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Internal

Antenna Principle and


Selection
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Chapter 1 Antenna
Chapter 2 Feeder

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Page 1

RF Device of BTS
Antenna

Antenna
stand
Jumper between
antenna and TTA

Jumper between
lightening arrester
and cabinet

TTA
Lightening
arrester

TDU

Feeder
Jumper between
TTA and feeder

SWITCH BOX
FAN BOX

T T T T

R R R R

X X X X

BTS312
cabinet

AIR BOX

T T T T

R R R R

X X X X

FAN BOX

T T T T
R R R R

X X X X

P P P P P PP

T T TT

S S S S S S M ME E E
U U U U U UU

U S UU

AIR BOX

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Page 2

What is Antenna?


Radiate and receive radio wave ,convert high frequency current


to electromagnetic wave when transmitting, and convert
electromagnetic wave to high frequency current when receiving

Blah bl ah
blah bl ah

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Page 3

Function


Convert high frequency current to electromagnetic wave when


transmitting

Convert electromagnetic wave to high frequency current when


receiving

Antenna can not amplify the transmission power, just concentrate


RF power to one direction

Horizontal section

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Vertical section

Page 4

Classification


Classify by working band: UHF, VHF, microwave, etc.

Classify by radiate pattern: omni, directional

Classify by outline: line, pane, parabola feed

Classify by polarization: vertical and horizontal

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Radiate Pattern

directional Antenna

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omni direction

Page 6

Outline

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Polarization

vertical polarization
Omni antenna
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vertical polarization
directional antenna
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dual polarization
directional antenna
Page 8

Radiate Pattern
Omni antenna
lobe

Direction
antenna lobe

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Page 9

Radiate pattern

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Dipole and Isotropic




Dipole
1/4 wave length
1/2wave length
1/4 wave length

Isotropic

Ideal radiator with same ability on all direction!

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Page 11

Gain


The radiation ability of certain antenna overtop dipole or isotropic

Indicates the antenna feature of electromagnetic radiation in specific


directions

Unit: dBi/dBd
l/2

antenna
Direction antenna

dBd

theory source

dB/dBm?

dBi

dBi =dBd+2.15
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Page 12

Forward to Back Ratio




The ratio of main lobe signal strength to back lobe

This value is within 1845dB. In urban, it is suggested to use


the antenna with high F/B ratio

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Page 13

Beam Angle


HPBW: Half Power Beam Width

Lobe angle between two points, the power of which reduce to


the half of that of the maximum radiate direction

Vertical HPBW and Horizontal HPBW

Peak - 3dB
15
(eg)

Peak

- 3dB
60
(eg)

Peak - 3dB

Vertical section
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- 3dB
Horizontal section

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Peak

Page 14

Downtilt


To control coverage

To decrease inter modulation

Realization: electron and mechanism

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Downtilt


mechanism

electron

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Effect of Electrical Downtilt

No Down tilt
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Electron Down tilt


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Effect of Mechanism Downtilt

No Down tilt

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Mechanism Down tilt

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Page 18

Effect of different methods

10(E)

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6(E)+ 4(M)

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10(M)

Page 19

Polarization


The direction of electro - vector radiated by antenna. The


vertical polarization wave is vertical with the plane of ground,
and the horizontal polarization waves parallel with the plane of
ground

Single antenna has only one polarization direction.

Dual polarized antenna contains two single - polarized antenna


in one entity. Dual polarization antenna usually adopts +45/ -45
degree orthogonal polarization.

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Polarization

VERTICAL

HORIAONTAL

+ 45

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- 45

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Dual Polarization

+/- 45

V/H

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Page 22

Upper Side Lobe Suppression


Main to upper side

Main to lower side

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Page 23

Distributed Antenna System


Small
antenna
Power
splitter

Small
antenna

coupling

Small
antenna

coupling

Small
antenna
Small
antenna

Dual direction
coupling

amplifier

BTS
BTS

coupling
coupling

Power
splitter

Dual direction amplifier

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Power
splitter

Small
antenna

Page 24

Small
antenna

Optical Fiber Distributed Antenna




The optical fiber repeater is mainly adopted in the case


of wide coverage and long distance transmission

ic
Opt

signal

iver
e
c
s
n
l tra

transceiver

Optical transceiver

transceiver
Optical transceiver

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Opti
ca

l tran

sceiv

er

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Page 25

Leaky Feeder


Coaxial cable with perforated leads

It is mainly adopted for tunnel, metro and with high cost of


equipment and installing

Power splitter

Dual direction amplifier

Matching load

Tx/Rx

Dual direction amplifier

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Matching load

Page 26

Leaky Feeder


Coaxial cable with perforated leads

Produce constant field-strength along cable runs

Work at wide-band

Radiating loss become higher with high frequency

Very large bending radius

Formerly often used for tunnel coverage

Expensive

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Page 27

Feature of Leaky Cable




Transmission loss per hundred meter


Typical value : 10~40 dB per 100m

Couple Loss at 1 meter distance


Typical value 55 dB (at 1m)

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Page 28

Comparison with Distributed Antenna


Distributed System Type Advantage

Disadvantage

Applicability

Coaxial Feed

High loss

High building,
Business center

Flexible
Low cost
Reliable

Leaky feeder

Flexible

High cost

Metro, Tunnel

Optical

Low loss

High cost

Far area coverage

Easy installation

Not flexible
Need power supply

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Page 29

Selecting Antenna



Selecting
Selecting Antenna
Antenna

 The selection for antenna is an important part of

determining the network quality.


