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eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide Issue 3.0 Date 2012-03-29 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

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HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

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eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

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eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

Contents

Contents

About This Document.......................................................................1

  • 1 Overview......................................................................................1

    • 1.1 TA Function........................................................................................................................................................1

    • 1.2 TA Planning Principles.......................................................................................................................................1

  • 2 Location Management...................................................................1

    • 2.1 TAU Management..............................................................................................................................................1

      • 2.1.1 Multiple TAs.............................................................................................................................................1

      • 2.1.2 TAU Solution............................................................................................................................................1

  • 2.2 Paging Solution..................................................................................................................................................2

    • 2.2.1 Paging Channel and Parameters...............................................................................................................2

    • 2.2.2 Paging Process..........................................................................................................................................4

  • 3 TA and TAL Planning......................................................................7

    • 3.1 Limitation of the Standard TA Configuration....................................................................................................7

    • 3.2 TAL Configuration Solution..............................................................................................................................7

    • 3.3 TA and TAL Planning Solution..........................................................................................................................9

      • 3.3.1 TA and TAL Planning Procedure..............................................................................................................9

      • 3.3.2 TA and TAL Planning Methods................................................................................................................9

      • 3.3.3 Scenario-specific TA and TAL Planning Solutions................................................................................12

  • 4 Paging Capacity Analysis.............................................................17

    • 4.1 Factors Affecting the Paging Capacity............................................................................................................17

    • 4.2 Paging Capacity Analysis on the MME and eNodeB......................................................................................18

      • 4.2.1 Paging Capacity Analysis on the MME..................................................................................................18

      • 4.2.2 eNodeB Paging Capacity Analysis.........................................................................................................18

      • 4.2.3 TAL Estimation based on the Paging Capacity......................................................................................23

  • 5 Planning Tool Configuration.........................................................24

    • 5.1 TA Planning Tool.............................................................................................................................................24

    • 5.2 TA and TAL Configuration..............................................................................................................................25

      • 5.2.1 TAC Configuration on the eNodeB........................................................................................................25

      • 5.2.2 TAL Configuration on the MME............................................................................................................28

  • 6 Summary....................................................................................29

  • eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    Contents

    7 PF and PO Calculation.................................................................30

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    Abbreviations and Acronyms

    Abbreviation or Acronym

    Full spelling

    LTE

    Long Term Evolution

    eNB

    E-UTRAN nodeB

    MME

    mobility management entity

    S-GW

    serving gateway

    TA

    tracking area

    RA

    routing area

    TAC

    tracking area code

    TAI

    tracking area identification

    TAL

    tracking area list

    TAU

    tracking area update

    TMSI

    temporary mobile subscriber identity

    IMSI

    international mobile subscriber identity

    S-TMSI

    SAE-temporary mobile subscribers identity

    PC

    paging cycle

    PF

    paging frame

    PO

    paging occasion

    SCR

    schedule code rate

    CRL

    CCE aggregation level

    COV

    coverage

    Issue 3.0 (2012-03-29)

    Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

    iv

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    1 Overview

    • 1.1 TA Function

    1

    Overview

    Tracking area (TA) is a new concept developed in the Long Term Evolution (LTE)/System Architecture Evolution (SAE) for user equipment (UE) location management. The function of the TA is similar to that of a routing area (RA) in Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)/Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (Edge). That is, the UE does not need to update its location on the VLR. TA is a free mobility area in which the UE does not need to update services. Since its importance on location management, a proper TA size is important in the LTE system.

    To locate the UE, the LTE network coverage is divided into multiple TAs based on TACs. Each TA has a cell group configured with the same TAC. One cell belongs to only one TA, and cells in a TA may belong to multiple eNodeBs, but belong to the same MME. The network sends paging messages through all cells in the entire TA to page an idle UE. In the tracking area list (TAL) solution, paging is performed through all cells in all TAs in the TAL.

    The TA is used to manage UE locations. UE location management includes paging management and location area update (LAU) management. To set up a call connection between the eNodeB and the UE, the MME must record the UE location in real time so that the UE can be found. To update the UE location information in the database, the eNodeB can quickly locate the UE, the UE will initiate a static TAU based on the network topology or initiate a dynamic TAU based on the mobility.

    • 1.2 TA Planning Principles

    In the LTE network plan, the TA is planned as follows:

    The paging channel capacity in the paging area is sufficient. The LAU at the cell edge costs the minimum overhead and facilitates management.

    TA planning in LTE network planning is closely related to paging performance. Appropriate TA planning balances the paging load and TAU signaling overheads, and therefore effectively controls the system signaling load.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    1 Overview

    • 2 Location Management

    Location management solutions include the TAU management solution and paging management solution.

    2.1 TAU Management

    2.1.1 Multiple TAs

    The 3GPP Release 8 protocol defines the multiple TAs solution for managing UE location. One TAL is composed of multiple TAs. These TAs are allocated to the same UE. TAUs are not required if the UE moves within the TAs in the TAL, as shown in the following figure.

    Figure 1.1 TAL

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 1 Overview 2 Location Management Location management solutions

    2.1.2 TAU Solution

    TAUs are classified as static TAU and dynamic TAU.

    • 1. The static TAU is periodically triggered by a TAU timer based on the network topology. The static TAU is independent of UE behaviors.

    • 2. The dynamic TAU is triggered based on UE calls and mobility attributes and uses more network resources than the static TAU. It is triggered by one of the following events:

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    1 Overview

    The UE detects a TA that is not included in the TAL.

    The UE in the UTRAN PMM_Connected state (such as URA_PCH) reselects E- UTRAN.

    The UE in the GPRS READY state reselects E-UTRAN.

    The GUTI state needs to be updated. For example, the GERAN or UTRAN modifies the bearer configuration.

    An RRC connection is released to achieve load balance. The UE capability for communicating with the EPC changes.

    The MME sends a new TAL to the UE during the TAU. Huawei products do not support dynamic TAL updates and UE-class TAL configuration. Therefore, the TAs with ping-pong TAUs are planned in the same TAL to reduce signaling overheads.

    The TAU process occupies some uplink bandwidth over the radio interface and communication resources in the CN. Frequent LAUs increase the MME load and UE power consumption and may reduce the MME paging success rate (because the UE in the TAU procedure does not respond to paging). Therefore, TAU overheads must be controlled.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 1 Overview      

    The current MME does not support the static LAU and can be configured with a maximum of 16 TAs.

