a certain mens track and eld event, the shotput has

a mass of 7.30 kg and is released with a speed of 15.0 m>s at

40.0 above the horizontal over a mans straight left leg. What are

the initial horizontal and vertical components of the momentum of

this shotput?

8.3 .. (a) Show that the kinetic energy K and the momentum

magnitude p of a particle with mass m are related by K = p 2>2m.

(b) A 0.040-kg cardinal (Richmondena cardinalis) and a 0.145-kg

baseball have the same kinetic energy. Which has the greater magnitude of momentum? What is the ratio of the cardinals magnitude

of momentum to the baseballs? (c) A 700-N man and a 450-N

woman have the same momentum. Who has the greater kinetic

energy? What is the ratio of the mans kinetic energy to that of the

woman?

8.4 . Two vehicles are approaching an intersection. One is a 2500-kg

pickup traveling at 14.0 m>s from east to west (the x-direction),

and the other is a 1500-kg sedan going from south to north (the

+y-direction) at 23.0 m>s. (a) Find the x- and y-components of the

net momentum of this system. (b) What are the magnitude and

direction of the net momentum?

8.5 . One 110-kg football lineman is running to the right at

2.75 m>s while another 125-kg lineman is running directly toward

him at 2.60 m>s. What are (a) the magnitude and direction of the net

momentum of these two athletes, and (b) their total kinetic energy?

8.6 .. BIO Biomechanics. The mass of a regulation tennis ball

is 57 g (although it can vary slightly), and tests have shown that

the ball is in contact with the tennis racket for 30 ms. (This number

can also vary, depending on the racket and swing.) We shall assume

a 30.0-ms contact time for this exercise. The fastest-known served

tennis ball was served by Big Bill Tilden in 1931, and its speed

was measured to be 73.14 m>s. (a) What impulse and what force

did Big Bill exert on the tennis ball in his record serve? (b) If Big

Bills opponent returned his serve with a speed of 55 m>s, what

force and what impulse did he exert on the ball, assuming only

horizontal motion?

8.7 . Force of a Golf Swing. A 0.0450-kg golf ball initially at

rest is given a speed of 25.0 m>s when a club strikes. If the club

and ball are in contact for 2.00 ms, what average force acts on the

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