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Differential Equations for Engineers and Scientists

by
Y. Cengel and W. Palm III

ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS


(Answers to Section Review problems are in the textbook)

CHAPTER 1
1-33

with

1-35

with

1-37

1-41C The slope at the given point is .


1-43C This can be possible if

or

, or both are zero.

1-45C High pressure lines are steeper than the low pressure lines.
1-47

(a)
(b)
(c)

is defined on
and continuous in that interval
is continuous for all except for

(d)

is continuous on

1-49
1-51

is a continuous function on

, where

denotes set of reel numbers

constant
(a)

(b)

satisfies the given condition

satisfies the given condition

(c) No elementary function can satisfy the given condition.

1-53

(a) Given:
Solution:
(b) Given:

Solution:
(c) Given:
Solution:
1-55

(a) Given:
Solution:
(b) Given:
Solution:
c) Given:
Solution:
d) Given:
Solution:

1-57

(a) Given:
Solution:
(b) Given:
Solution:

1-59

(a) Given:
Solution:
(b) Given:
Solution:
(c) Given:
Solution:
(d) Given:
Solution:

1-63

(a)
(b)

(Linear, constant coefficient)


(Linear, variable coefficient)

(c)
(d)

(Linear, variable coefficient)


(Linear, constant coefficient)

(e)

(Nonlinear, variable coefficient)

1-69

and

are the solutions of the differential equation.

1-71

and

are the solutions of the differential equation.

1-73

and

are the solutions of the differential equation.

1-75

and

are the solutions of the differential equation.

1-77

with

1-79

(a)
(b)

and

(Upward direction is positive)

, where and are arbitrary constants


cannot be solved by direct integration

(c)

, where

and

are arbitrary constants.

(d)
cannot be solved by direct integration
(e) The unknown function
cannot be found in terms of elementary functions.
1-81

(a)

, where

is an arbitrary constant.

(b)

cannot be solved by direct

(c)

, where

and

are arbitrary constants

(d)
cannot be solved by direct integration
(e) The unknown function
cannot be found in terms of elementary functions.

1-83C The ginput function gives the result

rad.

1-87 The result is 0.4304077247.


1-89
(a) The answer is
If

if
.

(b) The answer is


1-91
(a) The answer is
(b) The answer is
Another form returned is

or

, and

(c) The answer is


(d) The answer is

or

1-93
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
1-95

1-97

1-99

,
(a)
(b)
(c)
(a)
(b)
(c)

and
.
and
and
.

.
.
.
.

(a)
(b)

(c)
1-101 (a)
(b)
1-103 (a)
(b)
1-105

.
m/s.

1-107

and

1-109
1-111 (a)

and
and (b)

CHAPTER 2
2-37

(a)

2-39

(a)

linear

(b)

nonlinear

2-41 (a)

(b)

nonlinear
nonlinear

, (b)

2-43 (a)

where

, (b)

2-45
(a)

where

(b)

2-47 (a)

, (b)

2-49 (a)

, (b)

2-51
2-53

is also a solution of

, no matter what value of

2-55

cannot be a solution of the given DE.

is.

2-59
2-63 (a) At steady state, y = 24/3 = 8. (b) 5.04 is 63% of 8, so it will take one time constant, or 8 , to
reach 5.04. (c) 7.84 is 98% of 8, so it will take four time constants, or 32 , to reach 7.84.
2-65

2-67
2-69
the bottom of the pond is
2-71
2-73

2-75

. Therefore we conclude that the fraction of the light that will reach
.

The amount of salt after 30 minutes will be


, The solution is

, and it will never drop to

, The terminal velocity is

2-77

2-79
a) Theorem 2-2 guarantees both existence and uniqueness of a solution in a neighborhood of
any .
b) The given differential equation
must have a unique solution near any point
in the -plane where
or
.
2-81
a)
b)
2-83
a)
b)

Theorem 2-2 guarantees nothing in some neighborhood of


.
The Theorem 2-2 guarantees both existence and uniqueness in some neighborhood of
Theorem 2-2 guarantees both existence and uniqueness in some neighborhood of
Theorem 2-2 guarantees both existence and uniqueness in some neighborhood of

2-87 (a)

.
.

