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xDSL, CATV, FTTH

Iwao Sasase
Department of Information and
Computer Science, Keio University
http://www.sasase.ics.keio.ac.jp
Email:sasase@ics.keio.ac.jp

Iwao Sasase, Keio University

Access Network is
the part (xDSL, FTTH etc.) which connects
between users network (LAN etc.) and the
building of the carrier.
At present, the progress of technology for
diversification of service and high speed is
most remarkable.

Iwao Sasase, Keio University

Various Access Networks


HUB center
Cable communication
system
MetallicxDSL

Company etc.

OpticalFTTxFTTH

Cable broadcasting
CATVHFC+Cable modem
system

Home user

OpticalHigh speed

LAN

Business user
Various Access Networks

Iwao Sasase, Keio University

Technology cooperation among


communication, computer and broadcast
Communication

Communication, computer and


broadcast developed independently.

Downsizing and cost down of


communication equipment
(Optical fiber transmission system,
Optical connector, PLC optical device, etc.)
Completion of network Digitization

Joint region

Technologies of 3 fields
begin to be cooperated
in access network.

High-speed CPU
Memory with large capacity
Expansion of LAN
Appearance of
IP routing Network

Computer

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Standardization of MPEG1
and MPEG2
Digital processing is possible.)
ProcessingAccumulation
Transmission.

Broadcast

Difference between voice/image service


and computer communication service
The service of voice/ image is a connection-oriented
communication --- Guaranteed type
real time transmission, almost constant rate
Computer communication is connectionless communication
which can accept reasonable network delay --- Best-effort type
burst data transmission

Iwao Sasase, Keio University

xDSL (x Digital Subscriber Line)


Modem technologies which realize Mbps transmission
using ordinary telephone subscriber line

20k1.1MHz

xDSL
DSLAM

Router

xDSL Modem

Internet

Public line network


splitter

Ordinary
telephone
subscriber line

Users Home

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splitter

Subscriber
switching board

Local communication
equipment center of the carrier
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Concept of xDSL
speed
Low

Telephone
network

provider

Internet

xDSL

MODEM

xDSL
DSLAM
Existing telephone
subscriber lines are
used

Router

Local communication
equipment center of the
carrier

Iwao Sasase, Keio University

Structure of xDSL
Voice signal less than 4kHz
Ordinary data transmission of dial-up MODEM uses
only the frequency bands up to 4kHz for voice in the
subscriber telephone line.

xDSL modem 20k1.1MKHz


Although a subscriber line is a copper wire, highspeed data transmission is possible by using higher
frequency bands.
Iwao Sasase, Keio University

Items of xDSL
Item

Cable

Uplink
Downlink

Communication speed

Maximum
distance

HDSL

2 pairs

Symmetric

1.5M2Mbps

7km

SDSL

1 pair

Symmetric

160k2Mbps

7km

ADSL

1 pair

Asymmetric

16k1Mbps (Up)
1.5M9Mbps (Down)

5.5km

1 pair

Asymmetric

128k1Mbps (Up)
1M12Mbps (Down)

5.5km

1 pair

Symmetric
Asymmetric

1.8k2.3Mbps (Up)
13M52Mbps
(Down)

1.5km

RADSL

VDSL

Iwao Sasase, Keio University

ADSL
Digital communication by 1 pair metallic copper wire.
Uplink/Downlink speeds between users and local communication
equipment center are asymmetric.
Main Coding Technology
DMT(Discrete Multi-Tone), CAP(Carrierless Amplitude)
Rate Variable ADSL
Depending on the loss of copper wire and interference/noise,
the optimum transmission rate is varied automatically.
Features
ADSL transfers high-speed digital service signal
in addition to the conventional telephone (voice).
asymmetric, downlink is faster due to wideband allocation
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ADSL
Downlink transmission is faster than uplink transmission
Asymmetric data transmission suitable for download.
CAP system

DMT system

Upload

Download

Upload

Download

Parallel data
transmission by using
many subcarriers

4k
30k

200k

1M

frequency

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4k

30k

138k

1M

frequency
Both are 11
QAM

HDSL
Digital communication by 2 pair(or 3 pair) copper wires.
Uplink and Downlink are symmetric.
Simultaneous service of providing telephone (voice) and highspeed digital is not thought.

SDSL
Symmetric data transmission using 1 pair copper wire.
Transmission speed is lower than HDSL.

