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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

This project introduces a micro grid, which consists of different distributed


generation units which are connected to the distribution grid. The operations of the
DG units are coordinated by the power management algorithm in grid and islanded
operations. The primary generation unit of the micro grid is the wind turbine and the
proton exchange membrane fuel cell is used to supplement the variability in the
power. In micro grid a battery is incorporated to overcome the difficulty of shortage
of power demand during Islanded operation and to improve crest demands
throughout grid connected operation. Previously the power management system was
done using model predictive algorithm control design. Which has complex
mathematical calculations to find out critical values
Now in this project, ANFIS controller is used as the
control design which reduces the design complexity as the logical operations are
performed to find out critical values, the power quality such as harmonic
compensation for nonlinear loads of the distribution system, will be improved when
compared to model predictive algorithm control design and also It has fast response.
The complete proposed system will be tested using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the
simulation results reveal the attractive performance characteristics of the proposed
system.

ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1GENERAL
The aim of this chapter is to present the motivation behind the work done in
this thesis. The chapter also provides the Existing system analysis as well as the thesis
organization.

1.2 MOTIVATION
In the near future, the demand for electric energy is expected to increase
rapidly due to the global population growth and industrialization. This increase in the
energy demand requires electric utilities to increase their generation. Recent studies
predict that the world's net electricity generation is expected to rise from 17.3 trillion
kilowatt-hours in 2005 to 24.4 trillion kilowatt-hours (an increase of 41%) in 2015
and 33.3 trillion kilowatt-hours (an increase of 92.5%) in 2030. Currently, a large
share of electricity is generated from fossil fuels, especially coal due to its low prices.
However, the increasing use of fossil fuels accounts for a significant portion of
environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, which are considered the
main reason behind the global warming. For example, the emissions of carbon dioxide
and mercury are expected to increase by 35% and 8%, respectively, by the year 2020
due to the expected increase in electricity generation. Moreover, possible depletion of
fossil fuel reserves and unstable price of oil are two main concerns for industrialized
countries. To overcome the problems associated with generation of electricity from
fossil fuels, renewable energy sources can be participated in the energy mix. One of
the renewable energy sources that can be used for this purpose is wind energy that is
atmospheric air in motion. This wind energy can be converted to clean electricity
through the turbine process. The use of wind turbine systems for electricity generation
started in the seventies of the 20th century and is currently growing rapidly worldwide.

1.3 EXISTING SYSTEM


To reduce the variability in the renewable sources, energy storage devices are
used such as batteries and ultra capacitors. The inclusion of energy storage devices is
also difficult for organizing demands and deviation in the load requirement. In present
project, a micro grid composed of a Photovoltaic array (PV Array), PEMFC i.e., a
proton-exchange membrane fuel cell, and storage battery (SB) is planned. PEMFC (a
proton-exchange membrane fuel cell) is employed as a backup generator unit to give
back the power produced by the discontinuous nature of -Photovoltaic array. The
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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Storage Battery is incorporated to overcome the difficulty of shortage of power


demand during Islanded operation and to improve crest demands throughout grid
connected operation. In micro grid to organize the distribution of power between
different DG units an energy-management algorithm is designed. The controller
design proposed for the inverters of DG units is MPC Controller design. As The
existing system consists of an MPC Controller in which the total harmonic distortion
rate is high because its design complexity is high to find out critical values, so the
power quality will be reduced.

Fig 1.1: Overall configuration of the Existing micro grid architecture.

1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THESIS


To facilitate the presentation of the results obtained in this Project, the thesis is
organized as follows:
1. Chapter 1 provides the introduction about project
2. Chapter 2 discusses in detail about system description
3. Chapter 3 presents in detail about the DG Inverter Modelling
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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

4. Chapter 4 presents in detail about the ANFIS


5. Chapter 5 deals with the MATLAB/SIMULINK models and Results .
6. In the last chapter conclusion of the thesis are presented. Moreover, this
chapter gives the outline of the Project and Scope for future.
This chapter covered the motivation behind the thesis work, Summary and
how the organization of thesis is carried out

2. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Now a days, In demand response management large number of consumers are


participated because of increase in smarter electrical facilities like electrical vehicles,
unbalanced systems and smart meters. This project is on smarter grid through
demand-side management (DSM), in which energy reserves and power quality has
improved. These methods make the penetration of renewable generation, such as wind
power and solar power into the grid. The joining of renewable energy sources can add
on the generation from the distribution grid. These renewable energy sources are not
constant in their generation and may compromise the consistency and stability of the
distribution network.
To reduce the variability in the renewable sources, energy storage devices are
used such as batteries and ultra capacitors. The inclusion of energy storage devices is
also difficult for organizing demands and deviation in the load requirement. In present
project, a micro grid composed of a wind turbine, PEMFC i.e.,a proton-exchange
membrane fuel cell ,and storage battery (SB) is planned. PEMFC (a proton-exchange
membrane fuel cell) is employed as an backup generator unit to give back the power
produced by the discontinuous nature of wind turbine. The Storage Battery is
incorporated to overcome the difficulty of shortage of power demand during Islanded
operation and to improve crest demands throughout grid connected operation.
In islanded operation, the function of the Storage Battery is to keep up the
power stability in the microgrid which is given by
PDG +Pb=PL

(1)

Where,
PDG is the power delivered by the main DG unit
Pb

is the Storage Battery power

PL is the real power delivered to the loads


Storage Battery power which is subjected to the charging and discharging constraints
given by
Pb<= Pb,max

(2)

The energy limitation of the Storage Battery is determined based on the state-ofcharge (SOC) limits which are given as
SOCmin < SOC <= SOCmax

(3)

Even though the state-of-charge (SOC) of the battery cannot be calculated directly, it
can be found by using many estimation methods.
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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

During the micro grid operating in islanded operation from the distribution grid, the
Storage Battery can operate in the charging, discharging, or idle mode depending on
its State of charge (SOC) and power of storage battery Pb.

Fig 2.1. Operation of the SB during grid-connected operation.


