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UNIT 62:

STRENGTHS OF MATERIALS

 Unit code: K/601/1409 QCF level: 5

Credit value: 15

OUTCOME 1 - TUTORIAL 2

THEORIES OF ELASTIC FAILURE

1. Be able to determine the behavioural characteristics of engineering components subjected to complex loading systems

Complex stress: analysis of two-dimensional stress systems e.g. determination of principal planes and stresses, use of Mohr’s stress circle; combined torsion and thrust; combined torsion and bending

Complex strain: Mohr’s strain circle; experimental strain analysis using elecrical resistance strain gauges

Theories of elastic failure: maximum principal stress theory; maximum shear stress theory strain energy theory and maximum principal strain theory

You should judge your progress by completing the self assessment exercises. It is assumed that students doing this tutorial are already familiar with complex stress theory covered in tutorial 1.

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

2. THE GREATEST PRINCIPAL STRESS THEORY (RANKINE)

3. THE GREATEST PRINCIPAL STRAIN THEORY (St. VENANT)

4. THE MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS THEORY (GUEST and COULOMB)

5. STRAIN ENERGY

1.

INTRODUCTION

Modern CADD systems allow the engineer to calculate stress levels in a component using finite stress analysis linked to the model. The reasons why a given material fails however, is not something a computer can predict without the results of research being added to its data bank. In some cases it fails because the maximum tensile stress has been reached and in others because the maximum shear stress has been reached. The exact combination of loads that makes a component fail depends very much on the properties of the material such as ductility, grain pattern and so on. This section is about some of the theories used to predict whether a complex stress situation is safe or not. There are many theories about this and we shall examine three. First we should consider what we regard as failure. Failure could be regarded as when the material breaks or when the material yields. If a simple tensile test is conducted on a ductile material, the stress strain curve may look like this. Figure 1

The maximum allowable stress in a material is max . This might be regarded as the stress at fracture (ultimate tensile stress), the stress at the yield point or the stress at the limit of proportionality (often the same as the yield point). The Modulus of elasticity is defined as E = stress/strain = /and this is only true up to the limit of proportionality. Note that some materials do not have a proportional relationship at all. The maximum allowable stress may be determined with a simple tensile test.

There is only one direct stress in a tensile test (= F/A) so it follows that max = 1 and it will have a corresponding strain max = 1 . Complex stress theory tells us that there will be a shear stress and strain that has a maximum value on a plane at 45 o to the principal plane. It is of interest to note that in a simple tensile test on a ductile material, at the point of failure, a cup and cone is formed with the sides at 45 o to the axis. Brittle materials often fail with no narrowing (necking) but with a flat fail plane at 45 o to the axis. This suggests that these materials fail due to the maximum shear stress being reached. Figure 2

In a complex stress situation, there are 3 principal stresses 1 , 2 and 3 . 1 is the greatest and 3 is the smallest. Remember that a negative stress is smaller than zero. There are corresponding principal strains 1 , 2 and 3 and shear strains. Figure 3

2. THE GREATEST PRINCIPAL STRESS THEORY (RANKINE)

This simply states that in a complex stress situation, the material fails when the greatest principal stress equals the maximum allowable value.

1 = max

max could be the stress at yield or at fracture depending on the definition of failure. If 1 is less than max then the material is safe.

Safety Factor = max /1

WORKED EXAMPLE No.1

A certain material fractured in a simple tensile test at a stress level of 800 MPa. The same material when used as part of a structure must have a safety factor of 3. Calculate the greatest principal stress that should be allowed to occur in it based on Rankine’s theory.

SOLUTION

S.F. = 3 = max /1 = 800/1

1 = 800/3 = 266.7 MPa

3.

THE GREATEST PRINCIPAL STRAIN THEORY (St. VENANT)

This states that in a complex stress situation, the material fails when the greatest principal strain reaches the maximum allowable strain determined in a simple tensile test. 1 = max

max is the value determined in a simple tensile test. If the maximum allowable stress is taken as the value at the limit of proportionality, we may further develop the theory using the modulus of elasticity. max = max /E

From 3 dimensional relationships (covered in other tutorials) we have:

ε

1

1

E

σ

1

ν σ

2

σ

Safety factor

ε

max

ε

1

3



σ

max

σ

1

νσ

2

σ

3



σ

max

is less than σ

1

ν σ

2

σ

3



and the material fails when

WORKED EXAMPLE No.2

A certain material fractured in a simple tensile test at a stress level of 600 MPa. The same material when used as part of a loaded structure must has principal stresses of 600, 400, and - 200 MPa. Determine the safety factor at this load based on the greatest principal strain theory. Take Poisson’s ratio as 0.28.

