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You are on page 1of 56

Revised : 08-Oct-2013

By : LB3

For flexure, members with overall depth-to-clear-span ratios

greater than 2/5 for continuous spans (Ln/d > 2/5) or 4/5 for

simple spans (Ln/d > 4/5) are defined as deep (SNI 28472002 Ps.12.7.1).

depth-to-clear-span ratio larger than 1/5 (Ln/d > 1/5) (SNI

2847-2002 Ps.13.8.1).

d

Ln

d

Ln

Ln

Column

Deep Beam

Ln

Clear Span (Ln)

Deep Beam

2. Non-Linear distribution of Strain !!!

beams receive lateral support

from supported floor or roof

members, so lateral buckling of

the compression flange is rarely

a problem.

required

at

intervals

not

exceeding 50 times the least

width of the compression flange

(SNI 2847-2002 12.4.1), even if

the member is free-standing .

stability check should be made

and an adequate margin of

safety against lateral buckling

provided. Lateral bracing can

also be achieved by providing

flanges.

direction,

particularly

near

concentrated loads and at supports,

can be checked by the moment

magnifier method for columns, or by

numerical or energy methods.

A simplified procedure for wall-like

beams (tilt-up panels) is provided in

Reference. If the height-to-thickness

ratio of a member is limited to 25,

buckling should not be a problem.

intended to apply mainly to simply supported deep beams.

Tests of continuous deep beams have indicated that the

special shear provisions of 13.8 are inadequate for

continuous members.

Therefore, the design of continuous deep flexural

members for shear strength must be based on the regular

beam design procedures of 13.1 through 13.5 with 13.8.5

substituted for 13.1.3, and must also satisfy the provisions of

13.8.4, 13.8.9 and 13.8.10. (Codes = SNI 2847-2002)

strain be taken into account in flexural design of deep

members.

The elastic analyses by Dischinger and others (Refs.

19.2-19.4) have shown that the shape of the elastic stress

curve can be quite different from the linear distribution

usually assumed.

At midspan, the neutral axis moves away from the

loaded face of the member as the span-to-depth ratio

decreases (see Fig. 19-3).

Over the supports, the resultant elastic tensile forces

can be within a third of the member depth from the top fiber.

an uncracked, homogeneous cross-section and, therefore,

does not apply to design at the ultimate moment strength

(nominal moment strength Mn for design), since cracking

usually occurs before the moment strength can be

developed. This would imply that the tensile reinforcement

required to develop the moment strength Mn could be

placed near the extreme tensile fiber as is customary for

ordinary flexural members.

d

Tensile Reinforcement

Ln

reinforcement be distributed throughout the tensile area and

centered at or near the resultant of the tensile forces, so that,

when cracking occurs, there will not be a sudden shift in the

location of the resultant tensile force. Both methods of sizing

and placing reinforcement are illustrated in Example 19.1

and it is left to the judgment of the designer to choose the

more appropriate method.

single-span simply-supported deep members requires

special consideration. Since moments increase rapidly from

zero at the face of the support, the reinforcement may not

have sufficient anchorage length to develop the required

moment strength near the support. Tensile bars may be

anchored by development length (if available), standard

hooks, or by special anchorage devices.

d

Tensile Reinforcement

Ln

Anchorage

stress distribution is in compression areas at or near

supports of continuous members. Compressive forces may

be confined to the bottom 5 or 10 percent of the member

depth and compressive stresses may be as high as 14 times

those indicated by linear strain and stress distribution. 19.2

In these cases, reinforcing details require special

consideration. If service load compressive stresses approach

about 0.45 fc , it may be necessary to treat the compression

area as an axially loaded member, using laterally tied

reinforcement to carry the compressive forces as the

moment strength is approached.

flexural members apply only to members having a clearspan-toeffective-depth ratio ( ln /d) less than 5. Section 13.8

(SNI 2847-2002) deals with deep members loaded on the top

face as shown in Fig. 19-4. Since the principal tensile forces

in deep members are primarily horizontal (vertical

cracking), horizontal shear reinforcement is effective in

resisting the tensile forces. Truss bars are, therefore, not

recommended as shear reinforcement in deep members.

simply supported and continuous deep flexural members.

