New Correlations of Single-phase Friction Factor for Turbulent Pipe Flow and Evaluation of Existing Single-phase Friction Factor Correlations

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

72 Aufrufe

New Correlations of Single-phase Friction Factor for Turbulent Pipe Flow and Evaluation of Existing Single-phase Friction Factor Correlations

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- API 570 Mock Up Open Book Questions 26
- Boe Exam Paper Sep 2013
- Vortex Breaker
- Check List for Piping GA
- UNSTEADY MHD FLOW OF A NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID UNDER EFFECT OF COUPLE STRESSES BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL PLATES
- Water Loop Calc s
- IQfuture Ppt
- What is Chemical Engineering
- cfd2003
- Nominal Pipe Size
- BAG Series G
- TYPES OF WC
- Full Text 01
- Chemical Engineering Equipment Types, Descriptions, Design, Selection-Index
- De Pressuring
- ghkhljkljkl
- TACITE_UG
- Tugas 2 Hidrodinamika 1 Dosen Bapak Sujantoko St, Mt
- A jet engine noise measurement thru CFD and Acoustic radiology.pdf
- Polyflow Extrusion WS08 Immiscible Fluids by Species

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/nucengdes

evaluation of existing single-phase friction factor correlations

Xiande Fang , Yu Xu, Zhanru Zhou

Institute of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao St., Nanjing 210016, China

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 13 August 2010

Received in revised form

22 November 2010

Accepted 21 December 2010

a b s t r a c t

The determination of single-phase friction factor of pipe ow is essential to a variety of industrial applications, such as single-phase ow systems, two-phase ow systems and supercritical ow systems. There

are a number of correlations for the single-phase friction factor. It still remains an issue to examine

similarities and differences between them to avoid misusing. This paper evaluates the correlations for

the single-phase friction factor against the Nikuradse equation and the Colebrook equation, respectively.

These two equations are the base for the turbulent portion of the Moody diagram, and are deemed as

the standard to test the explicit counterparts. The widely used correlations for smooth pipes, the Blasius correlation and the Filonenko correlation, have big errors in some Re ranges. Simpler forms of the

single-phase friction factor covering large ranges are needed. For this reason, two new correlations of

single-phase friction factor for turbulent ow are proposed, one for smooth pipes and the other for

both smooth and rough pipes. Compared with the Nikuradse equation, the new correlation for smooth

pipes has the mean absolute relative error of 0.022%, with the maximum relative error of 0.045% in

the Reynolds number (Re) range from 3000 through 108 . It is an idea replacement of the correlations

of Blasius and Filonenko. The new correlation for both smooth and rough pipes has the mean absolute

relative error of 0.16% and the maximum relative error of 0.50% compared with the Colebrook equation

in the range of Re = 3000108 and Rr = 0.00.05, which is the most simplest correlation in that error band.

2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

In-pipe (including channel) pressure drop calculations are

important for designing a variety of industrial thermo-uid

equipment and systems, such as tubes, ducts, heat exchangers,

hydraulic systems, nuclear, chemical and petroleum processes,

various renewable energy systems, and heating, ventilation, airconditioning and refrigerating systems, etc.

The single-phase friction factor of pipe ow is not only the base

for determining single-phase friction pressure drop, but also the

foundation for pressure drop calculations of supercritical ow and

two-phase ow. For nuclear industries and systems with CO2 as the

refrigerant or coolant, pressure drop of supercritical ow has been

an important issue to be explored. The ow pattern under supercritical pressures is somewhat similar to the conventional single-phase

ow, which results in the practice to develop supercritical friction

factor correlations based on single-phase friction factor equations

(Petrov and Popov, 1988; Pioro et al., 2004; Yamshita et al., 2003).

Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 25 8489 6381; fax: +86 25 8489 6381.

E-mail address: xd fang@yahoo.com (X. Fang).

0029-5493/$ see front matter 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.nucengdes.2010.12.019

pipes can be classied as two categories: Homogeneous and separated ow approaches. The former treats two-phase ow as a

pseudo single-phase ow characterized by suitably averaged properties of the liquid and vapor phase (Chen et al., 2001; Shannak,

2008). The latter considers a two-phase ow to be articially separated into two streams, each owing in its own pipe (Cavallini et al.,

2009; Chisholm, 1967; Dalkilic et al., 2010; Friedel, 1979; Lockhart

and Martinelli, 1949; Lee and Mudawar, 2005; Sun and Mishima,

2009; Zhang et al., 2010), and then chooses a single-phase friction

factor correlation to calculate the related friction pressure drops.

