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Department Name

Confidentiality Level

LTE Solutions Design Department

Confidential

Document Issue
Total 48 Pages
V2.0

Guide to LTE Link Budget for Indoor Coverage


(For Internal Use Only)

Prepared by

Li Yadong, Zhang Hao

Date

Reviewed by

Date

Approved by

Date

Authorized by

Date

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


All rights reserved

2012-07-27

Guide to LTE Link Budget for Indoor Coverage

Confidential

Change History
Date

Version

Change Description

Author

2012-05-25

V1.0

Completed the draft.

Liu Yadong (ID: 00168824)

2012-07-31

V2.3

Modified the document based on


review comments.

Zhang Hao (ID: 00133579)

2014-12-19

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Contents
Acronyms and Abbreviations ........................................................................................................ 4
1 Overview......................................................................................................................................... 6
2 Link Budget for DBS+DAS Coverage ....................................................................................... 7
2.1 Design of Link Budget Algorithms .................................................................................................................. 7
2.1.1 Function .................................................................................................................................................. 7
2.1.2 Algorithm Design .................................................................................................................................... 9
2.2 Parameter Settings .......................................................................................................................................... 22
2.2.1 Scenario Parameter ............................................................................................................................... 22
2.2.2 Coverage Dimensioning Parameters ..................................................................................................... 25
2.2.3 RND Application .................................................................................................................................. 28

3 Link Budget for Pico Coverage................................................................................................. 31


3.1 Design of Link Budget Algorithms ................................................................................................................ 31
3.1.1 Function ................................................................................................................................................ 31
3.1.2 Algorithm Design .................................................................................................................................. 33
3.2 Parameter Settings .......................................................................................................................................... 42
3.2.1 Scenario Parameter ............................................................................................................................... 42
3.2.2 Coverage Dimensioning Parameters ..................................................................................................... 44
3.3 RND Application ............................................................................................................................................ 45

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Acronyms and Abbreviations


Acronym or Abbreviation

Full Name

ACK/NACK

Acknowledgment/Not-acknowledgment

AMC

Adaptive Modulation and Coding

BBU

Baseband Unit

BHSA

Busy Hour Session Attempt

BLER

Block Error Rate

BPSK

Binary Phase Shift Keying

CCE

Control Channel Element

CINR

Carrier-to-Interference and Noise Ratio

CP

Cyclic Prefix

CQI

Channel Quality Indication

D-BCH

Dynamic-Broadcast Channel

DCI

Downlink Control Information

DMRS

Demodulation Reference Signal

EIRP

Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power

eNodeB

E-URTA Node B

EPRE

Energy Per Resource Element

FDD

Frequency Division Duplex

FSTD

Frequency Switched Transmit Diversity

FTP

File Transport Protocol

GSM

Global System for Mobile communication

HARQ

Hybrid Automatic Retransmission Request

HTTP

Hypertext Transfer Protocol

IRC

Interference Rejection Combining

LNA

Low Noise Amplifier

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Acronym or Abbreviation

Full Name

LTE

Long Term Evolution

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Overview

This document describes the link budget algorithms for the following systems:
1.

Indoor distributed base station (DBS) + distributed antenna system (DAS)

2.

Pico

This document provides guidelines for parameter settings in different scenarios as well as
usage and specifications of the commercial tool radio network dimensioning (RND).
This document applies to LTE FDD eRAN3.1 and is intended for in-building service (IBS)
and frontline personnel to make plans and designs. The prototype tool used is LTE eRAN3.1
FDD Pico & DAS Dimensioning Tool V1.1 (Coverage & Capacity).

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Link Budget for DBS+DAS Coverage

2.1 Design of Link Budget Algorithms


2.1.1 Function
Link budget for DBS+DAS coverage involves calculation of power, antenna, coverage radius,
and data rate. Figure 2-1 shows the procedure of link budget for DBS+DAS coverage.

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Figure 2-1 Procedure for DBS+DAS coverage dimensioning

Indoor coverage link budget involves wireless propagation and wired distribution system.
For wireless propagation, the antenna power must be properly planned. The antenna power is
determined based on the single-antenna coverage distance, designed coverage-edge reference
signal received power (RSRP), and estimated penetration loss. For wired distribution, the loss
from the signal source to the antenna input port must be calculated, including the feeder
transmission loss, distribution loss of the splitter and coupler, and dielectric loss (insertion
loss).
The eNodeB transmit power can be calculated based on the required antenna power and wired
distribution loss.

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After power calculation, the uplink and downlink coverage-edge data rate can be calculated
based on the coverage-edge RSRP and signal strength. The number of devices required can be
calculated based on the loss and deployment mode of the wired distribution system.
For detailed description of each calculation step, see section 2.1.2.2 "Calculation Procedure."

2.1.2 Algorithm Design


2.1.2.1 Parameter Description
Global parameter
Table 2-1 Global parameters of the DBS+DAS system
Parameter

Meaning

Value Range

Default Value

Duplex Mode

Duplex mode

FDD/TDD

FDD

eNB Type

eNodeB type

Indoor macro
eNodeB/BBU+RRU

BBU + RRU

DL PB

Downlink power offset

0/1/2/3

The indoor distributed eNodeB system uses the following two networking modes:
1.

A macro eNodeB is installed in an equipment room and connects to the distributed


antenna system through an RF port on the cabinet top.

2.

The BBU and RRU are independently installed and are connected through optical cables
to form a distributed eNodeB system.

Based on the preceding two modes, the dimensioning tool builds different calculation models.
Among global parameters, the power control parameter PB needs to be configured to reduce
the physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH) power in an orthogonal frequency division
multiplexing (OFDM) symbol and increase the reference signal (RS) power. At the same time,
the total power remains unchanged to expand the downlink pilot coverage of a cell. PB is a
cell-level parameter used to calculate the offset between the RS Resource Element (RE)
power and the PDSCH RE power. The offset can be calculated as follows: 10 x log (PB + 1)
The value of PB ranges from 1 to 3 and the default value is 1. In this case, the offset is 3 dB.

Scenario Parameter
Scenario parameters define the link-level propagation environment, link gains, and link loss.

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Table 2-2 Scenario parameters of the DBS+DAS system


Unit

Value Range

Default
Value

Recreation ground, office


building, supermarket,
hotel, lounge of an
airport, exhibition hall,
parking lot

Lounge of
an airport/
Exhibition
hall

Parameter

Meaning

Morphology

Building type

Number of Floor

Number of floors
in the planned
area

Building Length

Building length

150

Building Width

Building width

30

Height of Floor

Height of a floor

Sectorization

Number of
sectors

Propagation
Model

Propagation
model

Antenna Gain

Indoor antenna
gain

Mr Cable Type

Type of main
feeder

AVA5 7/8

Br Cable Type

Same-floor feeder
type

AVA5 7/8

eNB Location

eNodeB location

Edge/middle

Middle

Weak Current
Well Location

Location of weak
current well

Corner/MiddleLongSide/
MiddleWideSide/Center

Corner

Standard Power

Standard power

First-class: 15

15

20

Keenan-Motley/ITU-R
P.1238
dBi

dBm

ITU-R
P.1238
2

Second-class: 23

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Edge RSRP

Coverage-edge
RSRP

dBm

-105

Expected Radius

Expected antenna
coverage radius

20

Insert Loss

Insertion loss

dB

0.3

Band Width

System
bandwidth

MHz

UL Frequency

Uplink frequency

MHz

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1.4/3/5/10/15/20

10
2600

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Parameter

Meaning

Unit

DL Frequency

Downlink
frequency

MHz

Area Cov. Prob.