    After the UE-class dynamic TAL is configured, the MME and UE save the configuration. When the UE detects a new tracking area identifier (TAI), it checks whether the TAI is included in the TAL. If the TAI is not included in the TAL, no TAU is triggered. If the TAI is included in the TAL, a TAU is triggered and the MME performs a UE-class TAL update and then delivers the updated TAL to the UE. This decreases the possibility of TAU storm and reduces MME and UE resource occupation.

    2.2 Paging Solution

    The paging functions in the LTE system are as follows:

    The MME sends a paging message to the UE in idle mode. For example, the MME receives calls from other UEs.

    The E-UTRAN sends system update messages to UEs in idle or connected mode. The E-UTRAN sends Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System (ETWS) notification to UEs in idle or connected mode.

    2.2.1 Paging Channel and Parameters

    • 1. Paging channel

    LTE specifications define the paging control channel (PCCH), paging channel (PCH), and physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH). The following figure shows the mapping between theses channels.

    Figure 1.1 Mapping between the three types of downlink channels

    As shown in the preceding figure, paging messages are transported over the PCCH, and PCH data blocks are transported over the PDSCH. In addition to paging messages, the PDSCH can carry the DL-SCH. Before receiving paging messages, the UE must listen to the PDCCH to

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    1 Overview

    check whether the PDCCH carries a paging-radio network temporary identifier (P-RNTI). If the PDCCH carries a P-RNTI, the UE determines which MME sends the paging message.

    • 2. Paging configurations

    The E-UTRAN periodically sends a paging message at the paging occasion (PO). One page message may include paging information about multiple UEs. The following describes the frame structure and parameter configurations.

    Paging DRX cycle

    An idle UE is allocated only one PO (one or multiple TTIs) during one PC. To reduce power consumption, UEs use discontinuous reception (DRX). For a UE, a PC is also referred to as a paging DRX cycle.

    Paging cycles (PCs) are classified as the default PC and UE-specific PC. In the default PC, 32, 64, 128, or 256 frames can be configured on the OMC, which are sent to the UE using the defautpagingcycle parameter in SIB-2.

    Paging frame and paging occasion

    A paging frame (PF) is defined by a paging frame number (PFN) within a PC. A PO the subframe within a PF over the PDCCH to be interpreted by the UE.

    The following figure shows the relationship between the paging DRX cycle, PF, and PO. The PC equaling 128 frames is used as an example.

    Figure 2.1 Frame structure when the PF, PO and DRX cycle are 1280 ms

    A paging DRX cycle is specified by the defaultPagingCycle parameter. It must be set based on network conditions. A short DRX cycle decreases the paging time and the UE power consumption is in inverse proportion to the paging DRX cycle.

    The number of PFs and number of POs are specified by the nB parameter.

    One paging message may include paging information for multiple UEs. That is, multiple UEs can share the same PO. The value of the UE_ID parameter ranges from 0 to 1023. The value of the UE_ID parameter is equal to the last ten bits of an IMSI mod 1024. Therefore, if the last ten bits of an IMSI are the same for UEs, these UEs are allocated to the same paging group within a PO. That is, the UE performs paging listening at the same PO.

    The UE can calculate the PF and PO based on the IMSI, paging DRX cycle, and nB. After obtaining the PF and PO, the UE listens to the PDCCH at the PO to check whether the PDCCH carries a P-RNTI. If the PDCCH carries a P-RNTI, the UE will read the paging message based on the P-RNTI and the corresponding frequency resources and coding format indication. If the UE detects that the PDCCH does not carry any P-RNTIs, it does not receive messages over the PDSCH and enters the sleep state based on the DRX cycle.

    Within one DRX cycle, the UE receives messages over the PDCCH at the calculated PO and then receive messages over the PDSCH based on site requirements. The UE enters the sleep state in other time to save power. For details about the calculation of the PF and PO, see the chapter 7"PF and PO Calculation."

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    2.2.2 Paging Process

    1 Overview

    The MME is an important network entity for paging. Downlink data received by the MME is buffered in the serving gateway (S-GW). Then, the S-GW sends a paging notification to the MME and the MME sends a paging message to all eNodeBs in the TA, requiring them to page a UE. In addition, downlink signaling may also trigger the MME to page a UE and set up a signaling connection between the UE and the network. The paging process is as follows:

    • 1. The MME sends an S1-AP paging message over the S1 interface to all eNodeBs in the TA, requiring them to page a UE.

    • 2. After eNodeBs receive the S1-AP paging message, they wait for the first valid PO to send the paging message to UEs over the PDSCH and PDCCH to UEs.

    If the paging message is not successfully sent due to congestion, eNodeBs will try to send the paging message at the next valid PO.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 2.2.2 Paging Process 1 Overview The MME is

    Downlink control information (DCI) includes the scheduling assignment information for a paging message, and is valid for all UEs listening to the PO.

    • 3. UEs parse the UE ID list in the paging message and match their IDs with the UE ID in the paging message to determine the paging target. If the UE ID in the paging message is an S-TMSI, the paging follows the normal call process. If the UE ID in the paging message is not an S-TMSI, the paging is an abnormal service call, which is used to recover network errors. In this situation, the UE must attach to the network again.

    Figure 3.1 UE ID in the paging message

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 2.2.2 Paging Process 1 Overview The MME is
    • 4. The paged UE responds to the MME with a message generated at the non-access stratum (NAS).

    The following figure shows the paging process.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    1 Overview

    Figure 4.1 LTE Paging process

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 1 Overview Figure 4.1 LTE Paging process 

    The paging record contains UE-specific paging messages sent at a PO. The maxNoOfPagingRecords parameter specifies the maximum number of paging records at a PO. The 3GPP protocols specify that a maximum of 16 paging records can be configured.

    Figure 4.2 Recommended number of paging records in different bandwidth configurations

    Bandwidth

    5 MHz

    10 MHZ

    15 MHz

    20 MHz

    Maximum Number Of Paging Records

    7

    16

    16

    16

    A paging message has a higher priority than user data. Therefore, if the number of paging records reaches the upper limit, user data cannot be transmitted. For example, if 7 paging records are configured in the bandwidth of 5 MHz, paging records occupy all bandwidth and user data cannot be transmitted due to lack of bandwidth. If the number of paging records configured exceeds the maximum number of paging records in the preceding table, some paging messages cannot be transmitted.

    If a UE does not find its ID in the paging message, it enters the DRX state. If a UE finds its ID in the paging message, it sends a service request to the MME. If the MME does not receive the service request before the T3413 timer expires, the MME sends an S1-AP paging message again. The maximum number of times the MME resends the S1-AP paging message is specified by the N3413 timer.

