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Pearson Edexcel

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International
Advanced Level

Chemistry

Advanced Subsidiary
Unit 2: Application of Core Principles of Chemistry
Sample Assessment
Time: 1 hour 30 minutes

Paper Reference

WCH02/01

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Instructions

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all questions.
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ACQUIRE

Institute for Higher Education


---Dimuthu Sandaruwan---

Total Marks

SECTION A
1

Solutions containing chlorate(I) ions are used as household bleaches and disinfectants. These
solutions decompose on heating as shown.
3Cl O Cl O3 + 2Cl
Which oxidation state is shown by chlorine in each of these three ions?

Cl O

Cl O3

Cl

+1

+3

+3

+1

+1

+5

+5

+1

In which species are the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons all different?

A
3

27
13 Al

35
17 Cl

32 2
16 S

39 +
19 K

The reaction pathway for a reversible reaction is shown below.

30
energy
/ kJ mol1

50

extent of reaction

Which statement is correct?

The activation energy of the reverse reaction is +80 kJ mol1.

The enthalpy change for the forward reaction is +30 kJ mol1.

The enthalpy change for the forward reaction is +50 kJ mol1.

The enthalpy change for the reverse reaction is +30 kJ mol1.

Why does the rate of a gaseous reaction increase when the pressure is increased at a constant
temperature?

More particles have energy that exceeds the activation energy.

The particles have more space in which to move.

The particles move faster.

There are more frequent collisions between particles.

5
5 A solution of Sn2+ ions will reduce an acidified solution of MnO4 ions to Mn2+ ions. The Sn2+ ions
are oxidised to Sn4+ ions in this reaction.

How many moles of Mn2+ ions are formed when a solution containing 9.5 g of SnCl 2 (Mr: 190) is
added to an excess of acidified KMnO4 solution?
A

0.010

0.020

0.050

0.125

6 In which row of the table are all statements comparing the compounds of magnesium and barium
correct?

solubility of hydroxides

solubility of sulfates

solubility of
magnesium
hydroxide

solubility of barium
hydroxide

solubility of
magnesium sulfate

solubility of barium
sulfate

higher

lower

higher

lower

higher

lower

lower

higher

lower

higher

higher

lower

lower

higher

lower

higher

7 What happens when iodine solution is added to a solution of sodium bromide?

A reaction occurs without changes in oxidation state.

Bromide ions are oxidised, iodine atoms are reduced.

Bromide ions are reduced, iodine atoms are oxidised.

No reaction occurs.

8 Bromine reacts with ethene to form 1,2-dibromoethane.

What is the correct description of the organic intermediate in this reaction?


A

It has a negative charge.

It is a free radical.

It is a nucleophile.

It is an electrophile.

9 Aqueous sodium hydroxide reacts with 1-bromopropane to give propan-1-ol.

How should the first step in the mechanism be described?


A

by a curly arrow from a lone pair on the OH ion to the C+ atom of 1-bromopropane

by a curly arrow from the C+ atom of 1-bromopropane to the OH ion

by a curly arrow from the CBr bond to the C atom

by the homolytic fission of the CBr bond

10

2.30 g of ethanol were mixed with an excess of aqueous acidified potassium dichromate(VI). The
reaction mixture was then boiled under reflux for one hour. The desired organic product was then
collected by distillation. The yield of product was 60.0 %.
What mass of product was collected?
A

1.32 g

1.38 g

1.80 g

3.20 g

Questions 11 & 12, The responses A to D should be selected on the basis of

1, 2 and 3
are
correct

1 and 2
only are
correct

2 and 3
only are
correct

1 only
is
correct

No other combination of statements is used as a correct response.


11 The Group II metals have higher melting points than the Group I metals.

Which factors could contribute towards the higher melting points?


1

There are smaller interatomic distances in the metallic lattices of the Group II metals.

More electrons are available from each Group II metal atom for bonding the atom into the
metallic lattice.

Group II metals have a higher first ionisation energy than the corresponding Group I metal.

12 Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory should be used to answer this question.

Which species are trigonal planar?

13.

14.

BH3

CH3+

PH3

In which substance is hydrogen bonding present?


A.

CH4

C.

CH3CHO

B.

CH2 F 2

D.

CH3OH

Which is the most volatile substance?


A.

Chlorine

B.

Fluorine

C. Sodium chloride

D.

Sodium uoride

15. Which is the smallest bond angle in the PF5 molecule?


A.
16.

B.

90

109.5

D.

C. 120

180

Which types of hybridization are shown by the carbon atoms in the compound CH 2 = CH CH  ?
I.
II.
III.
A.

sp
sp 2
sp

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III

17. Which are characteristics typical of a free radical?


I.
II.
III.

18.

It has a lone pair of electrons.


It can be formed by the homolytic ssion of a covalent bond.
It is uncharged.

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III

Which compound is formed by the dehydration of butan-2-ol, CH CH(OH)CH 2 CH ?


A.

CH CH 2 CH 2 CHO

C.

CH CHCHCH

B.

CH COCH 2 CH 

D.

CH2CH 2 CH 2 CH 

SECTION B
21

(a) The following is an equation for a redox reaction.