There are a number of correlations for the single-phase friction factor of pipe ow, whose ranges of validity were described

by the corresponding author(s). The criteria vary, however, from

author(s) to author(s). Therefore, a through evaluation is needed

to provide the guide to the users. Romeo et al. (2002) compared

the available correlations of the single-phase friction factor and

ranked them. However, he did not provide details of the errors

each correlation has. Yldrm (2009) conducted the most comprehensive analysis of existing correlations for single-phase friction

factor. He provided the maximum and minimum errors each correlation has in the ranges of 4000 Re 108 and 106 Rr 0.05,

898

The standard data bank Yldrm used was generated by reading a Moody diagram (Moody, 1944) using Techdig 2.0 software.

This method can cause remarkable reading errors, which makes

the nding disputable. Our evaluation does not support Yldrms

error estimations because Yldrm greatly overestimated errors

and offered different accuracy-based rank order for the correlations

evaluated. For example, Yldrm gave maximum relative errors

(MREs) of 3.76% and 3.96 to the Chen (1979) and the Zigrang

and Sylvester (1982) correlations, respectively. However, our evaluation shows that the Chen correlation has a MRE of 0.5%, while

the ZigrangSylvester correlation has a MRE of 0.2%, which is

smaller than Chen s. Furthermore, both Romeo et al. and Yldrm

did not pay attention to correlations for smooth pipes. It is the

single-phase friction factor correlations for smooth pipes that are

used most widely. Unfortunately, the widely used correlations for

smooth pipes, the Blasius correlation and the Filonenko correlation, do not have good accuracy in the reported Re ranges, which

not only needs to redene their Re ranges of validity, but also needs

to develop new alternatives.

This work will evaluate the correlations of the single-phase friction factor for turbulent pipe ow so that the Re and Rr ranges

of validity of each correlation are identied to provide a clear

vision for users. The issue of single-phase friction factor correlations for smooth pipes is also addressed. New compact accurate

correlations of the single-phase friction factor for smooth pipes

and covering both smooth and rough pipes will be proposed,

respectively.

2. Brief review of single-phase friction factor correlations

for pipe ow

For

single-phase

fully

developed

internal

laminar

ow (Re 2000), the widely used equation is given by

HagenPoiseuille s law, which can be expressed as

f =

64

Re

(1)

(1933) proposed the following equation:

1

= 2 log(Re

f

f ) 0.8

(2)

The Nikuradse equation is the base for the turbulent smooth portion

of the Moody diagram (Moody, 1944). However, it is implicit for

f, thus needs iteration that is not convenient. Consequently, the

Blasius equation and the Filonenko equation are widely used for

calculating turbulent ow in smooth pipes (Dang and Hihara, 2004;

Huai et al., 2005; Incropera and DeWitt, 2001; Son and Park, 2006;

Yoon et al., 2003). For Re 2 104 , the Blasius equation is of the

form

f =

0.316

Re1/4

(3a)

f =

0.184

Re1/5

(3b)

f = (0.79 ln Re 1.64)2

(4)

Incropera and DeWitt (2001) gave the Filonenko equation applicable Re range of 3000 Re 5 106 .

smooth pipes both in laminar and in turbulent regimes:

1

= A

1.73718A ln A

2.62122A(ln A)2

+

1.73718 + A

(1.73718 + A)3

3.03568A(ln A)3

(5a)

(1.73718 + A)4

A = 4 log Re 0.4

(5b)

combines experimental results of studies of turbulent ow in

smooth and rough pipes:

= 2 log

f

2.51

Rr

+

3.7

Re f

(6)

of Re = 4000108 and Rr = 00.05. It should be mentioned that the

Colebrook equation was developed by Colebrook (19381939), but

the Colebrook and White paper (1937) is often erroneously cited as

the source of the equation.

The Colebrook (or ColebrookWhite) equation contributes the

rough portion of the Moody diagram. Due to its demonstrated applicability and Moodys work, the Colebrook equation has become the

acceptable standard for testing single-phase friction factor correlations in turbulent regimes. It is not convenient to use, however,

because its implicit expression in f requires iteration. For this reason, a number of approximate explicit counterparts have been

proposed (Table 1).

3. Evaluation of the existing correlations

Based on the above review, we evaluate the explicit correlations

against the Colebrook equation in the range of Re = 4000108 and

Rr = 00.05. The rank, which is based on accuracy, is given in Table 1.

The detail accuracies are listed in Tables 27, where the relative

error (RE) is dened as

RE =

f (i)pred f (i)st

f (i)st

(7)

individual approximate correlation, and f(i)st is the standard singlephase friction factor value calculated with the Colebrook equation

for the turbulent rough region and the Nikuradse equation for the

turbulent smooth portion.

To reduce the complexity of Tables 27, the following measures

are taken:

(1) The correlations of Churchill (1973) and SwameeJain are omitted because they are very close to the Jain correlation both

in form and in prediction, with the Jain correlation performing a little better, so that the Jain correlation is chosen as the

representative.

(2) If any of Haaland, Moody, Wood and Round correlations does

not have considerable Re range in the specied RE, it will not

appear in that table.