    The RRC layer attempts to send (at least one time) the paging message within the length of the paging discard timer. It is recommended that the length of the paging discard timer be greater than that of the T3413 timer and less than the default paging cycle. The RRC layer discards the paging message if the RRC layer cannot successfully send the paging message before the paging discard timer expires.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    • 3 TA and TAL Planning

    3.1 Limitation of the Standard TA Configuration

    The standard TA configuration is used in the EPC before the TAL is put into use. The standard TA configuration is defective in the following aspects:

    A single TA can include a maximum of 100 eNodeBs.

    When the configuration of a cell in the TA changes, the cell must be reset, interrupting services.

    In the standard TA configuration, cells in a TA do not overlap with each other and each UE can be registered with only one TA. If UEs at the TA edge frequently move between two cells, ping-pong TAUs may be caused between two or more TAs and transient TAU signaling burst may occur. Note that radio channel ping-pong fading may also cause TAUs.

    In the standard TA configuration, the network load may sharply increase. For example, when a train runs at the TA border, TAU burst will cause a sharp increase in the network load. As a result, the service QoS of the target cell decreases and signaling resource congestion increases.

    3.2 TAL Configuration Solution

    In the TAL configuration solution, multiple TAs can form one TAL and these TAs are allocated to the same UE. The TA configuration is not updated if the UE moves to a TA in the TAL. Currently, Huawei's MME supports only the static TAL. When the UE attaches to the network, the network determines the TAs in a TAL to be allocated to the UE and the UE is registered with these TAs. When the UE enters a TA not included in its TAL, a TAU must be performed. During the TAU, the network allocates new TAs (another TAL associated to cells) to the UE. TAs in the new TAL are not included in the original TAL.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 3 TA and TAL Planning 3 TA and

    In the UE-class TAL solution defined in the LTE protocols, the updated TAL is not associated with cells but based on the UE mobility properties. The last visited TAI contained in the TAU request message is sent to the MME. Then, the MME updates the UE-class TAL for this UE. The new TAL may contain some TAs in the original TAL.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    In the TAL solution, the flexibility of the UE paging area increases because the EPC flexibly allocates TAs based on the preliminary plan without reconfiguring TAs. With this solution, when a UE moves among TAs in the TAL, TAUs are not performed and therefore ping-pong TAUs are avoided.

    The LTE technology introduces concepts similar to the SGSN pool and MME pool area. An MME pool area is defined as the radio access network served by a group of MMEs. If a UE moves in an MME pool area, the serving MME does not change.

    Figure 1.1 TA and MME pool area division

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 3 TA and TAL Planning In the TAL

    Figure 1.2 Cell-class TA division in an MME pool

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 3 TA and TAL Planning In the TAL

    If an eNodeB connects to multiple MMEs, the eNodeB must select an MME for a UE. Assume that a UE has attached to an MME, to reduce EPC signaling load, UE remains the connection with the MME on condition that it moves in the converge area associated with the MME. This reduces the EPC signaling load. The converge area is defined on the RAN side. It includes one or multiple TAs served by a group of MMEs. One or multiple MMEs serving the converge area can provide services for TAs outside the converge area. The MME group is called an MME pool.

    An MME pool area is defined to ensure the UE is served by the same MME within a converge area, reducing EPC signaling overhead. Converge areas of different MMEs can overlap with each other.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 3 TA and TAL Planning In the TAL

    MMEs in the same MME pool area can connect to all eNodeBs in this area. This ensures that UEs in the pool area do not need to update the connection to the MME.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    Different cells under the same eNodeB can belong to different TAs. One TA can belong to different MME pool areas.

    3.3 TA and TAL Planning Solution

    TA and TAL planning is to determine the size of a TA and TAL and the border. The TA and TAL size is defined as the number of eNodeBs in the TA or TAs in a TAL. If only a few eNodeBs are in a TAL, TAUs may occur frequently, and MME load and UE power consumption increase. If TAUs occur frequently, a UE cannot respond to a paging message, reducing the paging success rate. If there are many eNodeBs increases in a TAL, paging load increases.

    A TAL includes the optimum number of eNodeBs, balancing the TAU frequency and paging load. The paging load depends on the MME and eNodeB paging capability. The TAU frequency depends on border planning of TAs in a TAL.

    • 3.3.1 TA and TAL Planning Procedure

    The following figure shows the detailed TA and TAL planning procedure.

    Figure 1.1 TA and TAL planning procedure

    • 3.3.2 TA and TAL Planning Methods

      • 1. TAL size planning

    The number of eNodeBs in TAs in a TAL depends the MME performance and eNodeB performance.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 3 TA and TAL Planning Different cells under

    For details about MME and eNodeB paging capacity analysis, see section 4.2"Paging Capacity Analysis on the MME and eNodeB."

    The TAL size is estimated based on the following parameters:

    MME paging volume: includes the number of boards in an MME and board paging volume.

    eNodeB paging volume: includes the paging load processed by the CPU, paging overhead allowed by the PDCCH and PDSCH, and paging blocking rate.

    Maximum number of UEs concurrently attached to the network in the served area of an MME

    Paging arrival rate during busy hours, which depends on the MME paging traffic module UE type supported by an eNodeB and the number of UEs under each eNodeB Busy-hour paging traffic module of UEs

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 3 TA and TAL Planning Different cells under

    The network traffic models vary with areas or working time. The UE paging volume is different in different versions. The number of UEs changes with time.

    A small TA is recommended to ensure the flexibility of the TAL reconfiguration.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    The minimum number of eNodeBs or cells supported by TAs in a TAL depends on the paging channel capacity. The TAL size changes with the traffic change in TAs. The number of eNodeBs supported in each TAL depends on the eNodeB specifications and estimated paging capacity. Considering future capacity expansion, 20% margin is reserved based on the initially planned TAL.

    During the LTE network deployment, operators may require Huawei to use the location area plan of the GSM and UMTS networks for reference. That is, the LTE TAL size and border are consistent with that of the LAs in the GSM and UMTS networks. For example, in the Hong Kong Genius LTE site and Singapore M1 LTE site, there are 150 to 250 eNodeBs in the UMTS network location area, and therefore four to seven TAs are configured in the densely- populated area based on the 20% margin theory. In addition, all TAs are in the TAL. Otherwise, LAUs may occur frequently.

    The TAL range cannot exceed the serving GW (SGW) area, or the SGW may perform ping- pong handovers.