In grid-connected function, the distribution grid is interfaced to the microgrid
through a circuit breaker (CB) at the point of common coupling (PCC). The function
of the main DG unit is to provide voltage and power for the loads therefore it reduces
the burden of generation and delivery of power directly from the distribution grid.
With the increasing of power-electronics devices being interfaced to the microgrid,
the load currents might be unclear because of the presence of harmonic components.
The purpose of DG units is also to compensate harmonics in the currents drawn by
nonlinear loads in the microgrid, as a result that the harmonics will not spread to other
electrical networks interfaced to the PCC. If the power produced by the main DG unit
is higher than the total load demand in the microgrid, then the surplus power be able
to charge the Storage Battery or injected into the distribution grid, depending on the
State of charge (SOC) of the Storage Battery, as shown in Fig. 2.1 Conversely, power
produced by the main DG unit is less than the total load demand in the microgrid, the

ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Storage Battery can be controlled to attain various energy-management functions


depending on its State of charge (SOC) and the TOU (time of use) of electricity.
For the period of off-peak periods as shown in Fig. 2.1, when the cost of
generation from the grid is low and if the State of charge (SOC) of Storage Battery is
less than the maximum SOC limit SOCmax, the Storage Battery will be charged by
the grid and the loads will be supplied by the main DG unit and the grid. In peak
periods, when the cost of generation from the grid is high and if the Storage Battery
State of charge is greater than the minimum SOC limit SOCmin, the Storage Battery
can distribute power to the grid to attain peak sharing.
When an error occurs on the network of the distribution grid, the function of
the Circuit Breaker is to cut off the microgrid from the distribution grid. The Storage
Battery and The main DG unit are the only power sources left to control the loads. In
the case when the generation of the main DG unit is not capable to meet the total load
demand, the Storage Battery is necessary to supply for the deficiency in real and
reactive power to uphold the stability and power balance of the microgrid as shown in
Fig. 2.2. When the total load demand greater the generation capability of the main DG
unit and the Storage Battery, the PMS detects a reduction in the system frequency and
load shedding for noncritical loads. It is necessary to restore the system frequency and
uphold the stability of the microgrid.

Fig 2.2. Operation of the SB during islanded operation.


In micro grid to organize the distribution of power between different DG units
an power-management algorithm is designed. The controller design proposed for the
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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

inverters of DG units is ANFIS Controller design. This reduces the design complexity
as the logical operations are performed to find out critical values, the power quality
such as harmonic compensation for nonlinear loads of the distribution system will be
improved.This project provides a complete solution for the function of a micro grid
which will send out a current and voltage concurrently during both islanded and gridconnected operations.

Fig 2.3: Overall configuration of the proposed micro grid architecture.

2.1 WIND POWER


Wind is available plentiful in the world. Wind exists in nature due to
irregular warming of the earth and the earths revolution due to this wind will be
always available. The usual ways of producing electricity by means of non renewable
resources such as oil ,coal, natural gas and so on, have huge influence on environment
as it give high quantities of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to this earths
surface temperature leads to increase, this effect is known as green house effect.
Hence, due to this impact the ways of producing electricity by means of renewable
energy resources are developed.
The generating cost of wind power which is supplied to the grid is as cheap as
the cost of producing electricity using coal and oil. Thus, the popularity of generation
of electricity using renewable sources has increased. Simultaneously the requirement
of electricity generated by means of non renewable energy is also increased
accordingly.
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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

2.1.1. Features of Wind Power System


There are some individual energy features of wind power systems. The
majority wind power sites are located in island, marine or rural areas. Energy
necessities in such places are unique and do not want the high electrical power. A
power system with varied quality supplies can be a fine match with total. Grid
systems in Rural area are probable to be weak (voltage around 33 KV). Interfacing
weak grids to Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) is difficult and harmful to
the workers safety. There are few periods without wind. Thus, to maintain a power
supplies WECS have to be interfaced to energy storage or parallel generating system.
2.1.2. Power from the Wind
In the wind turbine to rotate the generator Kinetic energy produced by
the wind is used to generate electricity. There are a number of factors that influence
the effectiveness of the wind turbine in extracting the power from the wind. Firstly,
the speed of the wind is one of the significant factors to determine how much power
can be extracted from the wind. This is due to the power generated as of the wind
turbine is a function of the cubed of the wind speed. Thus, if the wind speed tripled,
the power generated will be enhanced by nine times the original power. Then
secondly, site of the wind farm plays an significant role for the wind turbine to extract
the majority existing power form the wind. The next significant reason of the wind
turbine is the rotor blade. The length of the rotor blades in wind turbine is one of the
significant aspects of the wind turbine because the power generated from the wind is
proportional to the rotor blades swept area. If the diameter of the swept area is
doubled, the power generated will be improved by four times. So the rotor blades to
be strong, durable and light. As the length of the blade increases, the qualities of rotor
blades become more intangible. But with the current advance technologies in carbonfiber and fiber glass technology, the manufacture of less weight and tough rotor blades
between 20 to 30 meters long is achievable. Wind turbines with the size of these rotor
blades are able to generate up to 1 megawatt of power. The association between the
powers generated by the wind source and the speed of the wind and the swept
diameter of rotor blades is shown below.
P = /8dD2V3wind

2.1.3 Advantages of Wind power plants


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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Improving price competitiveness


Modular installation
Rapid Construction
Improved system reliability
Non-Polluting
Complementary generation
2.1.4 The Doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine
DFIGWT (The Doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine) was shown in
the fig 2.4. The the grid-side converter (Cgrid) and rotor-side converter (Crotor) are the
two components of the AC/DC/AC converter. Voltage-Sourced Converters are Cgrid
and Crotor that use forced-commutated power electronic devices (IGBTs) to convert the
DC voltage source to AC voltage. The DC voltage source is the capacitor associated
on the DC side. Cgrid is connected to the grid through the coupling inductor L . The
Crotor is connected to three-phase rotor winding by sliprings and brushes and the threephase stator winding is directly joined to the grid. The induction generator converts
power (captured by the wind turbine) into electrical power and the stator and the rotor
windings transmits this electrical power to the grid. The pitch angle command and the
voltage command signals Vr and Vgc are generated by the control system for Crotor and
Cgrid respectively in order to control the wind turbine power, the reactive power or the
voltage at the grid terminals and the DC bus voltage.

Fig 2.4: Operating Principle of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator wind turbine
System

In this figure the followings parameters are used:


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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Stator electrical power output

Ps

Rotor electrical power output

Pr

Cgrid electrical power output

Pgc

Stator reactive power output

Qs

Rotor reactive power output

Qr

Cgrid reactive power output

Qgc

Mechanical torque applied to rotor

Tm

Electromagnetic torque applied to the rotor by the generator

Tem

Rotational speed of rotor

Synchronous speed is relative to the frequency of the grid voltage and to the s
number of generator poles.
rotor and wind turbine inertia coefficient

Mechanical power captured by the wind turbine and transmitted to the rotor Pm
Table 2.1: Parameters the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator wind turbine System
The mechanical power (Pm)= Tmr and
the stator electric power output (Ps )= Tems.

The mechanical expression for a lossless generator is:


J

drdt

=TmTem.

In steady-state at fixed speed for a lossless generator


Tm = Tem and
Pm = Ps + Pr.
It follows that:
Pr=PmPs
=TmrTems
=Tm s r ss

=sTms
=sPs,
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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Where s is defined as the slip of the generator: s = (sr)/s.