+

+
2NO + 12H + 10I 2NH4 + 2H2O + 5I2
(i) Define oxidation in terms of electrons.
01 mark
.............................................................................................................................................
+

(ii) Deduce the oxidation state of nitrogen in NO and of nitrogen in NH4


+

Oxidation state of nitrogen in NH4

01 mark

................................................................................

Oxidation state of nitrogen in NO ..................................................................................


02 mark

01 mark
(iii) Identify the species formed by oxidation in this reaction............................................

(b) When chlorine gas is bubbled into an aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide, hydrogen
ions, sulphate ions and chloride ions are formed.
(i) Write a half-equation for the formation of chloride ions from chlorine.

01 mark

.............................................................................................................................................
(ii) Write a half-equation for the formation of hydrogen ions and sulphate ions from
sulphur dioxide and water.
01 mark
.............................................................................................................................................
(iii) Hence, deduce an overall equation for the reaction which occurs when chlorine is
bubbled into aqueous sulphur dioxide.
02 mark
.............................................................................................................................................

Total 08 Marks

22 An excess of potassium iodide was added to an aqueous solution of chlorine. In a titration the
3
3
liberated iodine required 28.2 cm of a 0.360 mol dm solution of sodium
thiosulphate for complete reaction.
(a) Calculate the number of moles of sodium thiosulphate used in the titration.
........................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................
(2 marks)
(b) Write an equation for the reaction between thiosulphate ions and iodine.
........................................................................................................................................................
(1 mark)
(c) Calculate the number of moles of iodine which reacted with the sodium thiosulphate
used in the titration.
........................................................................................................................................................
(1 mark)
(d) Write an equation for the reaction between potassium iodide and chlorine.
........................................................................................................................................................
(1 mark)
(e) Calculate the mass of chlorine in the original solution which reacted with potassium
iodide.
........................................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................................
(3 marks)
(f) Name an indicator which could be used when a solution of iodine is titrated with sodium
thiosulphate solution from a burette. State the colour change at the end-point.
Indicator .......................................................................................................................................
Colour change ..............................................................................................................................
(2 marks)

10 Marks

23

(a) Samples of solid sodium fluoride, sodium chloride, sodium bromide and sodium iodide
are each warmed separately with concentrated sulphuric acid. All four
compounds react with concentrated sulphuric acid but only two can reduce it.
(i) Identify the two halides which do not reduce concentrated sulphuric acid. Write an
equation for the reaction which does occur with one of these two halides.
02 Marks
(ii) Identify the two halides which reduce concentrated sulphuric acid to sulphur
dioxide. Using half-equations for the oxidation and reduction processes,
deduce an overall equation for the formation of sulphur dioxide when
concentrated sulphuric acid reacts with one of these halides.

02 Marks
(iii) In addition to sulphur dioxide, two further reduction products are
formed when one of these two halides reacts with concentrated sulphuric acid.
Identify the two reduction products and write a half-equation to show the
formation of one of them from concentrated sulphuric acid.

02 marks
(b) How would you distinguish between separate solutions of sodium chloride, sodium
bromide and sodium iodide using solutions of silver nitrate and ammonia?
02 marks

(c) Ions of Group 7 elements take part in displacement reactions. These reactions can be used to
compare the reactivities of the elements within Group 7.
A student adds aqueous solutions of halogens to test-tubes containing solutions of halide
ions. The resulting mixtures are then shaken with cyclohexane, an organic solvent.
One of the students results is shown in the table.
experiment
number
1
2
3

experiment details
addition of Cl 2(aq) to I (aq) ions

addition of Cl 2(aq) to Br (aq) ions

colour seen within the


organic solvent
orange

addition of Br2(aq) to Cl (aq) ions

(i) Complete the table to show the expected colours.

[2]

(ii) Write the ionic equation for the reaction taking place in experiment 2.
...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(iii) These three experiments alone are unable to confirm the order of reactivity for Cl 2, Br2
and I2.
Suggest one further displacement reaction which could be carried out to confirm the
order of reactivity of Cl 2, Br2 and I2.
...........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [1]
(d) Chlorine gas reacts with water as shown below.
Cl 2(g) + H2O(l)

HCl O(aq) + HCl (aq)

(i) Using oxidation numbers, explain why this reaction is an example of disproportionation.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [2]
(ii)

State one benefit for public health, of the reaction between chlorine gas and water.
...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(e) Group 2 elements and compounds show periodic trends. One trend is shown by the effect of
heat upon Group 2 carbonates.
A student carried out an experiment to find out the volume of carbon dioxide obtained by
heating a weighed sample of magnesium carbonate.
The student placed a 1.47 g sample of MgCO3 into a test-tube and heated it until there was
no further change in mass.
The following reaction took place.
MgCO3(s)
(i)

MgO(s) + CO2(g)

What type of reaction is this?