    During the LTE network deployment, the traffic is low and there are many unknown factors. Therefore, network capacity may be expanded in future and accordingly the TAL may also be adjusted for monitoring traffic and paging capacity in the paging area.

    • 2. TAL boarding planning

    Based on the network planning experience, the TAL border is planned based on the following principles:

    1)

    In the static TAL configuration, TAs in the TAL cannot overlap with each other.

    2)

    The location where TAU overhead increases frequently is in the area with low traffic. This ensures the eNodeB has sufficient sources to process additional TAU signaling overhead.

    3)

    UE mobility is considered. For example, TAL board is not set at the heavy-traffic areas such as main roads and railways.

    4)

    If the discontinuous coverage is used for urban and suburban areas, an independent TAL is planned for each separate suburban coverage.

    In the LTE network deployment, hot spot coverage is used in important areas. Therefore, if the suburban coverage and the urban coverage are discontinuous, UEs cannot perform TAUs after the periodic TAU timer and E-UTRAN Deactivate ISR Timer expire and therefore UEs are not in the service area. After the protection period ends (the Mobility Reachable Timer and Implicit Detach Timer expire), the eNodeB regards that the IMSI is implicitly detached and the MME deletes UE context, including the TAL, TAI of last TAU and GUT1. Some UEs entering an urban area from a suburban area do not immediately perform TAUs because the TAL of the urban area is different from that of the suburban area. Generally, to ensure that UEs are in the service area, suburban areas use independent TALs which are distributed as a concentric circle. The internal circle may contain multiple TAs due to capacity limitation. The fragment method or a traffic circle method or both of the two methods are used. Practice has proved that the TAL division method can increase the possibility that UEs are in the service area and improve the call completion rate and call setup rate.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    Figure 2.1 TAL division for urban and suburban discontinuous coverage

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 3 TA and TAL Planning Figure 2.1 TAL

    1)

    Geographically, the TAL is a continuous area.

    The TAL is divided based on the distance to ensure that geographically areas are continuous. The TAL border can be slightly adjusted based on the original traffic statistics and the visual display of the Google Earth map.

    2)

    All TAs in the same TAL are served by the same MME.

    The LTE protocols specify that The LTE protocols specify that TALs can be divided by eNodeB when multiple MMEs share the same home subscriber server (HSS). One eNodeB may be served by more than one MME. However, in practice, TALs are not divided by eNodeB. Otherwise, paging may be performed through two routes under two MMEs. This is unpractical. Generally, MMEs do not share the same HSS and one TAC and TAL can be served by only one MME.

    3)

    The mountains and rivers are used as the TAL border to reduce the overlapping degree of different cells and minimize the cost of TAL border updates.

    The geographic information system (GIS) of the current network planning tool cannot recognize surface and terrain features. Therefore, TAL planning is performed based on the administrative division map. After the area to be planned is divided based on large mountains and rivers, adjust area division plan.

    If there are more than two TALs in large cities with heavy traffic, the mountains and rivers in the city can be used as the border to reduce the overlapping degree of cells in the two TALs. If a city does not have large mountains and rivers, you are advised not to divide the TAL by street and the border cannot be set at the place with heavy traffic such has shopping malls. At the boundary of an urban area, the TAL border is set at the suburban place where eNodeBs are located not in the place with heavy traffic. This avoids frequent LAUs.

    4)

    In outdoor scenarios, the LTE network works at bands F and D. TALs can be divided based on the frequency and geographic positions.

    If bands F and D are used by the same MME and the capacity is sufficient, it is recommended that the same TAL be used. If the capacity is insufficient, the TAL must be divided into two TALs based on frequency bands or geographic positions.

    Figure 2.2 TAL division by frequency band

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    Figure 2.3 TAL division by geographic position

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    5)

    If a TAL is divided by band, LAUs may occur frequently due to handovers and reselection between bands. To prevent frequent LAUs, set parameters to keep a UE residing in the cells at the same frequency band, reducing the number of handovers and reselection between frequency bands. In addition, the system load caused by LAUs must be considered during signaling channel design.

    If a TAL is divided by geographic position, LAUs do not happen frequently. At the TAL boarder, LAUs may occur due to handovers and reselection within the same frequency band or between frequency bands, and signaling traffic is heavy. Therefore, the TAL border must be set at a place with low traffic.

    After TAL division, minimize the number of TALs under the same eNodeB or cell. A maximum of three TALs is allowed under the same eNodeB or cell.

    3.3.3 Scenario-specific TA and TAL Planning Solutions

    • 1. UE high-speed mobility in densely-populated urban areas

    In densely-populated urban areas, there are many wireless devices. To stabilize the paging load, the paging area must be minimized. However, in some scenarios, the paging area must be large. For example, when UEs move at a high speed at the places such as the metro or new main line, especially at the rush hours in working days, signaling load is heavy in the EPC. In densely-populated urban areas, different TAL sizes are configured for UEs in different scenarios.

    • 2. RAN-sharing scenario-Forbidden TA

    In RAN-sharing scenarios, a fixed border is allocated to some UEs in the network. Only UEs in the sharing area can enter the network.

    • 3. AP configuration in home application scenarios-Forbidden Tracking Area

    When APs are configured in home application, the number of UEs must be limited. Therefore, the TAL configured for APs must be different from that configured for the public network. This ensures that the TAU is mandatorily performed when the UEs not allowed to connect to the AP perform AP reselection from a macro cell. In this way, some UEs are forbidden to access the AP.

    • 4. EPC-sharing scenario

    When the EPC is shared, that is, RANs of different operators connect to the same EPC, a mandatory border must be set for RANs of different operators, except that there is paging coordination between nodes in the EPC. The same policy can be used in the inter-RAT scenario where the MME and SGSN are configured on different entities.

    Paging Scenarios and TAL Planning Solutions

    The following describes TAL planning solutions for three mobility scenarios.

    1)

    Model 1 "Los Angles"

    In Los Angles scenario, mobility management occurs in areas similar to islands connected by freeways. These areas are with different population density. Subscribers from different areas

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    have to commute between different areas for daily activities. For example, working people have to commute among A, B, and C through D, as shown in Figure 4.1.

    Figure 4.1 Los Angeles: Islands connected by freeways, with commuter routes

    A is a residential area with a great number of subscribers, but they are scattered. They slightly commute to other areas and use mostly the telephone. Some families are equipped with home base stations. Therefore, potential paging capacity is small. In this case, A can be planned as one TAL. If the paging load is large, A can be divided into several TALs based on population density. TAU load is small due to mobility in a small range in this area.