Design of simply supported members for shear must be

based on the special provisions of 13.8. Design of continuous

members for shear must be based on the regular beam

design procedures of 13.1 through 13.5 as well as 13.8.4,

13.8.9 and 13.8.10. Also, when loads are applied through the

sides or bottom of the member, simply supported or

continuous, the shear design provisions of 13.1 through 13.5

must be used. (SNI 2847-2002)

the maximum factored shear force Vu is calculated at a

distance from the face of the support defined as 0.15 times

the clear span for uniformly loaded beams or 0.50 times the

shear span a (distance between concentrated load and face

of support) for beams with concentrated loads, but in no

case greater than d from the face of the support (13.8.5). (SNI

2847-2002)

d

Ln

strength Vn = (Vc + Vs ), where Vc is the shear strength

provided by the concrete and Vs is the shear strength

provided by the shear reinforcement, both horizontal and

vertical. Vc may be computed from either the more complex

Eq. (13-29), which takes into account the effects of the tensile

reinforcement and Mu/Vud at the critical section, or may be

determined from the simpler Eq. (13-2) . Equation (13-29) is

illustrated in Fig. 19-5.

1

Vc

6

reinforcement Av and Avh in terms of the factored shear

force Vu can be computed using Eq. (11-30) as follows:

Vc , with Vc equal to 1/6 fc bwd. If the shear strength

provided by the concrete is not adequate to carry the

factored shear force Vu, calculate Vs for minimum shear

reinforcement and add to Vc . Using the minimum shear

reinforcement requirements of 13.8.9 (Av = 0.0015bws) and

13.8.10 (Avh = 0.0025bws2), shear strength Eq. (11-30)

reduces to :

the shear strength with minimum shear reinforcement

becomes :

bw f y

Vu Vc 0.029d 0.001ln

12

still not adequate, the more complex Eq. (13-29) can be used

to calculate a higher concrete shear strength, or additional

shear reinforcement Av and Avh may be added to increase

the shear strength of the section. Shear reinforcement

required at the critical section must be provided throughout

the span in all cases (13.8.11).

greater than:

2

Vn f 'c bw d

3

if

ln

1

Vn 10 f 'c bw d

18

d

Ln

for

ln

2 5

d

no shear reinforcement is needed in a simply supported

deep beam unless Vu exceeds Vc , which may be as high

as 1/2 fc bwd. However, a deep beam without shear

reinforcement is not recommended. It would be more

appropriate to conform with 13.8.9 and 13.8.10 for the

design of simply supported deep beams. (SNI 2847-2002)

Code concerning reinforcement detailing of deep flexural

members. The sections require that at interior supports of

deep flexural members, positive moment tension

reinforcement and negative moment tension reinforcement

shall be continuous with that of adjacent spans in order to

develop proper anchorage. (Codes = SNI 2847-2002)

Negative

d

Positive

Ln

Positive

Ln

transfer girder supporting the single column below. Fc =

4000 psi (27.585 MPa_), fy = 60000 psi (413.774 MPa).

400

Vd = 889.84kN

Vl = 1112.30kN

500

1200

8750

1800

400

3600

400

Determine if deep beam provisions for shear design apply.

ln 3600

3.348 5

d 1075

Deep beam provisions apply.

Determine critical section for shear (neglect uniform dead

load since it is small compared to the concentrated loads) :

Step 3 : (SNI 2847-2002 Ps. 13.8.6)

Determine shear strength without shear reinforcement.

1

Vc

6

f 'c bw d

6

Step 4 :

Determine ultimate shear forces acting on the support :

Vu

1423.77kN

2

2

Shear strength provided by concrete Vc is not adequate to

carry the factored shear force Vu.

Step 5 : (SNI 2847-2002 Ps.13.8.4)

Check maximum shear permitted.

for

ln

3.348

d

Check maximum shear permitted.

ln

1

Vn 10 f 'c bw d

18

d

1

3600

Vn 10

27.585 500 1075

18

1075

Vn 2093.562kN

Determine shear strength with minimum reinforcement.

Substituting minimum Av and Avh into Eq.(11-30).

Vs 0.029d 0.001ln bw fy / 12

Vs 0.750.029 1075 0.001 3600 500 413.77 / 12

Vs 356.55kN

Vc Vs 352.89 356.55 709.44kN 1423.77kN

Determine shear strength of Vc using more complex Eq. (1129) at critical section.

M u

Vu d bw d

f 'c 120 w

Vc 3.5 2.5

Vu d

Mu 7

At critical section :

M u 1423.77 900

0.837

V ud 1423.77 1075

Determine shear strength of Vc using more complex Eq. (1129) at critical section.

Mu

3.5 2.5

3.5 2.5 0.837 1.406 2.5

Vu d

As

8750

w

0.0163

bw d 500 1075

Vu d bw d

1.4 f 'c 120 w

Mu 7

1200.0163 5001075

1.4 27.585

817.94kN

0.83

7

Determine shear strength of Vc using more complex Eq. (1129) at critical section.

