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# Electric Circuits

Vineet Sahula
sahula@ieee.org

## Linear Diff. Eq.

di(t)
+ a1 i(t) = v(t)
a0
dt
dn1 i
di
dn i
a0 n + a1 n1 + ... + an1 + an i = v(t)
dt
dt
dt
v(t) is forcing function or excitation

## First & Higher Order Differential Equations p. 2/13

Integrating Factor
di
+ Pi = Q
dt
Using Integrating Factor (I.F.) eP t we get
eP t

di
+ P ieP t = QeP t
dt

d
(ieP t ) = QeP t
dt
Z
ieP t =
QeP t dt + K
i = eP t

QeP t dt + KeP t
R

P dt

## First & Higher Order Differential Equations p. 3/13

Network solution
I part is Particular integral & II part is Complementary function
Z
i = eP t QeP t dt + KeP t
Q is forcing function & K is arbitrary constant
Thus, with t i.e. Steady State
lim KeP t = 0

t

QeP t dt

## Whereas, with t 0 i.e. Initial condition

Z
i(0) = lim i(t) = limt0 eP t QeP t dt + K
t0

## In case, P & Q are constants,

Q
i(0) =
+ K = K2 + K
P
Q
+ K = K2
i() =
P
In general,
i(t) = iP + iC = iss + it

## First & Higher Order Differential Equations p. 4/13

Example
For an RL circuit under switched-on condition
di
di
+ Ri = V i.e. dt
+R
L dt
Li =
R
P
t
i=e
QeP t dt + KeP t

i=

V
R

+ Ke

V
L

with P =

R
L

&Q =

V
L

Rt
L

Tt

## In general, when P & Q are constants, i = K2 + K1 e

In case, P & Q are constants,
K2 = i()
K2 + K1 = i(0)
K1 = i(0) i()
Tt

Example-2
L

R1

R2
V

## Determine current when K is CLOSED at t = 0 and later after

steady state is reached when K is OPENED
at t = 0 i() =
i(0) =
i=

V
R1 +R2
V
R1

V
R1

&T =

L
R1
R t
L1

R1
R1 +R2 e

## More Complicated Networks

Networks described by one time-constant ?
Simple circuits having simple RC or RL combinations
Containg single L or C, but in combination of any number of
resistors, R
Networks, which can be simplified by using equivalence
conditions so as to represented by a single equivalent L/C/R
Solve many examples !!

## Initial Conditions in Networks

Resistor: VR = iR the current changes instanteneously, if the voltage
changes instanteneously
diL
Inductor: vL = L didtL ,
dt for L is finite, hence current CANNOT
change instanteneously; BUT an arbitrary voltage may appear across it
dvC
Inductor: iC = C dvdtC ,
dt for C is finite, hence voltage CANNOT
change instanteneously; BUT an arbitrary current may appear across it

Element

Equivalant ckt at t = 0

L, I0

C, V0

## Final Conditions in Networks

Element, IC

Equivalant ckt at t =

L, I0

C, V0

## Two special cases- Initial Conditions

A loop or mesh containing a VOLTAGE source Vs with only
capacitors,
implying a virtual short-circuit across Vs ;
Imagine infinite current to flow through capacitors so as to
charge them to appropriate voltages instanteneously
In a dual situation: A node connected with a CURRENT source Is
with only Inductors in other branches
implying a virtual open-circuit across Is ;
Imagine infinite voltage across Is to exist so as to drive finite
FLUX in all the inductors to bring appropriate current in them
instanteneously

## Second Order Diff. Equations

di
d2 i
a0 2 + a1 + a2 i = v(t)
dt
dt
To satisfy the equation, the solution function MUST be of such form
that all three terms are of SAME form.
i(t) = kemt
a0 m2 kemt + a1 mkemt + a2 kemt = 0
Charateristic Equation, a0 m2 + a1 mk + a2 k = 0
p
a1
1
m1 , m2 = 2a0 2a0 a21 4a0 a2
i(t) = k1 em1 t + k2 em2 t

## Solving Second order Diff. Eqns.

roots may simple (real), equal OR complex (conjugate)
Simple roots i(t) = k1 em1 t + k2 em2 t
Equal roots m1 = m2 = m
i(t) = k1 emt + k2 temt
Complex (conjugate) roots m1 , m2 = j
i(t) = k1 et e+jt + k2 et ejt
i(t) = et (k1 e+jt + k2 ejt )
i(t) = et (k3 cos t + k4 sin t)
i(t) = et k5 cos(t + )

## Solving Second order Diff.

Initial Conditions (IC)

Eqns.-

## Two constatns k1 & k2 need be evaluated

This requires two IC to be formulated
First IC is computed as either i(0+) OR v(0+), whichever is
independent/unknown [i is independent in a series circuit; v is
independent in a parallel circuit ]
Second IC is based on first order differential of the same
dv
di
(0+)
parameter, (0+) or
dt
dt