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BUILDING SCIENCE 2 (ARC

PROJECT 1: LIGHTING AND ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND DESIGN

LECTURER:

Mr. SIVARAMAN KUPPUSAMMY

GROUP MEMBER:

CHRISTOPHER DAVID NG MAN KING

0310700

0309552
NG SUEH YI

CHAN KAH LEONG


1101P13356
0302527

CHONG WEE MING GARY


WONG KIEN HOU

0310587

SUBMISSION DATE:

CONTENT
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Aims and Objectives
2.0 PRECEDENT STUDIES
2.1 Lighting Precedent Study
2.2 Acoustic Precedent Study
2.3 Conclusions
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Methodology of lighting analysis
3.1.1 Description of Equipment
3.1.2 Data Collection Method
3.1.3 Lighting Analysis Calculation
3.2 Methodology of Acoustic Analysis
3.2.1 Description of Equipment
3.2.2 Data Collection Method
3.2.3 Acoustic Analysis Calculation
4.0 CASE STUDY
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Measured Drawings
4.3 Existing Lighting sources
4.4 Existing Acoustic sources
4.5 Existing Materials on site
5.0 LIGHTING ANALYSIS
5.1 Lighting Data Record
5.1.1 Daytime Lux Readings
5.1.2 Night time Lux Readings
5.2 Lux Contour Diagram
5.2.1 Daytime Lux Diagram
5.2.2 Night time Lux Diagram
5.3 Analysis and Calculations
5.3.1 Zone 1: Outdoor Sitting Area

5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
5.3.6
5.3.7

Zone
Zone
Zone
Zone
Zone
Zone

2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:

Bakery Area Ground Floor


Sitting Area Ground Floor
Sitting Area First Floor
Mezzanine View First Floor
Open Bar/Kitchen First Floor
Staircase

6.0 ACOUSTIC ANALYSIS


6.1 External Noise Sources
6.1.1 Site Context
6.1.2 Vehicular Traffic
6.1.3 Neighbourhood Analysis and Affected Area
6.2 Internal Noise Sources
6.2.1 Speakers
6.2.1.1

Speakers Specifications

6.2.2 Kitchen Bar Noise


6.2.3 Equipment
6.2.4 Activities
6.3 Acoustic Absorption
6.4 Case Study
6.4.1 Data Analysis
6.4.2 Acoustic Ray and Contour Diagram
6.4.3 Analysis and Calculations
6.4.3.1
6.4.3.2
6.4.3.3
6.4.3.4
6.4.3.5
6.4.3.6
6.4.3.7

Zone
Zone
Zone
Zone
Zone
Zone
Zone

6.4.4 Calculations
7.0 CONCLUSION
8.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY
9.0 APPENDIX

1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:

Outdoor Sitting Area


Bakery Area Ground Floor
Sitting Area Ground Floor
Sitting Area First Floor
Mezzanine View First Floor
Open Bar/Kitchen First Floor
Washroom

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The main purpose of this project is to provide a complete understanding of


lighting and acoustic performance within a built context. The Project
consist of two (2) main components, Research and Analysis component
and Comparison component. The relationship being these two components
is to target the difference in site context variation. As it is usually said in
architectural language, none can be the same at different time and
different place .
Introducing within the subject matter, the Malaysian Context, the project
has been scheduled according to local facilities. The students are to
research and analyze a commercial or leisure space or set of spaces within
the same premises. The project mostly targets Art Galleries, Auditoriums
and Fine Dining Restaurants as these set of spaces define well the
utilization of various types of light sources and acoustic sources.
This project has been scheduled in order to relate back to the human
comfort basis, as previously in Building Science 1, Students were to
analysis a certain context in order to draw out conclusions and complete

understanding about building thermal performance and its reactions


towards the users. This semester, in Building Science 2, in relationship to
the previous Thermal Comfort Project, this project entitled Acoustic and
Lighting Performance Evaluation and Design also concerns the human
comfort. As Architecture Students, it is primordial for them to have a
complete understanding of built spaces in order to perform well in their
design process.
Thus, the duration of the project counts in eight (8) weeks in total and the
results out of this project, is to come out with a complete scheduled
working report including Precedent Studies, Comparisons, Analysis,
Research Documents and Calculations. From these components, a
conclusion is to be drawn at the end of this report.

1.1 Aims and Objectives


The aims and objectives of this project comprises various components
which has been aimed in order for Architecture Students to perform well in
their design process with a complete understanding of lighting and
acoustic performance, whichever it concerns the artificial components or
the natural components affecting the built environment in particular.
The following factors demonstrate the Aims and Objectives of the project
and of its expected output at the end of the eight (8) weeks: -

1. To have knowledge of Lighting and acoustic requirements in relation


to local

regulations and standards.

2. To understand the various characteristics and distinctive behavior of


light and sound at different time of the day.
3. To determine the type of intended lighting source and acoustic
source to the induced within an allocated space.
4. To be able to critically report and analyze any type of space in terms
of lighting and acoustic performance.
5. To be able to come out with remedies or solutions to issues in a
particular space in terms of light and sound behavior.
6. To understand experience within a particular space as light and
sound performance are the two (2) main media to make experience
occur.

2.0 PRECEDENT STUDY


INTRODUCTION TO PRECEDENT STUDY
Two case studies have been taken into consideration in order to achieve
knowledge of the practicality of lighting and acoustic within a certain
artificial context. Each Case Study is dedicated to Lighting and Acoustic
individually. The Analysis to be carried on here is expected as having a
solid set of information in order to compare the premises analyzed locally
to those from other living context.
Case Study 1: Lighting

The First Case Study has for mission to bring out information about the
type of lighting used in the selected premises as well as the behavior of
the artificial lights towards the occupants and the space itself.
Furthermore, the type of material used will also be analyzed in order to
evaluate and conclude reasons for the behavior of the Lightings.
Case Study 2: Acoustic
The Second Case Study will as well constitute in identifying the types of
materials primarily in order to evaluate of the reflectance and absorption
of noise within the premises. The materials textures indicate the intention
of the designer by putting it there in the certain context. The Sources of
noise will also be identified together with the alternatives designed by the
Interior Designer or Architect.

2.1 Lighting Precedent Study


Alaloum Board Game Caf / Triopton Architects

Fig 1. Alaloum Board Game Caf. Triopton Architects

Alaloum Board Game Caf is a concept caf based on the intention to


replicate the childhood experience towards the occupants of the space by
keying in Board Games maps and Playful furniture. The intention of
Triopton Architects is also indicated in this context as trying to create an
imaginary world. The architects tried to put themselves into the skin of
young children and thought like them to come out with the realized
concept.
The caf is a 160sqm space in area. The caf is located in Athens, Greece
and has been designed by the design team of Triopton Architects
consisting of Hysolli Edis, Sergios Eleftherios, Vourliotis Dimitrios. The
Concept caf project has been at term in 2013 and is nowadays in fulltime
operation. Another Reflection of the Concept behind the idea of this
Concept Caf is to illustrate the divine time of the Greek Gods spending
their times playing board games. In other terms it can be said that the
idea of holistic or fantastic realm has been implemented into this design in
order to realize the Alice in Wonderland of Triopton Architects.

WHY CHOOSE ALALOUM BOARD GAME CAF AS EXAMPLE?


The space is basically a mixture of textures and colors both possessing the
ability to reflect and absorb light, which creates the lighting effects
required in order for the concept of the Caf to be possibly made real.
From Flooring to Ceiling the idea of the 3D perspective is achieved in the
given context which the extruded furniture from the walls are highlighted
by the use of artificial lights.

MATERIALS AND THEIR INDIVIDUAL PURPOSE


White Brick Wall
The White Brick wall as shown in the fig 1. has been settled at this location
in order for the designers to display their funky portrait paintings. As it can
be observed the lamps are not pointed towards the wall and are quite far
apart of the surface. Two reasons can be concluded here in this case study:
Reason 1: In order to achieve such a degree of shadows and highlights at
the same instant can only by made possible if the light source is far apart
enough from the reflective medium. In any case, the white brick wall will
still reflect the light produced by the Lamp.

Fig 2. Furniture and Wall Setup of the Caf.

Reason 2: The only reflective surface within the entity of the lamp is the
inner surface of the shaft which projects the light beam into the predicted
and predesigned direction by the shape of the shaft. The shape of the
shaft design also determines the spread limitations of the light beam.

Red Stair Case and Red Fencing Partition Wall

The entity of the two bodies connected to each other are made out of the
same material which is steel painted out of Red Glossy Oil Paint. Since the
Caf is a double storey Cubicle Space of 160 sqm, the staircase is
attached to the White Brick Wall, once light is projected onto the surface
of the fencing partition wall, the brick wall is turned red. This might seem
to be basic reflection coincidence but this is all part of the artsy concept of

the caf in order to create the childish and playful atmosphere around the
premises.

Fig 3. Double Volume Setup of the Caf

Black False Ceiling

Fig 4. Double Volume Setup of the Caf

The Mate Black Surface of the False Ceiling on ground floor absorbs the
excess of light produced by the spot lights and the light reflected by the
flooring material in order to achieve of balance within dark and bright
sight of vision. The Ceiling also absorbs of the light reflected by the glossvarnished tables in order to prevent them from blinding the occupants
sight. The False Ceiling due to its Absorption quality produces the Dark
Shadow strips projected on the White Brick Walls.

Floor Finish

The Floor Tiling System covers the whole ground floor, which has a
consequent reflection coefficient. The Lamps will project light beams
downwards and the Flooring finish will reflects and let the False Ceiling to
Absorb the excess of light in order to achieve balance.