, (b)

2-89 (a)
2-91

, (b)

, where

(a)
(b)

2-93 (a)

, (b)

2-95 (a)

, (b)

2-97 (a)

, (b)

2-99

, The time required for the tank to be empty can be evaluated by

setting

which yields

2-101

, where

Equilibrium points are


2-103 (a)

, and

.
,

, where

(b)
2-105 (a)
2-109 (a)
2-111 (a)

, (b)
is homogeneous, (b)
is homogeneous, (b)

is not homogeneous .
is not homogeneous.

2-113 (a)

, (b)

, where

, where

2-115 (a)
(b)
2-117 (a)
2-119 (a)

, (b)

, where

, (b)

2-121 (a)

(b)
2-123 (a)

, (b)

2-127 (a)

, where

(b) The differential equation is inexact


2-129 (a)

, (b) The differential equation is inexact.

2-131 (a)
2-133 (a)

, (b) The differential equation is inexact.


, (b) The differential equation is inexact.

2-135
2-137
2-139
2-147
2-149 Maple gives the answer:
2-151 The equation in the first printing is incorrect. It should be

.The solution is

2-159
2-161
2-163
2-165 (a)

, (b)

(c)

(downwards).

2-167
2-169
Taking

we end up with the

whose limit is

as

2-171
2-173
2-175
2-177
2-179
2-181
2-183
2-185
2-187
2-189
2-191
2-193
2-195
2-197
2-199
2-201
2-203
2-207
2-209

CHAPTER 3
3-57 (a)
(b)
(c)

; Nonlinear, nonhomogeneous, constant coefficients


; Linear, homogeneous, constant coefficients
; Linear, homogeneous, variable coefficients

(d)

; Linear, nonhomogeneous, variable coefficients

3-59 (a)

; Nonlinear, nonhomogeneous, constant coefficients

(b)
(c)
(d)

; Noninear, homogeneous, constant coefficients


; Linear, homogeneous, variable coefficients
; Linear, nonhomogeneous, constant coefficients

3-61(a) The initial-value problem has a unique solution in the interval


(b) The initial-value problem has a unique solution in the interval

.
.

3-63 (a)The initial-value problem has a unique solution in the interval


(b)The initial-value problem has a unique solution in the interval
3-65 (a)

.
.

, (b)

3-67 (a)

, (b)

3-73 (a)

and

are linearly dependent, (b)

3-75 (a)

and

are linearly independent, (b)

and

are linearly independent.

3-77 (a)

and

are linearly independent, (b)

and

are linearly independent.

3-79 (a)

and

are linearly dependent, (b)

3-81

and

are linearly dependent.

3-83

and

are linearly independent.

3-85

and

are linearly independent.

3-87

and

are linearly dependent.

3-89

and

are linearly independent.

3-93 (a)

is also a solution, (b)

and

and

is not a solution

(c)

is not a solution, (d)

is not a solution

3-95 (a)

is not a solution, (b)

is not a solution

(c)

is also a solution, (d)

is also a solution

are linearly dependent.

are linearly dependent.

3-97 (a)

is also a solution, (b)

is not a solution

(c)

is not a solution, (d)

is not a solution

3-99 (a)

is not a solution, (b)

is also a solution

(c)

is also a solution, (d)

is also a solution

3-101 (a) The Wronskian of

and

is never zero for

(b) The Wronskian of

and

is zero

(c) The Wronskian of

and

is zero

3-103 (a) The Wronskian of

and

is never zero for

(b) The Wronskian of

and

is zero

(c) The Wronskian of

and

is zero

3-105 (a)
(b)
(c)

and

does not form a fundamental set of solutions.

3-107 (a)
(b)
(c)
3-111
3-113
3-115
3-117
3-119
3-121
3-129 (a)
3-131 (a)
(c)
3-133
3-134

, (b)
, (b)

, (c)
,

3-135
3-137
3-139
3-141
3-143
3-147 (a)

, (b)

3-149 (a)
3-151 (a)

(b)
, (b)

3-153
3-155
3-161 (a)
(c)
3-163 (a)
(c)
(d)
3-165 (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
3-167
3-169
3-171 (a)
(b)
3-173 (a)
(b)

, (b)
, (d)
, (b)

3-175 (a)
(b)
3-177 (a)

, (b)

3-181 (a)

, (b)

3-183 (a)

, (b)

3-185 (a)
(b)
3-193

3-195

3-197

will cause the resonance.


