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DE LA SALLE UNIVERSITY - DASMARINAS

College of Engineering, Architecture and Technology

Experiment No. 8
Transformer polarity

Submitted By:
Reyes,

Maria Rosalina
ECE41

Submitted to:

D.O.P.:sept. 24, 2014


D.O.S.: Oct. 02, 2014

ENGR. HARMON SOLANTE, REE


INSTRUCTOR

Experiment NO. 8
i. objectives

To determine transformer winding polarity and explore the

impact of connecting windings in series aiding and series


opposing configurations.
ii. discussion
Transformer polarity is a an indication of the direction of
current

flow

through

the

high

voltage

terminals

with

respect to the direction of current flow through the low


voltage terminals at any given instant in the alternating
cycle.

The polarity of a single-phase distribution transformer may


be additive or subtractive. A simple test for polarity is to
connect two adjacent terminal of low and high voltage

windings together and apply a moderate voltage to either


winding,

The polarity is additive if the voltage across the other


two leads of the windings in question is greater than that
if the high-voltage winding alone.
The

polarity

is

subtractive

if

the

voltage

across

the

other two leads of the windings in question is less than


that if the high-voltage winding alone.
Two

methods

are

commonly

used

to

denote

which

terminals present the same relative polarity. A dot may be


used,

or

an

alphanumeric

designation.

Alphanumeric

designations are typically in the form H1 for primaries, and


for secondaries, X1, (and Y1, Z1, if more windings present).
Unlike

single-phase

transformers

may

transformers,

incorporate

phase

three-phase

shift

due

to

different winding configurations resulting in a multiple of


30

degree

designations.

phase

shift

between

III. instruments and components

H1

and

Power Supply Module

EMS 8821

DC Metering Module (20/ 200 V)

EMS 8412

Transformer Module

AC Metering Module (250 V)

X1

bushing

EMS 8341
EMS 8426

IV. PROCEDURES
CAUTION! High voltages are present in this Experiment.
supply ON.

DO NOT make any connections with the power

Get in the habit of turning OFF the power supply after every measurement.

1) Connect the 0 20 V DC (or 0 150 V DC) Meter


across terminals 7 and N of the power supply
module.

Turn on the power supply and adjust the

voltage control dial for 10 V DC output.

Leave the

dial at that setting and turn OFF the power supply.

2) Connect the circuit shown below:

3) Now turn ON the power supply and immediately note


any deflection in the DC meter.

4) Turn OFF the power supply, but do not change the


voltage control knob.

If the meter deflects to the right (positive direction),

then terminals 1 and 3 of the transformer have the same


polarity mark since terminal 1 is connected to the
positive terminal of the dc supply and 3 is connected to
the positive terminal of the voltmeter.

If the meter

deflects to the left, then 1 and 4 are of the same


polarity mark.

Did the meter deflect right or left? _______________


Which terminal, 3 or 4, is of the same polarity as 1?
_______________
5) Disconnect the DC Voltmeter from terminals 3 and
4 and reconnect it to terminals 5 and 6.

6) Repeat steps 4) and 5) above.

7) Which terminal, 5 or 6, is of the same polarity as


terminal 1?

________________

8) To demonstrate the importance of polarity, connect


the following circuit (Note that terminals 1 and 5
are wired together):

Vs = 104 V

rms

1to 2

= ____________ V

5 to 6

= ___________ V

2 to 6

= ___________

rms

rms

rms

9) Turn on the power supply and adjust the voltage


control for 104 V RMS.

10) Measure, then record the voltages in spaces


provided next to the circuit diagram.

11) Return the voltage control to zero percent and


turn OFF the power supply.

12) Remove the wiring between terminals 1 and 5, wire


terminal 1 to terminal 6 and complete the circuit
shown below:

Vs = 104 V

rms

1to 2

= ____________ V

5 to 6

= ___________ V

rms

2 to 5

= ___________ V

rms

rms

13) Turn on the power supply and adjust the voltage


control for 104 V RMS.

14) Measure, then record the voltages in spaces


provided next to the circuit diagram.

15) Return the voltage control to zero percent and


turn OFF the power supply.

16) Explain why connecting the same two transformer

windings in series (as an autotransformer) produced


two different readings in the previous two circuits:

_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

17) Examine the circuit shown below:

Vs = 104 V

rms

Predicted Voltages:
Measured Voltages:
V

1to 2

= ____________ V

rms

(two winding
operation)
V

2 to 4

= ___________

rms

(series, subtractive
polarity)
V

2 to 3

= ___________

rms

(series, additive
polarity)

18) Try to predict three possible output voltages for


this transformer, depending upon whether its

windings are configured as shown or in series using


additive polarity or subtractive polarity.
them in the space provided above.

Write

19) Wire the circuit, turn on the power supply and


adjust the voltage control for 104 V.

20)

Measure the voltage between terminals 1 and 2

and record it above.

21) Turn OFF the power supply (leaving the voltage


control untouched).

22)

Now remove the voltmeter lead from terminal 1

and connect it to terminal 4.

Then connect

terminal 1 to terminal 3, placing the two windings in


series.

23)

Turn on the power supply, measure the voltage

24)

Turn OFF the power supply (leaving the voltage

25)

Remove the voltmeter lead from terminal 4 and

between terminals 4 and 2 and record it above.


control untouched).

connect it to terminal 3.

Remove the lead between

terminals 1 and 3 and re-connect it between 1 and 4.


Now the windings are again in series, but with
reverse polarity.

26)

Turn on the power supply, measure the voltage

between terminals 3 and 2 and record it above.

27)

Turn the voltage control to zero percent and

28)

Do the measured voltages agree with your

turn OFF the power supply.


predicted values?

________________________

Explain:
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

V. OBSERVATION
In

power

systems,

transformers

are

useful

in

changing

voltage levels, either stepping up or stepping down.

The two windings in the transformer are isolated between

the source and the load. These windings when connected in


series

creates

an

autotransformer.

An

autotransformer

has a single coil winding, the parts are common on both

primary and secondary circuits. Based from the experiment,


connecting the positive terminal to the negative terminal

causes he voltage to add, they will add if the polarity


marked

terminal

of

one

winding

is

connected

unmarked terminal of the other winding.


hand,

connecting

voltage

across

the

from the primary.


VI. CONCLUSION
In

conclusion,

direction coils

both

marked

secondary

Transformer

terminals
winding

polarity

current

the

cause

the

On the other

will
be

depends

subtracted

on

are wound around the core and how

leads are brought out. It is also


up

to

to

transformers

for

which
the

important when hooking


relay

protection

and

metering. These polarity marks signifies all terminals at


any

given

time

that

exhibits

the

same

polarity.

When

observing these polarities, the low voltage terminal is on


the

right,

when

transformer,

for

facing
additive

the

low

property

voltage
and

side

low

of

the

voltage

X1

terminal is on the left for subtractive polarity.


VII. Questions
1.

Given a 120 V ac source and the transformer used in


this lab, draw four circuit diagrams, each of which
has 120 Volts on the primary side of the

transformer and the following secondary voltages:

a.) 240 Volts


b.)

88 Volts

d.)

92 Volts

c.) 180 Volts