...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii)

What volume of CO2, in dm3, would have been given off when measured at room
temperature and pressure?
The molar mass of MgCO3 = 84.3 g mol1

(iii)

answer = ..................................dm3 [2]

The student repeated the experiment a further three times, using the same number of
moles of CaCO3, SrCO3 and BaCO3.
What trend in the behaviour of the Group 2 carbonates would be observed by the
student?
...........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [2]
[Total Marks: 20]

24
(a)

In each of the following questions, you should draw the structure of the compound in
the space provided.
Draw the structure of the alkene that would form 1,2-dibromo-3-methylbutane when
reacted with bromine.

(1 mark)
(b)

Draw the structure of the alcohol with molecular formula C4H10O that is resistant to
oxidation by acidified potassium dichromate(VI).

(1 mark)
(c)

Draw the structure of the alkene that has a peak, due to its molecular ion, at m/z = 42
in its mass spectrum.

(1 mark)
(d)

Aluminium and thallium are elements in Group 3 of the Periodic Table.


Both elements form compounds and ions containing chlorine and bromine.
Write an equation for the formation of aluminium chloride from its elements.

............................................................................................................................................
(1 mark)
(e)

An aluminium chloride molecule reacts with a chloride ion to form the AlCl4 ion.
Name the type of bond formed in this reaction. Explain how this type of bond is
formed in the AlCl4 ion.
Type of bond ......................................................................................................................
Explanation .........................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
(2 marks)

(f)

Aluminium chloride has a relative molecular mass of 267 in the gas phase.
Deduce the formula of the aluminium compound that has a relative molecular mass
of 267
............................................................................................................................................
(1 mark)

(g)

Deduce the name or formula of a compound that has the same number of atoms, the
same number of electrons and the same shape as the AlCl4 ion.
............................................................................................................................................
(1 mark)

(h)

Draw and name the shape of the TlBr52 ion.


Shape of the TlBr52 ion.

(i)

Draw the shape of the TlCl2+ ion.

(1 mark)
(ii) Explain why the TlCl2+ ion has the shape that you have drawn
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
(1 mark)

Total 10 Marks

25

Alcohols are used in the industrial production of many organic compounds.


(a) Complete the flowchart below to show the organic product formed in each of the reactions of
butan-1-ol.

K2Cr2O7(aq) / H2SO4(aq)
reflux

acid / heat
CH3CH2CH2CH2OH

K2Cr2O7(aq) / H2SO4(aq)
distil

CH3COOH / H2SO4
reflux

[4]
(b) Butan-1-ol can be prepared by the alkaline hydrolysis of 1-iodobutane.
CH3CH2CH2CH2I + OH

CH3CH2CH2CH2OH + I

The reaction mixture is gently heated for 20 minutes.


(i)

The curly arrow model is used in reaction mechanisms to show the movement of electron
pairs.
Use the curly arrow model to outline the mechanism for the alkaline hydrolysis of
1-iodobutane.
In your answer, include the name of the mechanism, the type of bond fission and relevant
dipoles.

name of mechanism ..........................................................................................................


type of bond fission ...................................................................................................... [5]

(ii)

A student decides to prepare butan-1-ol by the alkaline hydrolysis of 1-chlorobutane.


Suggest, with reasons, any change in the conditions from those used in the alkaline
hydrolysis of 1-iodobutane.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [2]
[Total Marks: 11]

26

Infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are used to identify substances.


(a) Police use breathalysers to detect ethanol in the breath of drivers.
(i)

Some modern breathalysers use infrared spectroscopy.


Suggest two characteristic infrared absorptions that could be used to identify the
presence of ethanol vapour.
1 .
2 .

(ii)

[2]

Some older breathalysers used the redox reaction between acidified dichromate(VI) ions
and ethanol. A colour change was seen which indicated the presence of ethanol in the
breath.
What is the colour change that would be seen in this breathalyser if ethanol was present
in the breath?
.. to ..

(iii)

[1]

Give an equation to show the reaction between acidified dichromate(VI) ions and
ethanol.
Use [O] to represent the acidified dichromate(VI) ions, the oxidising agent.
...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) Infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are used in the search for organic molecules in
outer space.
Compound A has been analysed by infrared spectroscopy.
100

80
transmittance
(%)
60

40

20
4000

3500

3000

2500
2000
1500
1
wavenumber / cm

1000

500

The mass spectrum of compound A is shown below.


100
80
relative 60
abundance
(%)
40
20
0.0

10

20

30
m/z

40

50

60

(i)

A research chemist concludes that compound A is a hydrocarbon.


What evidence is there to support this conclusion?
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii)

How does the mass spectrum confirm that compound A has a molecular formula of
C4H10?
...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(iii)

Draw the structural isomers of C4H10.

[1]
(iv)

Identify the fragment ions that give rise to the following peaks in the mass spectrum.
m/z 15 is .
m/z 29 is .
m/z 43 is .

(v)

[3]

Use your answer to part (iv) to identify which of the isomers in part (iii) is compound A.
Explain your reasoning.

[1]
[Total: 13]

Page 2

Mark Scheme
GCE A LEVEL May/June 2013
Question
Number

Key

1
2
3

C
D
A

4
5

D
B

6
7

Syllabus
9701
Question
Number

Key

11

12
13
14
15

B
D
B
A

C
D

16
17

C
A

9
10

A
C

18
19
20

A
C
B

Paper
11