,

3-199 The mass will pass through its static equilibrium position at the time
velocity of
3-201

, with a

3-203
3-205

0.2080 m

3-207
3-209
3-211
3-215
The charge of capacitor would be, at least mathematically, unbounded as
3-217
If
then there are two real and distinct roots,
the differential equation is

and

. Thus the general solution of

If
then there are two real and equal roots,
solution of the differential equation is

. Thus the general

If
then there are two complex and conjugate roots,
solution of the differential equation is

. Thus the general

where

and

3-219
3-221
3-223
3-225
3-227
3-229
3-230
3-231
3-233
3-235
3-237 Note: the equation is incorrect in the first printing of the textbook. It should be
. The solution is
3-241
3-243
3-245
3-247
3-249

3-251
3-253
3-255
3-257
3-259
3-261
3-263
3-265
3-267
3-269

.
,

CHAPTER 4
4-25 (a)
(b)
(c)

; Nonlinear, nonhomogeneous, constant coefficients


; Linear, homogeneous, constant coefficients
; Linear, homogeneous, variable coefficients

(d)

; Linear, nonhomogeneous, variable coefficients

4-27 (a)

; Nonlinear, nonhomogeneous, constant coefficients

(b)
(c)
(d)

Nonlinear, homogeneous, constant coefficients


; Linear, homogeneous, variable coefficients
; Linear, nonhomogeneous, constant coefficients

4-29 (a) The initial-value problem has a unique solution in the interval

(b) The initial-value problem has a unique solution in the interval

4-31 (a) The initial-value problem has a unique solution in the interval

(b) The initial-value problem has a unique solution in the interval


4-35 (a) The Wronskian of these three solution functions is never zero for
(b) The solutions
4-37 (a)

(b)

and

and
and

do not form a set of fundamental solutions.


do not form a set of fundamental solutions.

and

are linearly independent.

(b)

and

are linearly independent.

4-43
4-45

4-55 (a)
(b)
4-57
4-59

are linearly dependent.

4-39 (a)

4-53 (a)

, (b) Given:
,

4-61
4-63
4-67 (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
4-69 (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
4-71 (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
4-73

,
(

4-77 (a)
(b)

4-79 (a)
(b)
4-81 (a)
(b)
4-87
4-89

4-91
4-93
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
4-95
(a)
(b)

4-97
4-99 (a)
4-103
4-105
4-107
4-109
4-111
4-113
4-115
4-117
4-119
4-121
4-123
4-125

, (b)

CHAPTER 5
5 41 (a)
(b)
5 43 (a)

, (b)

5 45 (a)

, (b)

5 47 (a)

, (b)

5 49
5 51 The equality holds for any

value.

5 53 The equality holds for any

value.

5 55 Not correct
5 57 (a)

, (b)

5 59 (a)

, (b)

5 61 (a)

, (b)

5 63 (a)
(b)
5 65

5 69 (a) All points are ordinary points.


(b) Both

and

are the regular singular points of the differential equation.

5 71 (a) Both

and

are the regular singular points of the differential equation.

(b) All points are ordinary points of the differential equation.


5 73

5 75

5 77

5 79

Interval of convergence:

5 81

5 83
Interval of the convergence:

Interval of the convergence:

5 85
5 87

5 89
Interval of convergence is

5 91
5 97

5 99
5 105 (a)
(b)
5 107 (a)
(b)
5 109
(a)
, where
and
. Since
is the
only singular point for the given differential equation, the series solution converges for all
.
(b)
, where
. It is clear
from either
or
that
is another singular point of the given differential equation.
Therefore the series will converge for all such that
.
5 111
(a)
where
and
whereas the constant may be zero. The series solution will converge for any
.
(b)
where
, whereas the constant may be zero. The series solution will converge for any
.

,
and

5 113
(a)
, where
and
. Since
is the only singular point for the given differential equation, the series solution converges for all
.
(b)
, where
and
, whereas the constant may be zero. It is clear from either
or
that
are two
other singular points of the given differential equation. Therefore the series solution will converge
for all such that
.
5 115 (a)
(b)
5 117
(a)
(b)

5 119 (a)

, (b)

5-125
5-129
(a)
term

, The integral in the result cannot be evaluated in finite form in


f

y ft ek

w Be e fu

(b)
5-131
(a)
The series solution found in Problem 5-63a is

(b)
The series solution found in Problem 5-63b is

5-133
The series solution found in Problem 5-65 is

5-135

The series solution found in Problem 5-80 is

5-137

The series solution found in Problem 5-82 is

5-139

The series solution found in Problem 5-84 is

5-141
The series solution found in Problem 5-86 is

5-143

The series solution found in Problem 5-88 is

5-145

The general series solution found in Problem 5-90 is

The assumed power series solution suggests that


and
. Therefore
the solution of the given initial-value problem can be acquired by simply plugging in
and
in the general solution. Then the solution of the initial-value problem is
.
5-147
The general series solution found in Problem 5-92 is