Area coverage
probability

Confidential

Default
Value

Value Range

2600
95%

In addition, the dimensioning tool builds models based on typical feeders possibly used in the
indoor distribution system.
Table 2-3 Cable loss in the DBS+DAS system
Cable
Size

EnbCabLoss100m (dB)
700
MHz

900
MHz

1700
MHz

1800
MHz

2.1
GHz

2.3
GHz

2.5
GHz

LDF4

1/2"

6.009

6.855

9.744

10.058

10.961

11.535

12.09

FSJ4

1/2"

9.683

11.101

16.027

16.57

18.137

19.138

20.11

AVA5

7/8"

3.093

3.533

5.04

5.205

5.678

5.979

6.27

AL5

7/8"

3.421

3.903

5.551

5.73

6.246

6.573

6.89

LDP6

5/4"

2.285

2.627

3.825

3.958

4.342

4.588

4.828

AL7

13/8"

2.037

2.333

3.36

3.472

3.798

4.006

4.208

EnbCabType

Device Parameter
Typical device parameters on the eNodeB and UE sides are designed as follows: Different
parameters are used for the uplink and downlink. Default values are typical values used for
Huawei or other vendors' devices. CS and PS services are supported and body loss of the UE
is considered for voice services.
Table 2-4 Device parameter in the DBS+DAS system (1)

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Meaning

Initial Sectorization

Number of initialized
sectors

eNB Antenna Gain

eNodeB antenna gain


in the DBS+DAS
system

dBi

eNB Max Power

Maximum power of
the eNodeB

dBm

46

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Unit

Value Range

Default
Value

Parameter

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Parameter

Meaning

Unit

Value Range

Default
Value

eNB Body Loss

Body loss

dB

CS: 3

PS: 0
eNB Noise Figure

Noise coefficient of
the eNodeB

dB

Table 2-5 Device parameter in the DBS+DAS system (2)


Value
Range

Default
Value

Parameter

Meaning

Unit

UE Max Power

Transmit power of the


UE

dBm

23

UE Antenna Gain

Antenna gain of the


UE

dBi

UE Body Loss

Body loss of the UE

dB

CS: 3

PS: 0
UE Noise Figure

Noise coefficient of
the UE

dB

UE Cable Loss

Cable loss of the UE

dB

2.1.2.2 Calculation Procedure


Input of Function-related Parameters

Standard Power: indicates the standard power (in dBm) of all bandwidths for the antenna.
The default value is 15. Expected Radius: indicates expected coverage radius (in m). The
default value is 15.

Expected RSRP: indicates the expected coverage-edge RSRP (in dBm). The default value
is 105.

UL/DL RBUsed: indicates the number of RBs used on the uplink and downlink. The
default value is 4 on the uplink and downlink, respectively.

Intermediate Calculation Result


1.

Calculate the antenna power and determine the actual coverage radius.

For details about how to determine the antenna coverage radius, see the coverage radius in
typical scenarios. Indoor propagation loss is related t to the propagation environment and
frequency band, as shown in Table 2-6.

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Table 2-6 Relationship between the antenna coverage radius, scenario, and frequency band in the
indoor distributed system
Recreation
Ground

Office
Building

Supermarket

Hotel

Exhibition/Lounge
of an Airport

Parking
Lot

700
MHz

16

19

19

16

100

25

800
MHz

16

19

19

16

100

25

900
MHz

15

18

18

15

100

25

1500
MHz

13

16

16

14

80

20

1800
MHz

12

15

15

13

60

20

2100
MHz

10

14

14

12

50

20

AWS

10

14

14

12

50

20

2300
MHz

10

13

13

12

50

20

2600
MHz

12

12

11

50

18

Scenario
Antenna
coverage
radius
(m)

When LTE networks are deployed with existing GSM/UMTS networks, the antenna coverage
radius in LTE is set to be the same as that of 2G/3G.
You can use the dimensioning tool to check whether the input coverage radius (expected
radius) can cause the antenna power to exceed the maximum power allowed (indoor
electromagnetic radiation standards adopted in the region) based on coverage-edge RSRP
requirements. If yes, the tool automatically uses the maximum power to calculate the radius.
If no, the input antenna coverage radius is used in the plan.
RSEirp = Expected RSRP + PL + SFM + Dl Penetration Loss - UE Antenna Gain + UE Cable
Loss + UE Body Loss
//Calculate the antenna power of reference signal (RS) based on the coverage-edge RSRP
requirement, link gain, link loss, and link margin.
Eirp = RSEirp 10log (1+ DlPb) + 10log (Antenna Port)
//Antenna Port = 1 for a single antenna; Antenna Port = 2 for double antennas. Calculate the
antenna power for an RE-based bandwidth based on the power control parameter Pb and
number of antenna ports.
TotalPower = Eirp + 10log (TotalRB*12)
//TotalRB equals the number of RBs in 100% load. Calculate the antenna power for all
bandwidths based on the number of RBs corresponding to the system bandwidth.
If TotalPower<= Standard Power then

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Actual antenna power = TotalPower


Actual Radius = Expected Radius
//If the all-bandwidth antenna power is less than or equal to the maximum power allowed, the
antenna coverage radius equals the input value of designed radius.
Else
Actual antenna power = Standard Power
RSEirp = Standard Power -10log (Dl Load*TotalRB*12) + 10log (1+ DlPb)
//If the all-bandwidth antenna power exceeds the maximum power allowed, recalculate
RSEirp based on the maximum antenna power.
Eirp = RSEirp 10log (1+ DlPb) + 10log (Antenna Port)
PL = RSEirp - Expected RSRP SFM - Dl Penetration Loss
//Calculate Actual Radius based on the propagation model and path loss.
End if
2.

Calculate the number of antennas.

After the antenna coverage radius is determined, the number of antennas required in a
coverage area can be calculated.
To calculate the antenna quantity, ensure that uniform coverage is used in indoor scenarios
and the antennas are also uniformly distributed. For the perspective of indoor coverage design,
most indoor buildings use standard square structures. Therefore, the number of antennas can
be calculated based on a two-dimensional rectangular structure (length and width). Figure 2-2
shows the antenna distribution model.
Figure 2-2 Antenna distribution model

2
r
2

In addition, to ensure the building edges are within the antenna coverage, two spaces of
are reserved along the length side and width side, respectively. r indicates the coverage
radius. In this way, the whole plane of the building is within the coverage area. The distance
between two antennas is R and the overlapped area between two antennas must be considered.
Considering the coverage along edges of a building, the dimensioning tool defines R as
follows: R

2r

The number of antennas for each floor can be calculated based on the single-antenna coverage
radius as follows:

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AntNumberperfloor a b
where, a and b indicates the number of antennas along the length side and width side,
respectively.
Assume that sectors are uniformly distributed among floors since the signal source power
used by each sector is the same. In this case, the number of antennas for each sector is
calculated as follows:

AntNumbersSector[i] AntNumberperfloor FloorsofSector[i]


3.

Calculate the feeder length.

After determining the antenna quantity, you can calculate the required feeder length based on
the antenna distribution conditions. Feeders can be classified into same-floor feeder and main
feeder.