VDSL
VDSL can make higher data rate up to 50 Mbps.
Transmission distance is restricted to hundreds of meter.
Combination between VDSL and FTTC is promising.
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Features of xDSL
High data rate

Telephone office
Pair cable

Backbone network
transmission
POTS

Low cost
Telephone company and user do notHome wiring
have to invest line equipments except
xDSL modems.

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POTS

Metallic lines can be used continuously

by sing existing telephone line

Line equipments

Access system

Home wiring is easy.

ADSL is 10-50 times higher than


ISDN

Home

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Communication System Model


Transmission performance is determined by channel, noise,
transmitter and receiver
Telephone line
Coaxial cable
Optical fiber
signal

Sender
Message

Transmitter

Receiver

signal

Channel

Modulator
Error correcting coder
Full-duplex
Kinds of codec

Noise

Receiver

Message

Demodulator
Error correcting decoder
Full-duplex
Kinds of codec

Communication system model

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Distortion and Noise of xDSL


Distortion is caused basically by signal loss
characteristic of metallic cable and crosstalk noise.
Direct current interception
of Line trans

Amplitude distortion
Linear distortion

Phase distortion

Distortion

Distortion of AFE amplification


Distortion of line trans

Nonlinear distortion
Transmission quality
degradation factor

Noise

General distortion
noise
Noise of metallic
noise

Other noise
-140dBm/Hz

White noise
Regular broadband
Random noise

Colored Noise

Irregular broadband
Impulse noise
Regular narrowband noise
Tone noise

Metallic cable
Signal attenuation
Phase distortion

Crosstalk noise

impulse noise
induced by metallic cable

Near-end
Crosstalk noise
Far-end
Crosstalk noise

Broadcasting induced noise


Amateur radio
Power line induced noise

Distortion and noise of DSL transmission system

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Transmission characteristic of
metallic cable
Higher frequency signals are attenuated more.
Longer metallic cable attenuates the signal more.
Transmission loss is large

Noise of metallic cable


Crosstalk noise
Impulse noise
Electromagnetic wavebroadcasting wave, Amateur radio
induced noise
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Transmission technologies in xDSL


Transmission coding and modulation
2B1Q Code
CAP/QAM Systemsingle carrier
DMT systemmulti carrier

Full-duplex system
FDM (frequency division multiplexing) system
Echo canceller system
TDDPing-pongsystem

Noise level measures


Variable rate transmission

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QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)


Typical modulation technique used in xDSL

LPF1
Di

LPF2

LPF

Transmission line
sin( c t )

Dq

cos( c t )

Di

LPF

Dq

sin( c t )

LPF

LPF1

LPF

Multiplication

cos( c t )

LPF2

Addition
QAM transmission and reception

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DMT(Discrete Multi-Tone) system


Dividing frequency bands into some sub bands (sub channels).
In each sub channel, QAM transmission is carried out.
Sub channel 1

Sub channel 1

cos( c t )

cos( c t )

sin( c t )

sin( c t )

Subchannel N

Sub channel N

Transmission line
cos( N c t )

Multiplication

cos( N c t )

Addition
sin( N c t )

sin( N c t )

Transmission and reception in DMT system

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FDM (frequency division multiplexing)


Full-duplex FDM system using different frequency band
between uplink and downlink.
QAM modulator
(uplink)

Carrier frequency

Uplink signal

Send/receive
separation
filter

Metallic
cable

FDM Multiplex

QAM demodulator
(downlink)

QAM demodulator
(uplink)
Send/receive
separation
filter

Carrier frequency

FDM Demultiplex
Downlink signal

2
Carrier frequency

QAM modulator
(downlink)
2
Carrier frequency

FDM system

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Echo canceller system


By making pseudo echo waveform using ADF
and subtracting pseudo echo signal from actual
echo signal, echo signal is removed.
Transmitter circuit
(uplink)

ADF

Receiver circuit
(uplink)

Uplink signal

Hybrid
circuit

Metallic
cable

Hybrid
circuit

ADF

Receiver circuit
(downlink)

Downlink signal

Transmitting circuit
(downlink)

Echo canceller system

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Ping-pong system
By transmitting and receiving uplink/downlink signal alternately,
overlap of signals in the transmission line is avoided.

Buffer
Memory

Transmitter circuit
(uplink)
switch

Buffer
Memory

Receiver circuit
(downlink)

Uplink signal

Metallic
Cable

Downlink signal

Receiver circuit
(upload)

Buffer
Memory

switch

Transmitter circuit Buffer


(downlink)
Memory

Ping-pong system

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Variable rate transmission


When we assume Internet service, variable rate transmission
according to application such as file download is preferred.

