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Chapter 19

Part 3

Photophosphorylation

Learning Goals: To Know


1. How energy of sunlight creates charge separation in the
photosynthetic reaction complex and exciton transfer.

2. How electron transport is accompanied by the directional


transport of protons across the membrane against their
concentration gradient
3. Similarities and differences between plant-algal
photosystems and bacterial photosystems.
4. How the electrochemical proton gradient drives synthesis
of ATP by coupling the flow of protons via ATP synthase to
conformational changes that favor formation of ATP in the
active site
5. Roles of rhodopsins.

Primary Production Solar Energy Conversion

Chloroplasts

How do Photosynthetic Bacteria Fit in Here?

Hill Reaction (driven by light) in Photophosphorylation

2 H2 O + 2 A

2 AH2 + O2

A in Biological Systems = NADP+ so the Hill


Reaction is:
2 H2O + 2 NADP+ 2 NADPH + 2H+ + O2

What Robert Hill in 1937 Actually Measured Was:

The reduction of DCIP: going from blue to colorless.

Electromagnetic Spectrum

What is an Einstein?

Light Energy
Planck-Einstein Equation:
E=h
E = energy of a photon
h = Plancks Constant = 6.6 x 10-34 J.s
v = vibration frequency ( of the wavelength of light; vibrational
frequency increases with a decrease in
wavelength )
In the text,

E = hc/

So that one red photon

c/ = v

so red light, = 700 nm, c = 3x108m/s

E = 2.83 x 10-19 J

For an Einstein (a mole of photons) E = 168 kJ/einstein

Chlorophyll a

What is with the PINK ???

Phycobilins

Carotenoids

Photopigment Absorption Spectrum

Chlorophyll Types

Noon, Nov 18th: Surface

Sun Light Spectra


OE Pond

Where is the Visible and


Infra-red light ? Which one
gets to the bottom?
Noon, Nov 18th: Bottom

The y-axis is in
units of
(einsteins/s)/m2 at
each wavelength.

Light Harvesting Complexes Have Many Chlorophylls

Phycobilisome of Cyanobacteria

Engleman Experiment (1882): Action Spectrum

Light Harvesting Energy Transfer to Reaction Center

Solid State Photo-electron


Transfer

Two Bacterial Photosystems

EOC Problem 28: Role of H2S in bacterial photosynthesis

Purple Bacterial Reaction Center

The Z Scheme is Both Linear and Circular


EOC Problem
30 on electron
flow between
PS-I and PS-II.

Photosystem II

Photosystem I

Trimer and Stripped Monomer Structure of


PS I

Electron and Proton Flow: Cyt-b6f Complex

Cytochrome b6f Complex Pumps Protons

Localization of PS1 and PS2 in Thylakoid Membrane

Water Splitting Protein Utilizes all 5 Redox States of Mn

Summary
EOC Problem 41 on the
Function of cyclic
photophosphorylation.

Comparison of Mitochondrion, Chloroplast, Bacteria

Cytochrome b6f Complex Functions in


Photophosphorylation AND Respiratory E-transport

In Cyanobacteria

Bacterial Rhodopsin Becoming Ubiquitous

Rhodopsin Proton Transfer: Cis -Trans Conformational


Change

Rhodopsins Are Becoming Recognized as Common

There are 3 Classes of Rhodopsins:


1. Proton Pumping (previous example) Halophilic
Archaea.
2. Signal Transduction Vision and Light/Dark
Adaptions.

3. Chloride Pumping.
They occur in Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya - All Domains
of Life

To Know and Do Before Class


The energy of sunlight creates charge separation in the
photosynthetic reaction complex and exciton transfer.

Stepwise electron transport is accompanied by the


directional transport of protons across the membrane
against their concentration gradient
Similarities and differences between plant-algal
photosystems and bacterial photosystems.
The energy in the electrochemical proton gradient drives
synthesis of ATP by coupling the flow of protons via ATP
synthase to conformational changes that favor formation
of ATP in the active site
Roles of rhodopsins.
EOC Problems: 28, 30, 31, 35, 41.