SOLUTION

600

 Safety factor   1.103   σ νσ 1  2  σ 3    600   0.28 400-200 

σ max

The component is just safe as the safety factor is larger than 1.

4.

THE MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS THEORY (GUEST and COULOMB)

This states that in a complex stress situation, the material fails when the greatest shear strain in the material equals the value determined in a simple tensile test. Applying complex stress theory to a tensile test gives this as max = ½ max

In a simple tensile test, max could be what ever stress is regarded as the maximum allowable.

In a 3 dimensional complex stress situation the maximum shear strain is = ½ (1 - 3 )

If this is less than max then the material is safe.

Safety factor

τ

max

σ

max

τ

σ

1

σ

3

On the limit when the safety factor is 1 it follows that max = (1 - 3 )

Put into words, failure occurs when the maximum allowable stress is equal to the difference between the greatest and the smallest principal stresses. Note negative stresses are smaller than zero.

WORKED EXAMPLE No.3

Show that based on the greatest shear stress theory, the structure in W.E. No.2 should have failed.

SOLUTION

600

 Safety factor     0.75 τ σ 1  σ 3 600 ( 200)  

τ max

σ max

The component should have failed as the safety factor is less than 1.

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No.1

1. A certain steel fails in a simple tensile test when the stress is 30 MPa. The same steel is used in

a complex stress situation and the principal stresses are 11 MPa, 3 MPa and 0 MPa. Determine the factor of safety based on the three theories. = 0.3

2. A certain steel fails in a simple tensile test when the stress is 30 MPa. The same steel is used in

a complex stress situation and the principal stresses are 11 MPa, 0 MPa and -3 MPa. Determine the factor of safety based on the three theories. = 0.3

3. A certain steel failed in a simple tensile test when the stress is 460 MPa. The same steel is used in a complex stress situation and the principal stresses are 200 MPa, 150 MPa and -100 MPa. Determine the factor of safety based on the three theories. = 0.3

4. The results from a 60 o strain gauge rosette are

A = 600 

B = -200   C = 400 

= 0.3

Determine the principal strains and stresses.

E = 205 GPa

The same material failed at a stress level of 300 MPa in a tensile test. Calculate the safety factor of the complex situation based on the three theories. Assume that the stress in the 3 rd dimension is zero.

(Answers 1 = 747 , 2 = -211 , 1 = 154 MPa,

2 = 2.95 MPa, 1.95, 1.96 and 1.95).

5.

STRAIN ENERGY

Another theory for failure of materials is based on strain energy. This simply states that a component will fail when the total strain energy reaches a critical level. This is only covered in simple terms here because you need to develop formulae for the strain energy stored under various conditions and this is a major topic. This is covered in outcome 3.

Consider a bar of length L and cross sectional area A. If a tensile force is applied it stretches and the graph of force v extension is usually a straight line as shown. When the force reaches a value of F and corresponding extension x, the work done (W) is the area under the graph. Hence W = Fx/2 (the same as the area under the graph). Figure 4

Since the work done is the energy used up, this is now stored in the material as strain energy hence U = Fx/2 The stress in the bar is = F/A hence F = A The strain in the bar is = x/L hence x = L

For an elastic material up to the limit of proportionality, /= E (The modulus of elasticity) hence = /E

Substituting we find The volume of the bar is A L so

U = AL/2 = 2 AL/2E U = (2 /2E ) x volume of the bar

If σ is the critical stress level obtained from a tensile test then U is the critical strain energy then failure will occur in a stressed component of the same material when the strain energy reaches this value.

In the same way it can be shown that the strain energy in a round bar under pure torsion is given by:

U = (2 /4G) x volume of the bar. (is the maximum shear stress on the surface)

WORKED EXAMPLE No.4

Using the formulae given above, develop a formula to relate the maximum direct stress in a material to the maximum shear stress.

SOLUTION

Since the volume is unchanged we may equate U = (2 /2E ) x volume of the bar = (2 /4G) x volume of the bar. (2 /2E ) = (2 /4G) τ = σ√(2G/E)