Fig 5. Relationship between Flooring finish and False Ceiling Mate Finish

DAYLIGHTING VS. ARTIFICIAL LIGHT


The Relationship between Daylight and Artificial light can clearly be
identified in the given context as it can be immediately deduced that the
Translucent Frameless Window Panels used as Panoramas have the only
simple purpose of allowing view to outside. Daylight can of course
penetrate the Space through the Window panels and only produces a
warmth effect within the building which fuses together with the intensity
of the artificial light produced in order to achieve a cozy indoor
environment as demonstrated in Fig 6.

Fig 6. Window Panels at the far back of the Caf

Fig 7. Ground Floor Plan of the Caf

Fig 8. First Floor Plan of the Caf

SPATIAL CONFIGURATION OBSERVATION


The premises are setup in a double storey configuration consisting of the
core ground floor and the mezzanine floor. The Ground floor is segmented
between indoor and outdoor spaces, which are thus separated by an
elongated series of window panels in order to allow view from outside and
also to allow a consequent amount of natural Light within the building.

2.2

Acoustic Precedent Study

Auditorium Hall, Kauping Bank Headquarters


By VST-Rafteikning Consulting Engineers Ltd

ABSTRACT
In the new Kaupbing Bank Headquarters was designed a newly Auditorium
Hall with a maximum capacity of 178 persons. Carefully designed to exert
optimum Acoustic performance which the according systems has been
prominently designed by VST-Rafteikning Consulting Engineers Ltd.
BUILDING DESIGN OVERVIEW
The aim of the Auditorium Halls design process was to create an ease of
conduction lectures in the concerned perimeter at optimum performance
without any sound reinforcement systems. The Special Quality of this
Auditorium Design concerns the Speech legibility, which allows sufficiently
high performance along the evenly distributed SPL from a single source
from the stage throughout the audience area.
In order to achieve this type of optimum Acoustic Performance the walls of
the hall were designed to be diffusive to avoid flutter echoes. A sound
reflector was installed as being a double false ceiling with the purpose of
increasing the Sound Pressure Level in the rear part of the audience area.
Sound Absorption components were places in the circumference of the

audience area in order to adjust the reverberation time from the sound
incoming from a specific source located on stage.
DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
Length, L = 16.6m
Width, W = 12m
Height, H = 6.1m
Volume, V = 913m3
Seating Capacity, N = 178 pax.
Seating Area, Sa = 123 m2
Sa/N = 0.7m2
V/N = 5.1m3

The appropriate reverberation time for an Auditorium Hall is T30(500) =


0.9s
DESIGN CONSTRUCTION PROCESS
The Design Process of the Side Wall Design went in two (2) stages. In the
early stage of the project development, the acousticians suggested that
the sidewalls should be covered with reflectors that would be tilted in
order to direct the sound waves, travelling from the stage, down towards
the back of the audience area. The idea was developed for some times
until the Architect requested another alternative to the current idea for
aesthetic reasons in order to achieve the same intensity of performance.
In Phase 2, it has been suggested by the Design Team that the wall would
be treated with diffusive surface instead of being covered with reflectors.
For the Sake of this purpose MLS-diffusers were used although being
bandwidth limited compared to other types of diffusers. The MLS- diffuser
is only effective over an octave so the design frequency was set to 800 Hz
with the effective frequency range 560 1120 Hz. The dimensions for

each well is 10,75 cm deep and up to 21,5 cm wide. The MLS- diffuser
described was used as a starting point for the architectural design of the
final wall. The architect was given the freedom to play the MLS-sequence,
i.e. shift it, reverse it etc. as long as the pattern within each period was
maintained. The front side of the diffusers is made of 6 mm painted MDF.
ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

In the final Design Proposal the sound reflectors were moved to the ceiling
where they will bounce the sound waves to the rear area of the audience
and the side walls were armed with Acoustic diffusers in order to minimize
the use of Sound Emission Sources in order to increase the function
efficiency of the Space.
In the ceiling above the audience area is a reflector. It is 8,5 m wide, 2,3 m
deep and rotated by 12 along the transverse axis. It directs sound waves
travelling from the stage towards the rear of the seating area.
It was required by the acousticians that the seats in the audience area
would have minimal difference in sound absorption whether they are
occupied or not. The seating area is 113 m
and covered with leather.

and each seat is upholstered

The Necessary sound absorbents are located in the ceiling. The


absorbents are made of perforated gypsum board with 18% perforation.
The boards contain a thin sound absorbing fabric glued on the backside.
Behind the fabric is found a cavity of more than 20cm deep. The area of
sound absorption is 95 m2, which is equivalent to 42% of the overall ceiling
area.

RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS PROCESS BY THE ENGINEERS


In order to achieve such precision and performance in the usability and
comfort of the Auditorium hall, an engineering software called CATTAcoustics was employed in this case in order to generate and predict the
outcome of the materials compositions and placements. The following
program was used to estimate the influx magnitude of additional sound
absorption necessary to attain an appropriate reverberation time of 0.9s.
The sound absorption data for specific materials counts in Perforated
Gypsum boards (1) and the Audience Chairs Fabrics (2), which was based
on information given by the relative manufacturer. The sound absorption
data used for other surfaces were taken from common databases.
The modeling of the side walls was done in a simplified way. Each panel
displayed on the diffusive walls was not modeled as such but the whole
wall was modeled as a single component with an incoming expected

frequency dependent scattering manner adjusted to an appropriate level.

Four (4) receiver positions were established and evaluated at that time in
order to settle a comparison with measurements.

The Sound Absorption Coefficients of the materials present in the design of


the Auditorium hall has been tabulated below in order to evaluate the
Absorbent and reflective qualities of the materials in comparison to the
composition and positioning of the concerned matters.

MATERIAL

125Hz

250Hz

500Hz

1kHz

2kHz

4kHz

6mm MDF 0.09


Boards as
diffusers

0.2

0.65

0.85

0.48

0.48

Leather
0.49
fabric for
audience
seats

0.66

0.8

0.88

0.82

0.7

Gypsum
0.14
boards
with 18%
perforatio
n
as
reflectors

0.1

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.04

Metal deck 0.73


(perforate
d
channels,
75mm(3")
batts) for
the ceiling
as
absorders

0.99

0.99

0.89

0.52

0.31

CONCLUSION
A reasonably adequate balance was found between the measured and
predicted results. The agreement , though, varied thought the audience
zone.

2.3 CONCLUSIONS
LIGHTING PREDECENT STUDY
The Analysis of the Lighting Precedent Study Speculating the Board Game
Caf in Athens, Greece highlighted many important factors about artificial
lighting in closed environment. Specifying the more important ones
including the type of materials. It has been deduced in the precedent study
that the types of materials counting in Absorbents and Reflectors as well as
dimmers controlled the light intensity and outcome. The colour of the
material plays an important role in the process as the hue and saturation of
any specific colour defines the reflectance or absorption coefficient of the
type of incoming light. This prominent example, through the use of mixed
materials composition in between absorbents and reflectors placed
opposite to each other and the light source placed at mid distance to each
other defines the space as being an efficient example which utilizes the full
potential of the light sources as well as create cozy surroundings
comfortable for the occupants.

ACOUSTIC PRECEDENT STUDY


The Precedent Study utilized in the context on this Acoustic Analysis is quite
different from the Case Study we are confronted to in the course of this
assignment. The Auditorium hall chosen is considered, as been an adequate
example of Acoustic performing Space. The mixture of Sound Absorbents
and Reflectors as well as the diffusers are well designed in the case of the
context. With the use of simple materials, Optimum Efficiency is achieved in
the surrounding the space. One prominent factor about the space, which
makes the design as being innovative, is that the space uses only one
sound source, which is, incoming from the Stage Area only. Thus, the design
process of the space, teaches about how to achieve optimum efficiency and
optimum reverberation time though the use of basic materials. What makes
the design innovation is not only the employment of the materials selected
but as well as the positioning and angles of the materials. The position and
connection/relationship

between

the

different

types

of

materials

is

important in order to achieve optimum performance. In order to achieve all


that, the behavior of the sound travel paths are also to be analysis, which

has been carefully executed by the Engineers and Architect.

3.0

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1

Light Analysis Methodology

3.1.1 Description of Equipments


a.

A Lux Meter was used for conducting this research. A Lux Meter is a
hand held device measuring the illumination level in the unit of Lux

on a specific point in a space. A Lux Meter is a device for measuring


brightness or more specifically the intensity of the brightness that a
human eye experiences. The Lux is a unit of the illuminance
measurement. The illuminance provided by a light source, on a
surface perpendicular to the direction to the source, is a measure of
the strength of that source as perceived from that location across a
one square meter surface. The light taken by the meter would then
be converted into electrical current and by that the device is able to
calculate the Lux value of light.
b.

Camera
The camera is used to capture the materials, spaces, lighting
condition of the place and also to capture the lighting appliances.
c.

Measuring
tape
Used to
measure the
dimensions of
the space and
height of the
position of lux
meter.

Display

13mm (0.5) LCD 3 digits, Max indication

Measurement
Sensor

1999
0-50,000 Lux, 3 ranges
The exclusive photo diode & color correction

Zero adjustment

filter
Built in external 0 adjustment VR on front

Over input display


Operating Temp
Operating Humidity
Power Supply
Power Current
Weight
Dimension

panel
Indication of 1
0-50o C
Less than 80% RH
006P. DC 9V battery
Approx. 2mA
160g
Main instrument 180mmx73mmx23mm

Standard

Sensor Probe 82mmx55mmx7mm


Sensor Probe x 1

Accessories

Carrying case CA-04 x 1


Instruction Manual x 1

Features
-Separate Light Sensor allows user to measure the light at an
optimum position.
-LSI circuit provides high reliability and durability.
-LCD display allows clear read-out even at high ambient light level.