Same-floor feeder length

The total length of a same-floor feeder depends on the antenna distribution. After the antenna
distribution is determined, the feeder length on each floor can be determined. The length of
same-floor feeder is calculated for material statistics.
The length of same-floor feeder is calculated as follows:

2
BRCableLengthperFloor BuildLength int( BuildLength / R 1/ 2) * BuildWidth
r
2

Figure 2-3 show the total length of same-floor feeders in blue.


Considering the number of floors in a building, the total length of same-floor feeders is
calculated as follows:

BRCableLength BRCableLengthperFloor Floors


Figure 2-3 Model for calculating the same-floor feeder length

Main feeder length

The method for calculating the main feeder length in indoor macro networking mode is
different from that in the BBU+RRU networking mode.
In indoor macro networking mode, the BBU may be located on the building edge at the
bottom or between two floors. Therefore, the total main feeder length can be calculated based
on the total number of floors (TotNumOfFloors), floor height (FloorHeight), and signal source
location (eNBLocation).

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Figure 2-4 Main feeder length calculation in indoor macro networking mode

Figure 2-4 shows that the main feeder length is the total length of all colorful lines.
Select case eNBLocation
MrCableLength=0; MrCableLength_Down = 0; MrCableLength_Up= 0
Case 1:Edge (location)
For i=1 to SectorNum
Temp = MrCableLength + FloorHeight* FloorNumofSector (i)
MrCableLength = temp + FloorHeight* FloorNumofSector
Next i
Where, FloorNumofSector (i) indicates the number of floors within the coverage of sector
i.
Case 2:Middle (location)
SectorMid = RoundDown (SectorNum/2, 0)
For i = 1 to SectorMid - 1
Temp = MrCableLength_Down + FloorHeight * FloorNumofSector (i)
MrCableLength_Down = Temp + FloorHeight * FloorNumofSector (i)
Next i
For i = SectorMid to SectorIndex
Temp = MrCableLength_Up + FloorHeight* FloorNumofSector (i)
MrCableLength_Up = Temp + FloorHeight * FloorNumofSector (i)
Next i
MrCableLength = MrCableLength_Down + MrCableLength_Up
End select

In BBU+RRU networking mode, an RRU may use optical cables and the RRU is located in
the middle of a sector. Therefore, the BBU location and sector quantity do not affect the main
feeder length.
The formula for calculating the main feeder length in BBU+RRU networking mode is as
follows:
MrCableLength = TotNumOfFloors * FloorHeight
4.

Calculate insertion loss.

After antenna distribution is determined, the device quantity required for networking and
other link loss, expect for cable loss, can also be determined. Insertion loss involves passive
devices, including heat loss and connector loss caused by a splitters and a coupler. As the heat
loss is small, the connector loss is generally less than 0.5 dB. The insertion loss is defined as
0.3 dB for each device during calculation.
The number of devices required for each floor (DeviceNumperFloor) can be calculated based
on the model shown in Figure 2-5.

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Figure 2-5 Device quantity calculation

Considering the floor quantity and networking mode, the total number of devices required for
networking is calculated as follows:
TotalDeviceNum = DevieceNumperFloor * Build Floor + Build Floor Sector Num//in
indoor macro networking mode
TotalDeviceNum = DevieceNumperFloor * Build Floor + Build Floor 2*Sector Num//in
BBU+RRU networking mode
Points to consider in calculation are as follows:
The purpose of calculating the antenna quantity and device quantity is to estimate the link loss.
In engineering construction, the installation locations of antennas and devices may be
different from those designed in the model. Therefore, you need to reserve a certain margin
during engineering dimensioning.
5.

Calculate the maximum power.

After the antenna power, antenna distribution, and loss are determined, the eNodeB transmit
power used to meet the coverage requirement can be calculated.

Power required for each floor

Power per Floor = FloorPowerCalc (location of the weak current well; actual antenna power
eNodeB antenna gain, 100-m cable loss, Sqr (2) x ActualRadius, insertion loss, a, b)
The dimensioning tool calculates the power per floor based on the following location of a
weak current well: corner, MiddleLongSide, MiddleWideSide, or center, as shown in Figure
2-6. This document does not describe the calculation formulas in details.

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Figure 2-6 Location of weak current well

Power required for each sector

The power per floor is the same and the power per sector is different. This is because the
number of floors covered by each sector is different. The sector power can also be affected by
the type of signal source and therefore can be calculated based on the type of signal source.

Indoor macro eNodeBs:

The sector power can be calculated based on the eNodeB location by referring to the model
for calculating the main feeder length in indoor macro networking mode.
a)

When the eNodeB is located at the bottom of a building, the sector power is calculated as
follows:

P1 Pfloor
For = 1 to NumFloorsofSector (1) 1 //Consider the number of floors in sector 1.

MaxPowerRequiredSector[1]InnerSector 10lg(10

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10

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Pfloor
10

) InsertLoss

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End for

MaxPowerRequiredSector[1]SectorToRRU MaxPowerRequiredSector[1] MrCableLossPer100* FloorHeight


(TotNumofFloors 1 NumFloorsofSector (1))
//Use the firs-floor power as a benchmark to calculate the power of each floor and then calculate the power of sector 1 based on the
cable loss.
//The power of other sectors can be calculated in the same way.

For = 1 to

NumFloorsofSector ( SectorNum ) 1

MaxPowerRequiredSector[SectorNum]InnerSector 10lg(10

Pi MrCableLossPer100FloorHeight
10

10

Pfloor
10

) InsertLoss

End for

MaxPowerRequiredSector[SectorNum]SectorToRRU MaxPowerRequiredSector[ SectorNum] MrCableLossPer100


*FloorHeight (TotNumofFloors 1 NumFloorsofSector ( SectorNum))
b)

For = 1 to

When the eNodeB is located between floors, the sector power is calculated as follows:

NumFloorsofSector (1) 1 //Consider

the number of floors in sector 1.

MaxPower Re quiredSector[1]InnerS ec tor 10lg(10

Pi MrCableLossPer100FloorHeight
10

10

Pfloor
10

) InsertLoss

End for

MaxPower Re quiredSector[1]S ec torToRRU MaxPower Re quiredSector[1]InnerS ec tor


MrCableLossPer100 ( TotNumofFloors / 2 1 NumFloorsofSector (1) ) * FloorHeight
//Use the firs-floor power as a benchmark to calculate the power of each floor and then calculate the power of sector 1 based on the
cable loss.

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//The power of other sectors can be calculated in the same way.

For = 1 to NumFloorsofSector ( SectorNum ) 1

MaxPower Re quiredSector[SectorNum]InnerS ector 10lg(10

Pi MrCableLossPer100FloorHeight
10

10

Pfloor
10

) InsertLoss End for

MaxPower Re quiredSector[ SectorNum]S ec torToRRU MaxPower Re quiredSector[ SectorNum]InnerS ec tor


MrCableLossPer100 ( TotNumofFloors / 2 NumFloorsofSector ( SectorNum) 1)* FloorHeight

BBU+RRU:

In BBU+RRU networking mode, an RRU may use optical cables and the RRU is located in
the middle of a sector. Therefore, the BBU location and sector quantity do not affect the main
feeder length.