Against signal loss and noise characteristic of subscriber line,


setup functions of transmitting speed and transmitting delay
quantity at any time is expected.
However

Many realization methods exist,


but best usage has not been established yet.

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Interference between ADSL and ISDN


When ADSL and ISDN lines co-exit in the same cable,
crosstalk noise occurs and may cause serious performance
degradation
DBMDual Bit Map technology is developed,
and interference problem is solved.
ASDL
ISDN
ADSL and ISDN Lines

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DBMDual Bit Mapsystem


Interference between ADSL and ISDN lines can be reduced
by using DBM.
Standardized on ITU-T as AnnexC (for Japan)
When near-end crosstalk noise occurs and noise becomes
large, DBM reduces the quantity of data transmission.
When far-end noise occurs, DBM transmits more data.
DBM
Crosstalk
transmission

upload

transmission

download

upload

ISDN

Far-end
Near-end
crosstalk noise Crosstalk noise

ADSL
uplink data
ADSL
downlink data

Principle of DBM system

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Downlink speed

Downlink Speed of DBM-ADSL

Line length

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CATV (Cable Television)


High-speed TV transmission
technology by coaxial cable
HUB center receives TV signals from radio wave towers and
satellites. These signals are distributed through cable to each
home and companies.
Home, Company

Satellite
HUB center

Main line

Radio wave tower

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History of CATV(1)
1948

First operation (U.S.A)

1953

First experiment on joint reception (Ikaho, Gunma Pref.)

Development in fringe area of terrestrial broadcasting and


region having no broadcasting station.
1960s Development in cities against multi path obstacle by highrise buildings
Role as a complement to terrestrial broadcasting

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History of CATV(2)
1980s Examination of realization of various services and
applications as interactive region media (partly realized)
1990s Spread of Internet strengthens movement making
CATV Internet enterprise
Now

Examination of digital CATV technology


Role as a key of other than broadcasting service

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Broadband
transmission technology(1)
CATV transmission technology concerning
broadband TV (moving picture )
many TV channels on high-frequency bands

Cheap coaxial cable with stable transmitting characteristic


Broadband amplifier
are needed.

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Broadband
transmission technology(2)
Coaxial cable
Appearance of Polyethylene covering
Insulator(Foamed polyethylene)

Center conductor
(annealed copper single track )

Protection covering(Black polyethylene)

Outer conductor(Aluminum pipe)

Broadband amplifier
Development of transistor : 701000MHz amplifier.
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Deployment to broadband CATV


250MHz/20ch : 19601970s
Negative return (Feedback) amplifier system is generalized.
450MHz/60ch : 1980s
Interactive amplifier becomes standard.
770MHz/110ch : 1990s
All television band(VHFUHF) are covered.

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Digitization of CATV
Latter of 1990s 2000s: a period of digital broadcasting.
Using MPEG2, SDTV can transmit 4ch standard programs
with 6MHz per 1ch.
In case of 770MHz system, 440ch SDTV transmission is
possible.

Program supply expansion exceeds that of transmission quantity.


Simulcast broadcasting is duty in the fixed period.
More channel may be required.
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Construction of interactive
CATV
CATV transmits interactively by making a set of uplink and
downlink transmission line. Broadband LAN(B-LAN)
Construction of interactive CATV = Construction of B-LAN
1990sInternet spread explosively
packet switching system solved the problem of traffic switching
At presentby development real-time IPv6 technologies, speech
service through CATV is though to be promising.

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SCM(Sub Carrier Multiplex)


transmission
In transmitter side, FDM signal transmission on coaxial
cable and distributed in optical fiber by using E/O.

Coaxial

Image n

Coaxial cable

cable

Distribution

Image 2

FDM Multiplex

In receiving side, FDM signals are sent on coaxial cable


after O/E.
1
1 FDM signals
Image 1
E/O
O/E
(coaxial cable)
E/O

2
Single mode

Optical fiber
Optical modulator
n

E/O

Transmitting side

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O/E

FDM signals
(coaxial cable)

Optical demodulator
n

O/E

Receiving side
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HFC(Hybrid Fiber and Coaxial)


Combination of optical fiber and coaxial cable.
CATV system divides service area into cells by placing a node in
each cell, and connects nodes and center by optical fiber.
Coaxial cable

center
Optical fiber cable

Optical HUB node

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Composition of
HFC transmission system
Downlink optical modulator(E/O)optical fiber cable
optical demodulator(O/E)
Uplink Contrary of downlink
Single mode optical fiber