-Sensor used the exclusive photo diode and color correction filter,
spectrum meet C.I.E. photopic.
-Sensor COS correction factor meet standard.
-High accuracy in measuring.
-Wide measurement, 3 ranges: 2000 Lux, 20000 Lux and 50000 Lux.
-Build in the external zero adjust VR on front panel.
Range (Lux)
0-1999
2000-19990
20000-50000

Resolution (Lux)
1
10
100

Accuracy
( 5% + 2 d)
( 5% + 2 d)
( 5% + 2 d)

Note: Accuracy tested by a standard parallel light tungsten lamp of


2856k temperature. The above accuracy value is specified after
finish the zero adjustment procedures.

3.1.2 DATA COLLECTION METHOD


The location and types of all the lighting in Tous Les Jous was first being
documented in photos and recordings and measurements of the specific
location. After the measurement of Tous Les Jous was done the floor plan
was produced and finalized with the gridlines of 1.5m by 1.5m. The
measurement by the Lux Meter was taken on the intersection points of the
gridlines. They were taken respectively with sitting or standing position
according to what that specific point is functioned as. The readings were
taken once in the daytime for the natural sun lighting and the other time
in the night with the artificial lightings. The Lux meter was switched on to
the appropriate range and the light sensor was held at 1m height for
sitting reading and 1.5m height for standing reading. The Lux amount is
then showed on the display screen. The reading was then taken twice
ensuring consistency. After that, the steps are repeated throughout all the
intersection points of the gridlines.

Data Constrain
No special skill is required to operate the lux meter. It is fairly easy to
obtain readings using the device provided. However, there will be several
constraints on site that might affect the readings.

Incomplete definition
Different height levels of the placement of the devices will affect the
readings, different readings will be collected as each individual who is
operating the devices are of different heights. Also, the operator might
unintentionally cast shadows onto the light sensor affecting the actual
readings.

Instrument drift
Lux meter readings fluctuates all the time when measuring therefore
readings are only recorded when the display screen shows a rather
constant reading. Taking measurements before any reading is stable will
result in a measurement that might be generally too low or too high.

Environmental factors
Weather is one of the factors that could affect the readings of the lux
meter. Higher lux meter readings will be obtained on a rather sunny day
compared to cloudy or rainy days.

Standard References
Referring to MS 1525, the factors could affect the readings of the lux
meter. Higher lux meter readings will be obtained on a rather sunny
day compared to other weather conditions.
Working Area

Illuminance (Lux)

Maximum Lighting

Restaurants
Offices
Classrooms/ Lecture

200
300-400
300-500

Power (W/M2)
15
15
15

Theatres
Auditoriums/ Concert

200

15

Halls
Hotel/ Motel/ Guest

150

15

Rooms
Lobbies/ Atriums/

100

20

Concourse
Supermarket/

200-750

25

Shops
Store/ Warehouse/

100

10

Corridors/ Toilets
Carparks

100

Department/ Store/

Reflectance value of material


Reflectance is the amount of light which reflects off an object. This
quantity of light can be measured and it is crucial to understand
that the amount of light reflected off off objects in a room adds to
the overall illumination and must be taken into account when
determining the footcandle requirement for the space. The color
of an object also decides the amount of reflectance occurred.
Colors
White 70-80%
Light cream 70-80%
Light yellow 55-65%
Light green 45-50%
Pink 45-50%
Sky blue 40-45%
Light gray 40-45%
Beige 25-35%
Brick red 10-20%

Materials
Plaster- white 80%
White porcelain 65-75%
Glazed white tile 60-75%
Limestone 35-70%
Marble 30-70%
Sandstone 20-40%
Concrete 15-40%
Granite 20-25%
Carbon 2-10%

3.1.2 LIGHTNING ANALYSIS CALCULATION

Daylight Factor Calculation Example


DF=E internal/E external x 100%
E internal= Illuminance due to daylight at a point on the indoor working
plane
E external= direct sunlight 32000 Lux
For example, taken E internal= 540 Lux
Hence DF= E internal/ E external x 100%
= 540/320000 x 100%
= 1.68%
Lumen Method Calculation Example
Height of luminaire= 3m
Height of work plane= 1m
Area= 59m2
Step 1
Find the reflectance (%) for ceiling, wall, window and floor in the overall space
based on the reflectance table.
Ceiling (Raw concrete
with paint- beige)
35%

Reflectance
Wall (Raw concrete with
paint- medium grey
25%

Floor (Timber flooringmedium brown)


35%

Step 2
Find room index
For example,
Length of space=2.5m, Width=2m, Height from work plane to luminaire=2.5m
Room index=LxW/(L+W)xH
=2.5x2/(2.5+2)x2.5
=0.45
Step 3

Step 4
Calculation of illuminance required and number of light required:
Illuminance level required:
Illuminance level required E=nxNxFxUFxMF/A
Number of light required N=ExA/FxUFxMF

3.2 Methodology of Acoustics Analysis


3.2.1 Description of Experiment:

Fig ???. Labelled Diagram of a Sound Meter

3.2.2 Data Collection Method:


The plan diagram of Tous les Jours was first made and a layout of the
speaker placements were made after the gridlines of 2mx2m were applied
to the plans. The daily human activities at certain times (12am-2pm and
8pm-10pm) were also taking into consideration to identify where the prime
source of noise is located. The sound meter is then used to measure the
sound levels of the whole restaurant by placing it at specific spots
according to the intersection of the gridlines.

3.2.3 Data Constraints:


Incomplete Definition
There is a difficulty in placing the sound meter at a specific constant
height from the ground level, thus affecting the reading. The height is
dependent on variables such as whether the sound meter is placed on a
table or the height of the operator if held in the hand. Besides that, the
direction of the mic may also affect the readings recorded. Finally,
recording multiple readings and calculating the mean reading would yield
more accurate results.
Failure to account for a factor
Variations in recorded readings may be due to inappropriate operating
hours, where assumable peak or non-peak hours are changed by
unforeseeable and unchangeable circumstances. For instance, an
employee who is supposed to be working the floor is missing or doing
something else during the data recording.
Environmental factors
Varying environmental factors during the day will contribute to an
increased reading of the sound meter. For example, days that have
especially loud traffic noise or rainy days will increase the dB value
recorded.
Standard References

4.0 CASE STUDY


4.1 INTRODUCTION

TOUS LES JOURS, a French-Asian based bakery firstly originated from


Korea has firstly established in the City of Kuala Lumpur in 2012. The
Bakery is located in the WOLO building located about the stretch in Jalan
Bukit Bintang in the incoming direction of Kuala Lumpur Pavilion
Shopping Mall.

ORIGINS

TOUS LES JOURS is a French-Asian Bakery serving a unique selection of


bakery goods and beverages made with the highest quality ingredients
in province of Korea. Beginning with its launch in the United States in
2004, It has established a reputable bakery caf system in the united
States, building on a brand image that is respected in Asian American
communities and is expanding into other mainstream markets.
Beginning of 2008, the Branded bakery firstly settled in the town of
Bangsar which is located in the suburbs of Kuala Lumpur. Thus, through
its spreading reputation being a well-known bakery for its quality and
tasty products, the main concept bakery caf facility was relocated in the
city of Kuala Lumpur along Jalan Bukit Bintang.
The Caf being relocated in a refurbished colonial stone-bricked building
in Kuala Lumpur, which has been innovatively designed, provides a
telling Conceptual Cozy Environment which suits the bakery Concept
perfectly.

WHY WAS TOUS LES JOURS CHOSEN AS THE CASE STUDY?


Few reason were involved in the choice for TOUS LES JOURS, which
includes:

The
The
The
The
The
The

Material variations present in the Caf


Types of Lighting used in the facility
Acoustic Performance and Management
Relationship between Concept and Practicality
Relationship between Daylight and Artificial Lights
Type of Environment of the place

The Above reasons or criteria are the ones, which makes the Site
Selection a suitable example for this exercise. Thus, the Analysis part of
this assignment has been conducted there for duration of 3 days
including, Preliminary Analysis, Morning Time Analysis and Night Time
Analysis.

4.2 MEASURED DRAWINGS


A set of Measured Drawings of the Bakery has been provided in order to
conduct the upcoming Analysis and Calculations, which will be shown in
this Report in the following pages.

GROUND FLOOR

FIRST FLOOR

4.3 Existing Light Source


LED Candle

Bulb
Warm White
Colour Temperaure, K
2700K
Power, W
2.7 W
Luminous Flux, lm
250 lm
Limunious Efficiency, lm/W
92.59 Lm/W
Colour Rendering Index, CRI
80
Lifespan,h
15000 hour(s)
Located in the outdoor seating area with the double volume space. The LED
candles mimic and resemble traditional candle chandeliers to enhance the
surrounding atmosphere.
LED Globe Bulb
One of the restaurant's illuminances found in the baking area, which
contains a seating area for reserved customers.

Bulb
Colour Temperaure, K
Power, W
Luminous Flux, lm
Limunious Efficiency, lm/W
Colour Rendering Index, CRI
Lifespan,h

Warm White

3000K
13
1200
92.3lm/W
80

30000 hour(s)

LED Downlight
Functions as the restaurant's major light source as it has the highest number
of illuminance. The illuminance could be seen in almost all zones in the
restaurant.

Bulb
Colour Temperaure, K
Power, W
Luminous Flux, lm
Limunious Efficiency, lm/W

Warm White

2950K
9W
790l,
88 lm/W

Colour Rendering Index, CRI


Lifespan,h

80

50000 hour(s)

Compact Fluorescent
Located on the 1st Floor Seating Area and installed by the bookshelf on the
back. The compact fluorescent lights here does not function in providing the
area's major light source, but rather function as one of the area's decorative
elements. This bulb has the highest power usage of 30W per bulb among
other types of light sources in the restaurant, but with the least number of 3
bulbs used.