2.1.5 The Power Flow of the DFIGWT System

Fig 2.5: Power flow of the DFIGWT System


Generally

the absolute

value of

slip

is

much

lower

than

and,

consequently, Pr is only a fraction of Ps. Since Tm is positive for power generation and
since s is positive and constant for a constant frequency grid voltage, the sign ofPr is
a function of the slip sign. Pr is positive for negative slip (speed greater
than synchronous speed) and for positive slip it is negative (synchronous speed is
greater than speed). Pr is transmitted to DC bus capacitor in super-synchronous speed
operation, and tends to increase the DC voltage . Pr is taken out of DC bus capacitor
and tends to decrease the DC voltage in sub-synchronous speed operation, . Cgrid is
used to generate or absorb the power Pgc to maintain the DC voltage constant. Pgc is
equal to Pr in a lossless AC/DC/AC converter for steady-state condition and The
power Pr (absorbed or generated by Crotor) determines the speed of the wind turbine.
For sub-synchronous speed the AC voltage (The phase-sequence) generated by
Crotor is positive and in super-synchronous speed it is negative. The product of the
absolute value of the slip and the the grid frequency is equal to the frequency of this
voltage. Cgrid and Crotor generates reactive power or the grid terminals voltage can also
be controlled.

2.2 MICROGRIDS
Microgrids are power systems in which generation elements are co-located with loads,
regardless of the aggregated generation capacity or the grid interconnection. This
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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

definition covers a large application space that ranges from remote rural electrification
and residential/community power networks to commercial, industrial, municipal,
hospital, campus, and military base power grids. The applications also vary. Some are
focused on cost of electricity (e.g., peak shaving), some are focused on local resource
use (e.g., wind, solar, biomass systems), and some are focused on energy reliability
and security (therefore, sophisticated generation and load controls are required)
2.2.1 Technical
Issues

Interconnectivity
The complexity of the

interconnection between a microgrid and the main grid is affected by the types of
power generation on the microgrid, the number and location of points of
interconnection with the main grid, and the penetration level of microgrid systems
with the main grid.

Power Generation Types


For a microgrid

that uses conventional generation, such as natural gas or diesel reciprocating engines,
system design and engineering is relatively well-understood. However, for many
emerging microgrids that use alternative energy sourcessuch as fuel cells,
photovoltaics, and microturbinessystem design and integration with the main grid
are a challenging task because of a lack of experience with nonconventional
generation types.
Points of Interconnection
Most grid-connected microgrids have a single point of interconnection with
the bulk grid. The interconnection requirements are relatively well-defined for the
single interconnection point. However, large-scale microgrids and microgrids that
seek

grid-connected

reliability

through

redundancy

may

require

multiple

interconnection points. The coordination of control and protection becomes more


complicated as the number of interconnection points increases. of a microgrid. If the
microgrid is in a remote area, as is the case with some village and industrial plants,
the grid can be weak because voltage and frequency regulation are not tight. In these
situations, transient dynamics in the grid can have a significant effect on system
voltage regulation and stability. Additional difficulties can arise when microgrids are
connected with a secondary grid network or a spot network. In these situations, the
control and protection algorithms are more complicated than those used when

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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

connecting with a radial distribution system.

2.3 MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING


Wind energy is an abundant resource with free cost but it is important to study
the way to maximize the power generation by wind energy. Several control methods
of wind energy conversion system has been proposed by researchers t o maximize the
wind energy harvest. However, most of the proposed methods have rather low
efficiency to extract power. Besides, the extracted energy is the very unstable since
the nature of wind flow is spontaneous which this situation will lower the power
extraction and subsequently reduce the efficiency of power generation.
Although wind turbine presents non-linear characteristics,

there is a

particular operating point which the wind system is able to produce the maximum
output power for a given wind speed. Thus, various control approaches have been
investigated to control the power condition on the wind turbine and therefore wind
energy is aimed to be extracted optimally at any given time. In this paper, maximum
power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm based on perturb and observe has been
studied to control the wind turbine for maximum output power. The generator
mechanical rotor speed and the immediate wind speed are sensed for the
computational of tip speed ratio and the power coefficient of the wind turbine. By
controlling the blade angle, wind turbine rotor speed is changed and both
parameters the tip speed ratio and the wind turbines power coefficient is varied.
Based on these parameters, MPPT perform perturbation on the blade angle and
track the maximum power coefficient of the wind turbine. Wind turbine which is
operated at the maximum power coefficient can have maximum the wind energy
harvesting which this approach can improve the efficiency of the power generation.

2.4 POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS FOR MPPT


The significant of maximum power point tracking is a DC-DC
converter in switch-mode. It is broadly used in DC motor drives and
DC power supplies for the purpose of changing uncontrolled DC
input into a regulated DC output at a preferred voltage level. MPPT
uses the identical converter for many purposes. There are a many
topologies for DC-DC converters. They are grouped into isolated or
non-isolated topologies.
The isolated topology uses an electrical
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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

isolation transformer which gives the benefits of DC isolation


between input and output, and step-up or down of output voltage by
altering the transformer turns ratio. They are mostly used DC power
supplies in switch-mode. Non-isolated topology does not have
isolation transformers. They are always used in DC motor drives.
These topologies are grouped into three types:
BUCK
(STEP DOWN)
BOOST
(STEP UP)
BUCK-BOOST
(STEP UP & DOWN)
CUK CONVERTER (STEP UP & DOWN)
The buck topology is used for voltage step-down. The boost
topology is used for stepping up the voltage. In the grid-linked
systems to step up the output voltage to the effective level prior to
the inverter stage a boost type converter is used.
The role of power electronic converters is to provide power to the user in a suitable
form at high efficiency. Power electronic converters are needed in wind energy
systems to convert DC voltage to the required values and to convert from DC to AC
and vice versa. In addition they control the charging and discharging of batteries in
systems where batteries are storage elements.
2.4.1 Buck Converter
The Buck converter consists of an power electronic switch (usually a
MOSFET or an IGBT), inductor and diode. To smooth the output it may consist of
an capacitor. Buck converter purpose is to step down DC voltage. At very high
frequencies ( 10kHz 100MHz) if the switch is turned on and off frequently and
assuming that in the steady state the output will be periodical then:

Vo (t + T) = Vo
Io (t + T) = Io

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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Fig 2.6: Functional circuit of a buck converter


The load current is given by IR = Vo = R. The average DC component of the
capacitor current must be equal to zero otherwise the capacitor voltage will be
increasing and there will be no periodic steady state. If the switch is turned on and off
repeatedly at very high frequencies (10kHz 100MHz) and assuming that in the
steady state the output will be periodical then:
i C = IC = 0
iL = IL = IR = Vo/R
Likewise the DC component of voltage across the inductor has to be zero:
(Vl)=
The duty ratio D is defined as the fraction of the switch period during which the
switch is on:
D =ton /T
The average voltage across the inductor will be given by:

Vl= 1/T (

= 1/T (

=1/T (Vs-Vo) DT+ (-vo) (1-D) T


=VsD-Vo= 0
After solving we get:
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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Vo= DVs
It can be seen that the output voltage is always less than or equal to the input
voltage (0 D 1). The converter may operate in the continuous conduction mode
CCM or the discontinuous conduction mode DCM. In the CCM the inductor current is
always greater than zero while in the DCM the inductor current is zero during certain
portions of the switching period. In some applications both modes may be mixed. The
filter inductor that determines the boundary is given by
Lboundary =
To limit the ripple across the dc output voltage Vo to a value below a speci_c value Vr,
the filter capacitance C must be greater than
Cmin =
The two preceding equations are the key design equations for buck converters.
2.4.2 Boost Converter
The Boost converter is another simple power electronic converter and
basically consists of a voltage source, an inductor, a power electronic switch (usually
a MOSFET or an IGBT) and a diode. It usually also has a filter capacitor to smoothen
the output. Its function is to step up DC voltage to bring it to a desired level and is
shown in Fig 2.7.