The assumed power series solution suggests that


and
. Therefore
the solution of the given initial-value problem can be acquired by simply plugging in
and
in the general solution. Then the solution of the initial-value problem is obtained to be

5-149
(a)

The solution found in Problem 5-115(a) is

(b)

or using MuPAD

The solutions found from Maple and MuPAD differ, but they are both correct solutions. The solution
found in Problem 5-115(b) is

5-151
(a)
(b)

Maple is unable to solve this problem. The solution found in Problem 5-117(b) is

5-153
(a)
(b)

, The solution found in Problem 5-119(a) is


,The solution found in Problem 5-119(b) is

CHAPTER 6
6-21
(a)

(b)

6-23
(a)

(b)

6-25
(a)

(b)

6-27

6-29

6-31 The system is nonlinear due to term


coefficients due to term

, nonhomogeneous due to

, and has variable

6-33 The system is nonlinear due to terms


variable coefficients due to term

and

, nonhomogeneous due to

, and has

6-35 The system is linear, nonhomogeneous due to terms

and

, and has constant coefficients.

6-37 The system is linear, nonhomogeneous due to , and has variable coefficients due to terms
and
6-39

6-41

6-43

6-45

6-47
(a)

(b)

6-49
(a)

(b)

6-51
(a)

(b)

6-53
(a)

(b)

6-55
(a)

(b)

6-57
(a)

(b)

6-59
(a)

(b)

6-61
(a)

(b)

6-63

6-65

6-67
6-69

6-73
(a)

(b)

6-75
(a)

and

(b)

6-77
(a)

(b)

6-79
(a)

(b)

6-81
(a)

(b)

6-83

6-85

6-87

6-91

6-93

6-95
(a)

(b)

6-97

x t

389 95 3/2t
1
373 3/2t
1
35 3
e sin
95t
e cos
95t
t
32110
2
338
2
338 13

y t

5841 95 3/2t
1
127 3/2t
1
127 1
e sin
95t
e cos 95t
t
64220
2
676
2
676 26

6-99

287 71 1
1
17
1

x t e1/2t
sin
71t cos
71t
9
2
9
2

639
y t

6-101

517 71 1
5
59

e1/2t
sin
71t 71 cos
71t
18
18
2

1278

6-103

CHAPTER 7
7-39
(a)

, (b)

(c)

, (d)

7-41
(a)

, (b)

(c)

, (d)

7-43
(a)

, (b)

c)

, (d)

7-45
(a)

b)

c)

7-47
(a)

b)
c)
7-49
(a)

(b)

7-51
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

,
,

7-53

m1 x1 k1 x1 k2 ( x2 x1 ) c1 x1 c2 ( x2 x1)
m2 x2 f k2 ( x2 x1 ) c2 ( x2 x1)

k k
A 2 1
m1

k2

m2
7-65
(a)

(b)

7-67
(a)

(b)

0
0
k2
m1
k2
m2

1
0

c1 c2
m1
c2
m2

1
c2

m1
c
2
m2

0

0
B
0

1

7-69
(a)

(b)

7-71
(a)

(b)

7-73
(a)

(b) The inverse of the square matrix

does not exist. This is a singular matrix.

7-75 (This problem is identical with 7-14, and will be removed in the second press run)
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

7-77
(a)

(b)

(c) The system has no solution.

(d)

7-79
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

7-81 The vectors are linearly independent.


7-83 The vectors are linearly independent.
7-85 The vectors are linearly independent.
7-87 The vectors are linearly independent in the given interval.
7-89 The vectors are linearly dependent in
7-91
(a)

(b)

and

and

7-93
(a)

and

(b)

and

7-95
(a)

and

(b)

and

7-97
(a)

(b)

and

7-99
(a)

(b)

and

7-105

and

are not solutions to the given system, and they are linearly independent.

7-107

and

are the solutions to the given system, and they are linearly dependent.

7-109 and are the solutions to the given system, and they are linearly independent. Thus, the
general solution of the given system is

7-111

and

are not solutions to the given system, and they are linearly dependent.