(3) If any of Serghides, ZigrangSylvester, Romeo et al., Chen, Barr

and SonnadGoudar correlations has higher degree accuracy

than the RE specied in a table, it will not appear in that table.

3.1. Summary of evaluation of the existing correlations covering

rough pipes

From Tables 27, it follows:

899

Table 1

Single-phase friction factor correlations covering roughness: rank by accuracy in the range of Re = 4000108 and Rr = 00.05.

Rank

Model

Correlation

Serghides (1984)

1/

Range of validity

reported in the

original paper

f = A (B A) /(C 2B A),

Re > 2100

A = 2log(12/Re + Rr/3.7),

B = 2log(2.51A/Re + Rr/3.7)

C = 2log(2.51/Re + Rr/3.7)

0 Rr 0.05

f = 2 log{Rr/3.7 5.02/Re log[Rr/3.7 5.02/Re log(Rr/3.7 + 13/Re)]}

1/

1/

f = 2 log(Rr/3.7065 5.0272/Re A)

Chen (1979)

1/

Barr (1981)

1/

0.52

0.7

f = 2 log[Rr/3.7 + 4.518 log(Re/7)/Re(1 + Re Rr /29]

107 Rr 0.05

1/

f = 0.8686 ln[0.4587Re/S

S/(S+1)

Manadilli (1997)

1/

Haaland (1983)

1/

4000 Re 108

106 Rr 0.05

Jain (1976)

1/

1/

Churchill (1973)

1/

5200 Re 108

0 Rr 0.05

1.11

f = 1.8 log[(Rr/3.7)

+ 6.9/Re]

4000 Re 108

106 Rr 0.05

4 105 Rr 0.05

106 Rr 0.05

f = 2 log(Rr/3.715 + 5.72/Re0.9 )

5000 Re 107

f = 2 log(Rr/3.7 + 5/74/Re0.9 )

5000 Re 108

f = 2 log[Rr/3.7 + (7/Re0.9 )]

f = 8[(8/Re)

Churchill (1977)

4000 Re 4 108

a

S = 0.124RrRe + ln(0.4587Re)

7

0 Rr 0.05

12

+A

A = (37530/Re)

3/2

16

1/12

Any Re > 0

[2.457 ln((7/Re)

0.9

+ 0.27Rr)]

1/3

Moody (1947)

10

Wood (1966)

11

Round (1980)

1/

16

0 Rr 0.05

4000 Re 5 108

0 Rr 0.01

4000 Re 5 107

105 Rr 0.04

0.134

4000 Re 4 108

0 Rr 0.05

(2) In the range of Re = 4000108 and Rr = 00.05, the Serghides

correlation has accuracy of 0.1%, the ZigrangSylvester correlation and the Romeo et al. correlation have accuracies of 0.2%,

the Chen correlation has accuracy of 0.5%, the Barr correlation

and the GoudarSonnad correlation have accuracies of 1%, the

Haaland correlation has the accuracy of 2%, and all others have

errors exceed 2%.

(3) The correlations of Haaland, Jain and Churchill (1977) are

closely tied in accuracies. The Haaland correlation has the accu-

accuracy of 0.1%.

(4) The Churchill (1977) correlation is the only one covering all ow

regimes. However, its accuracy is compromised.

(5) The Manadilli correlation has the simplest form in the error of

1% and Rr 0.0005.

(6) The correlation which has high accuracy usually has complicated form. The compact and accurate correlation covering

large ranges is still wanted.

Table 2

Re range for given relative roughness under RE of 0.1%.

Model

Rr

0.000001

0.000005

0.00001

0.00005

0.0001

0.0005

4E39E3

2E61E8

2E41E8

1E42E6

2E41E8

2E41E8

4E31E4

3E51E8

2E41E8

9E34E4

2E71E8

3E41E8

4E31E4

2E51E8

2E41E8

6E61E8

Barr

4E39E3

8E51E8

2E41E8

1E43E5

6E71E8

2E41E8

4E31E8

Romeo et al.

Chen

4E31E8a

4E39E3

3E61E8

3E41E8

1E44E7

SonnadGoudar

Manadilli

7E71E8

4E32E6

2E71E8

4E37E5

2E71E8

4E33E5

3E61E8

4E36E4

Jain

Churchill (1977)

Serghides

ZigrangSylvester

a

b

0.001

0.005

0.01

0.05

9E31E8

1E61E8

5E31E8

5E51E8

4E31E8

6E41E8

4E34E5

2E42E6

2E51E8

6E41E8

4E41E8

4E51E8

2E71E8

2E51E8

7E61E8

2E47E4

2E61E8

3E41E8

1E61E8

4E51E8

2E61E8

4E32E4

6E71E8

4E71E8

5E71E8

8E31E5

2E61E8

5E41E8

2E61E8

7E61E8

1E71E8

4E61E8

5E61E8

7E54E6

2E61E8

4E51E6

6E51E8

2E53E6

Bold value covers the Rr range in the whole box it occupies. This also applies to Tables 37.