Fig 2.7: Functional circuit of a boost converter


If the switch is turned on and off repeatedly at very high frequencies and
assuming that in the steady state the output will basically be DC (large capacitor):
(iC) = IC = 0
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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

iL = IL = IR - Iswitch
= IR - DIL

IL =
The DC component of voltage across the inductor has to be zero if losses are
neglected. The average voltage across the inductor is given by:

VL= 1/T (

)=0

=1/T (VsDT+ (Vs-vo) (1-d) T=0


After solving we get:
Vo= Vs/ (1-D)
The fraction to the right is always greater than one since the duty is always less than
one thus the voltage is stepped up. The later inductor that determines the boundary is
given by
Lboundary = (1 -D)2DR/2f
For D = 0:5, R = 10, and f = 100 kHz, the boundary is Lb = 6:25_H.
For any inductance larger than this value the boost converter will operate in the
continuous conduction mode. A much larger _lter capacitance C is required as the
current supplied to the output RC circuit is discontinuous. The limiting value is given
by

Cmin = DVo Vr / Rf

2.4.3 Buck Boost Converter


Non-isolated buck-boost converter which consists of input voltage Vs, inductor L,
capacitor C, load R and controllable switch S is shown in the Figure below.

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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Fig 2.8: Functional circuit of a buck - boost converter


Since the circuit structure is the same as boost converter the minimum capacitance for
buck-boost converter to stay in CCM can be found from the same formula.

2.5 INVERTERS
The function of inverters is to convert the DC to different AC levels. Single phase
voltage source inverters are used for low-voltage application whereas three-phase is used
for medium to high voltage application. In voltage source inverter application, the
current, phase, frequency and voltage need to be always controllable. By this control
topology it is desired to give as pure as possible sinusoidal output in desired phase,
voltage and frequency.

Inverters convert direct current to alternating current, which may


be single or multi-phase. Several topologies exist for both single phase and multiphase inverters. An example is a full bridge single phase inverter is shown in Fig 2.9.
It consists of four switches that are turned is such a way that within a branch the upper
and lower switches are never on at the same time to avoid short-circuiting the DC
source.

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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Fig 2.9: Full bridge VSI inverter


The inverter consists of four defined states and one undefined state. Various
modulating techniques can be used to control the switching of the inverter switches
but all of them must avoid the undefined state and the short circuit conditions. There
are two general types of inverters namely, square wave inverters (line frequency
switching) and pulse width modulation PWM inverters (high frequency switching)
depending on the switching techniques used. To avoid the short circuit condition
(shoot through) a very small time interval must be inserted between turning off one
switch and turning on the other. This short time interval is referred to as the blanking
time and largely depends on the type of semiconductor switch employed.

2.6 PEMFC STACK

Fig 2.10: The proton exchange membrane fuel cell


PEMFC (The proton exchange membrane fuel cell) contains an electrolyte
which has a acidic polymer membrane (water-based) with platinum-based electrodes.
PEMFC cells work at comparatively at low temperatures (less than 100 degrees
Celsius) and can modify electrical output to meet dynamic power requirements. As
cell works comparatively low temperatures and the

utilization of valuable metal-

based electrodes, these cells have to run on hydrogen. PEMFC cells are at present the
foremost technology for light vehicles and also used for some extent in stationary
applications and other applications. The PEMFC fuel cell is moreover known as
polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (also PEMFC).
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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Hydrogen fuel is processed near the anode, whereas on the surface of


platinum-based catalyst electrons are divided from protons. These protons reach the
cathode side of the cell through the membrane where as the electrons passes in an
external circuit, producing the electrical output of the cell. On the cathode side of the
cell, one more valuable metal electrode combines the protons and electrons by means
of oxygen to generate water, which is removed as the only waste product. Oxygen can
be provided in a purified form, or extracted at the electrode directly from the air.
A PEMFC which can operated at high temperatures is called as
the HT PEMFC (High Temperature PEMFC).If the electrolyte is changed

to a

mineral acid-based system from being water-based, HT PEMFCs can run up to 200
degrees Celsius. This made to overcome some of the existing limitations.
.
Low Temp. PEMFC

High Temp. PEMFC

Operating temperature

80-100 degrees C

Up to 200 degrees C

Electrolyte

Water-based

Mineral acid-based

Pt loading

0.2-0.8 mg/cm2

1.0-2.0 mg/cm2

CO tolerance

<50 parts per million

1 - 5 % by Volume

Other impurity tolerance

Low

Higher

Power density

Higher

Lower

Cold start?

Yes

No

Water management

Complex

None

Table 2.2: Differences among the low temperature and high temperature PEMFC
variants

2.7 POINT OF COMMON COUPLING


The PCC is a point in the electrical system where multiple customers or
multiple electrical loads may be connected. According to IEEE-519, this should be a
point which is accessible to both the utility and the customer for direct measurement.
Although in many cases the PCC is considered at the metering point, service entrance
or facility transformer, IEEE-519 states that within an industrial plant, the PCC is the
point between the non-linear load and other loads. It will generally be easier to meet
harmonic distortion limits when the PCC is considered at the metering point, facility
21

ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

transformer or service entrance. In most cases, the current flowing at this point
represents a combination of pure fundamental current flowing to linear loads and both
fundamental and distorted current flowing to non-linear loads. The distortion current
will often be a smaller percentage of the total (combined) fundamental current at this
point.
Considering the PCC at the equipment will often meet the IEEE-limits both at
this point and also at a PCC near the service entrance. The IEEE-519 limit at this
point, which is essentially at the input to the non-linear loads, is often 12%, 15% or
even 20% THD-I. The ratio of short circuit current to load current is typically much
larger at this PCC, which typically has less total load, than at the metering point,
where the entire plant load is connected. Usually, if the THD limit is met at each nonlinear load within the plant, the TDD limits at the service entrance will also be met.
Even though the THD limits are typically lower for the PCC considered near the
utility metering point, the overall THD at this PCC may be considerably lower if there
are additional linear loads in the plant that share the power source.

2.8 TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION AND EFFECTS IN


ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
Non-linear loads draw an indistinct waveform that contains harmonics.
Harmonics can create problems such as degradation of conductors and insulating
material in motors and transformers. Therefore it is significant to measure the effect
of these harmonics. The summing up of all harmonics in a system is known as total
harmonic distortion (THD).
Assume a system with an electrical load and AC source as shown in (Fig 2.11).

Fig 2.11: Power System with AC source and electrical load


Now assume that the load is to be one of the two types that are linear or
nonlinear. The type of load will influence the power quality of system. This is because
of the current drawn by type of load. Linear loads will draw a current which is in
22

ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

nature of sinusoidal such that it does not disturb the waveform (Fig 2.12). Most
household appliances are classified as linear loads. Non-linear loads will draw a
current that is not exact sinusoidal (Fig 2.13). Since the current waveform departs
from a sine wave, noises in voltage waveform are created.