7-113

and

are the solutions to the given system, and they are linearly dependent

7-115 The vector

satisfies the given system, and it is a solution.

7-117 The vector

does not satisfy the given system, and it is not a particular solution.

7-119 The vector

does not satisfy the given system.

7-125

7-127

7-129

7-131

7-133

7-135

7-137

7-139

7-147

7-149

7-151

7-153

7-155
7-157

7-159

7-161

7-163

7-165

63 62

62 63

3
( a) A

(b) A1I A1 (6I A) / 5

7-167 Only the second mode is controllable.


7-169 The truncated series solution gives
whereas from the example

1 3 2
A 1
5 2 3

7-171

( a)

, (b)

(c)

, (d)

7-173
(a)

5 3
A

0 4
5 3

1 4

(b) A
7-181

7-183

7-185

0
B
5
4 0
B

0 5

1 0
C

0 1

0
D
0

C 1 0

D 0 0

7-187

7-189

7-191

7-193

7-195
Note that the initial conditions specified for the given system of two linear homogeneous differential
equations with constant coefficients are both equal to zero. Therefore this initial-value problem has
only the trivial solutions
.

7-197

7-199

7-201

CHAPTER 8
8-17 (a)
8-19 (a)

, (b)

, (c)

(b)

(c)

8-27 (a)

, (b)

(c)
8-37 (a)

, (d)
(b)

8-39 (a)
8-41 (a)
8-49 (a)
8-51 (a)
8-53 (a)

(c)

(b)

(c)

(b)

(c)
(b)
(b)
(b)

8-55 (a)

(b)

8-57
8-59
8-61
8-65 (a)

(b)

8-67 (a)

(b)

8-71 (a)
8-73 (a)

(b)
(b)

8-75 (a)
8-81 (a)

(c)
(b)

(c)

(b)

8-83 (a)
8-85 (a)

(c)

(b)
(b)

8-91 (a)
8-93 (a)
8-95 (a)
8-97 (a)
8-101
8-103
8-105
8-107
8-109

8-111
8-113
8-115
8-117
8-119
8-121
8-123

8-125

(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)

8-127

8-129
8-131
8-133
8-135
8-137 (a)

1
1
1

5t
2t
45e
18e
30

2sin 3t
cos 3t

3
1

65
65e2t

(b)
(c)

7
13
1

3t
5t
24e
40e
30

(d)

2
7
13
1
3t

2t
5t
3e
6e
30e
15

8-139 (a)

1
1
5t (b)
2t
9e
9e

(c)

(d)

8-147 F ( s)

8-149 x(t )

C
C
C
2 e Ds e Ds
2
Ds
Ds
s

2 5 2 4
t t 3t 3 9t 2 19t 19 19et
15
3

8-151
8-153

0.2 / ln0.5 0.289

8-155 (a) p0 30 103 Pa

(b) x(t ) 0.643cos10t 0.2225sin10t 0.643e


8-157 x

a
b
2

8-159 x(t )

8-161

2
n

sin

F0
F
F
t 0 0 sin
kT
k kT n

2
n

cos

2 bt
n

F0
cos nt
k

3.46t

CHAPTER 9
9-29
e

Strip method, N=1: ,

, Strip method, N=2:

Trapezoidal rule, N=1:

e ,

, Trapezoidal rule, N=2:

ee

9-31
Trapezoidal rule, N=1:

, Trapezoidal rule, N=2:

Simpsons rule, N=1

, Simpsons rule, N=2:

9-33
Strip method, N=1:

, Strip method, N=2:

Simpsons rule, N=1 and 2:

9-35
Strip method, N=1:
Trapezoidal rule, N=1:
Simpsons rule, N=1:

, Strip method, N=2:


,

, Trapezoidal rule, N=2:


,

, Simpsons rule, N=2:

,
,

9-37 Exact results and all numerical methods result in 0. Relative error 0.00%.
9-39
Strip Method for N=10:
Strip Method for N=100:
Trapezoidal Rule for N=10:
Trapezoidal Rule for N=100:
9-41
Trapezoidal Rule for N=10:
Trapezoidal Rule for N=100:
Strip Method for N=10:
Strip Method for N=100:
Simpsons Rule for N=10:
Simpsons Rule for N=100:

.
.