Vc 0.75817.94 613.45kN

1

Vc 613.45kN

2

f 'c bw d

2

Vc 613.45kN 1058.67kN OK

reinforcement.

Determined required shear reinforcement.

ln

ln

1

11

Vu Vc Av

A

d vh

d

f y d

s 12 s2 12

Vu Vc 1423.74 613.457

2.429mm2 / mm

f y d

0.75413.741075

d 1075

s2

358.333mm 500mm

3

3

Use No.5 (15.7)@300mm (each face), Avh = 400 mm2/(0.3)m

Avh 2200

1.333mm2 / mm

s2

300

Av 1 3.348

11 3.348

2

1.333

2.429mm / mm

s 12

12

Av

4.357mm2 / mm

s

Av

4.35790 392mm2 / 0.09m

s

d 1075

s

215mm 500mm

5

5

Use No.5 @90mm (each face), Avh = 400 mm2/(0.09)m

Alternatively, decrease the spacing of the horizontal bars to

No.5 @ 200mm. (each face).

Avh 2200

2mm2 / mm

s2

200

Av 1 3.348 11 3.348

2

2

.

429

mm

/ mm

s 12

12

Av

3.183mm2 / mm

s

Av

3.183120 382mm2 / 0.12m

s

d 1075

s

215mm 500mm

5

5

Use No.5 @120mm (each face), Avh = 400 mm2/(0.12)m

Check shear strength provided using No.5 @120mm (each

face) for horizontal and No.5 @200mm (each face) for

vertical shear reinforcement.

Av

Vs

s

ln

1

d

12

ln

A 11

d f d

vh

y

s2 12

1 3.348 11 3.348

Vs 3.183

2

413.77 1075

12

12

Vs 1080.266kN

Check shear strength provided using No.5 @120mm (each

face) for horizontal and No.5 @200mm (each face) for

vertical shear reinforcement.

Vs 0.751080.266kN 810.199kN

Vc Vs 613.45 810.199 1423.649kN

Vc V Vu

1423.649kN 1423.77kN

Both horizontal and vertical shear reinforcement required at

the critical section must be provided throughout the span.

See reinforcement detail below.

Use No.5 @120mm (each face) for horizontal and No.5

@200mm for vertical shear reinforcement.

Note : The main flexural reinforcement must be anchored to

develop the specified yield strength fy in tension at the face

of the support.

design procedure is the same as for ordinary beams. The

maximum factored shear force Vu is calculated at the critical

section defined in 13.8.5. The factored shear force Vu must

not exceed the shear strength provided by the section (Vc

+ Vs), where Vc may be computed from either the more

complex Eq. (13-5), or the simpler Eq. (13-3), Vc = 2 fc bwd.

(SNI 2847-2002)

continuous deep flexural members must also satisfy 11.8.4,

13.8.9 and 13.8.10. Section 13.8.4 sets an upper limit to Vn.

Sections 13.8.9 and 13.8.10 specify minimum vertical and

horizontal shear reinforcement, respectively. (SNI 2847-2002)

reinforcement is still not adequate, the more complex Eq.

(13-5) can be used to calculate a higher concrete shear

strength, or additional shear reinforcement Av may be

added to increase the shear strength of the section. Using

Eq. (13-15), the required shear reinforcement is :

fVc, with Vc equal to 2 fc bwd. If the shear strength

provided by the concrete is not adequate to carry the

factored shear force Vu, calculate Vs for minimum shear

reinforcement and add to Vc. Using the minimum shear

reinforcement of 13.8.9 (Av = 0.0015bws), the shear strength

Eq. (13-15) reduces to :

is greater than that required by Eq. (13-13). The shear

strength with minimum shear reinforcement becomes :

reinforcement is still not adequate, the more complex Eq.

(13-5) can be used to calculate a higher concrete shear

strength, or additional shear reinforcement Av may be

added to increase the shear strength of the section. Using

Eq. (11-15), the required shear reinforcement is :

of span as for ordinary beams; however, a minimum area of

both vertical and horizontal reinforcement, Av andAvh, in

accordance with 13.8.9 and 13.8.10 must be provided

throughout the full span length. Note that the spacing s of the

vertical shear reinforcement Av must not exceed d/5 nor 18

in. (somewhat closer maximum spacing than that permitted

for ordinary beams). Note also that the horizontal shear

reinforcement Avh does not contribute to the shear strength

Vs for continuous deep members.

continuous deep members, the shear strength Vn must not

be taken greater than :

2

f 'c bw d

3

if

ln

1

10 f 'c bw d

18

d

Ln

for

ln

2 5

d

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