Fig 2.12: Ideal Sine wave

Fig 2.13: Distorted Waveform


As can be seen from the waveform in Figure 3, waveform distortions can significantly
modified the form of the sinusoid. However, no matter the level of difficulty of the
fundamental wave, it is in fact just a composite of multiple waveforms called
harmonics.
Harmonics have different frequencies that are multiples of the waveforms
fundamental frequency. Thus, harmonic distortion is the degree to which a waveform
changes from its pure sinusoidal values. As a effect of the summing up of all these
harmonic elements. The perfect sine wave has nil harmonic components Total
harmonic distortion, or THD, is the summing up of all harmonic components of the
current or voltage waveforms compared against the fundamental component of the
voltage or current wave:
23

ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

The above calculation is for THD on a voltage signal. The final result is a
Percentage of total harmonic distortions to the fundamental Signal. The larger the
THD percentage, the high distortion is present on the main signal.

2.9 ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM


Energy storage systems are an integral part of a hybrid renewable stand-alone
power system, which is critical for ensuring a high level of power quality, reliability
and security. An ideal storage system would offer fast access to power as required,
provide high capacity power and energy, have a long life expectancy, and at a
competitive price. However, an ideal storage system is not currently available. As a
result, it is important to select the appropriate storage technology for the application
of renewable energy based hybrid power systems. The preliminary applications of
energy storage systems for a stand-alone hybrid renewable energy based power
system are as follows:
Renewable matching and power smoothing
Renewable energy sources are intermittent in nature. As a result, power generation
frequently fails to match the load profile. Energy storage is capable of matching the
renewable sources output to any load profile.
Load leveling application
In load leveling application, bulk energy is stored during peak wind conditions and
then discharged during low or no wind conditions. As a result, proper management of
energy storage can ensure continuous system operation.
Power quality
Utility power occasionally suffers turbulence such as momentary voltage sags or even
outages. Along with harmonic distortions, and other imperfections can influence
24

ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

responsive equipment requiring high quality power. Energy storage systems can be
used to provide reliable, high quality power to sensitive loads. Based on the
application, the energy storage can be classified as long-term and short-term.
Capacity-oriented energy storage technologies such as pumped hydroelectric systems,
compressed air energy storage and hydrogen storage do not generally have a fast
response time and are used for long-term energy storage. On the other hand, storage
devices with a fast response time such as batteries, fly-wheels, super-capacitors and
super-conducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) are used for responding to short
time disturbances such as fast load transients, and for power quality related
problems.Fig. 2.14 shows the typical storage capacity versus discharge time for
different energy storage systems.

Fig. 2.14. Capacity versus discharge time for different energy


storage systems.
Energy storage can be electrochemical, mechanical, electromagnetic, thermal
or hydrogen-based. Electrochemical energy storage includes sodium-sulfur, lithiumion and lead-acid batteries. Pumped hydroelectric, compressed air energy and flywheel comes under Mechanical energy storage. Electro-magnetic storage systems
such as superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) and thermal energy storage
can include solar thermal for air conditioning, heating and ventilation. Hydrogen
storage includes electrolyzer and fuel cells.
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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

2.9.1 Electrochemical Energy Storage


Batteries used to store and supply power to renewable energy based power
systems must be reliable, durable and safe. Several promising battery technologies
exists for grid connected or stand alone based renewable energy system applications
including lead acid, lithium-ion, flow, sodium-sulfur batteries.
Lead-acid batteries
Lead-acid batteries are mature and proven technology in a number of applications
together with bulk energy storage, frequency regulation for changeable energy
renewable ,integration and distributed energy storage systems. These batteries are a
viable option owing to relatively low cost, ease of manufacture, rapid electrochemical
reaction kinetics and good life cycle under controlled conditions. Conventional lead
acid batteries typically achieve 20-30 Wh/kg, with a power density of 4 kW/kg.
Maintenance free valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, also known as sealed
lead acid batteries, have largely replaced conventional high maintenance flooded cell
batteries in a variety of applications such as automotive, marine, telecommunications
and uninterruptible power supply system. However, for large storage system
applications for grid support, flooded lead-acid technology is still considered as the
best alternative. The lifetime of lead-acid batteries varies significantly depending on
the application, discharge rate and number of deep discharge cycles. In the case of a
renewable energy based power system, traditional lead-acid batteries may experience
a short life-cycle and require significant maintenance due to uncontrollable charging
and discharging operating cycles.
Nickel-based batteries
Nickel-based batteries can be in the form of Nickel/Cadmium (NiCad) and Nickel
Metal Hydride (NiMH) systems. The main application for NiCad batteries is portable
electronics. Compared with the lead-acid battery, NiCad batteries have a longer life,
higher energy density and lower maintenance. NiMH batteries are a feasible
alternative to NiCad batteries owing to better performance and environmental
benefits. Compared with lead-acid and NiCad batteries, NiMH does not contain toxic
substance such as cadmium or lead. The energy density of NiCad cells is 25 - 30%
higher than NiCad cells but well below rechargeable Li-ion batteries
Lithium-ion batteries
Lithium is an attractive material for battery technology as it has a higher reduction
potential and lighter weight [93]. Rechargeable Li-ion batteries are commonly found
26

ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

in consumer electronic products, comprising most of the global generation volume of


10 to 12 Giga-watt hours per year [93]. These batteries are widely used in plug-in
hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and electric vehicles (EV). Compared to the long
history of lead-acid batteries, Li-ion technology is relatively new. It is expected that
the EV and energy storage market will substantially benefited from advancements in
Li-ion battery technology. The high energy density and relatively low weight results
in a viable choice for electric vehicles and other applications where space and weight
are important. Given their long cycle life and compactness, higher roundtrip energy of
85 90% [95], Li-ion battery manufacturers may be used for various utility gridsupport applications including distributed energy storage systems at community scale,
commercial end-user energy management, home back-up energy management
systems, frequency regulation and wind and photovoltaic power smoothing
applications.
Flow batteries
A flow battery is a rechargeable battery where electrolyte containing one or more
dissolved electro-active species flow through an electrochemical cell which converts
chemical energy to electricity . Vanadium redox battery technology is one of the most
mature flow battery systems available, with an expected life of about 15 years.
However, the physical scale of this battery is mainly due to the large volume of
electrolyte required when sized for utility-scale projects. Flow batteries are an
attractive energy storage option for the grid because of their ability to store a large
amount of energy with a potentially longer life-cycle. However, such technology is
still young, with an associated cost barrier. Moreover, the presence of active species in
the anode and cathode electrolytes may lead to efficiency loss and contamination.
Sodium sulfur batteries
The sodium sulfur battery possesses high energy and power density and electrical
efficiency. Its long life results in an excellent choice for electric power system
applications. Sulfur is used as an active material at the positive electrode and sodium
is used at the negative electrodes. Electrodes are separated by sodium-ion-conductive
ceramic solid electrolyte. High temperature maintains the electrode active materials in
a liquid state while the electrode is solid. This reduces resistance and enables efficient
battery performance averaged over lifetime discharge.
Super-capacitors

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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Super-capacitors are devices that store electrical energy as charge separation in porous
electrodes with large surface areas. Some key benefits of ultra capacitors include
highest capacitance density of any capacitor technology, low cost per farad, reliable,
long life, high cycle-life, maintenance-free operation, environmentally safe, a wide
range of operating temperatures high power density and good energy density. Of these
features, the greater power and energy densities bridge the gap between standard
batteries and traditional capacitors for high-power, short-duration energy storage. As a
result, they are widely used in utility applications for transmission line stability,
spinning reserve, frequency control, voltage regulation, power quality and
uninterruptible power supply applications.

