Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

Agricultura tiin i practic

no. 1- 2(89-90)/2014

Agriculture - Science and Practice

ANALYSIS OF THE SMALL AND MEDIUM ROMANIAN


ENTERPRISES (SMEs) IN THE AGRO-FOOD INDUSTRY
Chiciudean Gabriela, Mrioara Ilea, D. Chiciudean

Univeristy of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, Mntur


St.3-5, 400372, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, gabriela_chirla@yahoo.com
Abstract: The article aim is to analyze the agro-food industry in Romania having as a
starting point the specific development of this sector at a European level being dominated by the
SMEs. In Romania 6.2% of the enterprises activate in the agro-food sector of which 92% are
represented by SMEs. Giving the dominant role of the SMEs for the agro-food industry both at
European level and national one, strategies must be adopted in order to sustain it and increase the
number of large companies which can supply more than a local market.
Keywords: Romania, employment, SMEs, agro-food sector

INTRODUCTION
The agro-food sector is an important component of the European economy.
Crawford (2006) highlights its essential role as a leant between farmers and the
consumers. In the European Union, the agro-food sector holds a share of 14, 5% of the
total turnover from the manufacturing industry. It is also a valuable source of labor, 14% of
the employees within the manufacturing sector are working in the agro-food area
(European Commission). So, the SMEs role consists in three important pillars which
sustain the European economy: entrepreneurial skills, innovation and employment
(European Commission Guide, 2014).

MATERIALS AND METHODS


The article aim is to analyze the agro-food industry in Romania, especially the
positioning of the Romanian SMEs within the Romanian economy, given their major
importance for the European Union. The main objectives of the study consist in
determining the number of the Romanian SMEs the distribution number by regions of
development and the positioning of the agro-food enterprises, their field of activity and
number of employees. In order to attaint the objectives, secondary data was analyzed
mostly relied on the European Commission reports, Eurostat data and data from the
Romanian National Institute of Statistics.
The definition of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) at a
European level is referring to that category of enterprises with a number of employees
fewer than 250 persons, annual turnover less than 50 millions of Euro and/or an annual
balance sheet total not exceeding 43 million euro (EC, 2003)
In 2012 in the European Union there are 20.771.281 enterprises of which
20.727.627 enterprises are included in the SMEs category and only 43.654 enterprises are
large (Figure 1). the structure of the agro-food industry is almost the same, 99% of the
enterprises are small and medium-sized (European Commission).

- 100 -

Agricultura tiin i practic

no. 1- 2(89-90)/2014

Agriculture - Science and Practice

Fig.1. Structure of enterprises in the European Union by size class


Source: Wymenga et al., (2012)

RESULTS AND DISCUTIONS


In Romania the manufacturing industry is represented by 46.004 enterprises of
which 2.888 enterprises are functioning in the agro-food industry. The structure of the
agro-food enterprises by size class indicate that the Romanian agro-food SMEs represent
98% of the total number of the agro-food enterprises. The industry sector is dominated by
micro and small enterprises with a weak financial power and limited posibilities in terms
of market.

Fig.2. Structure of the Romanian agro-food enterprises by size class


Source: proccessed after INSSE, 2014

Regarding the distribution of the Romanian enterprises by the national economy


main activities, it can be observed that between 2010-2012 their number decreased from
3071 in 2010 to 2888 enterprises in 2012. The largest number of enterprises are activating
in the meat and grain industry, followed by dairy and cheese (Table 1).

- 101 -

Agricultura tiin i practic

no. 1- 2(89-90)/2014

Agriculture - Science and Practice

Table 1
Distribution of the Romanian enterprises by the national economy main activities 20102012
Year
National economy main activities
Meat
Fish and sea food
Potatoes
Fruit and vegetables juice

2010

Fruit and vegetables


Oils and grease
Dairy and cheese
Grain products
Sugar
Tea and coffee
Wine
Cider and other wines from fruits
Other fermented drinks
Beer
Malt
Total

2011

2012

844
31
14
48

875
32
22
41

839
34
22
42

208
171
466
942
20
77
193
15
40
2
3071

196
156
466
817
19
73
181
10
33
3
2924

210
157
449
811
18
79
183
1
11
29
3
2888

Source: proccessed after INSSE, 2014

In 2012 in terms of human resources, 153.149 people were working in the food
industry from the total employes of 4.777.152 of every sector of activity, meaning 3%
from the total labor force (INSSE, 2014). Most of the agro-food eneterprises activate in
South-Eastern region of development, followed by the Nrth-Eastern region and the South
region. The less developed region in terms of agro-food industry is the Western region of
development (Figure3). the analysis by regions of development is useful for building future
strategies of improving and sustaining this industry.

Micro
Small
Medium-size
Large

Fig. 3. Distribution of the Romanian agro-food enterprises by regions of development and size in
2012
Source: proccessed after INSSE, 2014

- 102 -

Agricultura tiin i practic

no. 1- 2(89-90)/2014

Agriculture - Science and Practice

CONCLUSIONS
It can be concluded that the Romanian agro-food industry has the same structure
like the European Union, dominated by small and medium enterprises, of which the micro
enterprises have the highest share. The sector is having a weakness because of the reduced
number of large enterprises which could represent an important provider for other
countries. The most part of the Romanian agro-food enterprises activate in the meat, dairy
and grain sector. National strategies must be adopted in order to sustain local industry and
increase its financial power, but must of all, the capacity to become an important provider
not only at a national level, but also in the European Union.

REFERENCES
1. Crawford, I.M. (2006). Agricultural and food marketing management. FAO Agriculture
dept.
2. Wymenga P., V. Spanikova, A. Barker, J. Konings, E. Canton. (2012). EU SMEs in
2012: at the crossroads-Annual report on small and medium-sized enterprises in the EU. Ecorys.
3. ***European Commission. (2003). Article 2 of the Annex of Recommendation
2003/361/EC.
4. ***European Commission. (2012). The new SME definition- User guide and model
declaration, Enterprise and Industry Publications.
5. ***EuropeanCommission,http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/food/eumarket/index_en.htm, last accessed 6 June 2014.
6. ***INSSE. (2014) https://statistici.insse.ro/shop last accessed 6 June 2014.

- 103 -