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# Chapter 4:

## To discuss the concept of the moment of a force and

show how to calculate it in two and three dimensions.
To provide a method for finding the moment of a force
about a specified axis.
To define the moment of a couple.
To present methods for determining the resultants of
non-concurrent force systems.
To indicate how to reduce a simple distributed loading
to a resultant force having a specified location.

Moment

## of a Force Scalar Formation

Cross Product
Moment of Force Vector Formulation
Principle of Moments
Moment of a Force about a Specified Axis

Moment

of a Couple
Equivalent System
Resultants of a Force and Couple System
Further Reduction of a Force and Couple
System

## Moment of a force about a point or axis a

measure of the tendency of the force to
cause a body to rotate about the point or axis
Case 1
Consider horizontal force Fx,
which acts perpendicular to
the handle of the wrench and
is located dy from the point O

Fx

## tends to turn the pipe about the z axis

The larger the force or the distance dy, the greater the
turning effect
Torque tendency of
rotation caused by Fx
or simple moment (Mo) z

Moment

## axis (z) is perpendicular to shaded

plane (x-y)
Fx and dy lies on the shaded plane (x-y)
Moment axis (z) intersects
the plane at point O

Case 2
Apply force Fz to the wrench
Pipe does not rotate about z axis
Tendency to rotate about x axis
The pipe may not actually
rotate Fz creates tendency
for rotation so moment
(Mo) x is produced

Case 2
Moment axis (x) is perpendicular to shaded
plane (y-z)
Fz and dy lies on the shaded plane (y-z)

Case 3
Apply force Fy to the wrench
No moment is produced about point O
Lack of tendency to rotate
as line of action passes
through O

In General
Consider

## the force F and the point O which lies in

The moment MO about point O,
or about an axis passing
through O and perpendicular
to the plane, is a vector quantity
Moment MO has its specified
magnitude and direction

Magnitude
For

magnitude of MO,
MO = Fd
where d = moment arm or perpendicular distance
from the axis at point O to its line of action of the
force

Units

Direction
Direction

## of MO is specified by using right

hand rule
- fingers of the right hand are curled to
follow the sense of rotation when force
rotates about point O

Direction
- Thumb points along the moment axis
to give the direction and sense of the
moment vector
- Moment vector is upwards and
perpendicular to the shaded plane

Direction
MO is shown by a vector arrow
with a curl to distinguish it from
force vector
Example (Fig b)
MO is represented by the counterclockwise
curl, which indicates the action of F

Direction

## shows the sense of rotation

caused by F
Using the right hand rule, the direction and
sense of the moment vector points out of
the page
In 2D problems, moment of the force is
found about a point O

Direction
Moment

## acts about an axis perpendicular

to the plane containing F and d
Moment axis intersects
the plane at point O

Coplanar Forces
Resultant

## moment, MRo = addition of the moments of all

the forces algebraically since all moment forces are
collinear
MRo = Fd
taking clockwise to be positive

Coplanar Forces
A

## clockwise curl is written along the equation to

indicate that a positive moment if directed along the
+ z axis and negative
along the z axis

Moment

## of a force does not always cause rotation

Force F tends to rotate the beam clockwise about A
with moment
MA = FdA
Force F tends to rotate the beam counterclockwise
about B with moment
MB = FdB
Hence support at A prevents
the rotation

Example 4.1
For each case, determine the moment of the
force about point O

Solution
Line

## of action is extended as a dashed line to

establish moment arm d
Tendency to rotate is indicated and the orbit is
shown as a colored curl
(a) M o (100 N )(2m) 200 N .m(CW )
(b) M o (50 N )(0.75m) 37.5 N .m(CW )

Solution
(c) M o (40 N )(4m 2 cos 30 m) 229 N .m(CW )
(d ) M o (60 N )(1sin 45 m) 42.4 N .m(CCW )
(e) M o (7kN )(4m 1m) 21.0kN.m(CCW )

Example 4.2
Determine the moments of
the 800N force acting on the
frame about points A, B, C
and D.