Symbol denotes not applicable. This also applies to Tables 37.

7E31E8

3E51E8

900

Table 3

Re range for given relative roughness under RE of 0.2%.

Model

Rr

0.000001

0.000005

0.00001

0.00005

0.0001

0.0005

0.001

0.005

0.01

0.05

ZigrangSylvester

Romeo et al.

Chen

4E31E8

4E31E8

7E31E8

7E31E8

5E32E4

5E51E8

3E41E8

2E51E8

6E61E8

5E31E4

2E51E8

2E41E8

2E51E8

4E61E8

4E31E8

7E31E8

5E61E8

4E32E6

6E31E8

3E41E8

9E51E8

4E31E8

2E41E8

5E51E8

6E31E8

5E31E8

2E51E8

Haaland

Jain

Churchill (1977)

5E61E8

3E71E8

3E71E8

6E31E5

3E61E8

2E41E8

7E51E8

4E35E4

3E71E8

5E61E8

2E71E8

3E71E8

4E31E8

7E31E8

1E71E8

4E38E6

7E33E5

5E61E8

9E31E8

2E61E8

4E31E5

4E71E8

9E61E8

4E71E8

5E71E8

4E31E8

Barr

SonnadGoudar

Manadilli

7E36E6

2E71E8

7E31E8

3E61E8

4E31E6

2E61E8

4E61E8

5E61E8

6E51E8

2E61E8

3E61E8

8E41E8

5E51E8

6E51E8

2E41E8

3E51E8

4E51E8

4E41E8

7E41E6

1E51E8

0.0005

0.001

0.005

0.01

0.05

5E31E8

3E41E8

9E51E8

1E41E8

3E51E8

4E31E8

7E31E8

2E51E8

4E31E8

5E41E8

3E51E8

5E51E8

3E41E8

2E51E8

4E31E8

1E51E8

7E31E8

4E41E8

6E51E8

2E51E8

2E51E8

5E41E8

Table 4

Re range for given relative roughness under RE of 0.5%.

Model

Rr

0.000001

0.000005

0.00001

0.00005

0.0001

8E41E8

8E41E8

2E61E8

7E51E7

6E61E8

6E57E6

9E61E8

5E55E6

6E41E8

4E32E5

5E61E8

3E61E8

8E31E8

Churchill (1977)

5E58E6

4E56E6

Moody

Wood

3E54E6

7E71E8

7E41E8

4E38E5

8E61E8

4E61E8

2E52E6

7E61E8

1E41E6

1E71E8

1E41E6

5E61E8

2E41E5

5E31E8

4E41E8

4E32E4

2E61E8

6E51E8

1E42E5

7E51E8

2E42E5

1E61E8

2E41E5

0.00001

0.00005

0.0001

0.0005

0.001

0.005

0.01

0.05

9E41E8

6E41E8

3E41E8

5E32E4

8E51E8

6E31E8

7E31E8

4E33E4

2E41E5

4E31E4

3E51E8

6E31E8

8E31E8

4E31E5

6E34E4

4E31E4

2E51E8

4E31E4

1E51E8

8E31E8

1E41E8

4E33E4

5E41E8

6E41E8

5E32E4

4E41E8

5E41E8

6E41E8

2E41E8

2E41E8

Chen

Barr

SonnadGoudar

Manadilli

4E31E8

4E31E8

7E41E8

4E31E8

Haaland

Jain

Table 5

Re range for given relative roughness under RE of 1%.

Model

Rr

0.000001

0.000005

Barr

SonnadGoudar

Manadilli

4E31E8

4E31E8

4E31E8

Haaland

5E31E8

5E31E8

Jain

Churchill (1977)

Moody

Wood

6E34E7

7E33E7

4E32E4

6E31E8

7E31E8

4E32E4

7E64E7

5E36E4

4E51E8

6E31E8

7E31E8

4E32E4

Round

2E62E7

5E33E4

2E61E8

6E31E8

7E31E8

4E32E4

2E42E5

5E71E8

4E31E8

smooth pipes

below:

Both the correlations special for smooth pipes and the correlations listed in Table 1 are evaluated against the Nikuradse equation

in the range of Re = 4000108 . The results for the RE range from

(1) The Blasius equation does not have good accuracy. The calculation shows that its error increases from 2.6% at Re = 2 106

to 22.2% at Re = 108 . Therefore, its usage should be limited to

Table 6

Re range for given relative roughness under RE of 2%.