Bulb
Colour Temperaure, K
Power, W
Luminous Flux, lm
Limunious Efficiency, lm/W
Colour Rendering Index, CRI
Lifespan,h

Warm White

2700K
30W
2000l,
66 lm/W
80

10000 hour(s)

LED Tracklight
Located in several zones in the restaurant especially in Ground Floor baking
area, where the tracklights are installed to shed further light and to display the
pastry counter.

Bulb
Colour Temperaure, K
Power, W
Luminous Flux, lm
Limunious Efficiency, lm/W
Colour Rendering Index, CRI

Warm White

2700K
5W
300 lm
60 lm/W
80

Lifespan,h

45000 hour(s)

4.5 EXISTING BUIDLING MATERIALS


I. SOUND ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS OF BUILDING MATERIALS PRESENT ON SITE
CATEGORY

MATERIAL

COLOR

SURFACE
TEXTURE

ABSORPTION
COEFFICIENT
500H
z

2000H
z

4000H
z

0.02

0.02

0.05

CEILING

GYPSUM
PLASTER
BOARD

BEIGE

MATTE

WALL SYSTEM
CEMENT
PLASTERED
BRICK WALL
SYSTEM

WHITE

ROUGH

0.02

0.02

0.02

RAW
CONCRETE
FINISH

PEWTER
GREY

ROUGH

0.04

0.08

0.1

CERAMIC
TILES

LIGHT SKY
BLUE

GLOSSY

0.01

0.02

0.02

RED BRICKS
SKIN
FINISHED

BROWNISH
ORANGE

ROUGH

0.03

0.05

0.07

II. ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS OF COMMON FINISHES

CATEGORY

MATERIAL

COLOR

SURFACE
TEXTURE

ABSORPTION
COEFFICIENT
500H
z

2000H
z

4000H
z

BLACK CLOUD
TINTED
GLASS

DARK
TRANSLUCEN
T

SMOOTH
AND
GLOSSY

0.04

0.02

0.02

TIMBER
BROWN

ROUGH

0.07

0.06

0.07

GLOSSY
BROWN

SMOOTH
AND
GLOSSY

0.42

0.43

0.48

SMALL
WOODEN
CHAIRS

OAK BROWN

GLOSSY

0.08

0.08

0.08

MARBLE
COUNTERTOP
S

GLOSSY
WHITE

SMOOTH
AND
GLOSSY

0.01

0.02

0.02

WOODEN
TABLES

REDDISH
BROWN

ROUGH

0.08

0.08

0.08

TIMBER
PARQUET
FLOORING

LEATHER
SOFA

lI. REFLECTANCE OF BUILDING MATERIALS PRESENT ON SITE


CATEGORY

MATERIAL

COLOR

SURFACE
TEXTURE

GYPSUM
PLASTER
BOARD

BEIGE

MATTE

WHITE

ROUGH

RAW
CONCRETE
FINISH

PEWTER
GREY

ROUGH

CERAMIC
TILES

LIGHT SKY
BLUE

GLOSSY

RED BRICKS
SKIN
FINISHED

BROWNISH
ORANGE

ROUGH

REFLECTANCE

CEILING

0.8

WALL SYSTEM
CEMENT
PLASTERED
BRICK WALL
SYSTEM

0.45

0.3

0.7

II. REFLECTANCE OF COMMON FINISHES

0.3

CATEGORY

MATERIAL

BLACK CLOUD
TINTED
GLASS

TIMBER
PARQUET
FLOORING

LEATHER
SOFA

COLOR

SURFACE
TEXTURE

0.08
DARK
TRANSLUCEN
T

SMOOTH
AND
GLOSSY

TIMBER
BROWN

ROUGH

0.35

0.4
GLOSSY
BROWN

SMOOTH
AND
GLOSSY

SMALL
WOODEN
CHAIRS

OAK BROWN

GLOSSY

MARBLE
COUNTERTOP
S

GLOSSY
WHITE

SMOOTH
AND
GLOSSY

0.6

WOODEN
TABLES

REDDISH
BROWN

ROUGH

0.4

0.4

5.1 Lighting Data Record

The following figure xxx and Fig xxx shows the position of light source in WOLO Tous
Le Jours, on both Ground floor and 1st Floor.

Fig. xxx - Position of Light Source on Ground Floor

Fig xxx - Position of Lightsource on 1st Floor

5.1.1 Day Time Lux Readings


The following Readings has been taken on both Ground Floor and 1st Floor
Level during Day Time. The readings were collected during the events
between 12.00pm to 2.00pm.

Fig xxx - Ground Floor LUX Reading from 12pm to 2pm

Fig xxx - 1st Floor LUX Reading from 12pm to 2pm

5.1.2 Night Time Lux Readings


The following Readings has been taken on both Ground Floor and 1st Floor
Level during Day Time. The readings were collected during the event between
8.00pm to 10.00pm.

Fig xxx - Ground Floor LUX Reading from 8pm to 10pm

Fig xxx - 1st Floor LUX Reading from 8pm to 10pm

5.3
Analysis and Calculations
5.3.2 Zone 1: Outdoor Sitting Area

Time
1200 1400
2000 2200

Weather

Luminance at
1m, lx

Clear Skies

750 - 2200

1594

Dark

29.5 - 121

30.8

Daylight Factor, DF = (EInternal / EExternal ) x 100,


Where EExternal = Direct Sunlight = 32000 Lux
DF = (1594 / 32000) x 100 = 4.98% = 5%

Location
Dimension
Area
Height of Ceiling
Height of
Luminaries
Height of Work
Level
Vertical distance
from work place to
luminaries
Standard
Illuminance
Reflection Factor

ZONE 1 - Outdoor Seating Area, Ground floor


L1= 13.15m, L2= 12m, W=3.35m
3350x0.5x(13150+12000)= 42127
= 42.13 sqm
7m
LED Candle = 5m
Track Lighting = 2.5m
0.7m
LED Candle: 4.3m
Track Lighting: 2.3m
100lx
Ceiling: Plaster (beige) - 0.7

Average,
EInternal

Room Index

Wall: Raw brick with no finishes(red orange) - 0.3


Floor: Timber Parquet Flooring(brown) - 0.2
LED Candle
LED Tracklight
Room Index
Room Index
= (LxW)/(L+W)xH
=13.15 x 3.35/(13.15+3.35) x 2.3
= 13.15 x 3.35 /(13.15+3.35)x4.3
=1.16
=0.62

Utilization Factor
(based on given
utilization factor
table), UF

0.27, 27%

0.52, 52%

Maintenance
Factor, MF
Type of Light

0.8

0.8

Power, W = 2.7 W
Luminous Flux, lm = 250 lm
Limunious Efficiency, lm/W = 92.59
Lm/W
According to CIBSE Code for
Lighting, this area requires: 200 lux

Power, W = 5 W
Luminous Flux, lm = 300 lm
Limunious Efficiency, lm/W = 60
Lm/W
According to CIBSE Code for
Lighting, this area requires: 200 lux

N= 156
E = N(F x UF x MF)/A
= 156(250 x 0.27 x 0.8)/42.13
= 199.95 = 200Lux

N=5
E = N(F x UF x MF) / A
= 5 (300 x 0.52 x 0.8)/42.13
= 14.8 lux

Illuminance Level
required, E

Total Illuminance Level = 200+14.8 = 214.8 Lux

Number of Light
Required, N

According to MS1525, Zone 1 has exceeded the requirements of 200lux by


14.8, Hence, it does not require further installation of illuminance.
---

5.3.2 Zone 2: Bakery Area Ground Floor

Time
1200 1400
2000 2200

Weather

Luminance at
1m, lx

Clear Skies

120 - 1000

395.8

Dark

74.8 - 148.8

126.7

Daylight Factor, DF = (EInternal / EExternal ) x 100,


Where EExternal = Direct Sunlight = 32000 Lux
DF = (1594 / 32000) x 100 = 1.24%

Location
Dimension
Area
Height of Ceiling
Height of
Luminaries
Height of Work
Level
Vertical distance
from work place
to luminaries
Standard

ZONE 2 - Bakery Area, Ground Floor


L = 6.3m, W= 8m
6.3 x 8= 50.4sqm
2.5
LED Downlight = 2.5m
Track Lighting = 2.5m
0.8m
LED Downlight: 1.7m
Track Lighting: 1.7m
100 lx

Average,
EInternal

Illuminance
Reflection Factor

Room Index

Utilization Factor
(based on given
utilization factor
table), UF
Maintenance
Factor, MF
Type of Light

Illuminance Level
required, E

Ceiling: Plaster (beige) - 0.7


Wall: Concrete Wall (Plastered white) - 0.5
Floor: Timber Parquet Flooring(brown) - 0.2
LED Downlight
LED Tracklight
Room Index
Room Index
= (LxW)/(L+W) x H
= (LxW)/(L+W) x H
= (6.3 x 8) / (6.3 +8) x 2.5
= (6.3 x 8) / (6.3 +8) x 2.5
= 50.4 / 35.75
= 50.4 / 35.75
= 1.4
= 1.4
0.57, 57%

0.57, 57%

0.8

0.8

Power, W = 9 W
Luminous Flux, lm = 790 lm
Luminious Efficiency, lm/W = 88
Lm/W
According to CIBSE Code for
Lighting, this area requires: 200 lux

Power, W = 5 W
Luminous Flux, lm = 300 lm
Luminious Efficiency, lm/W = 60
Lm/W
According to CIBSE Code for Lighting,
this area requires: 200 lux