Solution

Scalar Analysis

## M A (800 N )(2.5m) 2000 N .m(CW )

M B (800 N )(1.5m) 1200 N .m(CW )
M C (800 N )(0m) 0kN.m
Line of action of F passes through C

## M D (800 N )(0.5m) 400 N .m(CCW )

Example 4.3
Determine the resultant moment of the four
forces acting on the rod about point O

Solution

## Assume positive moments acts in the +k

direction, CCW
M Ro Fd
M Ro (50 N )(2m) (60 N )(0m) (20 N )(3 sin 30 m)
(40 N )(4m 3 cos 30 m)
334 N .m
334 N .m(CW )

Example 4.7
The force F acts at the end of the angle
bracket. Determine the moment of the force

## View Free Body Diagram

Solution
Method 1
MO = 400sin30N(0.2m)-400cos30N(0.4m)
= -98.6N.m
= 98.6N.m (CCW)
As a Cartesian vector,
MO = {-98.6k}N.m

Solution

Method 2:
Express as Cartesian vector
r = {0.4i 0.2j}N
F = {400sin30i 400cos30j}N
= {200.0i 346.4j}N
For moment,

M O r XF 0.4

0.2

200.0 346.4 0

98.6k N .m

Couple

## moments are free vectors

and may be applied to any point P
For resultant moment of two
couples at point P,
MR = M1 + M2
For more than 2 moments,
MR = (r X F)

Frictional

forces (floor)
on the blades of the
machine creates a
moment Mc that tends
to turn it
An equal and opposite
moment must be
applied by the operator
to prevent turning
Couple moment Mc = Fd
is applied on the handle

Example 4.10
A couple acts on the gear teeth. Replace it
by an equivalent couple having a pair of
forces that cat through points A and B.

Solution

Magnitude of couple
M = Fd = (40)(0.6) = 24N.m

## Direction out of the page since

forces tend to rotate CW

## M is a free vector and can

be placed anywhere

Solution
To preserve CCW motion,
vertical forces acting through
points A and B must be directed as
shown
For magnitude of each force,
M = Fd
24N.m = F(0.2m)
F = 120N

Example 4.11
Determine the moment of the couple acting
on the member.

Solution
Resolve each force into horizontal and vertical
components
Fx = 4/5(150kN) = 120kN
Fy = 3/5(150kN) = 90kN
Principle of Moment about point D,
M = 120kN(0m) 90kN(2m)
+ 90kN(5m) + 120kN(1m)
= 390kN (CCW)

Solution
Principle of Moment about point A,
M = 90kN(3m) + 120kN(1m)
= 390kN (CCW)
*Note:
- Same results if take moment
- Couple can be replaced by
two couples as seen in figure

Solution
- Same results for couple replaced by
two couples
- M is a free vector and acts on any
point on the member
-External effects such as support
reactions on the member, will be the
same if the member supports the
couple or the couple moment

Moment of a Force
A

## force produces a turning effect about the

point O that does not lie on its line of
action
In scalar form, moment magnitude,
MO = Fd, where d is the moment arm or
perpendicular distance from point O to its
line of action of the force
Direction of the moment is defined by right
hand rule
For easy solving,
- resolve the force components into x and y
components

Moment of a Force
- determine moment of each component about the
point
- sum the results
Vector cross product are used in 3D problems
MO = r X F
where r is a position vector that extends from
point O to any point on the line of action of F

Projection

## of the moment onto the axis is

obtained to determine the moment of a force
about an arbitrary axis provided that the
distance perpendicular to both its line of action
and the axis can be determined
If distance is unknown, use vector triple product
Ma = uar X F
where ua is a unit vector that specifies the
direction of the axis and r is the position vector
that is directed from any point on the axis to
any point on its line of action

Couple Moment
A

## couple consists of two equal but opposite

forces that act a perpendicular distance d apart
Couple tend to produce rotation without
translation
Moment of a couple is determined from M = Fd
and direction is established using the right-hand
rule
If vector cross product is used to determine the
couple moment, M = r X F, r extends from any
point on the line of action of one of the forces
to any point on the line of action of the force F

Any

## system of forces and couples can be reduced

to a single resultant force and a single resultant
couple moment acting at a point
Resultant force = sum of all the forces in the
system
Resultant couple moment = sum of all the forces
and the couple moments about the point
Only concurrent, coplanar or parallel force
system can be simplified into a single resultant
force

For

## concurrent, coplanar or parallel force

systems,
- find the location of the resultant force about a
point
- equate the moment of the resultant force about
the point to moment of the forces and couples in
the system about the same point
Repeating the above steps for other force system
will yield a wrench, which consists of resultant
force and a resultant collinear moment