Model

Rr

0.000001

Manadilli

Haaland

Jain

Churchill (1977)

Moody

Wood

Round

4E31E8

4E31E8

4E31E8

4E31E8

4E32E4

2E62E7

0.000005

4E32E4

7E64E7

0.00001

4E32E4

0.00005

4E32E4

2E42E5 5E71E8

0.0001

4E33E4

2E41E5

0.0005

4E31E5

6E34E4

0.001

4E33E4

0.005

7E31E8

9E31E8

5E32E4

0.01

0.05

1E41E8

7E31E8

1E41E8

2E41E8

6E41E8

7E31E8

8E31E8

901

Table 7

Re range for smooth portion under given RE.

Model

RE%

2

Danish et al.

Laminar

region and

4E31E8

1E41E8

4E38E3

4E31E8

4E31E8

4E31E8

4E31E8

4E31E8

4E31E8

4E31E8

3E31E8

4E31E8

4E31E8

4E34E4

3E51E8

Filonenko

Blasius

Serghides

ZigrangSylvester

Romeo et al.

Chen

Barr

SonnadGoudar

Manadilli

Haaland

Jain

Churchill (1977)

Moody

Round

0.5

0.2

0.1

0.05

2E41E8

4E42E7

1E67E6

2E71E8

3E61E8

2E49E6

2E45E6

9E32E6

7E41E8

5E34E7

6E34E7

5E33E7

4E32E4

4E61E8

2E61E7

5E59E6

2E78E7

the following:

f =

f =

0.316

Re1/4

0.184

Re1/5

(Re 2 104 )

(8a)

(2 104 Re 2 106 )

(8b)

f = (0.79 ln Re 1.64)2

(104 Re 108 )

(9)

(4) The correlations of Danish et al. and Serghides have the highest

accuracy, but they also are the most complicated ones, which

impedes their applications.

(5) The new compact and accurate correlation of the single-phase

fraction factor for the turbulent smooth portion is needed.

4. New correlations of the single-phase friction factor for

turbulent pipe ow

New correlations of the single-phase friction factor for turbulent

pipe ow are developed based on computer analysis. A date bank

of Re (i) Rr(j) = 44 24 = 1056 data points covering the regime of

Re = 3000108 and Rr = 0.00.05 is generated with the Colebrook

equation and the Nikuradse equation.

Based on regression and optimization with software, two correlations are proposed, one is for smooth pipes, and the other covers

both smooth and rough regions in the range of Rr = 0.00.05. The

former is developed considering that the single-phase friction factor for smooth pipes has more widely applications than those for

rough pipes have, and that the commonly used equations have big

errors and can not cover Re range of 4000108 .

4.1. New correlation of the single-phase friction factor for

turbulent ow in smooth pipes

For turbulent ow in smooth pipes, the following correlation is

proposed:

150.39

Re0.98865

152.66

Re

2

(10)

2E47E7

2E42E7

4E37E6

absolute relative error (MARE) of 0.022% and the maximum RE of

0.045% compared with the Nikuradse equation. Therefore, it has

equivalent accuracy to but much simpler form than the correlations

of Danish et al. and Serghides have, just one term more than the

Filonenko equation. The MARE is dened as

1 f (i)pred f (i)st

MARE =

N

f (i)st

N

(2) For the given Re ranges above, both Eqs. (8a) and (8b) have the

maximum RE of 2.62%.

(3) The Filonenko equation has the maximum RE of 2% for

Re = 104 108 . Therefore, it is recommended to rewrite the Filonenko equation as the following:

f = 0.25 log

7E31E8

7E31E8

4E38E7

(11)

i=1

turbulent ow in both smooth and rough pipes

For turbulent ow in smooth pipes, the following correlation is

proposed:

60.525

56.291

+ 1.0712

Re1.1105

Re

2

(13)

has the MARE of 0.16% and the maximum RE of 0.50% compared

with the Colebrook equation. Compared with all existing correlations, the new correlation is the simplest one with the maximum

RE of 0.50% in the range of Re = 3000108 and Rr = 0.00.05.

5. Conclusions and suggestions

Fifteen correlations for the single-phase friction factor of pipe

ow are reviewed and evaluated. According to accuracy, the correlations covering rough portion are ranked in Table 1. In the range

of Re = 4000108 and Rr = 00.05, the accuracies are, respectively,

0.1% for the Serghides correlation, 0.2% for the ZigrangSylvester

correlation and Romeo et al. correlation, 0.5% for the Chen correlation, 1% for the Barr correlation and the GoudarSonnad

correlation, 2% for the Haaland correlation, and greater than 2%

for all other correlations listed in Table 1. The Churchill (1977)

correlation is the only one covering all ow regimes. Its accuracy,

however, is compromised.

The new applicable Re ranges for the Blasius equation and the

Filonenko equation are recommended, as shown in Eqs. (8) and

(9). Within the recommended Re range, the Blasius equation has

the maximum RE of 2.62%, and the Filonenko equation has the

maximum RE of 2%.