    B and C are commercial areas with a great number of subscribers. These areas have dense popularity. Subscribers commute in an average level and use mostly handsets. Therefore, potential paging capacity is large. In this case, B and C can be divided into several TALs to minimize the paging load. However, it may increase the TAU load.

    D consists of freeways connecting A, B, and C. Subscribers increase a lot in specific hours and subscribers move in a large range. Handsets are used in a medium level. D is the most challenging area because it is the explicit way connecting A and B, and connecting A and C. Therefore, TA planning in D must avoid instant peak of paging and TAU load.

    Based on the previous analysis, two solutions are considered for TA planning. Figure 4.2 shows these two solutions.

    Figure 4.2 Comparison between TAL solutions

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 3 TA and TAL Planning have to commute
    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 3 TA and TAL Planning have to commute

    Solution 1 is originated from Qualcomm. In solution 1, A, B, and C are planned as TA1, TA 2, and TA3, respectively. If a great number of subscribers move from TA1 to TA2 or TA3 (or in opposite direction), TAU load in the central cell of A, B, or C surges to an instant peak easily if each subscriber is connected only to one TA. If each subscriber is connected to two TAs for reducing TAU load, paging load may surge to an instant peak. Therefore, solution 1 is not practical.

    Solution 2 is to cover the disadvantages for solution 1. A, B, and C are divided into several TAs based on specific characteristics. Central cells of these areas are planned as independent TAs, such as TA1, TA4, and TA8 in the previous figure. Subscribers of A enter D from

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    different directions and therefore TA1 has buffer cells from different directions. When subscribers enter TA1, their TAU load is distributed in different buffer cells. After subscribers enter TA1, TA1, TA4, and TA8 are associated with one TAL to avoid frequent TAUs because mobility speed is fast in this area. This balances the paging load and the TAU load.

    2)

    Model 2 "London"

    In London scenario, regional distribution and subscriber distribution are similar. Subscribers work and live in this area. Therefore, mobility management mainly occurs in each area.

    Figure 4.3 London: equivalent areas

    The following two solutions can be used.

    Figure 4.4 Comparison between TA and TAL solutions

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 3 TA and TAL Planning different directions and
    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 3 TA and TAL Planning different directions and

    Solution 1 has the disadvantages in Los Angles scenario and solution 2 introduces improvements. This balances the paging load and the TAU load, and avoids frequent TAUs. Power consumption of such UEs can be significantly reduced. However, solution 2 requires a better TAU strategy and handling capability.

    3)

    Model 3 Registration in densely-populated areaRED

    RED focuses on densely-populated areas, such as Tokyo in Japan. Population density between night and day varies greatly in these areas. In the morning, a great number of subscribers take electric buses to the city center. This brings communications service burst, especially registration services, such as Tokyo city rings. Registration services have a higher priority that voice and data services. This seriously affects service quality in this area.

    The high speed train Eurostar running between Paris and Lyon is 393 m long. It runs at a speed of 300 km/h and can accommodate 784 passengers. Japanese Shinkansen is 480 m long. It runs at a speed of 300 km/h and can accommodate 1300 passengers.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    Figure 4.5 TAU Storm in RED TA2 TAU storm TA3 TAU storm TA4 TA1,TA2 TA2,TA3 TA3,TA4
    Figure 4.5 TAU Storm in RED
    TA2
    TAU storm
    TA3
    TAU storm
    TA4
    TA1,TA2
    TA2,TA3
    TA3,TA4

    As shown in figure 3-11, all UEs of each TA are assigned to the same TAL. For example, UEs of TA2 are assigned to the TAL including TA1 and TA2, while UEs of TA3 are assigned to the TAL including TA2 and TA3. At each TA border, all UEs initiate a TAU in a short period. This causes the TAU load peak of the MME and eNodeB. Using Eurostar as an example, when the train runs through the TA border, a TAU request is sent every 6 ms. However, for Japanese Shinkansen, a TAU request occurs every 4.4 ms.

    To handle problems in the preceding scenario, TALs can be allocated based on UEs. The MME assigns different TALs for UEs at the same TA. As shown in Figure 4.6, subscribers are divided into two groups and different TALs are allocated for UEs from different groups. Therefore, only half of the subscribers need to initiate TAU requests at the TA border. This ensures service quality.

    Figure 4.6 TAU storm strategy TA2 TA3 TA4 TA0,TA1,TA2 TA2,TA3,TA4 TA2,TA3,TA4 TA1, TA2,TA3 TA1, TA2,TA3 TA3,
    Figure 4.6 TAU storm strategy
    TA2
    TA3
    TA4
    TA0,TA1,TA2
    TA2,TA3,TA4
    TA2,TA3,TA4
    TA1, TA2,TA3
    TA1, TA2,TA3
    TA3, TA4,TA5

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    • 4 Paging Capacity Analysis

    4.1 Factors Affecting the Paging Capacity

    Factors affecting the paging capacity are as follows:

    On the network:

    Number of UEs in idle mode registered with an MME

    Number of eNodeBs involved in a TAL associated with an idle UE registered with an MME

    The TAL size must be proper. Otherwise, the following problems may occur:

    If the TAL size is too large, due to the paging capacity limit of the MME and eNodeB, the number of eNodeBs involved in a TAL cannot exceed the maximum number of eNodeBs allowed based on the maximum paging capacity.

    If the TAL size is too small, there are many TALs. Accordingly, the paging delay increases and TAUs occur frequently. Therefore, the paging success rate decreases.

    Paging distribution time model

    Paging retransmission mechanism: paging retransmission timer, number of retransmission times, and discarding timer

    On the RAN:

    Paging period: specified by the defaultPagingCycle parameter.

    Number of eNodeBs at the PO

    Number of UEs included in a paging group: specified by the maxNoOfPagingRecords parameter.

    Time distribution model for network-triggered services: refers to paging distribution time model

    TAU load and TAU period

    TA size and number of TAs included in a TAL

    Number of UEs moving at a high speed

    A tradeoff must achieve between the PA size and the TA size. If the TA size is too large, the signaling load is heavy. If the paging area is too small, TAUs may occur frequently.

    TAs registered by one UE form a TAL. The TAL size can be reduced by optimizing algorithms, such as the UE distribution, UE mobility speed, and location of the UE in the last

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    registration. In addition, the multiple-TA solution has low requirements for network and UE complexity.

    4.2 Paging Capacity Analysis on the MME and eNodeB

    • 4.2.1 Paging Capacity Analysis on the MME

    The ECU in the MME supports a maximum of 14000 paging times per second. Assume that n ECUs are deployed in the live network, the MME paging capacity cannot exceed 14000 paging times per second.