P1 Pfloor

//Use the firs-floor power as a benchmark

P2 10lg(10

P1 MrCableLossPer100FloorHeight
10

10

Pfloor
10

) InsertLoss

PNumFloorsofSector ( i ) MrCableLossPer100FloorHeight

PNumFloorsofSector (i ) 10lg(10

10

10

Pfloor
10

) InsertLoss

PNumFloorsofSector ( i ) MrCableLossPer 100 FloorHeight

MaxPowerRequiredSector[i ] 10 lg(2 10

10

//Calculate the power for the floor above the RRU and that below the RRU and calculate the total sector
power based on the cable loss.

6.

Calculate the coverage-edge data rate.

After power calculation, the uplink and downlink coverage-edge data rate can be calculated
based on the coverage-edge RSRP and signal strength.
a)

Traffic channel subcarrier EIRP

Uplink subcarrier EIRP = UE Max Power 10log (Number of RBs used on the uplink x 12) +
UE Antenna Gain UE Cable Loss UE Body Loss
Downlink subcarrier EIRP = RSEirp 10log (1+ DlPb) + 10log (Antenna Port)
b)

Minimum signal receive strength of subcarrier

Uplink subcarrier MinSignalStren = Uplink subcarrier EIRP UL PL SFM UL


Penetration Loss
Downlink subcarrier MinSignalStren = Downlink subcarrier EIRP DL PL SFM DL
Penetration Loss
c)

Maximum cable loss

Same-floor cable loss (BrCableLoss):


BrCableLoss = (a + b - 2) * (InsertLoss + BRCable100 * R)//The weak current well is located
at the corner

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BrCableLoss = (a/2 + b - 2) * (InsertLoss + BRCable100 * R)//The weak current well is


located at the MiddleLongSide.
BrCableLoss = (a + b/2 - 2) * (InsertLoss + BRCable100 * R)//The weak current well is
located at the MiddleWideSide.
BrCableLoss = (a/2 + b/2 - 2) * (InsertLoss + BRCable100 * R)//The weak current well is
located in the center.
Main cable loss (MrCableLoss):

Indoor macro eNodeBs:

MrCableLoss = MRCable100 x Number of floors x Floor height//The eNodeB is located on


the building edge at the bottom.
MrCableLoss = MRCable100 x Number of floors x Floor height/2//The eNodeB is located
between floors.

BBU + RRU

MrCableLoss = 0//The BBU connects to the RRU through an optical cable and no loss is
considered.
Then, the maximum cable loss is calculated as follows:
CableLoss = BrCableLoss + MrCableLoss
d)

Subcarrier receive sensitivity

Based on the calculated Cable Loss, the receive sensitivity can be calculated for the uplink
and downlink as follows:
UL Receiver Sensitivity = UL Min Signal Reception + eNB Antenna Gain eNB Body Loss CableLoss UL
Interference Margin
DL Receiver Sensitivity = DL Min Signal Reception + UE Antenna Gain UE Body Loss UE CableLoss
DL Interference Margin

e)

SINR and data rate

UL SINR = UL Receiver Sensitivity + 174 - 10 * log (15000) eNB NF


DL SINR = DL Receiver Sensitivity + 174 - 10 * log (15000) UE NF
Based on the uplink and downlink SINR and signal channel, determine two adjacent
modulation orders to have the SINR located between demodulation thresholds corresponding
to the two modulation orders. Then, use the linear interpolation method to calculate the code
rates (CodeRate) corresponding to the uplink and downlink SINRs, respectively.
ULEdgeRate = ULRBUsed * ULSchRE*ULModuOrder * ULCodeRate * (1-BLER) - CRC
DLEdgeRate
=DLRBUsed*DLSchRE*DLModuOrder*DLCodeRate*CodeWord*(1-BLER)CRC
where
ULRBUsed indicates the number of RBs used on the uplink.
ULSchRE indicates the number of REs that can be used for services for each pair of RBs.
ULModuOrder indicates the uplink modulation and demodulation order, for example,
64QAM corresponds to modulation order 6 and QPSK corresponds to modulation order 2.

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ULCodeRate indicates the uplink coding rate.


CRC indicates cyclic redundancy code and is 24 bits by default in LTE.
DLRBUsed indicates the number of RBs used on the downlink.
DLSchRE indicates the number of REs that can be used for services for each pair of RBs.
DLModuOrder indicates the downlink modulation and demodulation order, for example,
64QAM corresponds to modulation order 6 and QPSK corresponds to modulation order 2.
DLCodeRate indicates the downlink coding rate.
CodeWord indicates the code word used on the downlink, single-stream or dual-stream.
CRC indicates cyclic redundancy code and is 24 bits by default in LTE.
BLER indicates the block error rate and is configured as 10% in the dimensioning tool.

Final Budget Result


Table 2-7 Final coverage dimensioning result in the DBS+DAS system
Parameter

Meaning

Unit

Max Power Required

Maximum sector power

dBm

BBU Numbers

Number of BBUs

pcs

RRU Numbers

Number of RRUs (number of sectors)

pcs

MR Cable Length

Total length of main feeder

BR Cable Length

Total length of same-floor feeder

Antenna Numbers

Total number of antennas

pcs

Device Numbers

Total number of passive devices

pcs

Actual Coverage

Actual antenna coverage radius

Actual Edge Power

Actual coverage-edge RSRP

dBm

Cell Edge Rate

Cell-edge data rate

kbit/s

2.2 Parameter Settings


2.2.1 Scenario Parameter
2.2.1.1 Morphology
This parameter indicates the building type and has the following options:

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Recreation Ground

Office Building

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Supermarket

Hotel

Airport/Show

Park

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Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on the actual building type and is
Airport/Show by default. The building type affects the coverage-edge probability and
calculation result of fading margin.

2.2.1.2 Channel Model


This parameter indicates the indoor signal channel model. Currently, the dimensioning tool
supports the following two models:

Winner II-A1: This signal channel model applies to small office home office (SOHO)
scenarios having many rooms and small space, for example, small office, home office,
and hotel. The original definition in 3GPP specifications is as follows:

Winner II-B3: This signal channel model applies to hotspot scenarios having broad
indoor space. For example, exhibition center and airport. The original definition in 3GPP
specifications is as follows:

Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual scenarios and is set to
Winner II-A1 by default.

2.2.1.3 Propagation Model


This parameter indicates the propagation model. Currently, the dimensioning tool supports the
following two models:

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Keenan-Motley

ITU-R P.1238

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The preceding two propagation models are all based on free-space propagation model
correction. ITU-R P.1238 uses different values based on different Frequency and
Morphology. This can reflect the indoor environment in a true sense and is recommended in
a scenario where there is no special requirement.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual scenarios and is set to
ITU-R P.1238 by default.

2.2.1.4 DL MIMO Scheme


This parameter indicates the MIMO mode used for downlink transmission and has the
following options:

12

2x2 SFBC (diversity): Used in scenarios with poor signal conditions; diversity gains are
used to improve the coverage capability.

2x2 MCW (multiplexing): Used in scenarios with good signal conditions; multiplexing
gains are used to enhance the data rate.

Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual scenarios and is set to
2x2 MCW by default because the environment for indoor transmission is good.

2.2.1.5 Sight Type


This parameter indicates the indoor line of sight (LOS) type and has the following options:

LOS

NLOS

Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual scenarios and is set to
NLOS by default because cross-wall coverage is required in most cases.

2.2.1.6 UL/DL Penetr Loss


This parameter indicates the uplink and downlink penetration loss (in dB). This parameter is
configured based on the coverage environment and blocking capacity of an obstacle and is
generally related to the wall thickness and wall quantity.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual scenarios and is set to
20 dB by default on the uplink and downlink.

