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Design of Deep Flexural Member

Revised : 08-Oct-2013

By : LB3

The code gives two definitions for deep members.


For flexure, members with overall depth-to-clear-span ratios
greater than 2/5 for continuous spans (Ln/d > 2/5) or 4/5 for
simple spans (Ln/d > 4/5) are defined as deep (SNI 28472002 Ps.12.7.1).

For shear, a deep member is one with an effective


depth-to-clear-span ratio larger than 1/5 (Ln/d > 1/5) (SNI
2847-2002 Ps.13.8.1).

d
Ln

Simple Deep Beam


d
Ln

Ln

Continous Deep Beam

Column

Deep Beam
Ln
Clear Span (Ln)

Deep Beam

Problems need to be solved in Deep Member :

1. Lateral Buckling !!!


2. Non-Linear distribution of Strain !!!

Fortunately, most walls and


beams receive lateral support
from supported floor or roof
members, so lateral buckling of
the compression flange is rarely
a problem.

Some form of lateral support is


required
at
intervals
not
exceeding 50 times the least
width of the compression flange
(SNI 2847-2002 12.4.1), even if
the member is free-standing .

For free-standing walls, a lateral


stability check should be made
and an adequate margin of
safety against lateral buckling
provided. Lateral bracing can
also be achieved by providing
flanges.

Lateral buckling in a vertical


direction,
particularly
near
concentrated loads and at supports,
can be checked by the moment
magnifier method for columns, or by
numerical or energy methods.
A simplified procedure for wall-like
beams (tilt-up panels) is provided in
Reference. If the height-to-thickness
ratio of a member is limited to 25,
buckling should not be a problem.

The special shear strength provisions of 13.8 are


intended to apply mainly to simply supported deep beams.
Tests of continuous deep beams have indicated that the
special shear provisions of 13.8 are inadequate for
continuous members.
Therefore, the design of continuous deep flexural
members for shear strength must be based on the regular
beam design procedures of 13.1 through 13.5 with 13.8.5
substituted for 13.1.3, and must also satisfy the provisions of
13.8.4, 13.8.9 and 13.8.10. (Codes = SNI 2847-2002)

The code requires that nonlinear distribution of


strain be taken into account in flexural design of deep
members.
The elastic analyses by Dischinger and others (Refs.
19.2-19.4) have shown that the shape of the elastic stress
curve can be quite different from the linear distribution
usually assumed.
At midspan, the neutral axis moves away from the
loaded face of the member as the span-to-depth ratio
decreases (see Fig. 19-3).
Over the supports, the resultant elastic tensile forces
can be within a third of the member depth from the top fiber.

Nonlinear distribution of strains and stresses assumes


an uncracked, homogeneous cross-section and, therefore,
does not apply to design at the ultimate moment strength
(nominal moment strength Mn for design), since cracking
usually occurs before the moment strength can be
developed. This would imply that the tensile reinforcement
required to develop the moment strength Mn could be
placed near the extreme tensile fiber as is customary for
ordinary flexural members.
d

Tensile Reinforcement
Ln

Simple Deep Beam

Reference 19.3, however, recommends that tensile


reinforcement be distributed throughout the tensile area and
centered at or near the resultant of the tensile forces, so that,
when cracking occurs, there will not be a sudden shift in the
location of the resultant tensile force. Both methods of sizing
and placing reinforcement are illustrated in Example 19.1
and it is left to the judgment of the designer to choose the
more appropriate method.

Development of horizontal tensile reinforcement in


single-span simply-supported deep members requires
special consideration. Since moments increase rapidly from
zero at the face of the support, the reinforcement may not
have sufficient anchorage length to develop the required
moment strength near the support. Tensile bars may be
anchored by development length (if available), standard
hooks, or by special anchorage devices.
d

Tensile Reinforcement
Ln

Simple Deep Beam

Anchorage

The most radical departure from a linear strain and


stress distribution is in compression areas at or near
supports of continuous members. Compressive forces may
be confined to the bottom 5 or 10 percent of the member
depth and compressive stresses may be as high as 14 times
those indicated by linear strain and stress distribution. 19.2
In these cases, reinforcing details require special
consideration. If service load compressive stresses approach
about 0.45 fc , it may be necessary to treat the compression
area as an axially loaded member, using laterally tied
reinforcement to carry the compressive forces as the
moment strength is approached.