Two new correlations of single-phase friction factor for turbulent ow are proposed. One is for smooth pipes, and the other is for

902

f = 0.25 log

150.39

Re0.98865

2

152.66

Re

range of Re = 3000108 . The latter is the form of

60.525

56.291

+ 1.0712

Re1.1105

Re

with the MARE of 0.16% and the maximum RE of 0.50% in the range

of Re = 3000108 and Rr = 0.00.05.

Acknowledgment

This work was funded by AVIC Chengdu Aircraft Design &

Research institute, China.

References

Barr, D.I.H., 1981. Solutions of the ColebrookWhite functions for resistance to uniform turbulent ows. Proc. Inst. Civil Eng. 2, 71.

Cavallini, A., Col, D., Matkovic, M., Rossetto, L., 2009. Pressure drop during twophase ow of R134a and R32 in a single minichannel. ASME J. Heat Transfer 131,

033107-1033107-8.

Chen, I.Y., Yang, K.S., Chang, Y.J., Wang, C.C., 2001. Two-phase pressure drop of

airwater and R-410a in small horizontal tubes. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 27,

12931299.

Chen, N.H., 1979. An explicit equation for friction factor in pipe. Ind. Eng. Chem.

Fundam. 18 (3), 296297.

Chisholm, D., 1967. A theoretical basis for the LockhartMartinelli correlation for

two-phase ow. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 10, 17671778.

Churchill, S.W., 1973. Empirical expressions for the shear stressing turbulent ow

in commercial pipe. AIChE J. 19 (2), 375376.

Churchill, S.W., 1977. Friction-factor equation spans all uid-ow regimes. Chem.

Eng. 7, 9192.

Colebrook, C.F., 19381939. Turbulent ow in pipes, with particular reference to the

transition region between the smooth and rough pipe laws. J. Inst. Civil Eng. 11,

133.

Colebrook, C.F., White, C.M., 1937. Experiments with uid friction roughened pipes.

In: Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. A. Math. Phys. Sci. , pp. 367381, 161 (906).

Dalkilic, A.S., Agra, O., Teke, I., Wongwises, S., 2010. Comparison of frictional pressure

drop models during annular ow condensation of R600a in a horizontal tube at

low mass ux and of R134a in a vertical tube at high mass ux. Int. J. Heat Mass

Transfer 53, 20522064.

Dang, C., Hihara, E., 2004. In-tube cooling heat transfer of supercritical carbon dioxide. Part 1. Experimental measurement. Int. J. Refrig. 27, 736747.

Danish, M., Kumar, S., Kumar, S., 2011. Approximate explicit analytical expressions of

friction factor for ow of Bingham uids in smooth pipes using Adomian decomposition method. Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simulat. 16 (1), 239251.

Friedel, L., 1979. Improved friction pressure drop correlation for horizontal and

vertical two-phase pipe ow. Eur. Two-phase Flow Group Meet. Pap. E2 (18),

485492.

Haaland, S.E., 1983. Simple and explicit formulas for friction factor in turbulent pipe

ow. Trans. ASME, J. Fluids Eng. 105, 89.

Huai, X.L., Koyama, S., Zhao, T.S., 2005. An experimental study of ow and heat transfer of supercritical carbon dioxide in multi-port mini channels under cooling

conditions. Chem. Eng. Sci. 60, 33373345.

Incropera, F.P., DeWitt, D.P., 2001. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 5th ed.

John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Jain, A.K., 1976. Accurate explicit equations for friction factor. J. Hydraul. Div. ASCE

102 (5), 674677.

Lee, J., Mudawar, I., 2005. Two-phase ow in high-heat-ux micro-channel heat sink

for refrigeration cooling applications. Part I. Pressure drop characteristics. Int. J.

Heat Mass Transfer 48, 928940.

Lockhart, R.W., Martinelli, R.C., 1949. Proposed correlation of data for isothermal two-phase, two-component ow in pipes. Chem. Eng. Prog. 45 (1),

3948.

Manadilli, G., 1997. Replace implicit equations with sigmoidal functions. Chem. Eng.

J. 104 (8), 129132.

Moody, L.F., 1947. An approximate formula for pipe friction factors. Trans. ASME 69,

1005.

Moody, L.F., 1944. Friction factors for pipe ow. Trans. ASME, 671684.

Nikuradse, J., 1933. Stroemungsgesetze in rauhen Rohren. Ver. Dtsch. Ing. Forsch.

(361), 122.

Petrov, N.E., Popov, V.N., 1988. Heat transfer and hydraulic resistance with turbulent

ow in a tube of water under supercritical parameters of state. Thermal Eng. 35

(10), 577580.

Pioro, I.L., Duffey, R.B., Dumouchel, T.J., 2004. Hydraulic resistance of uids owing

in channels at supercritical pressures (survey). Nucl. Eng. Des. 231, 187197.

Romeo, E., Royo, C., Monzon, A., 2002. Improved explicit equations for estimation of

the friction factor in rough and smooth pipes. Chem. Eng. J. 86, 369374.