2.2.1.7 UL/DL Interf Margin


This parameter indicates inter-RAT or intra-RAT interference (in dB). In actual networking,
this parameter reserves the interference margin to prevent signal quality deterioration.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual scenarios and is set to 2
dB by default on the uplink and downlink.

2.2.1.8 HHO Gain


This parameter indicates the hard-handover gain (in dB). Certain link gains can be brought
when an indoor UE moves and accesses a neighboring cell.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual scenarios and is set to 2
dB by default because the indoor hard-handover scope is small and the signal strength is not
substantially different.

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2.2.1.9 UE Tx Power
This parameter indicates the maximum UE transmit power (in dB).
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual device specifications
and is set to 23 dBm by default.

2.2.1.10 UE Antenna Gain


This parameter indicates the UE antenna gain (in dBi).
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual system configurations
and is set to 0 dBi by default.

2.2.1.11 UE Noise Figure


This parameter indicates the UE noise coefficient (in dB).
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual system configurations
and is set to 7 dB by default.

2.2.1.12 UE Cable Loss


This parameter indicates the UE cable loss (in dB).
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual system configurations
and is set to 0 dB by default.

2.2.1.13 UE Body Loss


This parameter indicates the body loss (in dB) on the UE side.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on the service type and is set to 0
dB for PS services and 3 dB for VoIP services.

2.2.2 Coverage Dimensioning Parameters


2.2.2.1 Building Length
This parameter indicates the building length (in m).
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on the actual building length to
be covered and is set to 150 m by default.

2.2.2.2 Building Width


This parameter indicates the building width (in m).
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on the actual building width to be
covered and is set to 30 m by default.

2.2.2.3 Floor Height


This parameter indicates the floor height (in m).
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on the actual height of a floor to
be covered and is set to 5 m by default.

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2.2.2.4 Building Floors


This parameter indicates the number of floors to be covered.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on the number of floors to be
covered and is set to 20 by default.

2.2.2.5 eNB Location


This parameter indicates the location where an eNodeB is located in a building.

Edge //The eNodeB is located at the bottom or top of the building.

Middle //The eNodeB is located in the middle of a building.

Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on the actual eNodeB location
and is set to Middle by default.

2.2.2.6 Weak Current Well Location


This parameter indicates the location of a weak current well and has the following options:

Corner //The weak current well is located at the corner on a floor.

Middle_LongSide //The weak current well is located in the middle of a floor on the
length side.

Middle_WideSide //The weak current well is located in the middle of a floor on the
width side.

Center //The weak current well is located in the middle of a floor.

Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on the actual location of a weak
current well and is set to Corner by default.

2.2.2.7 Insert Loss


This parameter indicates the device insertion loss (in dB).
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual device specifications
and is set to 0.3 dB by default.

2.2.2.8 Br Cable Type


This parameter indicates the same-floor feeder type and is related to calculation of the 100-m
same-floor cable loss.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on the actual same-floor feeder
type and is set to AVA5 7/8 by default.

2.2.2.9 Mr Cable Type


This parameter indicates the main feeder type and is related to calculation of the 100-m main
cable loss.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on the actual main feeder type
and is set to AVA5 7/8 by default.

2.2.2.10 Initial Sectorization


This parameter indicates the number of initialized sectors and is related to the networking
layout.

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Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on the number of floors and is set
to 5 by default.

2.2.2.11 eNB Antenna Gain


This parameter indicates downlink transmit antenna gains (in dBi) in the DBS+DAS system.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual product specifications
and is set to 2 dB by default.

2.2.2.12 eNB Max Power


This parameter indicates the maximum eNodeB transmit power (in dBm) in the DBS+DAS
system.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual product specifications
and is set to 46 dBm by default.

2.2.2.13 eNB Noise Figure


This parameter indicates the eNodeB noise coefficient (in dB) in the DBS+DAS system.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual product specifications
and is set to 2 dB by default.

2.2.2.14 UE Max Power


This parameter indicates the maximum UE transmit power (in dBm).
Configuration principle: This parameter is set to 23 dBm for LTE UEs in most cases.

2.2.2.15 UE Body Loss


This parameter indicates the body loss (in dB) on the UE side.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on the service type and is set to 0
dB for PS services and 3 dB for VoIP services.

2.2.2.16 UE Noise Figure


This parameter indicates the UE noise coefficient (in dB).
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual product specifications
and is set to 7 dB by default.

2.2.2.17 UE CableLoss
This parameter indicates the UE cable loss (in dB).
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual system configurations
and is set to 0 dB by default.

2.2.2.18 Standard Power


This parameter indicates the maximum allowed effective transmit power for a single antenna
in the DBS+DAS system and is units of dBm.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on the electromagnetic
environment and is set to 15 dBm (class-1 standards) by default.

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2.2.2.19 Expected Radius


This parameter indicates the expected coverage radius (in m) for a single antenna in the
DBS+DAS system.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on coverage requirements and is
set to 20 m by default.

2.2.2.20 Edge RSRP


This parameter indicates the expected coverage-edge RSRP (in dBm).
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on coverage requirements and is
set to 105 dBm by default.

2.2.2.21 UL/DL RB Used


This parameter indicates the number of RBs used by a coverage-edge UE on the uplink and
downlink.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual resource conditions and
is set to 4 on the uplink and 8 on the downlink.

2.2.3 RND Application


The link budget for indoor coverage of the DBS+DAS system is performed as follows by
using the LTE RND V100R008.
Step 1 Create a DBS+DAS link budget project.
Figure 2-7 Creating a DBS+DAS link budget project

Step 2 Configure common parameters for the DBS+DAS system.

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Figure 2-8 Configuring common parameters for the DBS+DAS system

Step 3 Configure coverage-related parameters for the DBS+DAS system.


Figure 2-9 Configuring coverage-related parameters for the DBS+DAS system

Step 4 Obtain the DBS+DAS coverage result.

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Figure 2-10 DBS+DAS coverage result

----End

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Link Budget for Pico Coverage

3.1 Design of Link Budget Algorithms


3.1.1 Function
Indoor link budget for the pico system includes the following two functions:

Calculating the pico coverage radius based on the known cell-edge data rate

Same as macro eNodeBs, perform the following operations:

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1.

Obtain system parameters to calculate the effective subcarrier transmit power, subcarrier
receive sensitivity, and required minimum signal receive strength.

2.

Calculate the maximum allowed path loss for the uplink and downlink.

3.

Obtain the pico coverage radius based on the propagation model.

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Figure 3-1 Procedure for calculating the pico coverage radius based on the known cell-edge data
rate
Start

UL input
information

DL input
information

Calculate UE EIRP,
pico receive
sensitivity, and
minimum pico receive
strength.

Calculate pico EIRP,


UE receive sensitivity,
and minimum UE
receive strength.

Calculate maximum
pathloss allowed for
the uplink.

Calculate maximum
pathloss allowed for
the downlink.

Calculate UL coverage
radius.

Calculate DL coverage
radius.

Calculate cell coverage radius and


single-eNodeB coverage area.

Calculate number of eNodeBs to be


planned.

End

Calculating the cell-edge data rate based on the known pico coverage radius

Same as macro eNodeBs, perform the following operations:

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1.

Obtain system parameters to calculate the effective subcarrier transmit power, maximum
path loss, subcarrier receive sensitivity, and required minimum signal receive strength
for the uplink and downlink.