The special shear strength provisions for deep


flexural members apply only to members having a clearspan-toeffective-depth ratio ( ln /d) less than 5. Section 13.8
(SNI 2847-2002) deals with deep members loaded on the top
face as shown in Fig. 19-4. Since the principal tensile forces
in deep members are primarily horizontal (vertical
cracking), horizontal shear reinforcement is effective in
resisting the tensile forces. Truss bars are, therefore, not
recommended as shear reinforcement in deep members.

Different shear design procedures are prescribed for


simply supported and continuous deep flexural members.
Design of simply supported members for shear must be
based on the special provisions of 13.8. Design of continuous
members for shear must be based on the regular beam
design procedures of 13.1 through 13.5 as well as 13.8.4,
13.8.9 and 13.8.10. Also, when loads are applied through the
sides or bottom of the member, simply supported or
continuous, the shear design provisions of 13.1 through 13.5
must be used. (SNI 2847-2002)

For shear design of simply supported deep members,


the maximum factored shear force Vu is calculated at a
distance from the face of the support defined as 0.15 times
the clear span for uniformly loaded beams or 0.50 times the
shear span a (distance between concentrated load and face
of support) for beams with concentrated loads, but in no
case greater than d from the face of the support (13.8.5). (SNI
2847-2002)
d
Ln

Simple Deep Beam

The factored shear force Vu must not exceed the shear


strength Vn = (Vc + Vs ), where Vc is the shear strength
provided by the concrete and Vs is the shear strength
provided by the shear reinforcement, both horizontal and
vertical. Vc may be computed from either the more complex
Eq. (13-29), which takes into account the effects of the tensile
reinforcement and Mu/Vud at the critical section, or may be
determined from the simpler Eq. (13-2) . Equation (13-29) is
illustrated in Fig. 19-5.

1
Vc
6

f 'c bw d ...( Eq.13.2)

For design convenience, the required area of shear


reinforcement Av and Avh in terms of the factored shear
force Vu can be computed using Eq. (11-30) as follows:

The first step in the design is to check if Vu is less than


Vc , with Vc equal to 1/6 fc bwd. If the shear strength
provided by the concrete is not adequate to carry the
factored shear force Vu, calculate Vs for minimum shear
reinforcement and add to Vc . Using the minimum shear
reinforcement requirements of 13.8.9 (Av = 0.0015bws) and
13.8.10 (Avh = 0.0025bws2), shear strength Eq. (11-30)
reduces to :

Substituting Vc from Eq. (13-28) and Vs from above,


the shear strength with minimum shear reinforcement
becomes :

bw f y

Vu Vc 0.029d 0.001ln

12

If shear strength with minimum shear reinforcement is


still not adequate, the more complex Eq. (13-29) can be used
to calculate a higher concrete shear strength, or additional
shear reinforcement Av and Avh may be added to increase
the shear strength of the section. Shear reinforcement
required at the critical section must be provided throughout
the span in all cases (13.8.11).

The shear strength Vn = Vc + Vs must not be taken


greater than:

2
Vn f 'c bw d
3

if

ln
1
Vn 10 f 'c bw d
18
d

Ln

for

ln
2 5
d

A strict reading of 13.8.8 would appear to suggest that


no shear reinforcement is needed in a simply supported
deep beam unless Vu exceeds Vc , which may be as high
as 1/2 fc bwd. However, a deep beam without shear
reinforcement is not recommended. It would be more
appropriate to conform with 13.8.9 and 13.8.10 for the
design of simply supported deep beams. (SNI 2847-2002)

Sections 14.11.4 and 14.12.4 were added to the 95


Code concerning reinforcement detailing of deep flexural
members. The sections require that at interior supports of
deep flexural members, positive moment tension
reinforcement and negative moment tension reinforcement
shall be continuous with that of adjacent spans in order to
develop proper anchorage. (Codes = SNI 2847-2002)
Negative
d

Positive
Ln

Positive
Ln

Continous Deep Beam

Example 1 : Determine the require simple supported


transfer girder supporting the single column below. Fc =
4000 psi (27.585 MPa_), fy = 60000 psi (413.774 MPa).
400

Vd = 889.84kN
Vl = 1112.30kN

500

1200

8750

1800

400

3600

400

Step 1 : (SNI 2847-2002 Ps. 13.8.1)


Determine if deep beam provisions for shear design apply.

d 1200 125 1075mm


ln 3600

3.348 5
d 1075
Deep beam provisions apply.