    In Huawei typical traffic model, the paging traffic model is 2.17 /subscriber@BH and the number of paging times per second per UE is calculated using the following formula:

    • 2.17 0.0006027

    • 3600 pages/(sub*s)

    Assume that an ECU supports a maximum of 500 thousand users and the maximum ECU paging capacity is used, a TAL can include 46 eNodeBs. The calculation formula is as follows:

    14000  46 45 . 500000 * 0 0006027 .
    14000
     46 45
    .
    500000
    *
    0 0006027
    .

    The number of eNodeBs supported by the MME equals the paging volume of the MME due to the following reasons:

    To page one UE, the MME send a paging message to all eNodeBs included in the TAL. The number of paging times per user per second is 0.0006027.

    The MME support a maximum of 500 thousand users (each second, the MME can page UEs involved in only one TAL and paging for UEs involved in multiple TALs are parallel. That is, one TAL may consume the maximum paging capacity of the MME).

    For example, in the preceding paging overheads, the MME supports 46 eNodeBs.

    In practice, 500 thousand users are carried by at least two ECUs, each of which carries 250 thousand users. Therefore, a TAL can include at least 92 eNodeBs. The calculation formula is as follows:

    • 14000 92.90

    • 250000 * 0.0006027

    In summary, the following factors affect the number of eNodeBs included in a TAL:

    Paging capacity MME paging traffic model Number of users

    • 4.2.2 eNodeB Paging Capacity Analysis

    The eNodeB paging performance depends on the CPU capability and the paging resources allowed. If there are sufficient paging resources, the paging performance is high.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    The eNodeB paging performance is related to the following four parameters:

    PDSCH load

    PDCCH load

    CPU load

    Paging blocking

    • 1. Paging capacity and PDSCH load

    The PDSCH paging load is related to the following factors:

    PC: Configured based on operator's requirements. The default PC supported by Huawei products is 128 frames, that is, 1.28s.

    Paging subframe (Psn) in the PC: Configured based on operator's requirements. For Huawei products, the nB parameter is set to 1 by default.

    Number of paged UEs (Pun) included in one paging subframe: For example, at 20 MHz, a maximum of 16 UEs are paged in each TTI, and the eNodeB can page 1600 UEs every 1s in the default configurations and 6400 UEs every 1s in the maximum configurations.

    PDSCH coverage (COV): Depends on the scheduling code rate (SCR) and resource allocation type.

    If the S-TMSI is paged, the load of the RB used to transmit a paging message over the PDSCH is calculated using the following formula:

    Rb PdschPaging
    Rb
    PdschPaging

    roundup

    Ui* Pun

    k

    Modtyp * Re

    Pdsch

    * SCR

    paging

    * Psn / Pc

    k indicates other information included in a paging message, such as systemInfoModification and etws- Indication.

    The 36.331 protocols specify that the length of the S-TMSI IE is 40 bits, 40 (S-TMSI) + 1 (CN-Domain) = 41 bits. For the byte sequence, the length is 48 bits because the padding is added. In the following formula, the padding and CRC are not considered.

    Assume that the following parameters are input:

    SCR

    paging

    = 0.1; Modtyp = 2 (QPSK);

    Assume that MCS for paging message is MCS0 which coding rate is 0.1

    Pun = 16; Pc = 1.28s; Psn = 128 k = 2bits; Ui = 40bits; Resource allocation type = LVRB

    Re

    PdschRb

    12 subcarrier * (14 - 3 PDCCH Overhead)symbol - RS = 12 * 11 - 12 = 120

    Evaluation Assumption: 2T2R, 3 PDCCH Symbols,

    R b

    Pd

    sch

    P

    aging

    roundup

    40 *16

    2

    2 *120 * 0.1

    *128 /1.28

    2700

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    Figure 1.1 PDSCH paging load overhead analysis

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    Channel resources

    PDSCH RB/s

    Resource load amount

    2700

    Resource load percentage

    10 MHz

    5.4%

    20 MHz

    2.7%

    Paging services have higher priorities than other data services. Paging services with a high priority may reduce the downlink service capability and valid bit rate. Therefore, PDSCH resources consumed by paging services must be maintained at an appropriate range.

    The PDSCH load is defined as

    • C PDSCHload

    .

    The number of scheduling blocks (

    n SB ,page

    ) consumed by the PDSCH in transmitting a

    paging message is calculated using the following formula:

    n

    SB ,page

    2700 /1600

    1.6875

    • I page,s

    : Indicates the number of paging records received by the eNodeB each

    second.

    n

    SB

    ,

    frame

    : Indicates the number of scheduling blocks included in each frame, as

    shown in the following table.

    Figure 1.2 Number of scheduling blocks included in each frame at different bandwidth

    Bandwidth

    5 MHz

    10 MHz

    15 MHz

    20 MHz

    n

    SB

    ,

    frame

    250

    500

    750

    1000

    n

    SB, page

    indicates the number of scheduling blocks occupied by a single page message. The

    load for processing

    I

    page s

    ,

    paging messages is calculated using the following formula:

    L

    PDSCH

    n

    SB ,page

    * I

    page ,s

    100 n

    SB , frame

    In other words, the maximum frame load received by the eNodeB determines the number of paging records processed by the PDSCH and the capacity the eNodeB processes paging records. The calculation formula is as follows:

    • C PDSCHload

    100n

    SB , frame

    * L

    PDSCH ,max

    n

    SB ,page

    The paging capacity of the PDSCH on the eNodeB is calculated using the following formula:

    C

    PDSCH load

    100 * n

    SB

    ,frame

    * L

    PDSCH

    ,max

    1.6875

    100 *1000 *0.03

    1.6875

    1778

    paging records/s

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    • 2. Paging capacity and PDCCH load

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    The PDCCH paging load is related to the following configurations and requirements:

    PDSCH COV: Depends on the CRL. The paging load of the PDCCH CCE is calculated using the following formula:

    Cce

    PdcchPaging

    CRL

    paging

    * Psn / Pc

    Assume that the CRL equal four CCEs, the paging load of the PDCCH CCE is as follows:

    Cce

    PdcchPaging

    4* 128 / 1.28 400

    CCEs per second

    Figure 2.1 Table 4-3 PDCCH paging load overhead analysis

    Channel Resources

    PDCCH CCE/s

    Resource Load Amount

    400

    Resource Load Percentage

    10 MHz

    0.98%

    20 MHz

    0.48%

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 2. Paging capacity and PDCCH load 3 TA

    In each TTI (1 ms), 41 CCEs are used for 10 MHz and 84 CCEs are used for 20 MHz under 2T2R and 3 PDCCH symbols.