2.

Obtain the MCS based on the SINR.

3.

Calculate the cell-edge data rate.

4.

Calculate the corresponding coverage radius and cell-edge RSRP corresponding to the
cell-edge data rate.

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Figure 3-2 Procedure for calculating the cell-edge data rate based on the known pico coverage
radius
Start

UL input
information

DL input
information

Calculate UE EIRP
and uplink maximum
path loss.

Calculate UE EIRP
and downlink
maximum path loss.

Calculate minimum
pico receive strength.

Calculate minimum
UE receive strength

Calculate pico receive


sensitivity.

Calculate UE receive
sensitivity.

Calculate required SINR and MCS


order.

Calculate coverage-edge data rate


based on the number of RBs.

End

3.1.2 Algorithm Design


3.1.2.1 Parameter Description
Global Parameter
Table 3-1 Global parameters for the pico system

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Parameter

Meaning

Value Range

Default Value

Duplex Mode

Duplex mode

FDD/TDD

FDD

PDCCH Overhead

Downlink control
channel overhead

1 to 4 (symbols)

DL PB

Downlink power
offset

0/1/2/3

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Scenario Parameter
Table 3-2 Scenario parameters for the pico system

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Value Range

Default
Value

Building type

Recreation ground, office


building, supermarket,
hotel, lounge of an
airport, exhibition hall,
parking lot

Recreation
Ground

Channel Model

Channel type

Winner II-A1/Winner
II-B3

Winner
II-A1

Propagation
Model

Propagation
model

Keenan-Motley/ITU-R
P.1238

ITU-R
P.1238

Bandwidth

System
bandwidth

MHz

1.4/3/5/10/15/20

10

PUCCH
Overhead

Uplink control
channel
overhead

RB

2/4/4/6/8/10

Service Type

Service type

PS/VoIP7.95/VoIP12.2

PS

UL MIMO
Scheme

Uplink MIMO

1x1/1x2

1x2

DL MIMO
Scheme

Downlink
MIMO

1x2/2x2 SFBC/2x2 MCW

2x2 SFBC

Sight Type

Line of sight

LOS/NLOS

NLOS

UL Frequency

Uplink
frequency

MHz

700 to 3000

2600

DL Frequency

Downlink
frequency

MHz

700 to 3000

2600

UL Target Load

Uplink load

0% to 100%

100%

DL Target Load

Downlink load

0% to 100%

100%

StdSlowFading

Slow fading
standard
deviation

To be configured based
on scenarios

11.7

Area Cov. Prob.

Area coverage
probability

90% to 100%

95%

UL Penetr Loss

Uplink
penetration
loss

To be configured based
on the building type.

30

Parameter

Meaning

Morphology

Unit

dB

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Parameter

Meaning

Unit

Value Range

Default
Value

DL Penetr Loss

Downlink
penetration
loss

dB

To be configured based
on the building type.

30

UL Interf Margin

Uplink
interference
margin

dB

To be configured based
on interference
conditions.

DL Interf Margin

Downlink
interference
margin

dB

To be configured based
on interference
conditions.

Edge Cov. Prob.

Edge coverage
probability

To be calculated.

91.30%

HHO Gain

Hard handover
gain

dB

Device Parameter
Table 3-3 Device parameters for the pico system
Parameter

Meaning

Unit

Default Value

Tx Power

Pico transmit power

dBm

24

Antenna Gain

Pico antenna gain

dBi

Noise Figure

Pico noise coefficient

dB

JumConLoss

Jumper and connector loss

dB

0.5

Cable Loss

Pico cable loss

dB

Table 3-4 Device parameters of the UE

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Parameter

Meaning

Unit

Tx Power

Transmit power of the


UE

dBm

23

Antenna Gain

Antenna gain of the UE

dBi

Noise Figure

Noise coefficient of the


UE

dB

Body Loss

Body loss

dB

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Default Value

3 dB for voice
services and 0 dB
for PS services

Parameter

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Parameter

Meaning

Unit

Cable Loss

Cable loss of the UE

dB

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Default Value

Parameter
0

3.1.2.2 Calculation Procedure


To calculate the coverage-edge data rate based on the known pico coverage radius, pay
attention to the following:
Input of Function-related Parameters
1.

UL/DL cell-edge data rate

2.

UL/DL modulation scheme and coding rate

Intermediate Calculation Result


1.

Calculate the effective transmit power of the transmitter.

Uplink:
PUSCH EIRP = UlActualTransPower 10 x log (12 x UlRbNum) + UE Antenna Gain UE
Cable Loss UE Body Loss
Downlink:
PDSCH EIRP = DlSCHREPower + Pico Antenna Gain Pico Cable Loss Jumper and
Connector Loss
Parameter definition:
DlSCHREPower: indicates the minimum transmit power (dBm) of the downlink service RE.
DlRETransPower: indicates the downlink subcarrier transmit power (dBm).
DlSCHREPower_A: indicates the service subcarrier transmit power (dBm) for symbol A.
DlSCHREPower_B: indicates the service subcarrier transmit power (dBm) for symbol B.
DlRsPerOFDM12Carrier_B: indicates the number of REs used by RS on an RB for symbol
B.
AntennaPortNum: indicates the number of ports mapped from eNodeB antennas and has the
following values.
Table 3-5 Port mapping in various MIMO modes
DL MIMO Scheme

Port

1x2

2x2 SFBC

2x2 MCW

B / A : indicates the power linear ratio of symbol B to symbol A, as listed in Table 3-6.

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Table 3-6 Mapping between

Confidential

PB and B / A

B / A

PB

One Antenna Port

2 and 4 Antenna Ports

5/4

4/5

3/5

3/4

2/5

1/2

DlUnusedREPerOFDM12Carrier_B: indicates the number of REs not used on an RB for


symbol B as listed in Table 3-7.
Table 3-7 Number of REs not used among 12 REs for each OFDM symbol
AntennaPortNum

DlUnusedREPerOFDM12Carrier_B

Other

DlTotalSCHRENum_B: indicates the total of REs used for data transmission for symbol B.
Calculating the downlink subcarrier transmit power
DlSCHREPower = Min (DlSCHREPower_A, DlTotalSCHRENum_B) +
10log(AntennaPortNum)
Calculate the downlink subcarrier transmit power of symbol A.
DlSCHREPower_A = DlActualTransPower 10log(AntennaPortNum)
10log(DlRBNeed*12)
Calculate the downlink subcarrier transmit power of symbol B.
DlTotalSCHRENum_B = DlRBNeed*(12 2) //2 indicates the number of REs used by RS on
an RB for symbol B.
DlSCHREPower_B = DlSCHREPower_A + 10log ( B / A ) //Indicates the subcarrier
transmit power for symbol B.
2.

Calculate the receiver sensitivity.

In this step, the demodulation threshold for traffic channel is searched based on the cell-edge
MCS. The demodulation threshold is related to the channel type, frequency, and MIMO mode.

Definition of sensitivity

Calculate the uplink receiver sensitivity.


Pico Receiver Sensitivity/Subcarrier = 174 + 10log (15000) + Pico NF+UL SINR
Calculate the downlink receiver sensitivity.

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UE Receiver Sensitivity/Subcarrier=174 + 10log (15000) + UE NF + DL SINR


NOTE

15000 is the bandwidth of a single carrier (15 kHz).