Step 2 : (SNI 2847-2002 Ps. 13.8.5)


Determine critical section for shear (neglect uniform dead
load since it is small compared to the concentrated loads) :

0.50a 0.50 1800 900 d 1075


Step 3 : (SNI 2847-2002 Ps. 13.8.6)
Determine shear strength without shear reinforcement.

1
Vc
6

f 'c bw d

Vc 0.75 27.585 500 1075 352.89kN


6

Step 4 :
Determine ultimate shear forces acting on the support :

1.2Vd 1.6Vl 1.2889.84 1.61112.3


Vu

1423.77kN
2
2
Shear strength provided by concrete Vc is not adequate to
carry the factored shear force Vu.
Step 5 : (SNI 2847-2002 Ps.13.8.4)
Check maximum shear permitted.

for

ln
3.348
d

Step 5 : (SNI 2847-2002 Ps.13.8.4)


Check maximum shear permitted.

ln
1
Vn 10 f 'c bw d
18
d
1
3600
Vn 10
27.585 500 1075
18
1075
Vn 2093.562kN

Vn 0.75 2093.562 1570.17kN

Step 6 : (SNI 2847-2002 Ps.13.8.9 & Ps.13.8.10)


Determine shear strength with minimum reinforcement.
Substituting minimum Av and Avh into Eq.(11-30).

Vs 0.029d 0.001ln bw fy / 12
Vs 0.750.029 1075 0.001 3600 500 413.77 / 12
Vs 356.55kN
Vc Vs 352.89 356.55 709.44kN 1423.77kN

Step 7 : (SNI 2847-2002 Ps.13.8.7)


Determine shear strength of Vc using more complex Eq. (1129) at critical section.

M u
Vu d bw d
f 'c 120 w

Vc 3.5 2.5
Vu d
Mu 7

At critical section :

M u 1423.77 900

0.837
V ud 1423.77 1075

Step 7 : (SNI 2847-2002 Ps.13.8.7)


Determine shear strength of Vc using more complex Eq. (1129) at critical section.

Mu
3.5 2.5
3.5 2.5 0.837 1.406 2.5
Vu d
As
8750
w

0.0163
bw d 500 1075

Vu d bw d
1.4 f 'c 120 w
Mu 7

1200.0163 5001075

1.4 27.585
817.94kN

0.83
7

Step 7 : (SNI 2847-2002 Ps.13.8.7)


Determine shear strength of Vc using more complex Eq. (1129) at critical section.

Vc 0.75817.94 613.45kN
1
Vc 613.45kN
2

f 'c bw d

Vc 613.45kN 0.75 27.585 5501075


2

Vc 613.45kN 1058.67kN OK

Vc Vs 613.45 356.55 970.01kN

Provided more than the minimum amount of shear


reinforcement.

Step 8 : (SNI 2847-2002 Ps.13.8.8)


Determined required shear reinforcement.

ln
ln

1
11
Vu Vc Av
A
d vh
d

f y d
s 12 s2 12

Vu Vc 1423.74 613.457

2.429mm2 / mm
f y d
0.75413.741075

Use minimum horizontal reinforcement :

Avh 0.0025bw s2 0.0025500300 375mm2 / 0.3m

d 1075
s2
358.333mm 500mm
3
3

Step 8 : (SNI 2847-2002 Ps.13.8.8)


Use No.5 (15.7)@300mm (each face), Avh = 400 mm2/(0.3)m

Avh 2200

1.333mm2 / mm
s2
300
Av 1 3.348
11 3.348
2

1.333
2.429mm / mm
s 12
12

Av
4.357mm2 / mm
s
Av
4.35790 392mm2 / 0.09m
s
d 1075
s
215mm 500mm
5
5

Step 8 : (SNI 2847-2002 Ps.13.8.8)


Use No.5 @90mm (each face), Avh = 400 mm2/(0.09)m
Alternatively, decrease the spacing of the horizontal bars to
No.5 @ 200mm. (each face).