2.9.2 Mechanical Energy Storage


Pumped hydro, compressed air energy storage and flywheels can be classified as
mechanical energy storage.
Pumped hydro
Pumped hydro electric storage is the oldest, most widespread commercially available
energy storage technology. Such schemes consist of two large reservoirs at different
levels with a store of water. Off-peak electricity is used to pump water up to the top
reservoir, which can then be discharged as required, typically to a lower reservoir at
the other end of a height differential. This flow of water drives turbines in the same
way as hydro-electric dams. The technology can provide reliable power at short
notice, typically within one minute, with efficiency in the range of 70-85% . Overall
the technology is one of the most mature on the market and further technological
advances are considered unlikely. Pumped hydro is the main form of energy storage
globally and has been used since the 1890s. There is approximately 90GW of pumped
storage in operation worldwide, accounting for 3% of global generation capacity [96].
A limiting factor is the large capital costs involved in construction (although cost is
highly dependent on local topography and other factors).
Fly wheel
Flywheels represent a mechanical form of energy storage in which the kinetic energy
of a fast-spinning cylinder contains stored energy. Recent technological advances of
fly-wheel have improved the efficiency of the traditional flywheel [93]. Modern
flywheel systems are typically comprised of a massive rotating cylinder, supported on
28

ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

a stator by magnetically levitated bearings that eliminate wear and extend system life.
To increase efficiency, the flywheel is operated in a low pressure environment to
reduce air friction. This energy storage system draws electricity from a primary source
to spin the high density cylinder at speeds greater than 20,000 rpm. When the primary
source loses its power, the motor acts as a generator. As the flywheel continues to
rotate, this generator supplies power to the grid. Flywheels have a high energy density
of 50 100 Wh/kg and an efficiency of around 90%, depending on the flywheels
speed range . With no chemical management or disposal to consider, flywheels have
certain environmental advantages over battery systems.
Compressed air energy storage
In compressed air energy storage system (CAES), air is compressed into underground
mines or caverns by using off-peak electricity, which improves the efficiency of the
gas turbine. When required, the compressed air is utilized in conjunction with a gas
turbine to generate electricity, resulting in gas consumption reductions of 60% relative
to the same amount of electricity generation directly from gas. Compressed air energy
storage can be integrated with a wind farm in order to store additional power during
high wind conditions. The energy efficiency of CAES is around 80%. The availability
or generation of large underground storage spaces can have possible environmental
impacts, and constraint on this technology is constrained by the
absence of suitable locations for underground air storage.
2.9.3 Electro-magnetic storage
Superconducting magnetic energy storage
Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) can store electrical energy
in a magnetic field within a cooled super-conducting coil. The coil is cooled beyond
its superconducting temperature (-269oC), where the resistance of the material is very
low. This limited electrical resistance allows SMES to achieve high efficiency of up to
97%. Since the SMES can release immediate energy, It is useful where customers
require an extremely high quality power output. As the SMES is currently undergoing
research and development, very limited information available regarding costs.
Extremely low temperatures are required for the superconducting system, representing
a safety issue. Larger scale SMES systems could require significant protection to deal
with magnetic radiation in the immediate vicinity.
2.9.4 Hydrogen Energy Storage

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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Hydrogen-based energy storage systems are currently receiving considerable


attention due to the long period over which hydrogen can be stored, and owing to the
potential hydrogen holds for replacing petroleum products as the energy carrier for the
transport sector. When coupled with a renewable energy source or low carbon energy
technology, hydrogen energy storage has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions. The essential elements of a hydrogen storage system consist of an
electrolyzer unit, to convert electrical input to hydrogen during off-peak periods, the
storage component and an energy conversion component to convert the stored
chemical energy into electrical energy when demand is high or for use in
transportation systems.
The electrolyzer and fuel cell components can be dedicated or reversible:
capable of electrochemically producing hydrogen or operating in fuel cell mode and
converting the hydrogen back to electricity. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel
cell technology has been most extensively explored for reversible electrolyzer
operation, but solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and alkaline fuel cell (AFC) technologies
can also be applied reversibly. One of the principal concerns regarding hydrogen
systems is the whole cycle efficiency. Energy loss is inherent in the system when
electricity is converted to hydrogen, stored, transported and then re-converted to
electricity in a fuel cell. Estimates of this energy loss range from 60 - 75%. More
advanced fuel cell technologies are under development and include: Direct Methanol
Fuel Cells (DMFC).
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC) and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC).
MCFCs and SOFCs operate at extremely high temperatures of around 620C and
1,000 C respectively. MCFCs are approaching 60% efficiency for the conversion of
fuel to electricity, and it is anticipated that SOFCs will achieve similar efficiency
levels. When the waste heat is captured and used, efficiencies can reach 85% for both
technologies.

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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

3. DG INVERTER MODELLING
The switched voltage across the output of the nth DG inverter is represented
by unVdcn , where un is the control input and n=1, 2. The output side of the DG
inverter is connected with an LC filter denoted by Cfi and Lfi to abolish the high
switching frequency harmonics produced by the DG inverter.
Fig 3.1 and 3.2 show the equivalent single-phase illustration of the DG inverters for
islanded-connected and grid-connected operation.

31

ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Fig. 3.1. Equivalent Diagram for single-phase of the DG inverters for grid connected
operation.