 According to the requirements of coverage and service

quality, traffic distribution, landform, coverage in the


entire network, and interference, to select the antenna.
 According to landform or traffic distribution, the

environment of using antenna can be categorized into:


City, suburb, countryside, highway, mountainous area,
offing, tunnel, and indoor environment

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Principles of Selecting Antenna


 Selecting Antenna for the BTS in the city

Choose the directional antenna with 6065 half power angle.


Choose the antenna with about 15dBi gain.
Choose the antenna with 36tilt angle.
Choose dual polarization antenna.

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Principles of Selecting Antenna


 Selecting antenna for the BTS in the suburb

According to actual conditions, choose the directional


antenna with 65or 90 half power angle.
Choose 1518dBi middling or high gain antenna.
According to actual conditions, determine whether the tilt
angle should be used.
Dual polarization antenna and vertical polarization antenna
are both available.

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Page 32

Principles of Selecting Antenna


 Selecting antenna for the BTS in the countryside

According to actual conditions, choose 90or 120


directional antenna or omni-directional antenna.
Choose directional antenna with 1618dBi gain.
Do not choose presetting tilt antenna. Choose null filling
antenna for the high BTS.
The vertical polarization antenna is recommended.

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Page 33

Principles of Selecting Antenna


Selecting

antenna for the BTS on the

highway
In general, choose narrow-beam and
high-gain directional antenna. According
to actual conditions, you also can choose
8-shaped antenna or omni-directional
antenna.
Because the BTS on the highway must
cover a long distance, do not choose the
presetting tilt antenna.
The vertical polarization antenna is
recommended.
The front-to-back ratio of the directional
antenna should not too great.
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Page 34

Principles of Selecting Antenna


 Selecting antenna for the BTS in the

tunnel

Tunnel shorter than 2 km


Install the 10dB-12dB Yagi antenna/logperiodic antenna/flat antenna in the jaws of
tunnel to cover a road that is less than 2km.

Tunnel longer than 2 km


Use leaky feeder, coaxial cable, and fiber
distribution system.
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Page 35

Principles of Selecting Antenna


 Selecting Indoor Antenna
Omni-directional antenna
Vertical polarization, 2dBi gain, cap-shaped or cup-shaped,
small size, convenient for installation, graceful
Directional antenna
Vertical polarization, 90half power angle
7dBi gain

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Page 36

Antenna Height



Principles
Principles of
of Design
Design for
for Antenna
Antenna Height
Height
 Due to the installation space or cell planning, the heights of

antennas that are in different cells of a BTS can be different.


 For the BTS in the city, the height of antenna is about 25m.
 For the BTS in the suburb, the height of antenna is about 40m.
 If an antenna, particularly the omni-directional antenna, is too

high, the coverage level of the place that nears to the antenna
may be lowered, that is, no signal under the power.
 In addition, the too high antenna may lead to cross coverage

and intra-frequency/neighboring-frequency interferences that


affect the network quality.

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Page 37

Azimuth Angle



Principles
Principles of
of Design
Design for
for Antenna
Antenna Azimuth
Azimuth Angle
Angle

Based on signal coverage, ensure that the azimuth angles of three sectors are the
same. Adjust the azimuth angles of antennas according to important coverage
objects on the border of city and suburb, in the traffic artery and isolated site of
suburb.

To enhance the signal strength and improve call quality, adjust the major lobe of
antenna to face to the heavy-traffic areas.

To control interference, adjust the major lobe of antenna to be apart from intrafrequency cells.

The cross coverage areas of neighboring cells in the city should not exceed 10%.

The cross coverage areas of neighboring cells in the suburb and village should be
not too large. The azimuth angle of neighboring cells should not less than 90.

To avoid cross coverage, do not make the major lobe of antenna face to the
straight streets in the crowded areas.
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Page 38

Tilt Angle



Principles
Principles of
of Design
Design for
for Tilt
Tilt Angle
Angle

 The beam tilt is a basic technology for improving Frequency Reuse

capability.
 The antenna tilt technology is used to control coverage scope and

reduce the interferences in the system.


 To reduce the interferences from co-channel cells and meet the

coverage requirements, set the tilt angles based on specific


conditions.
 The design for tilt angle should be based on transmitter power,

antenna height, cell coverage, and radio environment.

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Page 39

Tilt Angle
 The antenna tilt is categorized into electrical mode and mechanical

mode. The angle of the electrical tilt is relative to the model of antenna.
The angle of the mechanical tilt is adjustable, but it is limited by
installation accessory and signal transportation. Often the angle should
not exceed 15.
 The electrical tilt and mechanical tilt have surface radiations that differ

with the increases of angles.

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Page 40

Chapter 1 Antenna
Chapter 2 Feeder

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Page 41

Feeder


Feeder selection
 Type : 1/27/85/4
 Select 5/4 in the case of feeder length is more than 80 m
and otherwise select 7/8 in 900MHz
 Select 5/4 in the case of feeder length is more than 50 m
and otherwise select 7/8 in 1800MHz
 Feeder curvature should not be so big, outer conductor
should be connected to earth
LOSS dB/100m

TYPE
LDF5 - 50A(7/8

LDF6 - 50(5/4

M1474A(7/8

SYFY - 50 - 22(7/8 )
HFC22D

- A(7/8 )

(MHz)

VSWR

Bend
Radius (m)

manufacturer

890

1,000

1,700

2,000

4.03

4.3

5.87

6.46

1.15

0.25

ANDREW

2.98

3.17

4.31

4.77

1.15

0.38

ANDREW

6.6

1.15

0.22

ACOME

6.46

1.15

0.3

6.7

1.15

0.25

609
LG

4.3
4.03

5.87
4.47

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Page 42

Thank You
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