Avh 2200

2mm2 / mm
s2
200

Av 1 3.348 11 3.348
2

2
.
429
mm
/ mm

s 12
12

Av
3.183mm2 / mm
s

Step 8 : (SNI 2847-2002 Ps.13.8.8)

Av
3.183120 382mm2 / 0.12m
s
d 1075
s
215mm 500mm
5
5
Use No.5 @120mm (each face), Avh = 400 mm2/(0.12)m

Step 9 : (SNI 2847-2002 Ps.13.8.8)


Check shear strength provided using No.5 @120mm (each
face) for horizontal and No.5 @200mm (each face) for
vertical shear reinforcement.

Av

Vs
s

ln
1
d

12

ln

A 11
d f d
vh
y

s2 12

1 3.348 11 3.348
Vs 3.183
2
413.77 1075
12
12

Vs 1080.266kN

Step 9 : (SNI 2847-2002 Ps.13.8.8)


Check shear strength provided using No.5 @120mm (each
face) for horizontal and No.5 @200mm (each face) for
vertical shear reinforcement.

Vs 0.751080.266kN 810.199kN
Vc Vs 613.45 810.199 1423.649kN
Vc V Vu

1423.649kN 1423.77kN

Step 10 : (SNI 2847-2002 Ps.13.8.11)


Both horizontal and vertical shear reinforcement required at
the critical section must be provided throughout the span.
See reinforcement detail below.
Use No.5 @120mm (each face) for horizontal and No.5
@200mm for vertical shear reinforcement.
Note : The main flexural reinforcement must be anchored to
develop the specified yield strength fy in tension at the face
of the support.

No.5 (15.7mm D16) @ 200 mm

No.5 (15.7mm D16) @ 200 mm

No.5 (15.7mm D16) @ 120 mm

For shear design of continuous deep members, the


design procedure is the same as for ordinary beams. The
maximum factored shear force Vu is calculated at the critical
section defined in 13.8.5. The factored shear force Vu must
not exceed the shear strength provided by the section (Vc
+ Vs), where Vc may be computed from either the more
complex Eq. (13-5), or the simpler Eq. (13-3), Vc = 2 fc bwd.
(SNI 2847-2002)

Section 13.8.3 also specifies that the design of


continuous deep flexural members must also satisfy 11.8.4,
13.8.9 and 13.8.10. Section 13.8.4 sets an upper limit to Vn.
Sections 13.8.9 and 13.8.10 specify minimum vertical and
horizontal shear reinforcement, respectively. (SNI 2847-2002)

If the shear strength with minimum shear


reinforcement is still not adequate, the more complex Eq.
(13-5) can be used to calculate a higher concrete shear
strength, or additional shear reinforcement Av may be
added to increase the shear strength of the section. Using
Eq. (13-15), the required shear reinforcement is :

The first step in the design is to check if Vu is less than


fVc, with Vc equal to 2 fc bwd. If the shear strength
provided by the concrete is not adequate to carry the
factored shear force Vu, calculate Vs for minimum shear
reinforcement and add to Vc. Using the minimum shear
reinforcement of 13.8.9 (Av = 0.0015bws), the shear strength
Eq. (13-15) reduces to :

Note that the minimum shear reinforcement of 13.8.9


is greater than that required by Eq. (13-13). The shear
strength with minimum shear reinforcement becomes :

If the shear strength with minimum shear


reinforcement is still not adequate, the more complex Eq.
(13-5) can be used to calculate a higher concrete shear
strength, or additional shear reinforcement Av may be
added to increase the shear strength of the section. Using
Eq. (11-15), the required shear reinforcement is :

Shear reinforcement may be varied along the length


of span as for ordinary beams; however, a minimum area of
both vertical and horizontal reinforcement, Av andAvh, in
accordance with 13.8.9 and 13.8.10 must be provided
throughout the full span length. Note that the spacing s of the
vertical shear reinforcement Av must not exceed d/5 nor 18
in. (somewhat closer maximum spacing than that permitted
for ordinary beams). Note also that the horizontal shear
reinforcement Avh does not contribute to the shear strength
Vs for continuous deep members.

As for simply supported deep members, in


continuous deep members, the shear strength Vn must not
be taken greater than :

2
f 'c bw d
3

if

ln
1
10 f 'c bw d
18
d

Ln

for

ln
2 5
d