174 is in units of dBm/Hz and indicates the power spectrum density of back noise.

Determining uplink/downlink SINR

Use the optimized number of uplink RBs being an integer to calculate the effective UL
CodeRatee and obtain the uplink demodulation performance of the corresponding channel.
Then, find the corresponding uplink SINR based on the effective UL CodeRate by using the
linear interpolation method.
Use the number of downlink RBs to calculate the effective DL CodeRate and obtain the
downlink demodulation performance of the corresponding channel. Then, find the
corresponding downlink SINR based on the effective DL CodeRate by using the linear
interpolation method. Consider the factor that the dual-stream coding rate doubles the
single-stream coding rate.
3.

Calculate the minimum signal receive strength on the receiver side.

Uplink:
UL Min Signal Reception/Subcarrier = Pico Receiver Sensitivity/Subcarrier Pico Antenna
Gain Pico Cable Loss Pico JumperConnectorLoss+UL Interference Margin;
Downlink:
DL Min Signal Reception/Subcarrier = UE Receiver Sensitivity/Subcarrier UE Antenna
Gain UE Cable Loss UE JumperConnectorLoss UE Body Loss+DL Interference
Margin;
4.

Calculate the maximum allowed path loss.

Uplink:
UL Max Allowed Path Loss = PUSCH EIRP UL Min Signal Reception/Subcarrier
Penetration Loss Shadow Fading Margin
Downlink:
DL Max Allowed Path Loss = PDSCH EIRP DL Min Signal Reception/Subcarrier
Penetration Loss Shadow Fading Margin
5.

Calculate the coverage radius.

If the propagation model is Keenan-Motley:

Use the Keenan-Motley model to calculate the distance based on the known path loss
(dB) as follows:

d 10

PL

PL 32.5 20 log( f )
20

where

d indicates the distance (in km) between the eNodeB and the UE antenna.
f indicates the frequency (in MHz).

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Use the ITU-R P.1238 model to calculate the distance based on the known path loss
as follows:

d 10

PL

(dB)

PL 20 log( f ) 28
N

where

d indicates the distance (in m) between the eNodeB and the UE antenna.
f indicates the frequency (in MHz).
N indicates the distance loss coefficient and has the following values:
Frequency

Recreation
Ground/Hotel

Office
Building

Supermarket

Lounge of an
Airport/Exhi
bition
hall/Parking
Lot

700 MHz, 800 MHz,


900 MHz

30

33

22

20

1500 MHz, 1800 MHz,


2100 MHz, AWS, 2300
MHz, 2600 MHz

28

30

20

20

NOTE

The slow fading margin and penetration loss have been considered in other steps and therefore are not
included in the propagation model formulas.

6.

Calculate the cell-edge RSRP.

Coverage-edge RSRP indicates the RSRP based on the minimum coverage radius between the
uplink and downlink and can be calculated as follows:
RSPower = DlSCHREPower_A + 10log (1+Pb)
Where, DlSCHREPower_A indicates the subcarrier transmit power for symbol A.
Calculate the coupling loss based on the minimum coverage radius between the uplink and
downlink as follows:
CoupleLoss = DL PL (Min(UL Radius, DL Radius)) Pico Antenna Gain + Pico Cable Loss
+ Pico Body Loss UE Antenna Gain + UE Cable Loss + UE Body Loss + DL Penetration
Loss + SFM
Where, DL PL (Min (UL Radius, DL Radius)) indicates the downlink path loss based on the
minimum value between uplink radius and downlink radius.
Then,
Coverage-edge RSRP = RSPower CoupleLoss
7.

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Calculate the single-eNodeB coverage area.

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Pico sectors described in this document are omni-directional sectors in hexagons in the
topology. The single-eNodeB coverage area can be obtained based on the calculated coverage
radius.
Cover Area per Pico = 3/2*sqr(3)* Effective Radius^2
8.

Calculate the number of eNodeBs to be deployed.

Calculate the number of eNodeBs to be planned based on the number of floors, area of each
floor, number of floors covered by each pico eNodeB, and single-eNodeB coverage area.

CovAreaPerFloor TotNumOfFloors
NumOfPico

CovAreaPerPico NumOfFloorsPerPico

Final Budget Result


Table 3-8 Coverage radius calculated based on the known cell-edge data rate
Parameter

Meaning

Unit

Coverage Radius

Pico coverage radius

Cover Area per Pico

Coverage area of each pico

m2

Number of Pico Needed

Number of pico eNodeBs required

Piece

ESRP

Cell-edge RSRP

dBm

To calculate the Cell-Edge Data Rate Based on the Known Pico Coverage Radius, Pay
attention to the following
Input of Function-related Parameters
Number of RBs used on the uplink and downlink: 4 RBs for the uplink and downlink,
respectively.
Intermediate Calculation Result
1.

Calculate the effective transmit power of the transmitter.

For details, see section 3.1.2 3.1.2.2 "Calculation Procedure."


2.

Calculate the maximum allowed path loss.

If the propagation model is Keenan-Motley:

Use the Keenan-Motley model to calculate the path loss based on the known distance d (m)
as follows:

PL 32.5 20 log( f ) 20 log(d )


where

PL

indicates the path loss (in dB) corresponding to the distance.

f indicates the frequency (in MHz).

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If the propagation model is ITU-R P.1238:

Use the ITU-R P.1238 model to calculate the path loss based on the known distance d (m)
as follows:

L 20 log( f ) N log(d ) 28
where

PL

indicates the path loss (in dB) corresponding to the distance.

f indicates the frequency (in MHz).


NOTE

The slow fading margin and penetration loss have been considered in other steps and therefore are not
included in the propagation model formulas.

3.

Calculate the minimum signal receive strength on the receiver side.

UL Min Signal Reception = PUSCH EIRP UL PL UL Penetration Loss SFM


DL Min Signal Reception = PDSCH EIRP DL PL DL Penetration Loss SFM
4.

Calculate the receiver sensitivity.

Uplink:
Pico Receiver Sensitivity/Subcarrier = UL Min Signal Reception/Subcarrier Pico Antenna
Gain Pico Cable Loss Pico jumperConnectorLoss + UL Interference Margin;
Downlink:
UE Receiver Sensitivity/Subcarrier = DL Min Signal Reception/Subcarrier UE Antenna
Gain UE Cable Loss UE JumperConnectorLoss UE Body Loss + DL Interference
Margin;
5.

Calculate the required SINR and throughput.

Calculate the uplink/downlink SINR.

Calculate the uplink SINR.


UL SINR =174 10log (15000) Pico NF + Pico Receiver Sensitivity/Subcarrier
Calculate the downlink SINR.
DL SINR = 174 10log (15000) UE NF + UE Receiver Sensitivity/Subcarrier

Select the MCS based on the SINR and calculate the throughput.

Based on the uplink and downlink SINR and signal channel, determine two adjacent
modulation orders to have the SINR located between demodulation thresholds corresponding
to the two modulation orders. Then, use the linear interpolation method to calculate the code
rates (CodeRate) corresponding to the uplink and downlink SINRs, respectively.
ULEdgeRate = ULRBUsed*ULSchRE*ULModuOrder*ULCodeRate*(1-BLER) CRC
DLEdgeRate=DLRBUsed*DLSchRE*DLModuOrder*DLCodeRate*CodeWord*(1-BLER)
CRC
6.

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Calculate the cell-edge RSRP.