N= 27
E = N(F x UF x MF)/A
= 27 (790 x 0.57 x 0.8) / 50.4
= 193 lux

N=6
E = N(F x UF x MF) / A
= 6 (300 x 0.57 x 0.8) / 50.4
= 16.3 lux

Total Illuminance Level = 193 + 16.3= 209.3 Lux

Number of Light
Required, N

According to MS1525, Zone 2 has exceeded the requirements of 200lux by


9.3, Hence, it does not require further installation of illuminance.
---

5.3.3 Zone 3: Seating Area Ground Floor

Time
1200 1400
2000 2200

Weather

Luminance at
1m, lx

Average,
EInternal

Clear Skies

300 - 3000

1147

Dark

126 - 145.3

139.2

Daylight Factor, DF = (EInternal / EExternal ) x 100,


Where EExternal = Direct Sunlight = 32000 Lux
DF = (1147 / 32000) x 100 = 3.58% = 3.6%
Location
Dimension
Area
Height of Ceiling
Height of Luminaries

ZONE 3 - Seating Area, Ground Floor


L= 5m, W= 4.2m
5 x 4.2 = 21sqm
2.5
LED Downlight = 2.5m

Height of Work Level


Vertical distance from
work place to luminaries
Standard Illuminance
Reflection Factor

0.7m
LED Downlight = 1.8m
100lx
Ceiling: Plaster (beige) - 0.7
Wall: Raw brick with no finishes(red orange) - 0.3
Floor: Timber Parquet Flooring(brown) - 0.2

Room Index

Utilization Factor (based


on given utilization
factor table), UF

LED Candle
Room Index
= (LxW)/(L+W)xH
= (5 x 4.2)/(5 + 4.2) x 1.8
= 21/16.56
= 1.3
0.53, 53%

Maintenance Factor, MF
Type of Light

0.8
Power, W = 9 W
Luminous Flux, lm = 790 lm
Lumunious Efficiency, lm/W =
88Lm/W

Illuminance Level
required, E

According to CIBSE Code for Lighting, this area requires: 200 lux
N= 14
E = N(F x UF x MF)/A
= 14(790 x 0.53 x 0.8)/21
= 223.3 Lux
Total Illuminance Level = 223.3Lux

Number of Light
Required, N

According to MS1525, Zone 3 has exceeded the requirements of 200lux


by 23.3Lux, Hence, it does not require further installation of illuminance.
---

5.3.4 Zone 4: Seating Area First Floor

Time
1200 1400
2000 2200

Weather

Luminance at
1m, lx

Clear Skies

320 - 5180

Dark

109.3 - 161.5

Daylight Factor, DF = (EInternal / EExternal ) x 100,


Where EExternal = Direct Sunlight = 32000 Lux
DF = (2100 / 32000) x 100 = 6.56% = 6.6%

Location
Dimension
Area
Height of Ceiling
Height of
Luminaries
Height of Work
Level

ZONE 4 - Seating Area, 1st-Floor


L= 5m, W= 4.2m
5 x 4.2 = 21sqm
2.5
LED Downlight = 2.5m
Compact Fluorescent= 1.2m
0.7m

Average,
EInternal
2100
128.9

Vertical distance
from work place
to luminaries
Standard
Illuminance
Reflection Factor

Room Index

Utilization Factor
(based on given
utilization factor
table), UF
Maintenance
Factor, MF

LED Downlight: 1.8m


Compact Fluorescent=0.5m
100 lx
Ceiling: Plaster (beige) - 0.7
Wall: Raw brick with no finishes(red orange) - 0.3
Floor: Timber Parquet Flooring(brown) - 0.2
LED Downlight
Compact Fluorescent
Room Index
Room Index
= (LxW)/(L+W) x H
= (LxW)/(L+W) x H
= (5 x 4.2)/(5 + 4.2) x 1.8
= (5 x 4.2)/(5 + 4.2) x 1.2
= 21/16.56
= 21/11.04
= 1.3
= 1.9
0.52, 52%
0.61, 61%

0.8

0.8

Power, W = 9 W
Luminous Flux, lm = 790 lm
Limunious Efficiency, lm/W =
88Lm/W
According to CIBSE Code for
Lighting, this area requires: 200 lux

Power, W = 30 W
Luminous Flux, lm = 2000 lm
Limunious Efficiency, lm/W =
66Lm/W
According to CIBSE Code for Lighting,
this area requires: 200 lux

N= 20
E = N(F x UF x MF)/A
= 20 (790 x 0.52 x 0.8) / 21
= 312

N=3
E = N(F x UF x MF) / A
= 3 (2000 x 0.61 x 0.8) / 21
= 139 lux

Type of Light

Illuminance Level
required, E

Total Illuminance Level = 312 +139 = 451 Lux

Number of Light
Required, N

According to MS1525, Zone 2 has exceeded the requirements of 200lux by


251, Hence, it requires a reduce in numbers of illuminance.
E= 200
N = (E x A)/(F x UF x MF)
= (200 x 21)/ 790 x 0.52 x 0.8
= 4200/328.64
= 12.7 = 13 illuminance
20-13=7
Thus, Zone 4 should reduce its
illuminance number of LED
Downlights by 7.

Zone 4 does not require any number of


illuminance of compact fluorescent
lamps.

5.3.5 Zone 5: Mezzanine View First Floor Floor

Time
1200 1400
2000 2200

Weather

Luminance at
1m, lx

Clear Skies

150 - 800

510

Dark

27 - 90.8

51.7

Daylight Factor, DF = (EInternal / EExternal ) x 100,


Where EExternal = Direct Sunlight = 32000 Lux
DF = (510 / 32000) x 100 = 1.6%

Location
Dimension
Area
Height of Ceiling
Height of
Luminaries

ZONE 5 - Mezzanine View, 1st Floor


L= 11m, W = 4m
11 x 4 = 44sqm
2.5m
LED Downlight = 2.5m
Track Lighting = 2.4m

Average,
EInternal

Height of Work
Level
Vertical distance
from work place to
luminaries
Standard
Illuminance
Reflection Factor

Room Index

Utilization Factor
(based on given
utilization factor
table), UF
Maintenance
Factor, MF

0.7m
LED Downlight = 1.8m
Track Lighting = 1.7m
100lx
Ceiling: Plaster (beige) - 0.7
Wall: Concrete Wall (Plastered white) - 0.5
Floor: Timber Parquet Flooring(brown) - 0.2
LED Downlight
LED Tracklight
Room Index
Room Index
= (LxW)/(L+W)xH
= (LxW)/(L+W)xH
= 11 x 4/ (11 +4) x 1.8
=11 x 4/ (11 + 4) x 1.7
=1.6
= 1.7
0.58, 58%

0.58, 58%

0.8

0.8

Type of Light

Illuminance Level
required, E

Power, W = 5 W
Luminous Flux, lm = 300 lm
Luminious Efficiency, lm/W = 60
Lm/W

Power, W = 9 W
Luminous Flux, lm = 790 lm
Luminious Efficiency, lm/W = 88
Lm/W
According to CIBSE Code for
Lighting, this area requires: 200 lux

According to CIBSE Code for


Lighting, this area requires: 200 lux

N= 10
E = N(F x UF x MF)/A
= 10 (790 x 0.58 x 0.8) / 44
= 83 lux

N = 16
E = N(F x UF x MF) / A
= 16(300 x 0.58 x 0.8)/44
= 50 lux

Total Illuminance Level = 83 + 50 = 133lux

Number of Light
Required, N

According to MS1525, Zone 1 has lacked the requirements of 200lux by 67


lux, Hence, it requires further installation of illuminance.
E= 200 - 50 = 150
-N = (E x A)/(F x UF x MF)
= (150 x 44)/(790 x 0.58x 0.8)
= 18 illuminance
18 - 10 = 8 illuminance
Thus Zone 1 should install 8 more
illuminance of LED downlights to
fullfill the requirements of 200 lux

5.3.6 Zone 6: Open Bar First Floor

Time
1200 1400
2000 2200

Weather

Luminance at
1m, lx

Clear Skies

200 - 220

Dark

27 - 95

Daylight Factor, DF = (EInternal / EExternal ) x 100,


Where EExternal = Direct Sunlight = 32000 Lux
DF = (210 / 32000) x 100 = 0.66%

Location
Dimension
Area
Height of Ceiling

ZONE 6, Open Bar, 1st Floor


L= 7.5m, W = 2.1m
7.5 x 2.1 = 15.75sqm
2.5m

Average,
EInternal
210
58.5

Height of
Luminaries
Height of Work
Level
Vertical distance
from work place to
luminaries
Standard
Illuminance
Reflection Factor

Room Index

Utilization Factor
(based on given
utilization factor
table), UF
Maintenance
Factor, MF

LED Downlight = 2.5m


0.8m
LED Downlight = 1.7m
100lx
Ceiling: Plaster (beige) - 0.7
Wall: Concrete Wall (Plastered white) - 0.5
Floor: Timber Parquet Flooring(brown) - 0.2
LED Downlight
Room Index
= (LxW)/(L+W)xH
= (7.5 x 2.1) / (7.5 + 2.1) x 1.7
= 0.1
0.5, 50%

0.8

Type of Light

Illuminance Level
required, E

Power, W = 9 W
Luminous Flux, lm = 790 lm
Luminious Efficiency, lm/W = 88
Lm/W
According to CIBSE Code for Lighting, this area requires: 200 lux
N= 8
E = N(F x UF x MF)/A
= 8 (790 x 0.5 x 0.8) / 15.75
= 160 lux
Total Illuminance Level = 160lux

Number of Light
Required, N

According to MS1525, Zone 1 has lacked the requirements of 200lux by 40


lux, Hence, it requires further installation of illuminance.
E= 200
-N = (E x A)/(F x UF x MF)
= (200 x 15.75) / (790 x 0.5 x 0.8)
= 10 illuminance
Thus Zone 1 should install 2 more
illuminance of LED downlights to
fullfill the requirements of 200 lux