Fig. 3.2. Equivalent Diagram for single-phase of the DG inverters islanded operation.
The resistance Rj reflects the loss of the DG inverter. Total load current iL is
the summing of the currents given to the load k ( k=1, 2, 3), is represented by

and also it can be divided as two components composed of harmonic


fundamental frequency

with amplitudes

and

and

and is represented by

where Lh and Lf are the phase angles of the harmonic components and fundamental
components of iL and iLf,p and iLf,q are the instant fundamental phase and quadrature
components of iL. To attain unity power factor on the grid side, Balance for the
harmonics in the load currents and simultaneously attain load sharing, DG unit of the
inverter supplies a current iDGj .
iDGj = (iLf,p-ig) + iLf,q + iLh
where ig is the grid current. As shown in Fig.3.1, the utility substation supplies the
voltage to a distribution grid represented by a voltage source Vg during grid-connected
32

ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

operation, and is interfaced to the microgrid and to the loads through a distribution
line with inductance Ll and resistance RL.
During the grid-connected operation, the grid voltage is identified and the
microgrid shares the load requirement with the grid. Hence, to manage the power
delivered to the loads, by using the CCM (current control mode) the DG inverter
output current is controlled.
For the duration of islanded operation, the total load requirement will be
supplied by microgrid as shown in Fig. 3.2, and by using VCM (Voltage control
mode) it is necessary that the output voltage can be regulated to a pure sine wave
with a fixed magnitude.
To obtain a state-space model for the DG inverter through both grid-connected
operation and islanded operations, Kirchhoffs current and voltage laws are applied to
the current loop as shown in Fig. 3.3,

Fig 3.3. Single-phase illustration of the nth DG inverter inIslanded and grid-connected
operations.

where ij is the current passing through Lfi . therefore, the grid interfaced DG inverter
model can be define as

where the subscripts g and j represent the model of DG inverter j during gridconnected operation (j=1, 2,3) and
Agj =

33

ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Cgj=1 ; Dgj1= [ 0-Cfj];

Dgj2=0

Xgj=ijis the state;Vj =[vDGj d vDGj /dt]T is the exogenous input. uj is the control input,
with-1<=uj<=1; and ygj=iDGj is the output.
While islanded operation, due to the microgrid power disparity the frequency
will differ. PMS will detect the changes in frequency in microgrid, such that PMS is
used to manage and monitor power dispatch

by each DG unit. the change in

frequency will be detected by PMS then the PMS will have need of the main DG unit
and the Storage Battery to produce the essential power to meet up the overall load
demand in the microgrid as shown in the flowchart of Fig. 2.2, such that (1) is
satisfied. In islanded operation, it follows from (7) and (8) that DG inverter can be
modelled as

where the subscript i denotes the model of the DG inverter j during islanded operation
(j=1 , 2) and

with Cf =2j=1Cfj ; xij=[ij VDGj]T is the state vector;


ij=iL- njin is the exogenous input of the DG inverter
j; uj is the control input, with -1<= uj<=1and
yij=[VDGj iDGj

T
]

is the output, which will be regulated to find the needed reference

waveform. Note that even though the importance is on the voltage VDGj. To ensure that
the power is delivered by using VCM VDGj and iDGj will be regulated. Moreover it is
believed that the exogenous input ij in the model is not straightly measurable by the
DG inverter because it involves quantities outside that inverter. specifically, ij is the
addition of all load currents minus the addition of all in from the other DG inverters n
j in the microgrid.

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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

4. ANFIS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
The idea of fuzzy logic and artificial neural network for
organize problems has been grown in recent years. The motive is that the traditional
control theory frequently requires a mathematical model for designing the controller.
The inexactness of mathematical modeling generally degrades the performance of the
controller, particularly for complex and nonlinear control problems. The introduction
of the neural controllers and fuzzy logic controllers (FLC) based on multi layered
neural networks has motivated new resources for the possible understanding of
improved and high efficient control. In latest years, the combination between fuzzy
logic and neural network that is fuzzy neural network (FNN) has been projected and
developed. Generally the multiplexing of fuzzy logic and neural network is known as
ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System). Neural system has numerous
inputs and also has many outputs but the fuzzy logic has numerous inputs and only
one output, so the integration of this two is know as ANFIS which is used for
nonlinear applications.

4.2 SYSTEM OVERVIEW


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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

T-S fuzzy model was planned in1985 by Takagi and Sugeno .Later on it is
known as Sugeno fuzzy model. It is a nonlinear model. Sugeno fuzzy model can
appropriately state the dynamic characteristic of complex systems. in addition,
Sugeno fuzzy model is the fuzzy inference model that is in the most common use. A
usual fuzzy rule in this model has the following format:
If l is A and m is B, Then Z=f(l,m)
Where L & M are fuzzy set antecedent, Z=f(x,y) is a crisp function in the Consequent.
Let us suppose the fuzzy inference system consist of two inputs x, y with one
output. If the rule base consists of two fuzzy if-then rules of Takagi and Sugeno's
type then it is represented as given below:

Fig 4.1: ANFIS structure for 2 input variables for TSK Model
Layer 1: In this layer each node i is a square node with a node function where x is the
input to node 0, and A is the label related with this node function. In other words, is
the membership function of A, and it determines the degree to which the given x
satisfies the quantifier Ai. Gaussian Membership function is chosen with utmost equal
to 1 and least equal to 0. In this layer the Parameters are referred to as
parameters. Membership functions are used for each of the input in this layer.

36

premise

ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Layer 2: In this layer each node is a circle node labeled H, which multiplies the
incoming signals and sends the product out. For instance, each node output represents
the firing strength of a rule.

O2,i=Wi=Ai* Bi for i=1,2


Layer 3 : In this layer each node is a circle node labeled N. The i-th node defines the
ratio of the i-th rule's firing strength to the sum of all rules' firing strengths

For convenience, outputs of this layer will be called normalized firing strengths.
Layer 4 : In this layer each node i is a square node with a node function

Where

, is the output of layer 3 and {pi, qi, ri} is the set of parameters. In this

layer the Parameters are referred to as consequent parameters.


Layer 5: In this layer the single node is a circle node labeled E that calculates the
total output as the addition of all incoming signals, i.e.

4.3 ANFIS MODEL


This is the block diagram of ANFIS Controller, ANFIS controller is the combination
of neuralNetwork and Fuzzy Logic. Many inputs are applied to the neural network
depending upon the inputs the neural network has some standard output, so depending
upon the input and the output the neural network is trained, after training the neural
network the output is applied to the fuzzy logic which generates the IF THEN rules
and membership functions.

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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Fig 4.2: ANFIS MODEL

5. SIMULATION STUDIES
5.1 INTRODUCTION TO MATLAB
The name MATLAB refers to MATrix LABoratory. MATLAB was written at
first to afford uncomplicated access to matrix software designed by the LINPACK
(linear system package) and EISPACK (Eigen system package) projects. It is a highperformance language for technical calculations. It is a combines visualization,
computation, and programming environment. Moreover, MATLAB is a contemporary
programming language environment: it has complicated data structures, debugging
tools, built-in editing and supports object-oriented programming. These reasons make
MATLAB an outstanding tool for research and teaching. MATLAB has a lot of
advantages over the conventional languages (e.g., C, FORTRAN) for solving
technical efforts. MATLAB is an interactive system whose basic data element is an
array which do not require dimensions.
It has influential incorporated routines which allow a large range of
computations. In addition to it MATLAB includes effortless graphics commands
which build the visualization of outputs instantly available. Few applications are
gathered in packages known as toolbox.
5.1.1 SIMULINK
Simulink is a software add-on to matlab which is a mathematical tool designed
by The Math works, Matlab is powered by wide-ranging numerical investigation
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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

ability. Simulink is used to program visually a system (those governed by Differential


equations) and look towards results. Simulink Libraries has a standard building block
which is used to build logic circuits or control system for a dynamic system. It
contains a range of toolboxes for wide range of techniques, such as Neural Networks,
Fuzzy Logic, signal processing, Statistics etc. are accessible with Simulink, which
improve the processing power of the tool. The most important advantage is the
accessibility of building blocks, which keep away from the necessity of typing code
for mathematical processes.
Simulink is an interactive tool for modeling, simulating, and analyzing
dynamic systems, including controls, signal processing, communications, and other
complex systems. The version of Simulink included in MATLAB & Simulink Student
Version provides all of the features of professional Simulink, with model sizes up to
1000 blocks. It gives you immediate access to the high-performance simulation power
you need. Simulink is a key member of the MATLAB family of products used in a
broad

range

of

industries,

including

automotive,

aerospace,

electronics,

environmental, telecommunications, computer peripherals, finance, and medical.