    Paging services have higher priorities than other data services. Paging services with a high priority occupy more PDCCH scheduling allocation signaling and uplink scheduling authorization signaling. Therefore, PDCCH resources consumed by paging services must be maintained at an appropriate range.

    • C PDCCHload

    The PDCCH load is defined as

    . Assume that the paging arrival rate meets the Poisson distribution:

    P

    SA

    1

    e

    I

    page ,PO

    The preceding analysis shows that the average number of CCEs occupied by each paging message is 4. The number of CCEs occupied per frame by each paging message is calculated as follows:

    n

    CCE , frame

    4

    n

    PO , frame

    1

    e

    I

    page ,PO

    The PDCCH paging load is defined as the ratio of the number of CCEs allocated for paging to the total number of CCEs per frame. The following table lists the number of CCEs included in each frame.

    Figure 2.2 Number of CCEs included in each frame in the 2T2R system

    Bandwidth

    5 MHz

    10

    15

    20 MHz

     

    MHz

    MHz

    n PDCCHsymb =1

    30

    80

    120

    170

    n PDCCHsymb =2

    120

    250

    370

    500

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    n PDCCHsymb =3

    200

    410

    620

    840

    The maximum PDCCH paging load

    L

    PDCCH

    ,

    max

    defined by customers does not exceed 1%.

    I

    page PO

    ,

    can be calculated based on

    L

    PDCCH

    ,

    max

    . Accordingly the PDCCH paging load per

    frame can also be calculated. PDCCH paging capacity on the eNodeB (the nB parameter is set to 1.)

    C

    PDCCHload

     

    100n

    PO

    ,frame

    * ln[1

    n

    CCE,frame,total

    * L

    PDCCH

    ,max

    4n

    PO ,frame

    ]

    n  

    100 *1* ln[1

    840 * 0.01

    4 *1

    ]

     

    paging records /s

    • 3. Paging capacity and eNodeB paging load

    eNodeBs in Huawei eRAN3.0 supports a maximum of 500 paging times. It is recommended that the TAL size be planned using 70% of the full paging load. Therefore, 350 paging messages are processed per second.

    • 4. Paging capacity and paging blocking

    The number of paging records concurrently transmitted at the same PO is related to the value of the maxNoOfPagingRecords parameter. In low paging blocking rate, the paging arrival rate meets the Poisson distribution. The paging capacity depending on the paging blocking rate is calculated using the following formula:

    P

    blocking ,max

    1

    R

    max

    e

    C

    blocking ,PO

    *

    R max

    R 0

    ( R

    max

    R )

    C

    R

    blocking ,PO

    R!

    C

    blocking ,PO

    C

    blocking PO

    ,

    : Paging capacity affected by paging blocking (number of paging

    records at each PO)

    P

    blocking max

    ,

    : The paging blocking rate defined by the operator does not exceed

    2%.

    R

    max

    : Specified by the maxNoOfPagingRecords parameter.

    According to the preceding formula, if the bandwidth is 20 MHz (the value of the

    maxNoOfPagingRecords parameter equal to 16) and

    P

    blocking max

    ,

    C

    blocking PO

    ,

    equals 12.

    equals 2%,

    Paging blocking increases the paging delay and data connection setup time and therefore paging messages blocked due to the PDSCH must be limited.

    The paging blocking is defined as

    • C blocking

    . PDCCH paging capacity on the eNodeB (the nB parameter is set to 1.)

    C

    blocking

    C

    blocking,

    PO

    *100n

    PO

    ,frame

    C

    blocking,

    PO

    *100

    n B

    T

    1200 paging records /s

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    4.2.3 TAL Estimation based on the Paging Capacity

    The eNodeB paging performance equals the minimum value of the preceding four parameters. The formula is as follows:

    C

    eNB

    min(C

    CPU

    C

    PDSCHload

    C

    blocking

    C

    PDCCHload

    )

    min(350,1778,1200

    )

    350 paging records/s

    In densely-populated urban areas (for example, in Shanghai, there are 2000 sites and 10 million users in total), if the penetration rate is 40%, the average number of users at each site is 2000. The average traffic model value is calculated using the following formula:

    2.17 / 3600 0.0006027 (sub*s)The number of eNodeBs in a TAL is calculated as follows:

    n

    eNB,TAlist

    • C eNB

    N* 0.0006027

    • 350 292.02

    2000 * 0.0006027

    In suburban areas, the traffic load is less than that in urban areas. Therefore, the number of users estimated at each site is less than that in urban areas. If the penetration rate is 20%, the average number of users at each site is 1000. The number of eNodeBs in a TAL is calculated as follows:

    n

    eNB,TAlist

    • C eNB

    N* 0.0006027

    • 350 584.04

    1000 * 0.0006027

    The preceding analysis and values are for your reference only. In summary, the following factors affect the number of eNodeBs included in a TAL:

    Paging capacity Traffic model Number of users

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    • 5 Planning Tool Configuration

    5.1 TA Planning Tool

    The U-Net is radio network planning software developed by Huawei. It can be used for TAL automatic planning. This section describes how to use this tool to implement TAC planning.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 3 TA and TAL Planning 5 Planning Tool

    currently, the U-Net can perform LTE TAC planning only in FDD mode.

    In the U-Net window, choose Operation > LTE TAL Planning under Project Explore.

    Figure 1.1 LTE TAC planning window

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 3 TA and TAL Planning 5 Planning Tool

    Import engineering parameters such as the site and cell and choose Automatic Allocation.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    Figure 1.2 Importing engineering parameters

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 3 TA and TAL Planning Figure 1.2 Importing
    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 3 TA and TAL Planning Figure 1.2 Importing

    5.2 TA and TAL Configuration

    5.2.1 TAC Configuration on the eNodeB

    • 1. Add TA information.

    ADD CNOPERATORTA: TrackingAreaId=0, CnOperatorId=0, Tac=1;

    Figure 1.1 TA parameters

    Parameter

    Paramete

    Description

    Value

    ID

    r Name

    Range

    TrackingAreaId

    Tracking area

    Indicates the tracking area identity,

    0

    to 65535

    ID

    which uniquely identifies a TA.

    CnOperatorId

    CN Operator

    Indicates the index of an operator.