5.3.7 Zone 7: Staircase

Time
1200 1400
2000 2200

Weather

Luminance at
1m, lx

Clear Skies

320 - 2200

Dark

58.3 - 148.8

Daylight Factor, DF = (EInternal / EExternal ) x 100,


Where EExternal = Direct Sunlight = 32000 Lux
DF = (1015 / 32000) x 100 = 3.17%

Location
Dimension
Area

ZONE 7, Staircase
L= 4.2m, W = 3.6m
4.2 x 3.6 = 15.12sqm

Average,
EInternal
1015
104

Height of Ceiling
Height of
Luminaries
Height of Work
Level
Vertical distance
from work place to
luminaries
Standard
Illuminance
Reflection Factor

Room Index

7m
LED Downlight = 2.5m, 5m
Track Lighting = 2.5m
0.7m
LED Downlight = 1.8m, 4.3m
Track Lighting = 1.8m
100lx
Ceiling: Plaster (beige) - 0.7
Wall: Raw brick with no finishes(red orange) - 0.3
Floor: Timber Parquet Flooring(brown) - 0.2
LED Downlight
LED Tracklight
Room Index
Room Index
= (LxW)/(L+W)xH
= (LxW)/(L+W)xH
= 4.2 x 3.6/ (4.2 + 3.6) x 2.5
=4.2 x 3.6/ (4.2 + 3.6) x 2.5
=0.8
= 0.8
Room Index
= (LxW)/(L+W)xH
= 4.2 x 3.6/ (4.2 + 3.6) x 5
=0.4

Utilization Factor
(based on given
utilization factor
table), UF
Maintenance
Factor, MF

0.42, 42%
0.2, 20%
0.8

Type of Light

Illuminance Level
required, E

0.42, 42%

0.8

Power, W = 5 W
Luminous Flux, lm = 300 lm
Luminious Efficiency, lm/W = 60
Lm/W

Power, W = 9 W
Luminous Flux, lm = 790 lm
Luminious Efficiency, lm/W = 88
Lm/W
According to CIBSE Code for
Lighting, this area requires: 100 lux

According to CIBSE Code for


Lighting, this area requires: 100 lux

N= 10
E = N(F x UF x MF)/A
= 10 (790 x 0.2x 0.8) / 15.12
= 83 lux

N=5
E = N(F x UF x MF) / A
= 5(300 x 0.42 x 0.8)/15.12
= 33 lux

Total Illuminance Level = 83 + 33 = 116 lux


According to MS1525, Zone 1 has exceeded and satisfied the requirements
of 100 lux by 16 lux, Hence, it does not requires further installation of
illuminance.

Number of Light
Required, N

--

6.4 CASE STUDY

--

6.4.3 ANALYSIS & CALCULATIONS


6.4.3.1 ZONE 1: OUTDOOR SITTING AREA

Figure 6.4.3.1: Plan of Zone 1


12pm 2pm

8pm 10pm

Coordinate
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
E-F
F-G
G-H

5-6
71
69
70
72
68
69
70

6-7
70
70
71
69
70
70

5-6
71
69
71
70
73
72
70

6-7
74
70
72
71
68
70

Table 6.4.3.1: Acoustic readings of Zone 1.


The sound source for zone 1 is a little higher than the other zones as it is
nearer to the entrance and walls. The streets outside are heavy in congestion
which contribute to the noise.
i) Reverberation Time, RT
Building

Material

Colour

Element

Area, A

Absorption

Sound

(m)

Coefficient

Absorption,

Wall

Glass

Transparent

93.5

(500 Hz)
0.04

Sa
3.74

Wall

Brick

Orange

57.05

0.03

1.71

Floor

Concrete

Grey

42

0.04

1.68

Ceiling

Plaster

Beige

42

0.02

0.84

Furniture

Wooden

Brown

10

0.08

0.8

Furniture

Chairs
Leather

Brown

0.42

0.84

Human

Sofa
-

15 people

0.42

10.71

(1.7 m)
Total
Absorption(A):
RT = 0.16 x V / A
= 0.16 x 294 / 20.32
= 2.31s

20.32

WOLO Tous Les Jours reverberation time for Zone 1 in 500Hz of absorption
coefficient in 500Hz is 2.31s. According to the standard of reverberation time
the standard comfort reverberation is between 0.8s - 1.3s. The reverberation
time exceeds the comfort level.
Building

Material

Colour

Element

Area, A

Absorption

Sound

(m)

Coefficient

Absorption,

Wall

Glass

Transparent

93.5

(2000 Hz)
0.02

Sa
1.87

Wall

Brick

Orange

57.05

0.05

2.85

Floor

Concrete

Grey

42

0.08

3.36

Ceiling

Plaster

Beige

42

0.02

0.84

Furniture

Wooden

Brown

10

0.08

0.8

Furniture

Chairs
Leather

Brown

0.43

0.86

Human

Sofa
-

15 people

0.5

12.75

Total

23.33

(1.7 m)
Absorption(A):
RT = 0.16 x V / A
= 0.16 x 294 / 23.33
= 2.02s

WOLO Tous Les Jours reverberation time for Zone 1 in 2000Hz of absorption
coefficient in 500Hz is 2.02s. According to the standard of reverberation time
the standard comfort reverberation is between 0.8s - 1.3s. The reverberation
time exceeds the comfort level.

ii) Sound Pressure Level, SPL


The sound pressure level is the average sound level at a space. The sound
pressure level (SPL) at Zone 1 is shown in the table below:
SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref ) where Iref = 1x1012

Location

Zone 1 Sitting Area

Area

42 m2

Height of ceiling

7m

Time

12pm 2pm

8pm - 10pm

Highest sound level

72

74

meter reading (dB)


Lowest sound level

68

68

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

72 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

74 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

IH = 1.58 x 10 -5

IH = 2.5 x 10 -5

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

68 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

68 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

IL = 6.3 x 10 -6

IL = 6.3 x 10 -6

meter reading (dB)


Intensity for the
highest reading, IH

Intensity for the


lowest reading, IL

Total intensities, I

I = 1.58 x 10 -5 + 6.3 x 10 -6
= 2.21 x 10 -5

I = 2.5 x 10 -5 + 6.3 x 10 -6
= 3.13 x 10 -5

Sound Pressure

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 x (2.21 x 10 -5

SPL = 10 log10 x (3.13 x 10 -5

Level, SPL
1 x 10-12)
= 73.4dB

1 x 10-12)
= 75dB

At zone 1, the average sound pressure level during 12pm-2pm and 8pm10pm are 73.4dB and 75dB respectively. The range of noise level at zone 1 is
under a comforting level. Conversations between customers can be
exchanged easily.

6.4.3.2 ZONE 2: BAKERY AREA

Figure 6.4.3.2: Plan of Zone 2


12pm 2pm
Coordinate
1-2
2-3
3-4
4-5

D-E
63
65
68
70

8pm 10pm

E-F
64
65
66
71

D-E
69
69
70
73

E-F
65
67
68
71

Table 6.4.3.2: Acoustic readings of Zone 2.


The sound source for zone 2 is not as high as zone 1 as it is located further
from the walls and is the central area where customers look for bread and
pastries and also the place for purchase.
i) Reverberation Time, RT
Building
Element

Material

Colour

Area, A

Absorption

Sound

(m)

Coefficient

Absorption,

(500 Hz)

Sa

Wall

Concrete

White

10

0.04

0.4

Wall

Brick

Orange

22.5

0.03

0.68

Floor

Concrete

Grey

50.4

0.04

2.02

Ceiling

Plaster

Beige

50.4

0.02

1.01

Furniture

Marble

White

15

0.01

0.15

Human

countertops
-

15 people

0.42

10.71

(1.7 m)
Total

14.97

Absorption(A):
RT = 0.16 x V / A
= 0.16 x 126 / 14.97
= 1.35s
WOLO Tous Les Jours reverberation time for Zone 2 in 500Hz of absorption
coefficient in 500Hz is 1.35s. According to the standard of reverberation time
the standard comfort reverberation is between 0.8s - 1.3s. The reverberation
time exceeds the comfort level by a slight amount.

Building

Material

Colour

Element

Area, A

Absorption

Sound

(m)

Coefficient

Absorption,
Sa
0.8

Wall

Concrete

White

10

(2000 Hz)
0.08

Wall

Brick

Orange

22.5

0.05

1.13

Floor

Concrete

Grey

50.4

0.08

4.03

Ceiling

Plaster

Beige

50.4

0.02

1.01

Furniture

Marble

White

15

0.02

0.30

Human

countertops
-

15 people

0.5

12.75

Total

20.02

(1.7 m)
Absorption(A):
RT = 0.16 x V / A
= 0.16 x 126 / 20.02
= 1.0s
WOLO Tous Les Jours reverberation time for Zone 2 in 2000Hz of absorption
coefficient in 2000Hz is 1.0s. According to the standard of reverberation time
the standard comfort reverberation is between 0.8s - 1.3s. The reverberation
time fits in the standard comfort level.
ii) Sound Pressure Level, SPL
The sound pressure level is the average sound level at a space. The sound
pressure level (SPL) at Zone 1 is shown in the table below:
SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref ) where Iref = 1x1012

Location

Zone 2 Bakery Area

Area

50.4 m2

Height of ceiling

2.5 m

Time

12pm 2pm

8pm - 10pm

Highest sound level

71

73

meter reading (dB)


Lowest sound level

63

65

meter reading (dB)

Intensity for the

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

71 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

73 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

IH = 1.26 x 10 -5

IH = 2 x 10 -5

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

63 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

65 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

IL = 2 x 10 -6

IL = 3.2 x 10 -6

highest reading, IH

Intensity for the


lowest reading, IL

Total intensities, I

I = 1.26 x 10 -5 + 2 x 10 -6
= 1.46 x 10 -5

Sound Pressure

I = 2 x 10 -5 + 3.2 x 10 -6
= 2.32 x 10 -5

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 x (1.46 x 10 -5

SPL = 10 log10 x (2.32 x 10 -5

Level, SPL
1 x 10-12)
= 71.6dB

1 x 10-12)
= 73.7dB

At zone 2, the average sound pressure level during 12pm-2pm and 8pm10pm are 71.6dB and 73.7dB respectively. The range of noise level at zone 2
is under a comforting level. Conversations between customers can be
exchanged easily.