More than one million technical professionals at the worlds most innovative
technology companies, government research labs, financial institutions, and at more
than 3500 universities, rely on MATLAB and Simulink as the fundamental tools for
their engineering and scientific work.

5.2 SIMULATION RESULTS


The micro grid is experienced under various conditions to estimate its
capabilities during grid connected and islanded operations from the distribution grid.

39

ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Fig 5.1: configuration of the proposed micro grid architecture.


Three types of loads containing of linear and nonlinear loads are measured in
these conditions. For load 1, a 15-kVA three-phase PWM adjustable speed drive
(ASD) with its configuration as shown in Fig.5.2 is used and load 2 is made up of a
three-phase RL load rated at PL2=28 kW and QL2=18.5 kVAr. Load 3 is a noncritical
three-phase dimmer load rated atPL3= 18 kW and QL3=12.3 kVAr, which is
nonlinear in nature and will be shed under emergency conditions when the generation
of the microgrid is unable to meet the load demand. The system parameters are given
in Table 5.1.

Fig. 5.2. Configuration of a 15-kVA three-phase ASD.

Parameter

Value

Distribution grid voltage

Vg=230V

DC link voltage

Vdc=400V

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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Distribution Line Impedance


LC Filter

Rl=0.0075, Ll=25.7H
Lf=1.2mH, Cf=20 H

DG Inverter loss resistance

Rf=0.01

Table 5.1 Parameters Of The Proposed System

Test Case 1: Improvement Of Quality of a power During Grid-Connected


Operation

Fig 5.3: simulation Model during grid connected Operation


The first case shows the ability of the micro grid to enhance the power quality
of the distribution network by compensating for the harmonics in the total load
current iL. As the nonlinear loads are interfaced to the distribution network, such that
the harmonics will not spread to the rest of the distribution network in gridconnected operation. The Storage Battery is working in the charging mode to
accumulate energy in off-peak period where the cost of generation from the grid is
short to meet up future unexpected demands for power. The Storage Battery current
ib and the SOC during charging for 0 t < 0.6s are shown in Fig.5.6. The waveforms
of the total load current iL, the current given by the main DG unit iDG and grid current
ig in this case are shown in Fig. 5.4. The per-phase currents iL1, iL2 and iL3 drawn by
loads 1, 2, and 3 for 0 t 0.6 s are shown in Fig. 5.5.

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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Fig. 5.4. three-phase three-phase DG current iDG (top), load current iL(middle), and
three-phase grid current ig (bottom) During Grid Connected Operation.

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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Fig.5.5. Per-phase currents drawn by loads 1, 2, and 3 During Grid Connected


Operation.

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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Fig.5.6: Waveform of the SB current during charging During Grid Connected


Operation.

Fig.5.7: SOC of the SB during charging in Grid Connected Operation.

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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Fig 5.8 : Wave forms of Grid Voltage and Current During Grid Connected Operation.

Fig 5.9: The total harmonic distortion (THD) value of load current iL using ANFIS
The total harmonic distortion (THD) value of load current i L is 29.02%
as shown in Fig. 5.9. With the ANFIS controller THD value of is improved to about
14% when compared to previous methods (MPC Controller) as shown in fig.5.10

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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Fig 5.10 : The total harmonic distortion (THD) value of load current iL using MPC
Controller

Test Case 2: Load Shedding During Islanded Operation

Fig 5.11: simulation Model during Islanded Operation

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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

In islanded operation, the total generation power of the micro grid may not be
able to maintain its generation to meet up the power requirement of the loads. During
such conditions, consumers will permit the non-critical load to be discarded so as to
keep the constant function of the micro grid. The second test case shows the function
of the microgrid which is islanded from the grid. In this case, the microgrid is
primarily functioning in the grid-connected mode for 0 t < 0.2 s. The Storage
Battery is primarily functioning in the idle mode and its State of charge is 80%. As an
error occurs on the network of the distribution grid, the Circuit Breaker function is to
disconnect the microgrid from the distribution grid at t= 0.2 s.

Fig. 5.12 the waveforms of the real and reactive power supplied by the grid.
The Circuit Breaker manages to separate the microgrid from the distribution grid,
ensuing in zero real and reactive power delivered by the grid for 0.2 t < 0.6s. The
real power given by DG inverter 2 of the Storage Battery is shown in Fig. 5.12.

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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

Fig 5.13: Power delivered by Storage Battery during Islanded Operation.


0 t < 0.2s, the Storage Battery is in the idle mode. After the beginning of the
islanding operation at t= 0.2 s, the DG inverter 2 is tasked by the PMS to enhance its
generation to offer real power of about 4 kW to the loads.

Fig 5.14 : Waveforms of Grid Current During Islanded Operation


Fig 5.14 shows the grid current during islanded operation in which the grid current is
supplied to the loads till 0.2s then between 0.2 t < 0.6s the current reduces to 0
because the grid will get disconnected and it is operated in Islanded operation

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ANFIS Strategy For Wind/Fuel Cell Power Management System In a Micro Grid

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE


CONCLUSION
In this Thesis, an Adaptive Neuro fuzzy Interface control system coordinates
the operation of multiple DG inverters in a micro grid for grid-connected and islanded
operations has been presented. The proposed controller for the DG inverters is
predicated on an incipiently developed ANFIS in order to reduce the overall
computation time. The control design is to extract the harmonic spectra of the load
currents and to engender the compulsory references for the controller. The DG
inverters can compensate for load harmonic currents in a homogeneous way as
conventional compensators, such as active and passive filters, and, hence, no
adscititious equipment is required for power-quality amelioration.
To realize the perspicacious grid concept, an assortment of Powermanagement functions, such as peak shaving and load shedding, have additionally
been demonstrated in the simulation studies. The results have validated that the micro
grid is able to handle different operating conditions efficaciously during gridconnected and islanded operations, thus incrementing the overall reliability and
stability of the micro grid. The entire proposed system will be tested using
MATLAB/SIMULINK and the simulation results demonstrate the attractive
performance characteristics of the proposed system.

FUTURE SCOPE
.

The proposed controller i.e. ANFIS for the DG inverters is

utilized rudimentary Pulse width Modulation technique, it can reduces the higher
order harmonics only, that can be elongated to Current Control loop so that, we can
reduce the lower order harmonics also.

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