E/O

O/E
Downlink

O/E

E/O
Uplink
Coaxial cable

Center side

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Node side

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Protocol of CATV systems


CMTS

Cable modem

IP

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Ethernet
Physical layer

Cable transmission line

PMD

10

Ethernet

PMD

TC(down)

10BASE
-T MAC

BASE-T
Physical layer

TC(down)

IEEE
802.2
LLC

Physical layer

Link
security

Trans
parent
bridge

Data link layer

MAC

Physical layer

Outer interface equipment

Physical layer

Physical
layer

MAC
(CSMA
/CD)

IEEE
802.2
LLC

Ethernet

Forwarding

IEEE
IEEE
802.2
802.2
LLC
LLC

Ethernet

Data link layer

Data
link layer

IP

PC etc.

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Specification of physical layer


Item

Uplink

Downlink

Frequency
band
Modulation

542MHz

88860MHz

QPSK16QAM

64QAM256QAM

Band wide

200/400/800/
1600/3200kHz
160/320/640/
1280/2560kbps

6MHz

Transmission
speed

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30.342/42.884Mbps

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FTTH (Fiber to the Home)


High-speed digital transmission
technology by optical cable
FFTH wires optical fiber in houses, makes access
network between users and access node optical and
provides high-speed and broadband service.
FFTH can carry multiple service signals (service
multiplex) in a optical fiber, because it has low loss
characteristic
Because optical fiber has low loss characteristic which can
be input to divergence loss by optical splitter,
multiplexing of plural users (service multiplexing) is
possible.
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Fiber cable in access network


Important point of optical fiber cable technology in access
network is to raise mount density of optical fiber. That is
multi core technology which is how many optical fibers
are bundled against outer diameter of given cable.
At present, cable which has 3000 optical fiber is developed
Communication
Equipment center
User building
Users house

distribution point
PEC cable

Access point

Distribution cable

Siding cable

(more than hundreds


more than tens
Access network cable

1 or 2 core

5 section of access network cable

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FTTH
ONU (Optical Network Unit) is placed at userfull optical
system.
User Merits
User can receive high speed service because
high speed system is connected to the user directly.
Extension by service multiplexing
Network Merits
cost reduction by user multiplexing
Applied technology
low speed - STM (Synchronous Transfer Mode) technology
image - SCM (Sub Carrier Multiplex) technology
high speed ATM (Asynchronous TM) technology
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FTTB (Fiber to the Building)


Buildings, for instance tenant building and apartment
introduce optical fiber, and place ONU in common
spaces, communication room etc.
One ONU accommodates some users.
Existing metallic cable is used between ONU and
user, so wiring construction in buildings is needless.

It becomes economical

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FTTC (Fiber to the Curb) + VDSL


VDSL Modem is placed in Curb of FTTC.
Optical and Metallic systems cooperate.
VDSL transmission distance is short, and it can
provide high-speed digital service.
By connecting FTTC, problem about distance
from communication equipment center is solved
Because of two composition by optical system and
metallic systems in access network, cost-up of
equipment part can be not avoided.

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STM and ATM


Item

STM

ATM

Mode

synchronous
transmission

asynchronous
transmission

Setting unit

time slot
Min =1 byte

cell
53 bytes

Setting method

Advantageous service

Time slots are


assigned to appointed
position in frame.
fixed speed
service multiplexing

Necessary cells are


assigned to free position
in frame.
variable speed
service multiplexing

Frame

Frame composition
image

frame
payload

SDH
overhead

Time slot
Appointed position

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payload
SDH
overhead

cell

Free position

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FTTC (Fiber to the Curb)


In Europe and U.S.A.boxes which accommodate
telephone line and work about telephone
subscription exist side of roadsUp to these boxes,
optical fibers are used, and from these boxes to
users, existing metallic cables are used.
Middle solution to FTTH is FTTC in Europe and
U.S.A.system in Japan.
Because the rest of distance to users is hundreds
meters, FTTC is preliminary to FTTH.

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Star type

Single star
SScomposition

Metallic cable
Communication center

DSU
User
Double star type

Star type

Active double star


ADScomposition

Star type
Optical
fiber

Communication center

Metallic cable

RT

DSU

O/E translation
multiplexing
user

active element
Double star type
Star type

Passive double star


PDScomposition
Communication center

Star type
Optical
Optical divergence
fiber
Optical divergence
element

Optical fiber cable

passive element

ONU

user

Fig.5-6 network composition of access netwprk

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