6.4.3.3 ZONE 3: SEATING AREA

Figure 6.4.3.3: Plan of Zone 3


12pm 2pm
Coordinate
A-B
B-C
C-D

1-2
68
69
66

8pm 10pm
2-3
71
70
67

1-2
77
70
66

2-3
66
66
66

Table 6.4.3.3: Acoustic readings of Zone 3.


The sound source for zone 3 is high towards the walls and decreases with
intensity when moving further into the building.
i) Reverberation Time, RT
Building

Material

Colour

Element
Wall

Glass

Transparent

Area, A

Absorption

Sound

(m)

Coefficient

Absorption,

18

(500 Hz)
0.04

Sa
0.72

Wall

Brick

Orange

10

0.03

0.3

Floor

Wooden

Brown

21

0.07

1.47

Ceiling

parquet
Plaster

Beige

21

0.02

0.42

Furniture

Wooden

Brown

0.08

0.48

Furniture

tables
Wooden

Brown

0.08

0.4

Furniture

chairs
Leather

White

0.42

1.26

Human

sofas
-

10 people

0.42

7.14

(1.7 m)
Total

12.19

Absorption(A):
RT = 0.16 x V / A
= 0.16 x 52.5 / 12.19
= 0.69s
WOLO Tous Les Jours reverberation time for Zone 3 in 500Hz of absorption
coefficient in 500Hz is 0.69s. According to the standard of reverberation time
the standard comfort reverberation is between 0.8s - 1.3s. The reverberation
time is lower than the comfort level.

Building

Material

Colour

Element

Area, A

Absorption

Sound

(m)

Coefficient

Absorption,

Wall

Glass

Transparent

18

(2000 Hz)
0.02

Sa
0.36

Wall

Brick

Orange

10

0.05

0.5

Floor

Wooden

Brown

21

0.06

1.26

Ceiling

parquet
Plaster

Beige

21

0.02

0.42

Furniture

Wooden

Brown

0.08

0.48

Furniture

tables
Wooden

Brown

0.08

0.4

Furniture

chairs
Leather

White

0.43

1.29

Human

sofas
-

10 people

0.5

8.5

(1.7 m)
Total

13.21

Absorption(A):
RT = 0.16 x V / A
= 0.16 x 52.5 / 13.21
= 0.64s
WOLO Tous Les Jours reverberation time for Zone 3 in 2000Hz of absorption
coefficient in 2000Hz is 0.64s. According to the standard of reverberation time
the standard comfort reverberation is between 0.8s - 1.3s. The reverberation
time is lower than the comfort level.

ii) Sound Pressure Level, SPL


The sound pressure level is the average sound level at a space. The sound
pressure level (SPL) at Zone 1 is shown in the table below:
SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref ) where Iref = 1x1012

Location

Zone 3 Seating Area

Area

21 m2

Height of ceiling

2.5 m

Time

12pm 2pm

8pm - 10pm

Highest sound level

71

77

meter reading (dB)

Lowest sound level

66

66

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

71 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

77 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

IH = 1.26 x 10 -5

IH = 5 x 10 -5

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

66 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

66 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

IL = 4 x 10 -6

IL = 4 x 10 -6

meter reading (dB)


Intensity for the
highest reading, IH

Intensity for the


lowest reading, IL

Total intensities, I

I = 1.26 x 10 -5 + 4 x 10 -6
= 1.66 x 10 -5

Sound Pressure

I = 5 x 10 -5 + 4 x 10 -6
= 5.4 x 10 -5

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 x (1.66 x 10 -5

SPL = 10 log10 x (5.4 x 10 -5

Level, SPL
1 x 10-12)
= 72.2dB

1 x 10-12)
= 77.3dB

At zone 3, the average sound pressure level during 12pm-2pm and 8pm10pm are 72.2dB and 77.3dB respectively. The range of noise level at zone 3
is at a comforting level. The sound level at 8pm-10pm is close to being noisy.
Conversations between customers can be exchanged easily.

6.4.3.4 ZONE 4: FIRST FLOOR SEATING AREA

Figure
6.4.3.4:

Plan

of Zone

4
12pm 2pm

Coordinate
A-B
B-C

1-2
72
77

8pm 10pm
2-3
80
76

1-2
72
73

2-3
74
72

Table 6.4.3.4: Acoustic readings of Zone 4.


The decibel reading is high at A-B, 2-3 during the day as there is a radio
speaker located at the corner. Theres also a high concentration of customers
sitting in this area despite the area being small.

i) Reverberation Time, RT
Building

Material

Colour

Element

Area, A

Absorption

Sound

(m)

Coefficient

Absorption,
Sa
0.42
0.75

Wall

Glass

Transparent

10.5

(500 Hz)
0.04

Wall

Brick

Orange

25

0.03

Floor

Concrete

Grey

21

0.04

0.84

Ceiling

Plaster

Beige

21

0.02

0.42

Furniture

Wooden

Brown

0.08

0.48

Furniture

tables
Wooden

Brown

12

0.08

0.96

Human

chairs
-

15 people

0.42

10.71

(1.7 m)
Total

14.58

Absorption(A):
RT = 0.16 x V / A
= 0.16 x 52.5 / 14.58
= 0.58s
WOLO Tous Les Jours reverberation time for Zone 4 in 500Hz of absorption
coefficient in 500Hz is 0.58s. According to the standard of reverberation time
the standard comfort reverberation is between 0.8s - 1.3s. The reverberation
time is lower than the comfort level.

Building

Material

Colour

Element

Area, A

Absorption

Sound

(m)

Coefficient

Absorption,
Sa
0.21

Wall

Glass

Transparent

10.5

(2000 Hz)
0.02

Wall

Brick

Orange

25

0.05

1.25

Floor

Concrete

Grey

21

0.08

1.68

Ceiling

Plaster

Beige

21

0.02

0.42

Furniture

Wooden

Brown

0.08

0.48

tables

Furniture

Wooden

Brown

12

0.08

0.96

Human

chairs
-

15 people

0.5

12.75

Total

17.75

(1.7 m)
Absorption(A):
RT = 0.16 x V / A
= 0.16 x 52.5 / 17.75
= 0.47s
WOLO Tous Les Jours reverberation time for Zone 4 in 2000Hz of absorption
coefficient in 2000Hz is 0.47s. According to the standard of reverberation time
the standard comfort reverberation is between 0.8s - 1.3s. The reverberation
time is lower than the comfort level.
ii) Sound Pressure Level, SPL
The sound pressure level is the average sound level at a space. The sound
pressure level (SPL) at Zone 1 is shown in the table below:
SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref ) where Iref = 1x1012
Location

Zone 4 First Floor Seating Area

Area

21 m2

Height of ceiling

2.5 m

Time

12pm 2pm

8pm - 10pm

Highest sound level

80

74

meter reading (dB)


Lowest sound level

72

72

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

80 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

74 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

IH = 1 x 10 -4

IH = 2.5 x 10 -5

meter reading (dB)


Intensity for the
highest reading, IH

Intensity for the

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

72 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

72 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

IL = 1.58 x 10 -5

IL = 1.58 x 10 -5

lowest reading, IL

Total intensities, I

I = 1 x 10 -4 + 1.58 x 10 -5
= 1.16 x 10 -4

Sound Pressure

I = 2.5 x 10 -5 + 1.58 x 10 -5
= 4.1 x 10 -5

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 x (1.16 x 10 -4

SPL = 10 log10 x (4.1 x 10 -5

Level, SPL
1 x 10-12)
= 80.6dB

1 x 10-12)
=76.1dB

At zone 4, the average sound pressure level during 12pm-2pm and 8pm10pm are 80.6dB and 76.1dB respectively. The range of noise level at zone 4
is noisy during the day but at a comfortable level during the night.
6.4.3.5 ZONE 5: FIRST FLOOR MEZZANINE VIEW

Figure 6.4.3.5: Plan of Zone 5

12pm 2pm
Coordinate
1-2
2-3
3-4
4-5

C-D
72
74
71
70

8pm 10pm

D-E
75
74
72
70

C-D
72
71
72
71

D-E
72
73
70
72

Table 6.4.3.5: Acoustic readings of Zone 5.


The human density in this area isnt as high as other zones despite being
quite a large space. This may be due to the huge size of tables as most of the
customers come in 1-4 groups of people.
i) Reverberation Time, RT
Building

Material

Colour

Element

Area, A

Absorption

Sound

(m)

Coefficient

Absorption,

Wall

Brick

Orange

31.2

(500 Hz)
0.03

Sa
0.94

Floor

Concrete

Grey

44

0.04

1.76

Ceiling

Plaster

Beige

44

0.02

0.88

Furniture

Wooden

Brown

0.08

0.40

Furniture

tables
Wooden

Brown

10

0.08

0.80

Human

chairs
-

10 people

0.42

7.14

(1.7 m)
Total

11.92

Absorption(A):
RT = 0.16 x V / A
= 0.16 x 110 / 11.92
= 1.48s
WOLO Tous Les Jours reverberation time for Zone 5 in 500Hz of absorption
coefficient in 500Hz is 1.48s. According to the standard of reverberation time

the standard comfort reverberation is between 0.8s - 1.3s. The reverberation


time exceeds the comfort level.