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Cell-edge RSRP indicates the RSRP based on the minimum coverage radius between the
uplink and downlink and can be calculated as follows:
RSPower = DlSCHREPower_A + 10log (1+Pb)
Where, DlSCHREPower_A indicates the coverage subcarrier transmit power for symbol A.
Calculate the downlink coupling loss as follows:
DlCoupleLoss = DL PL Pico Antenna Gain + Pico Cable Loss + Pico Body Loss UE
Antenna Gain + UE Cable Loss + UE Body Loss + DL Penetration Loss + SFM
Then:
Cell-edge RSRP = RSPower CoupleLoss

Final Budget Result


Table 3-9 Cell-edge data rate calculated based on the known pico coverage radius
Parameter

Meaning

Unit

Cell Edge Rate

Cell-edge data rate

kbit/s

ESRP

Cell-edge RSRP

dBm

3.2 Parameter Settings


3.2.1 Scenario Parameter
3.2.1.1 Morphology
This parameter indicates the building type and has the following options:

Recreation Ground

Office Building

Supermarket

Hotel

Airport/Show

Park

Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on the actual building type and is
Airport/Show by default.

3.2.1.2 Channel Model


This parameter indicates the indoor signal channel model. Currently, the dimensioning tool
supports the following two models:

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Winner II-A1: This signal channel model applies to SOHO scenarios having many rooms
and small space, for example, small office, home office, and hotel.

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Winner II-B3: This signal channel model applies to hotspot scenarios having broad
indoor space, for example, exhibition center and airport.

Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual scenarios and is set to
Winner II-A1 by default.

3.2.1.3 Propagation Model


This parameter indicates the propagation model. Currently, the dimensioning tool supports the
following two models:

Keenan-Motley

ITU-R P.1238

The preceding two propagation models are all based on free-space propagation model
correction. ITU-R P.1238 uses different values based on different Frequency and
Morphology. This can reflect the indoor environment in a true sense.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual scenarios and is set to
ITU-R P.1238 by default.

3.2.1.4 DL MIMO Scheme


This parameter indicates the MIMO mode used for downlink transmission and has the
following options:

1x2

2x2 SFBC (diversity):poor signal conditions; diversity gains are used to improve the
coverage capability.

2x2 MCW (multiplexing): good signal conditions; multiplexing gains are used to
enhance the data rate.

Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual scenarios and is set to
2x2 MCW by default because the environment for indoor transmission is good.

3.2.1.5 Sight Type


This parameter indicates the indoor line of sight (LOS) type and has the following options:

LOS

NLOS

Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual scenarios and is set to
NLOS by default because cross-wall coverage is required in most cases.

3.2.1.6 UL/DL Penetr Loss


This parameter indicates the uplink and downlink penetration loss (in dB). This parameter is
configured based on the coverage environment and blocking capacity of an obstacle and is
generally related to the wall thickness and wall quantity.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual scenarios and is set to
20 dB by default on the uplink and downlink.

3.2.1.7 UL/DL Interf Margin


This parameter indicates inter-RAT or intra-RAT interference (in dB). In actual networking,
this parameter reserves the interference margin to prevent signal quality deterioration.

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Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual scenarios and is set to 2
dB by default on the uplink and downlink.

3.2.1.8 HHO Gain


This parameter indicates the hard-handover gain (in dB). Certain link gains can be brought
when an indoor UE moves and accesses a neighboring cell.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual scenarios and is set to 2
dB by default because the indoor hard-handover scope is small and the signal strength is not
substantially different.

3.2.1.9 Pico/UE Tx Power


This parameter indicates the maximum pico/UE transmit power (in dB).
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual device specifications
and is set to 24 dBm for the pico and 23 dBm for the UE by default.

3.2.1.10 Pico/UE Antenna Gain


This parameter indicates the pico/UE antenna gain (in dBi).
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual system configurations
and is set to 2 dBi for the pico and 0 dBi for the UE by default.

3.2.1.11 Pico/UE Noise Figure


This parameter indicates the pico/UE noise coefficient (in dB).
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual system configurations
and is set to 6 dB for the pico and 7 dB for the UE by default.

3.2.1.12 Pico/UE Cable Loss


This parameter indicates the pico/UE cable loss (in dBm).
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual system configurations
and is set to 0 dB for the pico and the UE by default.

3.2.1.13 Pico JumConLoss


This parameter indicates the loss (in dB) of pico jumpers and connectors.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on actual system configurations
and is set to 0.5 dB for the pico and 0 dB for the UE by default.

3.2.1.14 UE Body Loss


This parameter indicates the body loss (in dB) on the UE side.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on the service type and is set to 0
dB for PS services and 3 dB for VoIP services.

3.2.2 Coverage Dimensioning Parameters


3.2.2.1 UL/DL Edge Rate
This parameter indicates the uplink and downlink cell-edge date rate (in kbit/s).

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Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on coverage requirements and is


set to 2000 kbit/s for the uplink and 3000 kbit/s for the downlink.

3.2.2.2 UL/DL MCS Selected


This parameter indicates the selected uplink/downlink coverage modulation mode.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on coverage requirements and is
set to 64QAM0.66 for the uplink and 64QAM0.65 for the downlink.

3.2.2.3 Total Num of Floor


This parameter indicates the total number of floors to be covered.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on coverage requirements and is
set to 10 by default.

3.2.2.4 Cover Area per Floor


This parameter indicates the coverage area (in m) required for each floor.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on coverage requirements and is
set to 1000 m by default.

3.2.2.5 Num of Floor per Pico


This parameter indicates the number of floors to be covered by each pico eNodeB and is
related to the actual coverage capability of a pico eNodeB.
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on the coverage capability and is
set to 1 by default because the inter-floor penetration loss is great.

3.2.2.6 Cell Radius


This parameter indicates the pico coverage radius (in m).
Configuration principle: This parameter is configured based on the planned pico coverage
radius and is set to 10 m by default.

3.2.2.7 UL/DL RB Used


This parameter indicates the number of RBs used by a cell-edge UE on the uplink and
downlink.
Configuration principle: This parameter is related to the scheduling algorithm and user
quantity and is set to 4 for the uplink and 8 for the downlink.

3.3 RND Application


The indoor link budget for the pico system is performed by using LTE RND V1R8.

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1.

To create a pico link budget project, log in to the RND. In the main window, choose
File > New in the menu bar.

2.

In the displayed New Project dialog box, set Design Type to Indoor Pico Coverage
Dimensioning and click OK.

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Figure 3-3 Creating a pico link budget project

3.

To configure basic parameters, in the displayed Newproject window, click Common


Input Parameters in the navigation tree of the Network Dimensioning area and
configure related parameters in the pane on the right.

Figure 3-4 Common parameter input

4.

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To calculate the pico coverage radius, in the displayed Newproject window, choose
Data Channel Link Budget > Data Channel Cell Radius Budget in the navigation tree
of the Network Dimensioning area, configure related parameters in the pane on the right,
and then click Calculate.

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Figure 3-5 shows the calculation result.

Figure 3-5 Calculated Pico coverage radius

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6.

To calculate the pico cell-edge data rate, in the displayed Newproject window, choose
Data Channel Link Budget > Cell Edge Rate Dimensioning in the navigation tree of
the Network Dimensioning area, configure related parameters in the pane on the right,
and then click Calculate.

7.

Figure 3-6 shows the calculation result.

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Figure 3-6 Calculated pico cell-edge data rate

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