Round, G.F., 1980. An explicit approximation for the friction factor-Reynolds number

relation for rough and smooth pipes. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 58, 122123.

Serghides, T.K., 1984. Estimate friction factor accurately. Chem. Eng. 91, 6364.

Shannak, B.A., 2008. Frictional pressure drop of gas liquid two-phase ow in pipes.

Nucl. Eng. Des. 238, 32773284.

Son, C.H., Park, S.-J., 2006. An experimental study on heat transfer and pressure drop

characteristics of carbon dioxide during gas cooling process in a horizontal tube.

Int. J. Refrig. 29, 539546.

Sonnad, J.R., Goudar, C.T., 2006. Turbulent ow friction factor calculation using a

mathematically exact alternative to the ColebrookWhite equation. J. Hydraul.

Eng. ASCE 132 (8), 863867.

Sun, L., Mishima, K., 2009. Evaluation analysis of prediction methods for two-phase

ow pressure drop in mini-channels. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 35, 4754.

Swamee, P.K., Jain, A.K., 1976. Explicit equation for pipe ow problems. J. Hydraul.

Div. ASCE 102 (5), 657664.

Wood, D.J., 1966. An explicit friction factor relationship. Civil Eng. 60 (12), 6061.

Yamshita, T., Mori, H., Yoshida, S., Ohno, M., 2003. Heat transfer and pressure drop

of a supercritical pressure uid owing in a tube of small diameter. Mem. Fac.

Eng., Kyushu Univ. 63 (4), 227243.

Yldrm, G., 2009. Computer-based analysis of explicit approximations to the

implicit ColebrookWhite equation in turbulent ow friction factor calculation.

Adv. Eng. Softw. 40, 11831190.

Yoon, S.H., Kim, J.H., Hwang, Y.W., Kim, M.S., Min, K., Kim, Y., 2003. Heat transfer

and pressure drop characteristics during the in-tube cooling process of carbon

dioxide in the supercritical region. Int. J. Refrig. 26, 857864.

Zhang, W., Hibiki, T., Mishima, K., 2010. Correlations of two-phase frictional pressure

drop and void fraction in mini-channel. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 53, 453465.

Zigrang, D.J., Sylvester, N.D., 1982. Explicit approximations to the Colebrooks friction factor. AICHE J. 28 (3), 514515.

Xiande Fang is a professor at the Institute of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (NUAA), China. Ph.D. in Engineering

Thermophysics from University of Science and Technology of China. M.Sci.in Thermal Engineering from Tsinghua University, China. B. Eng. in Environmental Control

Engineering from NUAA. His research areas are air conditioning and refrigeration,

thermo-uid engineering, and environmental control engineering.

Yu Xu is a graduate student under the supervision of Prof. Xiande Fang. He received

his B. Eng. in Environmental Control Engineering from NUAA.

Zhanru Zhou is a graduate student under the supervision of Prof. Xiande Fang. She

received her B. Eng. in Environmental Control Engineering from NUAA.

- API 570 Mock Up Open Book Questions 26Hochgeladen vonRavindra S. Jivani
- Boe Exam Paper Sep 2013Hochgeladen vonSandip Warbhe
- Vortex BreakerHochgeladen vonarachman297988
- Check List for Piping GAHochgeladen vonmksk_23
- UNSTEADY MHD FLOW OF A NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID UNDER EFFECT OF COUPLE STRESSES BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL PLATESHochgeladen vonInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- Water Loop Calc sHochgeladen vonSharon Lambert
- IQfuture PptHochgeladen vonVictor Gonza Coaguila
- What is Chemical EngineeringHochgeladen vonkami9709
- cfd2003Hochgeladen vonALAAN89
- Nominal Pipe SizeHochgeladen vondombipin
- BAG Series GHochgeladen vonKassio Dutra
- TYPES OF WCHochgeladen vonLariza Lopega
- Full Text 01Hochgeladen vonشيماء الهاشمي
- Chemical Engineering Equipment Types, Descriptions, Design, Selection-IndexHochgeladen vonVuong Bui
- De PressuringHochgeladen vonPaula Rivera
- ghkhljkljklHochgeladen vonJose Jauregui
- TACITE_UGHochgeladen vonarmando0212-1
- Tugas 2 Hidrodinamika 1 Dosen Bapak Sujantoko St, MtHochgeladen vonArief
- A jet engine noise measurement thru CFD and Acoustic radiology.pdfHochgeladen vonsidhu12satpreet1
- Polyflow Extrusion WS08 Immiscible Fluids by SpeciesHochgeladen vonwoongs73
- 4- Compilado BernoulliHochgeladen vonFabio Duque Giraldo
- Draft PenawaranHochgeladen vonn.hartono
- AnswersHochgeladen vonMary Grace Almiranez
- Ref 7Hochgeladen vonIris Bustamante Pájaro
- Flow Simulation Report.docxHochgeladen vonbrayan
- PublicationHochgeladen vonMeet Patel
- F.O.F.F.Hochgeladen vonmaria
- question paper ocf .docxHochgeladen vonMohd Amir
- TheoryHochgeladen vonJairene Aranda
- Fluid_equations.pdfHochgeladen vonMáximo Valdés