Building

Material

Colour

Element

Area, A

Absorption

Sound

(m)

Coefficient

Absorption,

Wall

Brick

Orange

31.2

(2000 Hz)
0.05

Sa
1.56

Floor

Concrete

Grey

44

0.08

3.52

Ceiling

Plaster

Beige

44

0.02

0.88

Furniture

Wooden

Brown

0.08

0.40

Furniture

tables
Wooden

Brown

10

0.08

0.80

Human

chairs
-

10 people

0.5

8.5

(1.7 m)
Total

15.66

Absorption(A):
RT = 0.16 x V / A
= 0.16 x 110 / 15.66
= 1.12s
WOLO Tous Les Jours reverberation time for Zone 5 in 2000Hz of absorption
coefficient in 2000Hz is 1.12s. According to the standard of reverberation time
the standard comfort reverberation is between 0.8s - 1.3s. The reverberation
time is within the comfort level.
ii) Sound Pressure Level, SPL
The sound pressure level is the average sound level at a space. The sound
pressure level (SPL) at Zone 1 is shown in the table below:

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref ) where Iref = 1x1012


Location

Zone 5 First Floor Mezzanine View

Area

44 m2

Height of ceiling

2.5 m

Time

12pm 2pm

8pm - 10pm

Highest sound level

75

73

meter reading (dB)


Lowest sound level

70

70

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

75 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

73 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

IH = 3.16 x 10 -5

IH = 2 x 10 -5

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

70 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

70 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

IL = 1 x 10 -5

IL = 1 x 10 -5

meter reading (dB)


Intensity for the
highest reading, IH

Intensity for the


lowest reading, IL

Total intensities, I

I = 3.16 x 10 -5 + 7.94 x 10 -6
= 3.95 x 10 -5

Sound Pressure

I = 2 x 10 -5 + 1 x 10 -5
= 3 x 10 -5

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 x (3.95 x 10 -5

SPL = 10 log10 x (3 x 10 -5

Level, SPL
1 x 10-12)
= 76dB

1 x 10-12)
=74.8dB

At zone 5, the average sound pressure level during 12pm-2pm and 8pm10pm are 76dB and 74.8dB respectively. The range of noise level at zone 5 is
at a comfortable level for exchanging conversations.

6.4.3.6 ZONE 6: FIRST FLOOR OPEN BAR

Figure
6.4.3.6: Plan

of

Zone 6

Coordinate
1-2
2-3
3-4

12pm 2pm

8pm 10pm

E-F
75
74
72

E-F
72
73
70

Table 6.4.3.6: Acoustic readings of Zone 6.


The open bar on the first floor is only occupied by a few of the staff and no
entry is allowed to the public. Therefore, the noise level there is not as high as
the other zones.

i)

Reverberation Time, RT

Building

Material

Colour

Element

Area, A

Absorption

Sound

(m)

Coefficient

Absorption,

Wall

Brick

Orange

5.25

(500 Hz)
0.03

Sa
0.16

Ceiling

Plaster

Beige

15.75

0.02

0.32

Furniture

Wooden

Brown

7.0

0.08

0.56

Furniture

table
Wooden

Brown

5.0

0.08

0.40

Human

chairs
-

3 people

0.42

2.14

(1.7 m)
Total

3.58

Absorption(A):
RT = 0.16 x V / A
= 0.16 x 39.4 / 3.58
= 1.76s
WOLO Tous Les Jours reverberation time for Zone 6 in 500Hz of absorption
coefficient in 500Hz is 1.76s. According to the standard of reverberation time
the standard comfort reverberation is between 0.8s - 1.3s. The reverberation
time exceeds the comfort level.

Building

Material

Colour

Element
Wall

Brick

Orange

Area, A

Absorption

Sound

(m)

Coefficient

Absorption,

5.25

(2000 Hz)
0.05

Sa
0.26

Ceiling

Plaster

Beige

15.75

0.02

0.32

Furniture

Wooden

Brown

7.0

0.08

0.56

Furniture

table
Wooden

Brown

5.0

0.08

0.40

Human

chairs
-

3 people

0.5

2.55

Total

4.09

(1.7 m)
Absorption(A):
RT = 0.16 x V / A
= 0.16 x 110 / 4.09
= 4.3s
WOLO Tous Les Jours reverberation time for Zone 6 in 2000Hz of absorption
coefficient in 2000Hz is 4.3s. According to the standard of reverberation time
the standard comfort reverberation is between 0.8s - 1.3s. The reverberation
time exceeds the comfort level.
ii) Sound Pressure Level, SPL
The sound pressure level is the average sound level at a space. The sound
pressure level (SPL) at Zone 6 is shown in the table below:
SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref ) where Iref = 1x1012

Location

Zone 6 First Floor Open Bar

Area

15.75 m2

Height of ceiling

2.5 m

Time

12pm 2pm

8pm - 10pm

Highest sound level

75

73

meter reading (dB)


Lowest sound level

72

70

meter reading (dB)

Intensity for the

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

75 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

73 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

IH = 3.16 x 10 -5

IH = 2 x 10 -5

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

67 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

68 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

IL = 5 x 10 -6

IL = 6.3 x 10 -6

highest reading, IH

Intensity for the


lowest reading, IL

Total intensities, I

I = 3.16 x 10 -5 + 5 x 10 -6
= 3.16 x 10 -5

Sound Pressure

I = 2 x 10 -5 + 6.3 x 10 -6
= 2.63 x 10 -5

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 x (3.16 x 10 -5

SPL = 10 log10 x (2.63 x 10 -5

Level, SPL
1 x 10-12)
= 75 dB

1 x 10-12)
= 74.2 dB

At zone 6, the average sound pressure level during 12pm-2pm and 8pm10pm are 75 dB and 74.2 dB respectively. The range of noise level at zone 6
is at a comfortable level for exchanging conversations.
6.4.3.7 ZONE 7: STAIRCASE

Figure 6.4.3.7: Plan of Zone 7


12pm 2pm
Coordinate
3-4
4-5

A-B
67
68

8pm 10pm

B-C
70
69

A-B
68
69

B-C
68
70

Table 6.4.3.7: Acoustic readings of Zone 7.


Noise level is lower as subject is halfway up the stairs, midway on the landing
as the midpoint is furthest from the noise from ground level and the noise from
first floor mezzanine level. Prime source of noise on the staircase itself is from
the visitors taking photographs.

ii)
Building

Reverberation Time, RT
Material

Colour

Element

Area, A

Absorption

Sound

(m)

Coefficient

Absorption,
Sa
0.32

Wall

Brick

Orange

10.5

(500 Hz)
0.03

Wall

Glass

Transparent

16.2

0.04

0.65

Ceiling

Plaster

Beige

15.1

0.02

0.30

Furniture

Wooden

Brown

4.0

0.08

0.32

Furniture

tables
Wooden

Brown

10.0

0.08

0.80

Furniture

chairs
Leather

Brown

2.0

0.42

0.84

Human

Sofa
-

10 people

0.42

7.14

(1.7 m)
Total

10.37

Absorption(A):
RT = 0.16 x V / A
= 0.16 x 106 / 10.37
= 1.6s
WOLO Tous Les Jours reverberation time for Zone 7 in 500Hz of absorption
coefficient in 500Hz is 1.6s. According to the standard of reverberation time
the standard comfort reverberation is between 0.8s - 1.3s. The reverberation
time exceeds the comfort level.

Building

Material

Colour

Element

Area, A

Absorption

Sound

(m)

Coefficient

Absorption,

Wall

Brick

Orange

10.5

(2000 Hz)
0.05

Sa
0.53

Wall

Glass

Transparent

16.2

0.02

0.32

Ceiling

Plaster

Beige

15.1

0.02

0.30

Furniture

Wooden

Brown

4.0

0.08

0.32

Furniture

tables
Wooden

Brown

10.0

0.08

0.80

Furniture

chairs
Leather

Brown

2.0

0.43

0.86

Human

Sofa
-

10 people

0.5

8.5

(1.7 m)
Total
Absorption(A):
RT = 0.16 x V / A
= 0.16 x 110 / 11.63
= 1.51s

11.63

WOLO Tous Les Jours reverberation time for Zone 7 in 2000Hz of absorption
coefficient in 2000Hz is 1.51s. According to the standard of reverberation time
the standard comfort reverberation is between 0.8s - 1.3s. The reverberation
time exceeds the comfort level.
ii) Sound Pressure Level, SPL
The sound pressure level is the average sound level at a space. The sound
pressure level (SPL) at Zone 7 is shown in the table below:
SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref ) where Iref = 1x1012

Location

Zone 7 Staircase

Area

15.12 m2

Height of ceiling

7.0 m

Time

12pm 2pm

8pm - 10pm

Highest sound level

70

70

meter reading (dB)


Lowest sound level

67

68

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

70 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

70 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

IH = 1 x 10 -5

IH = 1 x 10 -5

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

67 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

68 = 10 log10 x IH 1 x 10-12

IL = 5 x 10 -6

IL = 6.3 x 10 -6

meter reading (dB)


Intensity for the
highest reading, IH

Intensity for the


lowest reading, IL

Total intensities, I

I = 1 x 10 -5 + 5 x 10 -6
= 1.5 x 10 -5

I = 1 x 10 -5 + 6.3 x 10 -6
= 1.63 x 10 -5

Sound Pressure

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 (I / Iref )

SPL = 10 log10 x (1.5 x 10 -5

SPL = 10 log10 x (1.63 x 10 -5

Level, SPL
1 x 10-12)
= 71.7dB

1 x 10-12)
=72dB

At zone 7, the average sound pressure level during 12pm-2pm and 8pm10pm are 71.7dB and 72dB respectively. The range of noise level at zone 7 is
at a comfortable level for exchanging conversations.