    0 to 3

    ID

    Tac

    Tracking area

    Indicates the tracking area code,

    0

    to 65535

    code

    which is used by the EPC to determine the area within which paging messages are sent. One tracking area is comprised of one or more cells

     

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    Figure 1.2 Adding TA configurations on the eNodeB

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide Figure 1.2 Adding TA configurations on the eNodeB
    • 2. Modify TA information.

    MOD CNOPERATORTA: TrackingAreaId=0, CnOperatorId=0, Tac=1;

    Figure 2.1 Modifying TA configurations on the eNodeB

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide Figure 1.2 Adding TA configurations on the eNodeB

    If TA configurations are modified on the radio network, cells must be reset and accordingly services are interrupted. After the preceding command is executed, the following dialog box is displayed prompting you to reset the eNodeB.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide Figure 1.2 Adding TA configurations on the eNodeB
    • 3. Delete the TA configuration.

    RMV CNOPERATORTA: TrackingAreaId=0;

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    Figure 3.1 Deleting TA configurations on the eNodeB

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide Figure 3.1 Deleting TA configurations on the eNodeB
    • 4. View TA configurations.

    LST CNOPERATORTA: TrackingAreaId=0;

    Figure 4.1 Viewing TA configurations on the eNodeB

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide Figure 3.1 Deleting TA configurations on the eNodeB
    • 5. Configure parameters associating a TA with a cell.

    ADD CELLOP: LocalCellId=0, TrackingAreaId=1, CellReservedForOp=CELL_NOT_R ESERVED_FOR_OP, OpUlRbUsedRatio=25, OpDlRbUsedRatio=25;

    Figure 5.1 Parameters associating a TA with a cell on the eNodeB

    Paramet

    Parameter

    Description

    Value Range

    er ID

    Name

    LocalCellId

    Local cell ID

    Indicates the tracking area identity, which uniquely identifies a TA.

    • 0 to 17

    TrackingAre

    Tracking area ID

    Indicates the tracking area identity of a cell,

    • 0 to 65535

    aId

    which uniquely identifies an operator.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    Paramet

    Parameter

    Description

    Value Range

    er ID

    Name

    CellReserve

    Cell reserved for

    Indicates whether the cell is reserved for

    CELL_RESERVED

    dForOp

    operator

    operator use.

    _FOR_OP(Reserved ) and CELL_NOT_RESE RVED_FOR_OP(No t Reserved)

    OpUlRbUse

     

    Indicates the percentage of RBs occupied by the

    • 0 to 100

    dRatio

    Operator uplink RB used ratio

    operator on the PUSCH when RAN sharing is enabled at the eNodeB and the cell-level switch of RAN sharing is turned on. When the data volume is sufficient, the percentage of RBs occupied by each operator will reach the preset value. Modifications on this parameter affect operators' percentages of RBs.

    OpDlRbUse

     

    Indicates the percentage of RBs occupied by the

    • 0 to 100

    dRatio

    Operator downlink RB used ratio

    operator on the PDSCH when RAN sharing is enabled at the eNodeB and the cell-level switch of RAN sharing is turned on. When the data volume is sufficient, the percentage of RBs occupied by each operator will reach the preset value. Modifications on this parameter affect operators' percentages of RBs.

    Figure 5.2 Configuring parameters associating a TA and a cell on the eNodeB

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 3 TA and TAL Planning Paramet Parameter Description

    5.2.2 TAL Configuration on the MME

    Currently, the MME supports only static TALs, which can be configured on the MME using the ADD TALST command.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    6

    Summary

    Suggestions for TA and TAL Planning

    Suggestions for TA and TAL planning in different scenarios

    Scenario

    TA Size

    TAL Size (number of TAs or eNodeBs)

    The EPC specifies that a single TA can include a maximum of 100 eNodeBs.

    Currently, the MME allows that a static TAL includes a maximum of 16 TAs.

    Urban area

    • 30 150 to 300 eNodeBs/3 to 10 TAs

    to 50

    Suburban

    • 50 to 70

    200 to 580 eNodeBs/3 to 12 TAs

    area

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide 3 TA and TAL Planning 6 Summary Suggestions
    • 1. Based on section 4.2.1"Paging Capacity Analysis on the MME," one TAL supports 92 eNodeBs. This is based on the maximum number of users supported by Huawei products. When the actual number of eNodeBs is close to the maximum number of users, adjust the TAs including 30 to 50 eNodeBs and allocate 2 to 4 TAs to one TAL.

    • 2. For densely-populated urban areas, it is recommended that one TAL include 292 eNodeBs, each of which has 2000 users.

    • 3. For suburban areas, it is recommended that one TAL include 584 eNodeBs, each of which has 1000 users.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    • 7 PF and PO Calculation

    In a paging DRX cycle, if the PF and PO are known, the UE can monitor the PDCCH. Based on the P-RNTI, related frequency resources, and coding format indicators on the PDCCH, the UE can read the related paging message. The 36.304 protocols specify the PF and PO used for paging message scheduling:

    The number of the PF (SFN) is determined using the following formula:

    SFN mod T= (T div N)*(UE_ID mod N)

    The number of the subframe (i_s) corresponding to the PO is determined using the following formula:

    i_s = (UE_ID/N) mod Ns Where,

    T indicates the length of a paging DRX cycle, which can be 32, 64, 128, and 256 frames. T is specified by the defautpagingcycle parameter.

    The nB parameter indicates the number of POs within a paging DRX cycle. It can be set to 4T, 2T, T, 1/2T, 1/4T, 1/8T, 1/16T, or 1/32T. This parameter specifies the N and Ns.

    N = min (T, nB); Ns = max (1, nB/T);

    n UE_ID = IMSI mod 1024 where n indicates the last ten bits of the IMSI.
    n
    UE_ID =
    IMSI
    mod 1024
    where
    n
    indicates the last ten bits of the IMSI.
    IMSI

    If the UE does not have an IMSI (for example, the UE sends an emergency call without a USIM), the PO and PF are calculated based on the assumption that the UE ID is 0.

    The preceding formulas show that time resources for sending paging messages are determined by the IMSI, defautpagingcycle and nB parameters.

    The following table lists the mapping between the number of the subframe transmitting a paging message and the number of the subframe actually scheduled.

    eRAN3.0 LTE TDD TA Planning and Configuration Guide

    Figure 1.1 TDD subframe mapping

    3 TA and TAL Planning

    Ns

    PO when

    PO when

    PO when

    PO when

    i_s=0

    i_s=1

    i_s=2

    i_s=3

    1

    0

    N/A

    N/A

    N/A

    2

    0

    5

    N/A

    N/A

    4

    0

    1

    5

    6