- Www.thermopediaHochgeladen vonAjaykumar Tiwari
- Mixer Condnser With Vap at Tube InclinedHochgeladen vonAjaykumar Tiwari
- Reactor Condensor 0.95 Water at Shell FinalHochgeladen vonAjaykumar Tiwari
- FILTER PRESS #3 P&IDHochgeladen vonAjaykumar Tiwari
- Optimize Batch Distillation V2Hochgeladen vonAjaykumar Tiwari
- Emission Estimate MethodsHochgeladen vonAjaykumar Tiwari
- Photo for Friction From LabHochgeladen vonAjaykumar Tiwari
- Value Stream MappingHochgeladen vongodle7535
- Batch DistillationHochgeladen vonAjaykumar Tiwari
- PyroOil Gas and Liquid Complete AnalysysHochgeladen vonAjaykumar Tiwari
- Polyurethane AdhesivesHochgeladen vonssm_majeed
- Methods for Estimating Air Emissions From Chemical Manufacturing FacilitiesHochgeladen vonYaqoob Ali
- ChartHochgeladen vonAjaykumar Tiwari
- Equivalent MethodHochgeladen vonAjaykumar Tiwari
- New Text DocumentHochgeladen vonAjaykumar Tiwari
- 3.3 Piping Design Criteria Rev 2Hochgeladen vonMaheswaran Kurusamy
- Batch DistHochgeladen vonAjaykumar Tiwari
- Engine 1Hochgeladen vonAjaykumar Tiwari
- Three Phase Separator Sizing - BootHochgeladen vonSaeid Rahimi Mofrad
- SM4 ShortcutHochgeladen vonPariapaza Enrique Luis
- 11. Yazd-System Description for Nitrogen Gas System (1)Hochgeladen vonJulia Wade
- Control Valve Sizing. ValtekHochgeladen vonNeil Carrasco

- New Microsoft Office Word DocumentHochgeladen vong24uall
- Embryology of the EyeHochgeladen vonAntony D. Duha
- Case StudiesHochgeladen vonRusdan Fahrur Rozi
- TIPPERS.pdfHochgeladen vonmanoj262400/2
- Backhoe Loader JCBHochgeladen vonSayed Abbas
- PSYCHROMETRICS.xlsHochgeladen vonPradeep Sukumaran
- 6%2E1966-680Hochgeladen vonHussain Haidari
- Assignment 1 EdHochgeladen vonMohamad Hasyimi
- Autodesk Quantity Takeoff BrochureHochgeladen vonHorace Batiste
- 29018-450 - Gs L3 R4Hochgeladen vonsharkae
- Water Level IndicatorHochgeladen vonNina Butt
- Shroud of TurinHochgeladen vonFerdinand Villanueva
- 10_LBT_CHALLANHochgeladen vonPrateik Parakh
- Solar radiation absorbed metrialsHochgeladen vonHammed Hamza
- CREW: SEC: Regarding Destroyed Investigation Files: 9/25/2013 - Response - 9-25-13 (11-11116-FOIA)Hochgeladen vonCREW
- Catalogue Boiler.pdfHochgeladen vonhawari naufal
- Shortcut VS2010CSharpHochgeladen vonGanesa Moorthy S
- Complaint: CREW: Internal Revenue Service (IRS): Complaints Against Sean Hannity, Freedom Concerts and Freedom Alliance: 3/29/10 - IRS Complaint CitationsHochgeladen vonCREW
- Cera Grout 40Hochgeladen vonAnwar Hussain
- Proposal Presentation Anati 1Hochgeladen vonAinun Jariah Awang
- Testbook Win Free Issue for SBI PO 2017 Preparation (English)Hochgeladen vonKshitija
- A Review for Synthesis of NanoflowersHochgeladen vonIyali Carreón
- tlacHochgeladen vonapi-299178329
- UKPIA statsreview2013Hochgeladen vonKokil Jain
- Catalouge of Odia ManuscriptsHochgeladen vonDr. Sashibhusan Mishra
- Msds_marpozol W-505(Ghs) Eng 130409Hochgeladen vonSyafarul Mohammad
- Bussiness PlanHochgeladen vonSaumya Pandey
- summer reading listHochgeladen vonapi-307653593
- siop lesson 4-2Hochgeladen vonapi-306790814
- Scientists Perturbed by Loss of Stat Tools to Sift Research Fudge From Fact - Sccientific AmericanHochgeladen vonHussain Ali