9-43
Strip Method for N=10:
Strip Method for N=100:
Simpsons Rule for N=10 and N=100:
9-45
Strip Method for N=10:
Strip Method for N=100:
Trapezoidal Rule for N=10:
Trapezoidal Rule for N=100:
Simpsons Rule for N=10:
Simpsons Rule for N=100:
9-53
Trapezoidal Rule
a) One step:

b) Two steps:

Simpsons Rule
a) One step:
b) Two steps:

,
,

9-55
Strip Method
a) One step:

b) Two steps:

Simpsons Rule
a) One step:
b) Two steps:

,
,

9-57
Strip Method
a) One step:

b) Two steps:

Trapezoidal Rule
a) One step:

b) Two steps:

Simpsons Rule
a) One step:

b) Two steps:
9-59
Strip Method
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

Trapezoidal Rule

9-61
Trapezoidal Rule
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

, of

Simpsons Rule

9-63

Strip Method
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

Simpsons Rule
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

, 0.00%

9-65
Strip Method
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

.
.

Trapezoidal Rule
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

Simpsons Rule
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-71 After one step:

After two steps:

9-73 After one step: ,

After two steps:

9-75 After one step: ,

After two steps: ,

9-77 After one step:

After two steps:

9-79
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-81 There is a typographical error in this problem. The change is yellowed below and will be
corrected in the second printing. Given:
,
After 10 steps with h=0.2:
After 20 steps with h=0.1:

,
,

9-83
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

.
.

9-85 After 10 and 20 steps with h=0.2 and h=0.1:

9-87 There is a typographical error in this problem. The change is yellowed below and will be
corrected in the second printing. Given:
,
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-89
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-91 There is a typographical error in this problem. The change is yellowed below and will be
corrected in the second printing. Given:
,
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-93
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-105 There is a typographical error in this problem. The change is yellowed below and will be
corrected in the second printing.Given:
After one step: :
After two steps:

9-107
After one step:
After two steps:

9-109

(a)
2.00000 -0.77784 -0.77878 -0.77915

0.04788

0.16917

(b)
2.00000 -0.77822 -0.77908 -0.77915

0.00964

0.11976

9-111 There is a typographical error in this problem. The change is yellowed below and will be
corrected in the second printing. Given:
(a)
2.00000 -1.64591 -1.57570 -1.55232 -1.50652 -6.02925

(b)
2.00000 -1.60254 -1.55903 -1.55232 -0.43239 -3.23517

9-113
(a)
2.00000

2.47969

2.68943

2.81201

2.77967

2.81201

4.35908

11.81790

(b)
2.00000

2.64773

1.15010

5.84214

9-115
9-117
9-119
9-125 After one step:

9-127 After one step:

After two steps:

9-129 After one step:

After two steps:

9-131 After one step:


9-133 After one step:

,
,

,
,

After two steps:


After two steps:

,
,

9-135
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-137
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-139
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 10 steps with h=0.2:

9-141
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-143

9-145
After 10 steps with h=0.2:
After 20 steps with h=0.1:

,
,

.
.

9-147
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-153 After one step:

, 0.07

After two steps:

9-155 After one step:

, 1.89

After two steps:

9-157 After one step:

9-159

, 8.75

After two steps:

After 10 steps with h=0.2:


After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-161
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-163
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-171 After one step:

After two steps:

9-173 After one step:

After two steps:

9-175 After one step:

After two steps:

9-177 After one step:

After two steps:

9-179 After one step:

,
,

After two steps:

9-181
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-183
After 10 steps with h=0.2:
After 20 steps with h=0.1:

,
,

9-185
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-187
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

, 0.00%

9-189
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:


9-191
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-193
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-205 After one step:

. After two steps:

9-207 After one step:

. After two steps:

9-209 After one step:

. After two steps:

9-211 After one step:

. After two steps:

9-213 After one step:

. After two steps:

9-215
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-217

9-218

9-219

9-221
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

.
.
.
.

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-223
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

,0

9-225

9-227
After 10 steps with h=0.2:

After 20 steps with h=0.1:

9-231 After one step:


9-233 After one step:

: After two steps:

: After two steps:

9-235
After one step:
After two steps:
9-237 After one step:

,
,,

: After two steps:

9-239
For N=10 and h=0.2:

For N=20 and h=0.1:

For N=10 and h=0.2:

For N=20 and h=0.1:

9-241.

9-243 For N=10 and h=0.2:

, For N=20 and h=0.1

9-245
For N=10 and h=0.2:
For N=20 and h=0.1:
9-247 For N=10 and h=0.2:
9-287 (a)

,
,
, For N=20 and h=0.1: