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1.

Differential Equation An equation containing an


independent variable and / or dependent variable and
differential coefficient of dependent variable with
respect to independent variable is called a differential
equation.
e.g.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Step- 2 Put y = vx and

equation in step 1 and cancel out x from the


right hand side, the equation reduces to the
form

dy
d2 y
dy
-5
+ 2xy = x3 and
+ 6y = x2
dx
dx 2
dx

Order of a Differential Equation The order of a


differential equation is the order of the highest order
derivative appearing in the equation.
Degree of a Differential Equation The degree of
a differential equation is the power of the highest
order derivative when differential coefficients are
made free from radicals and fractions.
Solution of a Differential Equation The solution
of a differential equation is a relation between the
variables involved, not involving the differential
coefficients, such that this relation and derivatives
obtained from it satisfy the given differential equation.
General Solution The solution which contains as
many as arbitrary constants as the order of the
differential equation is called the general solution of
the differential equation.
Particular Solution Solution obtained by giving
particular values to the arbitrary constants in the
general solution of a differential equation is called a
particular solution.
Formation of Differential Equations Formation
of a differential from a given equation representing a
family of curves means finding a differential equation
whose solution is the given equation. If an equation
representing a family of curves, contains n arbitrary
constants, then we differentiate the given equation n
times to obtain n more equations. Using all these
equations, we eliminate the constants. The equation
so obtained is the differential equation of order n for
the family of given curves.
Homogeneous Differential Equation

dy
A differential equation of the form
= F (x, y) is
dx
said to be homogeneous if F (x, y) is a homogeneous
function of degree zero.
Algorithm may be used to solve a homogeneous
differential equation.
Algorithm:Step- 1 Put the differential equation in the form

dy f ( x, y )
=
dx Y ( x, y )

dy
dv
= v+x
in the
dx
dx

v+x

dv
= f (v)
dx

Step- 3 Shift v on RHS and separate the variable v


and x.
Step- 4 Integrate both sides to obtain the solution in
terms of v and x.
Step- 5 Reduce v by
9.

y
in the solution obtained in
x

step (4) to obtain the solution in terms of x and y.


Linear Differential Equation A differential equation
is known as first order linear differential equation, if
the dependent variable (y) and its derivative appear in
first degree. The general form is

dy
+ Py = Q, where
dx

P and Q are constant or functions of x.


Algorithm used to solve a linear differential
equation:
(i) Write the given differential equation in the form

dy
+ Py = Q and obtain P and Q.
dx
Pdx
(ii) Find integrating factor, I.F. = e
(iii) Multiply both sides of equation in (i) by I.F.
(iv) Integrate both sides of the equation obtained in
(iii) w.r.t. x to obtain
y (I.F.) = Q.(I.F.) dx + C
This gives the required solution.
In case, the first order linear differential equation is in
the form

dx
+ P1 x = Q1, where , P1 and Q1 are
dy

constants or functions of y only. Then I.F.


= e P1dy and the solution of the differential equation
is given by x . (I. F) = (Q1 I.F.) dy + C
10. Differential Equations of the type

d2 y
dx 2

= f (x)

(i) Integrate both sides of the differential equation in


(i) with respect to x to obtain a first order first
degree differential equation.
(ii) Again integrate both sides of the first order
differential equation obtained in (i) with respect
to x.

E X E R C I S E S
Determinate order and degree (if defined) of the
differential equations given in exercises 1 to 10.
d4 y
+ (sin y) = 0
dx 4
Sol. Order of the equation is 4
It is not a polynomial in derivatives so that it has
not degree.
2.
y + 5y = 0
Sol. y + 5y = 0
It is a D.E. of order one and degree one.

1.

d 2s
ds
+
3s

dt 2 = 0
dt
Sol. Order of the equation is 2.
Degree of the equation is 1.
4

3.

d 2 y
dy
4.
2 + cos = 0
dx
dx
2
2
d y
dy
Sol. 2 + cos = 0
dx
dx
It is a D.E. of order 2 and degree undefined.

5.

d2 y
dx 2

= cos3x + sin 3x

d2 y

= cos3x + sin 3x
dx 2
It is a D.E. of order 2 and degree 1.
6.
(y)2 + (y)3 + (y)4 + y5 = 0
Sol. Order of the equation is 3
Degree of the equation is 2
y '''+ 2 y ''+ y ' = 0
7.
Sol.

Sol. y '''+ 2 y ''+ y ' = 0


The highest order derivative is y ''' .
Thus the order of the D.E. is 3.
The degree of D.E is1
8.

y '+ y = e x

Sol. y '+ y = e x
The order of the D. E. = 1 (highest order
derivative)
The degree of the D.E. = 1.

9.
y ''+ ( y ')2 + 2 y = 0
2
Sol. y ''+ ( y ') + 2 y = 0
The highest derivative is 2.
\ Order of the D.E. = 1.
Degree of the D.E = 1
10. y + 2y + sin y = 0
Sol. Order of the equation is 2
Degree of the equation is 1
11. The degree of the differential equation
3

d 2 y dy 2
dy
2 + + sin + 1 = 0 is
dx
dx
dx
(a) 3
(b) 2
(c) 1
(d) not defined.
3

d 2 y dy 2
dy
Sol. 2 + + sin + 1 = 0
dx
dx
dx
The degree not defined.
Hence option (d) is correct.
12. The order of the differential equation
d2y
dy
2 x 2 2 3 + y = 0 is
dx
dx
(a) 2
(b) 1
(c) 0
(d) not defined.
2
dy
2d y
3 + y =0
Sol. 2 x
2
dx
dx
Thus order of the D.E. = 2
Hence option (a) is correct.

Verify that the given functions (explicit or implicit)


is a solution of the corresponding differential
equation
1.
y = e x + 1: y '' y ' = 0
Sol. y = ex+1 y ' = ex y '' = ex
Now L.H.S. = y '' y ' = ex ex = 0
Hence y = ex + 1 is a solution of y '' y ' = 0.
2.
y = x 2 + 2 x + c : y ' 2 x 2 = 0
Sol. y = x 2 + 2 x + c \ y ' = 2 x + 2 y ' 2 x 2 = 0
Hence y = x 2 + 2 x + c is a solution of
y ' 2 x 2 = 0.
3.
y = cos x + c : y '+ sin x = 0
Sol. y = cos x + c y ' = sin x
y '+ sin x = 0
Hence y = cos x + c is a solution of
y '+ sin x = 0.

3
4.

y = 1 + x2 : y ' =

tan1 y

9.
x+y=
Sol. x + y = tan1 y

xy

1+ x
1
2 1/ 2
2x
Sol. y = 1 + x 2 y ' = (1 + x )
2
x
y' =
= L.H.S.
1 + x2
xy
x
R.H.S. =
Thus y ' =
1+ x2
1 + x2
2

Hence y = 1 + x 2 is a solution of y ' =


5.
y = Ax : xy ' = y ( x 0)
Sol. y = Ax y ' = A
L.H.S. = xy ' = xA = y = R.H.S.
Hence y = Ax is a solution of xy ' = y.

xy
1+ x

10.

.
2

y = x sin x ; xy = y +x x 2 - y2 (x 0 and
x > y or x < y)
Sol. y = x sin x
...(i)
Differential w.r.t. x y = 1. sin x + x cos x
y = sinx + x cos x [Q sin2 x + cos2 x = 1]
y
from (i) sin x =
x
... (ii)
y = sin x + x 1 - sin 2 x
from (i) & (ii)
6.

y =

y
y2
y
x 2 - y2
+ x 1- 2 = + x
x
x
x
x2

Multiplying by x, xy = y + x x 2 - y2
is the reqd. differential equation.

which

y2
(xy 1)
1 - xy
Sol. xy = log y + c Differentiating w.r.t. x
1
1 y + xy = y or y2 + xyy = y
y

7.

xy = log y + c; y =

y2
or y2 = y xyy = y (1 xy) \ y =
1 - xy
This is the reqd. differential equation.
y - cos y = x : ( y sin y + cos y + x ) y ' = y
8.
Sol. y - cos y = x y '+ sin yy ' = 1
1
y '(1 + sin y ) = 1 y ' =
1 + sin y
L.H.S.
= ( y sin y + cos y + x ) y '

= ( y sin y + y ) y '

1
= y = R.H.S.
1 + sin y
Here y cos y = x is a solution of
( y sin y + cos y + x ) y ' = y.
= (1 + sin y) y.

; y2

y + y2

+1=0

y
Differentiating w.r.t. x 1 + y = 1 + y2
(1 + y2) + y (1 + y2) = y
or 1 + y2 + y (1 + y2 1) = 0
or y2 y + y2 + 1 = 0
which is the reqd. differential equation.
dy
y = a 2 - x 2 x ( a, a) ; x + y
= 0, (y 0)
dx

Sol. y = a 2 - x 2 Squaring both sides


y2 = a2 x2 or x2 + y2 = a2
Differentiating w.r.t. x 2x + 2yy = 0

dy

2 x + y = 0 is the required solution.


dx
11. The number of arbitrary constants in the
general solution of a differential equation of
fourth order are :
(a) 0
(b) 2
(c) 3
(d) 4
Sol. The general solution of a differential equation of
fourth order has 4 arbitrary constants.
Hence option (d) is correct.
12. The number of arbitrary constants in the
particular solution of a differential equation of
third order are :
(a) 3
(b) 2
(c) 1
(d) 0
Sol. Number of arbitrary constants = 0
Hence option (d) is correct.

In each of the following, Q. 1 to 5 form a differential


equation representing the given family of curves by
eliminating arbitrary constants a and b.
x y
+ =1
1.
a b
x y
Sol. Given + = 1
.............(i)
a b
where a and b are two arbitrary constants, Since
(i) contains two arbitrary we differentiate it two
times w.r.t. x and the differential equation will be
of second order.
Differentiating (i) w.r.t. x, we get
1 1
+ y' = 0
.............(ii)
a b
1
y '' = 0 y '' = 0

b
which is the required differential equation.

4
2.
y2 = a (b2 x2)
Sol. y2 = a (b2 x2)
...(i)
Differentiating w.r.t x
2yy = 2ax
... (ii)
Again differentiating 2(y2 + yy) = 2a ... (iii)
Dividing (iii) by (ii)
2 (y 2 + yy)
- 2a
=
, x (y2 + yy) = yy
2yy
- 2ax
i.e. the differential equation
2

d2 y
dy
dy
=0
xy 2 + x - y
dx
dx
dx
3
y = ae3x + be2x
Sol. y = ae3x + be2x
... (i)
Differentiating w.r.t. x
y = 3ae3x 2be2x
... (ii)
Again differentiating
y = 9 ae3x + 4be2x
... (iii)
Multiply equation (i) by 2 and add with (ii)
i.e., 2y = 2ae3x + 2be -2x
y = 3ae3x - 2 be -2x or ae3x = 2y + y
5
2y + y = 5a e3x
Multiply (i) by 3 and subtract (ii) from it
3y = 3ae3x + 3be -2x
3y - y
y = 3ae3x - 2be -2x
or be2x =
2x
5
3y - y =
5 be
Putting the values of a and b in (iii)
2y + y
3y - y
+4
y = 9

5
5
5y = 30y + 5y or y y 6y = 0
Required. differential equation is
d 2 y dy
6y = 0
dx 2
dx
4.
y = e 2 x (a + bx)
Sol. y = e 2 x a + bxe 2 x
.............(i)
2x
2x
y ' = 2e (a + bx) + be
.............(ii)
y ' = 2 y + be 2 x
2x
.............(iii)
y '' = 2 y '+ 2be
From (ii) and (iii), we get
2 y ' = 4 y + 2be 2 x

y = ex (a cos x + b sin x) + ex ( a sin x + b cos x)


y= ex [(a + b) cos x (a b) sin x]
... (ii)
y = ex [(a + b) cos x (a b) sin x] + ex [ (a + b)
sin x (a b) cos x]
= ex [2b cos x 2a sin x] = 2ex [b cos x a sin x]
y x
= e (b cos x a sin x)
... (iii)
or
2
Adding (ii) and (iii)
y
y+
= ex [(a + b) cos x (a b) sin x] = y
2
or 2y + y = 2y y 2y + 2y = 0
d2 y
dy
-2
+ 2y = 0
Hence the diff equn is
2
dx
dx
6.
Form the differential equation of the family of
circles touching the y axis at origin
Sol. The equation of the circle with centre (a, 0) and
radius a, which touches y axis at origin
y

(a, 0)

(x a)2 + y2 = a2
or x2 + y2 = 2ax
... (i)
Differentiating w.r.t. x
2x + 2yy = 2a
or x + yy = a
Putting value of a in (i)
x2 + y2 = 2x (x + yy) = 2x2 + 2xyy
dy
\ Reqd. diff. equation is 2xy
+ x2 y2 = 0.
dx
7.
Form the differential equation of the family of
parabolas having vertex at origin and axis along
positive yaxis
Sol. The equation of parabola having vertex at the
origin and axis along positive yaxis is
y

y '' = 2 y '+ 2be 2 x

2 y ' y '' = 4 y 2 y '


y '' 4 y '+ 4 y = 0
5.
y = ex (a cos x + b sin x)
Sol. The curve is y = ex (a cos x + b sin x)
Differentiating w.r.t. x

... (i)
y

5
x2 = 4ay

... (i)

Differentiating w.r.t x
2x = 4ay
Dividing (ii) by (i)
2x 4ay
y 2
=

=
2
x
4ay
y
x
\ xy = 2y

... (ii)

dy
2y = 0
dx
8.
Form the differential equation of family of
ellipses having foci on y-axis and centre at
origin.
Sol. The equation of family ellipses having foci at
y-axis is

Reqd. diff. equation is

a
0 b

x2
y2
+
= 1, a > b
b2
a2

Again differentiating, we get


b2
= yy ''+ ( y ')2
a2
Thus yy ' = xyy ''+ x( y ')2
which is the required equation of the hyperbola.
10. Form the differential equation of the family of
circles having centre on y-axis and radius 3
units.
Sol. Let centre be (0, a) and r = 3
Equation of circle is
.............(i)
x 2 + ( y a)2 = 9
Differentiating both sides, we get
dy
( y a)
= x
dx
x
.............(ii)
ya=
y'
From (i) and (ii), we get
x2
= 9 x 2 [( y ')2 + 1] = 9( y ') 2
x2 +
( y ') 2
which is the required equation.
11. Which of the following differential equation has
y = c1e x + c2 e x as the general solution ?
d2y
d2y
y
+
=
0
y=0
(a)
(b)
dx 2
dx 2

... (i)

2x 2yy
+ 2 =0
Differentiating w.r.t. x
b2
a
x
yy
or 2 + 2 = 0
...(ii)
b
a
1
1
Again Differentiating 2 + 2 (y2 + yy) = 0
b
a
1
y 2 + yy
\ 2 =b
a2
Putting this value in (ii)
x (y2 + y y) yy
+ 2 = 0 or x (y2 + yy) = yy

a2
a
or xyy + xy2 yy = 0
\Differential equation is
2

d2 y
dy
dy
xy 2 + x - y = 0
dx
dx

dx

9.
Form the differential equation of the family of
hyperbolas having foci on x-axis and centre at
the origin.
x2 y 2
Sol. Equation of the hyperbola is 2 2 = 1
a
b
Differentiating both sides w.r. to x

12.

+1 = 0

(d)

d2y

d2y

y=0
dx 2
Option (b) is correct.
Which of the following differential equation has
y = x as one of its particular solution ?
d2y
dy
x2
+ xy = x
(a)
2
dx
dx
d2y
dy
+ x + xy = x
(b)
2
dx
dx

(c)

y dy
2
=0

2
a
b dx

d2y

1 = 0
dx 2
dx 2
Sol. y = c1e x + c2 e x
dy
= c1e x c2 e x

dx
d2y
d2y
x
x
c
=y
=
+
e
c
e

1
2
dx 2
dx 2
(c)

(d)

d2y
dx

d2y
dx

x2
+x

dy
+ xy = 0
dx

dy
+ xy = 0
dx

d2y
dy
=0
=1,
dx
dx 2
d2y
2 dy
+ xy = 0
Now 2 x
dx
dx
Hence option (c) is correct.

Sol. y = x

5.
(ex + e x) dy (ex e x) dx = 0
Sol. We have (ex + e x) dy = (ex e x) dx ,
e x - e- x
dy = e x + e - x dx
Integrating both sides, we get

For each of the following D.E in Q. 1 to 10 find


the general solution:
1.

dy 1 cos x
=
dx 1 + cos x

dy 1 cos x
dy
=
Sol.
=

dx 1 + cos x
dx

x
2sin 2
2
x
2cos 2
2

dy
x
= tan 2

2
dx
2 x
dx
dy = tan
2
2x
1 dx
y = sec
2
x
y = 2 tan x + C (Required solution)
2
dy
2
= 4 y (2 < y < 2)
2.
dx
dy
dy
= 4 y2
Sol.
= dx
dx
4 y2
1 y
= x + C (Required solution)
sin
2
y
= sin( x + C )
2
Hence, y = 2sin( x + C ).
dy
+ y = 1 ( y 1)
3.
dx
dy
dy
= dx
+ y =1
Sol.
y 1
dx
log( y 1) = x + C y = 1 + e x .eC
Hence
y = 1 + Ae x .
which is the required solution.
4.
sec2 x tany dx + sec2 y tan x dy = 0
Sol. We have sec2 x tan y dx + sec2 y tan x dy = 0
sec 2 y
sec 2 x

dy = -
dx
tan y
tan x

log ( tan y ) = - log ( tan x ) + log c


log |tan x tan y| = log c tan x tan y = c

dy =

ex - e-x
dx
e x + e- x

dy = t

dt

[Put ex + ex = t so that (ex ex) dx = dt]


y = log |t| + c
y c = log |ex + ex | (x R)
or y = log (ex + ex) + c Q ex, ex > 0
6.

dy
= (1 + x 2 ) (1 + y 2 )
dx

dy

Sol.

1 + y2

= (1 + x 2 ) dx

Integrating both sides, we get


1
tan 1 y = x + x3 + C
3
which is the required solution.
7.
y log y dx xdy = 0
Sol. y log y dx x dy = 0 or y log y dx = x dy

or

dy
= dx Integrating, we get
y log y
1
dy
dx
=
Put log y = t so that y dy = dt
y log y
x

dt

= log x + log c or

log t = log x + log c log (log y) = log cx


\ log y = cx y = ecx.
x5

dy
= y5
dx

5
Sol. x

dy
= y5
dx

8.

dy = x 5 dx

1
1
4 = 4 + 4C
y
x
1
1
4 = 4 + K where K = 4 C.
y
x
x 4 + y 4 = K .

7
9.

Integrating, we get

Solve the following :


dy
= sin -1 x
dx
dy
= sin -1 x dy = sin -1 x dx
Sol.
dx
x
dx
y = x sin1 x
1 - x2
Let 1 x2 = t 2x dx = dt
1 1
dt
y = x sin1 x +
2 t
y = x sin1 x +

2x 2 + x
dx =
+ x 2 + x +1

2x 2 + x
dx
2 + 1)

(x +1) (x

2x 2 + x
A
Bx + C
=
+ 2
Let
2
(x + 1) (x + 1) x + 1 x +1
2x2 + x = A (x2 + 1) + (Bx + C) (x + 1)
= A (x2 + 1) + B (x2 + x) + C (x + 1)
1
Put x = 1, 2 1 = A (1 + 1) A =
2
Comparing the coefficient of x2 and x
2 = A + B and 1 = B + C, B = 2 A = 2
3
1
C = 1 B= 1 = 2
2

1
2

x + 1 dx + 2 x

1
2

x +1 dx + 4 x
1

3x - 1
dx
2
+1

2x
1
dx 2
+1
2

dx
2
+1

1
3
1
log (x + 1) + log (x2 + 1) tan1 x + c
2
4
2
1
3
1
1 = log 1 + log 1 tan1 0 + c
2
4
2
[ Q y = 1 when x = 0] 1 = 0 + c c = 1
Thus the solution is
1
3
1
y = log (x + 1) + log (x2 + 1) tan1 x + 1
2
4
2
1
1
y = log (x + 1)2 (x2 + 1)3 tan1 x + 1
4
2
dy
2
= 1, y = 0 when x = 2
12. x( x 1)
dx
dy
2
=1
Sol. x( x 1)
dx
dx
dy = x( x + 1) ( x 1)
1
A
B
C
Let x( x + 1) ( x 1) = x + x + 1 + x 1

y = x sin 1 x + 1 - x 2 + C
(Required solution)
10. ex tan y dx + (1 ex) sec2 y dy = 0
Sol. ex tan y dx + (1 ex) Sec2 y dy = 0 or
(1ex) sec2 y dy = ex tan y dx
Dividing by (1 ex) tan y
sec 2 y
-e x
dx
dy =
tan y
1 - ex
sec2 y
-e x
dy =
dx
Integrating, we get
tan y
1 - ex
\ log tan y = log (1 ex) + log c
log tan y = log c (1 ex) tan y = c (1 ex)
Find a particular solution satisfying the given
condition for the following differential equation in
Q.11 to 14.
dy
= 2x2 + x; y = 1, when x = 0
11. (x3 + x2 + x + 1)
dx
dy
Sol. (x3 + x2 + x + 1)
= 2x2 + x or (x3 + x2 + x + 1) dy
dx
2x 2 + x
= (2x2 + x) dx or dy = x 3 + x 2 + x + 1 dx
Integrating, we get

dy = x

2x 2 + x
dx
(x + 1) (x 2 + 1)

t +C

y=

1 3
=
2 2

1 = A(x + 1) (x 1) + Bx(x 1) + Cx(x + 1)


Let x = 0 A = 1
1
Let x 1 = 0 x = 1, C =
2
1
Let x + 1 = 0 x = 1, B =
2
1 1/ 2 1/ 2
\ y = x + x + 1 + x 1 dx

1
1
= log x + log( x + 1) + log( x 1) + C
2
2
2

1
x 1
y = log 2 + log C
2
x
1
3
Now x = 2, y = 0 log C = log
2
4
Hence particular solution is :

x 2 1 1
1
3
y = log 2 log .
2
2
4
x

8
13.

dy
cos = a, (a R), y = 1 when x = 0
dx

dy
dy
Sol. cos = a \
= cos1a
dx
dx
or dy = (cos1 a) dx
Integrating dy = cos1a dx
or y = (cos1 a) x + c we have y = 2 when x = 0
c=2
\ Solution is y = x (cos1a) + 2
y-2
y-2
is the reqd. solu.
or cos1 a =
or a = cos
x
x
dy
= y tan x, y = 1, when x = 0
14.
dx
dy
dy
= tan x dx
= y tan x
Sol.
y
dx
log y = log sec x + C
When x = 0, y = 1
log1 = log sec 0 + C 0 = log1 + C
C=0
\ log y = log sec x
Hence y = sec x.
15. Find the equation of the curve passing through
the point (0,0) and whose differential equation
y = ex sin x.
Sol. Differential equation is y = ex sin x
dy
= ex sin x
\ dy = ex sin x dx
or
dx
Integrating, we get dy = ex sin x dx
y = ex ( cos x) ex (cos x) dx
= ex cos x + ex cos x dx
Again integrating by parts taking ex as first
function
= ex cos x + ex sin x ex sinx dx
or 2y = ex cos x + ex sec x + c
ex
\ y=
[ cos x + sin x] + c
2
1
1
Put x = 0, y = 0 0 =
+c \ c=
2
2
1
ex
\ Solution is y =
(sin x cos x) +
2
2
dy
16. For the differential equation xy
= (x + 2)
dx
(y + 2) find the solution curve passing through
the point (1, 1)
dy
Sol. The differential equation is xy
= (x + 2) (y + 2)
dx
or xy dy = (x + 2) (y + 2) dx

y
x+2
dy =
dx Integrating, we get
y+2
x
dy
x+2
y
=
dx
y+2
x

y+2-2
2

dy = 1 + dx

y+2
x

1 - y + 2 dy = 1 + x dx
2

y 2 log (y + 2) = x + 2 log x + c
The curve passes through (1, 1)
\ 1 2 log 1 = 1 + 2 log 1 + c
(log 1 = 0) 1 = 1 + c c = 2
Putting c = 2 y 2 log (y + 2) = x + 2 log x
2 or y x = 2 [log (y + 2) + log x] 2
= 2 log x (y + 2) 2
Solution is y = x + 2 log x (y + 2) 2.
17. Find the equation of a curve passing through
the point (0, 2) given that at any point (x, y) on
the curve the product of the slope of its tangent
and y coordinate of the point is equal to the
x coordinate of the point.
Sol. According to the question
dy
y
=x
dx
y dy = x dx
y2 x2
=
+C
2
2
(0, 2) lies on it. C = 2
\ Equation of the curve is
x2 y2 + 4 = 0.
18. At any point (x, y) of a curve the slope of the
tangent is twice the slope of the line segment
joining the point of contact to the point ( 4, 3)
find the equation of the curve given that it passes
through ( 2, 1).
dy
Sol. Slope of the tangent to the curve =
slope of
dx
the line joining (x, y) and ( 4, 3)

y + 3 dy
y + 3
=2
,

x + 4 dx
x + 4
2 (y + 3)
dy
2
dx
dx
=
\ dy =
x+4
y+3 x+ 4
dy
dx
=2
Integrating, we get
y+3
x+4
or log (y + 3) = 2 log (x + 4) + log c
or log (y + 3) log (x + 4)2 = log c
=

y +3
y+3
=c
2 = log c \
(x + 4)
(x + 4) 2
The curve passes through (2, 1)
1+ 3
4
= c = =1
2
(-2 + 4)
4
y +3
Equation of the curve is
=1
(x + 4)2
or y + 3 = (x + 4)2 or y = (x + 4)2 3.
The volume of a spherical balloon being inflated.
Changes at a constant rate. If initially its radius
is 3 units and offer 3 seconds it is 6 units. Find
the radius of balloon after t seconds.
Let v be volume of the balloon.
dv
d 4 3
= k or
we have
pr = k
dt
dt 3

4
2 dr
2 dr
p
3r
=
k
4
p
r
or
=k
or
3
dt
dt
4 p r2 dr = k dt
Integrating, we get
r3
4p r2 dr = k dt or 4p
= kt + c
...(i)
3
when t = 0, r = 3
4
p (3)3 = k . 0 + c 36 p = c
3
4 3
when t = 3, r = 6
(6) = 3k + c = 3k + 36 p
3
216 4
p = 3k + 36p
3
3k = 72 4p 36p = 288p 36p = 252p
252
p = 84 p
\ k=
3
Putting the values of k and c in (i)
4 3
84 3
3
t + 36
pr = 84p + 36p r3 =
3
4
4
r3 = 63t + 27 or r 3 = 9 (7t + 3) r = [9 (7t + 3)]1/3
In a bank principal increases at the rate of r%
per year. Find the value of r if `100 double itself
in 10 years (loge 2 = 0.6931).
Let P be the principal at any time t.
According to the problem
dP
r
=
.P
dt 100
dP
r
P = 100 dt
r
t + C1
log P =
100
i.e., log

19.

Sol.

20.

Sol.

P =e

rt /100 C1

.e

( where e

C1

=C

Now P = 100, when t = 0


\ P = ert /100 100
When P = 200, t = 10
r
log 2 =
10
r = 6.931
Hence r = 6.931% per annum.
21. In a bank interest increases at the rate of 5%
per year. An amount of ` 1000 is deposited with
this bank, how much will it worth after 10 years
(e0.5 = 1648)
Sol. Let p be the principal, Rate of interest is 5%
dp
dp
5
=
p \
p = 005 dt
dt 100
Integrating, we get log p = 005t + log c
p
log = 005t
c
p
005t
=e
\ p = ce 005t
...(i)
c
Initially, p = ` 1000, t = 0 1000 = c, e0 = c
\ c = 1000 Putting this value in (i)
p = 1000e005t
when t = 10 p = 1000 e005 10 = 1000e05
p = 1000 1648
Q e05 = 1648 p = 1648
After 10 year ` 1000 will amount to ` 1648.
22. In a culture the bacteria count is 1,00,000. The
number is increased by 10% in 2 hours. In how
many house will the count reach 2,00,000 if the
rate of growth of bacteria is proportional to the
number present.
Sol. Let y denote the number of bacteria at any
instant t then according to the question
dy
dy
ay
= k dt
...(i)
dt
y
k is the constant of proportionality, taken to be
+ ve on integrating (i), we get
log y = kt + c
... (ii)
c is a parameter. let y0 be the initial number of
bacteria
i.e., at t = 0 using this in (ii), c = log y0
log y = kt + log y0
y
log
= kt
...(iii)
y0
10
11y0 when t = 2
y = y0 +
y0 =
,
100
10

11y 0

So, from (iii), we get log 10 = k (2)


y0

10
k=

1
11
log
2
10

y
1
11
Using (iv) in (iii) log
= log
t ... (v)
y0
2
10
let the number of bacteria become 1, 00, 000 to
2,00,000 in t1 hours. i.e., y = 2y0
when t = t1 hours. from (v)

23.

2y0

Sol.

dv 1 + v 2
1 +v
dx
=
-v
dv =
dx
1+ v
1- v
x
1+ v
dx
Integrating, 1 - v dv = x

dy
= e x + y is :
dx

(b) e x + e y = C

(c) e x + e y = C

(d) e x + e y = C

dy = e x dx

e y = e x + K
ex + e y = C

where C = K
Thus option (a) is correct.

dy x 2 + y 2
=
= f(x, y)
dx x 2 + xy
x 2 + y2
f (x, y) = 2
x + xy
Replacing x by lx and y by ly

dx

Put v =

y
x

y
g . So it is a homogeneous function of
x
degree 1.
Let y = vx v + x

l 2 x 2 + l 2 y2

l2 x 2 + y2

x 2 + y2
0
x 2 + xy = l f (x, y)
Hence f (x, y) is a homogeneous function of
degree zero to solve it put y = vx

dv =

dv
= 1+ v
dx

dx
v = log x + C
x

y
= log x + C
x
Hence y = x log x + Cx .
(x y) dy (x + y) dx = 0

...(i)

f (lx, ly) = l 2 x 2 + l 2 xy = l 2 x 2 + xy

= l0

- 1 + 1- v dv = x

v 2 log (1 v) = log | x | log c

Show that the given differential equation is


homogeneous and solve each of them in Exercises 1
to 10
1.
(x2 + xy)dy = (x2 + y2) dx
Sol.

y
y
- 2 log 1 - = log | x | - log c
x
x
y
x-y
or + 2 log
+ log | x| - log c = 0
x
x
(x - y)2 x
y
(x - y)2
= e- y / x

=
log
or
cx
x2
c
x
\ solution is (x y)2 = cx e y/x
x+ y
y' =
2.
x
dy x + y
y
=
= 1+
Sol. Given
dx
x
x
R.H.S of this differential equation is of the form

dy
= e x .e y
dx

or

(a) e x + e y = C

Equ (i)

dv
x 2 + v2 x 2
x 2 (1 + v 2 )
= 2
= 2
dx x + (xvx)
x (1 + v)

v+ x

2 log 2
1
11
log
t1 t1 = log 1110
y0
2
10
2 log 2
Hence, the reqd. no. of hours =
log 1110
The general solution of a differential equation
log

dy
dy
=v+x
dx
dx

or

... (iv)

3.

y
x
y
1
x
R.H.S of the differential equation is of the form

dy x + y
=
=
Sol.
dx x y

1+

y
g , so it is a homogeneous function of
x
degree zero.

11
v+ x

dv 1 + v
=
dx 1 v

Sol.

dv 1 + v 2
=
x

dx 1 v

v 1

Now R.H.S. of the differential equation is of the

y
form g , hence the given equation is a
x
homogeneous function.
Let y = vx

dx
x

v2 + 1 dv =

dv
1 2v
dv 2
= log x
2 v2 + 1
v +1

y2
1
1 y
log
= log x + C
2 + 1 tan
2
x
x

dy
y
y
= 1 2 +
x
dx
x

1
y
log( y 2 + x 2 ) tan 1 = C
2
x

y 1
= log( x 2 + y 2 ) C.
x 2
(x2 y2)dx + 2xy dy = 0
1
tan

4.

Thus f ( x, y ) = R.H.S is a homogeneous function


of zero degree.
Put y = vx

dy
dv
=v+x
dx
dx

dx
2v dv
dv v 2 1
=
=
v
2
x
1+ v
dx
2v
2v dv

1 + v2 =

1
2

dx
x

dv
1
v
2

dv

2v 2 1 =

= log x

2v 1
C
log
= log x
+
2 2
v
2
1

y
2 1
2
x
C
=
y
x
2 +1
x

C
=
2y +1 x

2y x

Hence
6.

x dy y dx = x 2 + y 2 dx

Sol.

dy
=
dx

2 2

x2 + y 2 + y
x
x2 + y 2

dy
=
dx

dy
y
y
= 1+ +
x
dx
x

log(v + 1) = log x + log C

dx
x

dy y 2 x 2
=
Sol.
dx
2 xy

dv
= 1 2v 2
dx

y
x

R.H.S. of the differential equation is of the form

x2 + y 2
=C
x
x2 + y2 = Cx.

y
f , thus the differential equation is
x
homogeneous.

5.

x2 + y 2
+ log x = log C
log
x2

x2

dy
= x 2 2 y 2 + xy
dx

Now let y = vx x

dv
= 1 + v2
dx

12

dv
1 + v2

vx 2 [cos v + v sin v] v (cos v + v sin v)


=
= x2
[v sin v - cos v]
v sin v - cos v
Transposing v to R.H.S.

dx
x

dv v (cos v + vsin v)
=
-v
dx
v sin v - cos v
v cos v + v 2 sin v - v 2 sin v + v cos v
=
v sin v - cos v
dv
2v cos c
x dx = vsin v - cos v

log[v + 1 + v 2 ] = log x + log C

v + 1 + v 2 = Cx y + x 2 + y 2 = Cx 2
is the required solution.

7.

y
y
x cos + y sin y dx
x
x

Sol.

dy
=
dx

y
y
y x cos + y sin
x

= f (x, y)

y

y
x y sin - x cos
x
x

Replacing x by lx and y by ly in f (x, y)

( )
( )

( )
( )

ly lx cos ly
+ ly sin ly
lx
lx

f (lx , ly) =

lx lx sin ly
- ly cos ly
lx
lx

( )
( )

( )
( )

l 2 y x cos y
+ y sin y
x
x

=
l 2 y y sin y
+ y cos y
x
x

( )
( )

8.

( )
( )

y
y
y x cos x + y sin x

= l0 f (x, y)
= l0

y
y
- y cos
x x sin
x
x

\ f (x, y) is homogeneous function of degree


zero.

dy
Now,
=
dx

( )
( )

( )
( )

y x cos y + y sin y
x
x

y
y
+ x sin
x y cos
x
x

...(i)

dy
dv
=v+x
dx
dx
Putting this value in (i)

Put y = vx

vx
vx

vx x cos
+ vx sin
dv
x
x

v+ x
=
dx x vx sin v - x cos vx
x
x

( )

( )

vsin v - cos v
2dx
dv =
v cos v
x
1
2dx

or tan v - dv =
v
x

1
dx

or tan v - dv = 2
v
x

Integrating, log sec v log v = 2 logx + log c


sec v
log x2 = log c
or log
v
sec v
sec v
log
2 = log c i.e., vx 2 = c
vx
y
y sec y x
Putting v = ,
= c or sec = cxy
x
x y
x2
x
dy
y
x y + x sin = 0
x
dx

y
y
= y sin - x cos xdy

x
x

dy
y
dy y
y
y + x sin = 0
= sin
x
dx
dx x
x
R.H.S. of the differential equation is of the type
y
f , so the differential equation is a
x
homogeneous.
dv
Now let y = vx x = sin v
dx
dv
dx
=

cos ec v dv = log x
sin v
x
log(co sec v cot v) = log x + log C
C
cosec v cot v =
x
y
y C
cosec cot =
x
x x
y
y

x cosec cot = C
x
x

is the required solution.

Sol. x

13

y
y dx + x log dy 2 x dy = 0
x
y
dy
y
x
=
=
Sol. dx
y
y
2 x x log
2 log
x
x
R.H.S. of the differential equation is of the form
y
f , thus the given differential equation is
x
homogeneous.
Put y = vx
dy
dv
=v+ x
......(ii)
dx
dx
From (i) and (ii), we get
dv v + v log v
=
x
2 log v
dx

9.

2 log v
dx
dv =
v + v log v
x
Integrating both sides, we get
dv
dv
dx
v(log v 1) v = x

For

.....(iii)

v(log v 1)
dv

Put log v 1 = t so that v = dt


dt
= = log t = log(log v 1)
t
From (iii), we have

x x
e x / y 1 - -1 e x / y
y y
dx

==
= f (x, y)
dy
1 + ex / y
1 + ex / y

x
x/y
- 1 e
y

\ f (x, y) =
1 + ex / y

lx

x
x/y
- 1 elx / ly
y - 1 e
ly

f (lx, ly) =
= l0
1 - el x / l y
1 + ex / y

Hence, f (x, y) is a homogeneous function of


degree zero.
x
x/y
- 1 e
y

Now, dx =
dy
1 + ex / y
dx
dv
=v+y
Put x = vy is
dy
dy

vy

- 1 evy / y

(v -1)e v
\ v + y dv = y
=
vy / y
dy
1+ e
1 + ev
or y

log log 1 log y + log x = log x + log C

x
y

log log 1 = log y + log C = log Cy

x
y
log 1 = Cy
x
which is the required solution.

x
1-
10. (1+ ex/y) dx + ex/y
y dy = 0

Sol.

Replace x by lx and y by ly

dv (v - 1) e v
ve v - e v - v - ve v
=
-v=
v
dy
1+ e
1 + ev
- (v + e v )
=
1 + ev

1 + ev
dy
\ v + e v dv = - y

1 + ev
dy
dv = Integrating ,
v + ev
y
Put v + ev = t, (1+ ev) dv = dt
dt
\
= log y + log c
t
or log t = log y + log c or log t y = log c
x
\ ty = c Putting t = v + ev = + ex/y
y
x

x/y
\ y + e y=c

\ Reqd solu. is x + y. ex/y = cy.


For each of the following differential equation in
Q 11 ot 15 find the particular solution satisfying the
given condition :
11. (x + y) dy+ (x y) dx = 0, y = 1 when x = 1

y
1
dy x
Sol.
=
dx y
+1
x

R.H.S. of the differential equation is of the type

y
f , hence is a homogeneous function.
x

14
v 2 + 1
y
dv
=v x
=

x
dx
v +1
v +1
dx
dv =
2
x
v +1
1
2
log(v + 1) + tan 1 v = log x + C

2
1
y
log( y 2 + x 2 ) + tan 1 = C

2
x
Now x = 1, y = 1

Now let

1
p
1
log 2 + tan 1 (1) = C log 2 + = C
2
2
4
\ Particular solution is

1
y 1
log(y 2 + x 2 ) + tan 1 = log 2 + .
x 2
2
4
2
2
12. x dy + (xy + y ) dx = 0, y = 1 when x = 1
dy
xy + y 2
=Sol.
= f (x, y)
dx
x2
f (x, y) is homogeneous \ Put y = vx
dy
dv
=v+x
or
dx
dx
\ v+x

dv
x (vx) + (vx)2
x 2 (v + v 2 )
==2
dx
x
x2

1
dx
\ v 2 + 2v dv = - x

Integrating,

1
dv = 2
v + 2v

dx
+ log c
x

1
dv = log x + log c
2
(v + 2v + 1) - 1
1
or
dv = log x + log c
(v + 1)2 -1
1
v + 1 -1
log
= log x + log c
or
2
v + 1+ 1

i.e., log
log
\

v
+ log x = log c
v+2

x v
= log c
v+2
x v
y
= c, Putting v =
v+2
x

\ x2y = c2 (y + 2x)
Putting x = 1, y = 1

... (ii)

1
1 = c2 (1+ 2) \ c2 =
3

1
1
in (i) x2 y = (y + 2x)
3
3
Particular solution is 3x2 y = y + 2x.

p
2 y
- y dx + xdy = 0, y = , when x = 1
13. x sin
x
4

2
- y dx + xdy = 0
Sol. x sin
x

dy y
y
= - sin 2
which is homogeneous ...(i)
dx x
x
dv
Put y = vx , \ v + x
= v sin2 v from (i)
dx
dv
dx
or
=2
sin v
x
dv
dx
Integrating sin 2 v = - x
dx
cosec2 vdx =
x
cot v = log x + c
log x cot v = c
y
So general solution is
Putting v =
x
p
y
log x cot = c Putting x = 1, y =
4
x
p
log 1 = cot = c or 0 1 = c c = 1
4
y
Particular solution is cot log x = 1
x

Putting c2 =

14.
Sol.

dy y
y
- + cosec = 0, y = 0 when x = 1
dx x
x

dy y
y
- + cosec = 0
... (i)
dx x
x
which is a homogeneous differential equation
dy
dv
=v+x
Put y = vx so that
...(ii)
dx
dx
from (i) & (ii), we get
dv

v + x dx v + cosec v = 0

dv
x
+ cosec v = 0
dx
dv
= cosec v
x
dx
dx
dv
dx
sin v dv =
=
x
cos ec v
x
Integrating sin v dv =

dx
x

cos v = log | x | + c
y
cos = log | x | + c Now, y (1) = 0, i.e.,
x

15
when x = 1, y = 0
cos 0 = log | 1 | + c 1 = 0 + c, c = 1
y
\ cos = log | x | + 1
x
y
log | x | = cos 1, (x 0)
x
which is reqd. solution.
dy
15. 2xy y2 2x2
= 0 , y = 2, when x = 1
dx
Sol.

dy y 1 y
= +
dx x 2 x

...(i)

Which is a homogeneous differential equation


of the form

dy
y
= f
x
dx

(i) becomes, v + x

dv
1
= v + v2
dx
2

dx
x
v
Integrating both sides, we get

dv =

2x
2
= log | x | + C
= log | x | + C y
v
It is given that y (1) = 2 i.e., When x = 1, y = 2
-

2x
, ( x 0, e)
1 - log | x |
which is the required solution.
16. A homogeneous equation of the form

y=

x
dx
= h can be solved by making the
dy
y

substitution.
(a) y = vx
(c) x = vy

e 2x
(2 sinx cos x ) + c
5
Putting the value of I1 in (i), the general solution
e 2x
(2 sin x cos x) + c
ye2x =
5
or 5y = 2 sin x cos x + 5 ce2x
dy
+ 3 y = e -2 x
2.
dx
dy
+ 3 y = e -2 x
Sol.
dx

I1 =

Put y = vx,
\

Find the general solution of the following differential


equations in Q.1 to 12.
dy
+ 2y = sin x
1.
dx
Sol. Here, P = 2, Q = sin x
I.F. = e2dx = e2x Solution to the diff. equation is
ye2x = (sin x) e2x dx = I1
...(i)
I1 = e2x sin x dx
= e2x ( cos x) 2e2x ( cos x ) dx
= e2x cos x + 2 [e2x sin x 2e2x sin x dx]
= e2x cos x + 2 sin x e2x 4 e2x sin x dx
I1 = e2x (2sin x cos x) 4I1
\ 5I1 = e2x (2 sin x cos x )

(b) v = yx
(d) x = v

x
is correct.
y
17. Which of the following is a homogeneous
differential equation?
(a) (4x + 6y + 5) dy (3y + 2x + 4) dx = 0
(b) xydx (x3 y3) dy = 0
(c) (x3 + 2y2) dx + 2xydy = 0
(d) y2dx + (x2 xy y2) dy = 0
Sol. (d) y2dx + (x2 xy y2) dy = 0

Sol. (c) Option x = vy or v =

P = 3, integrating factor = e3x

y . e3 x = e x dx

y = e -2 x + C e -3 x
which is the required solution.
dy y
+ = x2
3.
dx x
dy y
+ = x2
Sol.
dx x
1
Intergrating factor = x dx
e
= e log x = x
dy
3
\ x + y = x y.x = x3dx
dx
x4
x3 C
y.x =
+C y =
+
4
4 x
(General solution)
p

dy
+ sec (x . y) = tan x 0 x <
4.
2
dx

dy
Sol. Linear equation of the form
+ Py = Q.
dx
Here, P = sec x, Q = tan x
I.F = sec x + tan x
i.e., The solu. is y I.F. = Q I.F. dx + c
or y (sec x + tan x) = tan x (sec x + tan x) dx + c
Reqd. solu. is
\ y (sec x + tan x) = (sec x + tan x) x + c

16

dy
p

+ y = tan x 0 x

dx
2
dy
2
Sol. cos x + y = tan x
dx
dy
+ y sec2 x = sec2 x tan x

dx
2
Integrating factor = e sec x dx = e tan x
5.

tan x
\e

8.

dy
+ y sec 2 x. e tan x = e tan x sec 2 x tan x
dx

dy
2x
cot x
+
y=
dx 1 + x 2
1 + x2

2x

dx
Integrating factor = e 1+ x2 =1 + x 2

y . e tan x = tet - t + C
y .e

tan x

= tan x e

tan x

-e

tan x

2
y (1 + x ) = cot x dx + C

+C

y (1 + x 2 ) = log sin x + C

y = tan x 1 + Cetan x
dy
+ 2y = x2 log x
dx
dy 2
+ y = x log x Linear equation of the form
Sol.
dx x
dy
2
+ Py = Q Here, P = and Q = x log x
dx
x

6.

2
dx
x

= e 2log x = e
= x2
\ I.F. = e Pdx = e
The solu. of the given equ. is
y I.F. = Q I.F. dx + c
or y x2 = (x log x) x2 dx + c = (x3 log x) dx + c

I.F = e
\

1
x log x dx

= e log(log x ) = log x

dy 1
2
(log x) + y = 2 log x
dx x
x
y. log x = 2 (log x) ( x -2 )dx
log x

y.log x = 2 + x -2 dx
x

y=

9.

log sin x
1+ x

C
1 + x2

dy
+ y x + xy cot x = 0 (x 0)
dx

Sol. x

log x 2

x4
1 x4

= (log x),
dx + c
4
x 4
1
1
= x 4 log x - x 3 dx + c
4
4
x2
x2
+ c. x 2
Reqd. Solu. is y = log x 4
16
or 16y = x2 (4 log x 1) + 16 c. x2
dy
2
x log x + y = log x
7.
dx
x
dy
1
2
y= 2
+
Sol.
dx x log x
x

(1 + x 2 )dy + 2 xy dx = cot x dx ( x 0)

Sol. (1 + x 2 )dy + 2 xy dx = cot x dx

y . e tan x = e tan x sec 2 x tan x dx


Let tan x = t
sec2 x dx = dt y . e tan x = te t dt

log x 1
y.log x = -2
+ +C
x
x
1
1
C
+
y = -2 +

x x log x log x

cos 2 x

dy
+ y - x + xy cot x = 0
dx

dy
+ (1 + x cot x ) y = x
dx

dy 1 + x cot x
+
y = 1
dx
x

1 + x cot x 1
= + cot x
x
x
Integrating factor
P=

= e

P dx

= e x

+ cot x dx

= elog x + log sin x


= elog (x sin x) = x sin x
y . x sin x =

x sin x dx + C

y . x sin x = - x cos x +

1 . cos x dx + C

y . x sin x = x cos x + sin x + C


x cos x
sin x
C
+
+
y= x sin x x sin x x sin x
Here y = - cot x +

1
C
+
x x sin x

17
dy
=1
dx
dy
=1
Sol. ( x + y )
dx

10.

( x + y)

d
( xy ) = y 2
dy

xy = y 2 dy + C

1 dx
=1
( x + y ) dy

xy =

dx
= x+ y
dy

x=

dx
-x= y
dy
Now P = 1

\e

-y

dx
- xe - y = ye - y
dy

d
[ xe - y ] = ye - y
dy

y2 C
+
y
3

dy
= y (y > 0)
dx
dx
dx x
- = 3y
Sol. y dy = x + 3y2 or
dy y
dx
linear equation of the form
+ Px = Q
dy
1
Where P = , Q = 3y,,
y
1

12.

Integrating factor = e P dy = e ( -1)dy = e - y

y3
+C
3

(x + 3y2)

I. F.= e

Pdy

= e

log =
-1
1
y y
log y= e log y = e
y dy = e

The solution is x I.F.= Q I.F. dy + c


1
1
or x = 3y dy + c = 3y + c
y
y
Hence, the reqd. solu. is x = 3y2 + cy.

-y
-y
xe = ye dy + C

xe - y = - ye - y - e - y + C
x = - y - 1 + Ce y

For each of the following Exercises 13 to 15 find a


particular solution, satisfying the given condition :
dy
p
+ 2 y tan x = sin x, y = 0 when x =
13.
dx
3
dy
+ (2 tan x) y = sin x , P = 2 tan x
Sol.
dx
Integrating factor

x + y + 1 = Ce y

11.

y dx + ( x - y 2 )dy = 0

Sol. y.dx + ( x - y 2 )dy = 0

dx
+ x - y2 = 0
dy

y.

dx
y. + x = y 2
dy

dx 1
+ x=y
dy y

2 tan x dx
= e 2log sec x = sec2 x
= e

\ sec 2 x

2
2
y.sec x = sec x sin x dx
2
y.sec x = sec x tan x dx

1
P=
y
Integrating factor = e

dx
+ x = y2
dy

dy
+ sec 2 x(2 tan x) y = sec2 x sin x
dx

1
y dy

= elog y = y

y.sec 2 x = sec x + C
p
When x = and y = 0 C = 2
3

y = cos x - 2cos 2 x
is the required solution.

18

dy
1
, y = 0 when x = 1
+ 2xy =
dx
1 + x2
dy
2x
1
+
y=
Sol.
2
dx 1 + x
(1 + x2 )2
dy
Linear equation of the form
+ Py = Q
dx
2x
1
and Q = 2
where
P= 2
x +1
(x + 1) 2
Now.

14.

(1 + x2)

2x

I.F. =

e Pdx

=e

x 2 +1 dx

= elog (x

2 + 1)

= x 2 +1

y (I.F.) = Q I.F. dx + c,
y (x2 + 1) =

(x

1
(x2 + 1) dx + c
+ 1)2

tan -1 x
c
+ 2
, (x R)
x 2 +1
x +1

y = 0 when x = 1 \ c = tan1. 1 =

p
4

Reqd. particular solution is


tan -1 x
p
y = 2
x +1
4 (x 2 + 1)
or y (x2 + 1) = tan1 x

Sol.

dy
dy
=x+ y
-y=x
dx
dx
P = 1 Integrating factor = e - dx = e - x
- x dy
- ye - x = xe - x
e
dx
-x
-x
y.e = xe dx
y.e - x = - xe - x - e - x + C

y = - x - 1 + Ce x
When x = 0, y = 0 C = 1

1
(x2 + 1) y = x 2 + 1 dx + c
(x2 + 1) y = tan1 x + c
y=

16. Find the equation of the curve passing through


the origin given that the slope of the tangent to
the curve at any point (x, y) is equal to the sum of
the coordinates of the point.

p
4

dy
p
3y cot x = sin 2x, y = 2, when x =
dx
2
dy
Sol. Linear equation of the form
+ Py = Q
dx
where P = 3 cot x, Q = sin 2x
\ Integrating function
= e Pdx = e log cosec3x = cos ec3 x
Solution is y I.F. = Q. I.F. dx + c
or y cosec3 x = sin 2x cosec3 x dx + c
2 sin x cos x
dx + c
sin 3 x

15.

= 2 cosec x cot x dx + c = 2 cosec x + c


or y = 2sin 2 x + c sin3 x
p
Now, y = 2, x = , 2 = 2 + c \ c = 4
2
\ Reqd particular solution is
y = 2 sin2 x + 4 sin3 x y = 2 sin 2 x (1 2 sin x)

\ y = - x - 1 + e x (Particular solution).
17. Find the equation of the curve passing through
the point (0,2) given that the sum of the
coordinates of any point on the curve exceeds
the magnitude of the slope of the tangent to the
curve at that point by 5
dy
Sol. By the given condition x + y
=5
dx
dy
dy
= x + y 5
= (x + y 5)
or
\
dx
dx
dy
(i) Taking + ve
y= x 5
dx
I.F. = e(1) dx = ex
is y ex = ex (x 5) dx + c
Integrating by parts taking (x 5) as first
function
yex = (x 5) (ex) 1 . (ex) dx + c
= (x 5)ex ex + c
y = x + 5 1 + cex = 4 x + c . ex
The curve passes through (0, 2)
\ x = 0, y = 2
2 = 4 0 + c. e0 \ c = 2
Regd. equ. of the curve is y = 4 x 2ex
dy
(ii) Taking ve
= (x + y 5) = x y + 5
dx
dy
or
+ y= x + 5
dx
1dx
\ I.F. = e = ex
Solution is yex = (5 x)ex dx + c
= (5 x)ex (1). exdx + c
= (5 x) ex + ex + c
or y = 5 x + 1 + cex = 6 x + cex
The curve passes through (0, 2)
\ x = 0, y = 2
2 = 6 0 + c. e0 or c = 4
\ Equation of the curve y = 6 x 4ex

19
18. The integrating factor of the differential
dy
2
equation x - y = 2 x is
dx
(a) e x
(b) ey
(c) 1/x
(d) x
-1
Sol. P =
x
1
- dx
1
\ Integrating factor = e x = e - log x =
x
Thus option (c) is true .
19. The integrating factor of the differential
equation
dx
(1 - y 2 ) + yx = ay (-1 < y < 1) is :
dy
1
1
(b)
(a)
y2 -1
y2 - 1
1
1
(c)
(d)
2
1- y
1 - y2
y
, Integrating factor
Sol. P =
1 - y2

=e

y
1- y 2

dy

=e

1 (-2) y dy

2 1- y 2

1
- log(1- y 2 )
=e 2

Hence option (d) is correct.

1.

For each of the differential equations given


below, indicate its order and degree (if defined).
2

d y
dy
+ 5x 6y = log x
2
dx
dx
2

(i)

dy
dy
(ii) - 4 + 7y = sin x
dx

dx
d3 y
d4 y
- sin 3 = 0
4
dx
dx
Sol. (i) Order = 2, Degree = 1
(ii) Order = 1, Degree = 3
(iii) Order = 4, Degree not defined
2.
For each of the exercises given below, verify that
the given function (implicit or explicit) is a
solution of the corresponding differential
equation.
(i) y = a ex + b ex + x2 :
d2 y
dy
+2
xy + x2 2 = 0
x
dx 2
dx
(ii) y = ex (a cos x + b sin x) :
d2 y
dy
-2
+ 2y = 0
dx 2
dx

(iii)

(iii) y = x sin 3x :
d2 y
+ 9y 6 cos 3x = 0
dx 2
(iv) x2 = 2y2 log y :

dy
xy = 0
dx
Sol. (i) y = aex + bex + x2

(x2 + y2)

dy
= aex bex + 2x
dx
d2 y
= aex + bex + 2
dx 2
d2 y
dy
+2
xy + x2 2
2
dx
dx
= 2x + 2 (aex bex) + 4x x3 + x2 2
= 2 (aex bex) x3 + x2 + 6x 2 0
Hence, y = aex + bex + x2 is not the solution of
the differential equation
d2 y
dy
x 2 +2
xy + x2 2 = 0
dx
dx

Now, x

(ii) y = ex (a cos x + b sin x)

dy
= ex [ a sinx + b cos x] + ex [a cosx + b
dx
sin x]
= ex [(a + b) cos x (a b) sin x]
d2 y
= ex [2a sin x + 2b cos x]
dx 2

d2 y
dy
2
+ 2y = ex [(2a + 2a 2b +
dx 2
dx
2b) sin x + (2b 2a 2b + 2a) cos x] = 0
Hence, y = ex (a cos x + b sin x) is the solution
of the differential equation

Now,

d2 y
dy
+2
+ 2y = 0
2
dx
dx

(iii) y = x sin 3x,

dy
= sin 3x + 3x cos 3x
dx

d2 y
= 6 cos 3x 9y
dx 2
d2 y
+ 9y 6 cos 3x = 0
dx 2
Hence, y = x sin 3x is the solution of

d2 y
+ 9y 6 cos 3x = 0
dx 2

20
(iv) x2 = 2y2 log y
...(i)
Differentiating w.r.t. x

1 dy
2x = 2 2y log y + y 2
y dx

dy
= 2 [2y log y + y]
dx
dy
x
x
=
=

dx 2y log y + y y (2 log y + 1)
x2
from (i) 2 log y = 2
y
dy
x
xy
=
= 2
\
2
dx
x
x + y2
y 2 + 1
y

dy
(x2 + y2)
xy = 0
dx
Hence, x2 = 2y2 log y is the solution of differential

dy
xy = 0
dx
3.
Form the differential equation representing the
family of curves given by (x a)2 + 2y2 = a2,
where a is an arbitrary constant.
Sol. The equation of the curve is (x a)2 + 2y2 = a2
i.e., x2 + 2y2 2ax = 0
... (ii)
dy
Differentiating w.r.t. x 2x + 4y
2a = 0
dx
dy
2ax = 0 ...(ii)
Multiply it with x, 2x2 + 4xy
dx
dy
=0
subtracting (i) from (ii) x2 2y2 + 4xy
dx

equation (x2 + y2)

dy 2y2 - x 2
=
dx
4xy
2
2
2
2
2
4.
Prove that x y = c (x + y ) is the general
solution of differential equation
(x3 3x y2) dx = (y3 3x2y) dy, where c is a
parameter.
Sol. The differential equation is
(x3 3xy2) dx = (y3 3x2y) dy

\ Reqd. diff. equation is

dy x3 - 3xy 2
=
dx y3 - 3x 2 y
which is homogeneous equation
dy
dv
= v+ x
Put y = vx or
dx
dx

\ v+x

3
dv 1 - 3v 2 v - 3v dv = dx
= 3
,
4
x
dx v - 3v 1 - v

Integrating, we get

v 3 - 3v
dv =
1- v4

dx

v3
v
dv - 3
dv
1- v4
1- v4
= I1 3I2
...(i)

\ log x =

1 -4 v3
I1 = 4 1 - v 4 dv
Put 1 v4 = t, 4v3 dv = dt

\ I1 1 dt = - 1 log t = - 1
4 t
4
4
1
log t = log (1 v4)
4
1
2v
dv
I2 =
2 1 - v4
Put v2 = t, 2 vdv = dt

1
dt
1
1 + t 1 log 1 + v 2
= log
=
2
1 - v2
2 1- t
4
1- t 4
log c + log x = I1 3 I2
[from (ii)]
\ I2 =

log cx =
1
=4

1
1+ v2
1
log (1 v4) 3 4 log 1 - v 2
4

4 ) + 3log (1+ v )
log(1
v

(1- v2 )

-1
= 4

= log

(1+ v 2 )4
log

(1 - v2 )3

1- v2
= log
1+ v 2

x2 - y
x2 - y2
x
=
log
x
x2 + y2
x2 + y2
x2

x 2 - y4
x
x 2 + y2
x2 y2 = c (x2 + y2)2
Putting c = c x2 y2 = c (x2 + y2)2
Hence x2 y2 = c (x2 + y2) is the solution
of the differential equation
(x3 3xy2) dx = (y3 3x2y) dy
5.
Form the differential equation of the family of
circles in the first quadrant which touch the
coordinate axes.
Sol. Family of circles which touch the coordinates
axes in first quadrant is

\ c . x =

21
y

Sol. The differential equation is


dy
dx
+ 2
=0
2
y + y +1 x + x +1
dy

(a, a)

1
3

y+ +
2
4

Integrating,
dy

a
x

(x a)2 + (y a)2
= a2
...(i)
a is radius of the circle.
Differentiating w.r.t. x
dy
=0
2 (x a) + 2 (y a)
dx
dy
=p
Putting
dx
\ (x a) + (y a) p = 0 or x a + py pa = 0
x + py
x + py a (1 + p) = 0
\ a=
1+ p
Putting value of a in (i)
2

(x - y) p
(y - x)
x + py
1 + p + 1+ p = 1 + p

2
Multiplying both side by (1 + p)
\ (x y)2 P2 + (x y)2 = (x + py)2
or (x y)2 (1 + p2) = (x + py)2

1 3
y+ 2 + 4

or

equation

dy
+
dx

1 - y2
1- x2

=0

Sol. The differential equation is

Integrating
7.

dy
1- y

dy
1 - y2

dx
1- x 2

dx
1- x 2

or sin1 y sin1 x = c This is the reqd. equ.


Show that the general solution of the differential
dy
y2 + y + 1
+ 2
= 0 is given by
dx x + x + 1
(x + y + 1) = A (1 x y 2xy), where A is
parameter.

equation

1 3

x+ +
2 4

=0

dx
2

1 3
x+ 2 + 4

=c

x+ 2
2
-1
tan
+
3

3
2

=c

2y + 1
2x + 1
2
2
tan -1
tan -1
+
=c
3
3
3

3 (2y + 1+ 2x + 1)

=c
3 - (2y + 1) (2x + 1)

or

2
tan -1
3

or

3 (2x + 2y + 2)
3
tan -1
c = tan -1 3 A
=
2
2x
2y
4xy
2

c=

2
2

dy
dy
(x y)2 1 + = x + y
dx
dx

This is the reqd. equ.


Find the general solution of the differential

dx

y+ 2
2
-1
tan
or
3
3
2

6.

2
tan -1
3

3A

2 3 (x + y + 1)
= 3A
2(1- x - y - 2xy)
Reqd. general solution is
x + y + 1 = A (1 x y 2xy)
Find the equation of the curve passing through

8.

p
the point 0, whose differential equation is
4
sin x cos y dx + cos x sin y dy = 0.
Sol. The given differential equation is
sin x cos y dx + cos x sin y dy = 0
sin x
sin y
dx +
dividing by cos x cos y
dy = 0
cos x
cos y
Integrating, tan x dx + tan y dy = log c
or log sec x sec y = log c or sec x sec y = c
p
curve passes through the point 0,
4
p
sec 0 sec = c = 2
4
Hence, the reqd. equ. of the curve is
sec x sec y = 2

22
9.

Find the particular solution of the differential


equation (1 + e2x) dy + (1 + y2) ex dx = 0, given
that y = 1 when x = 0.
Sol. The differential equation is (1 + e2x) dy + (1 + y2)
ex dx = 0
Dividing by (1 + e2x) (1 + y2)
dy
e x dx
+
=0
2
1+ y
1 + e 2x
dy
ex
+
Integrating,
dx = c
1 + y2
1 + e 2x

Put ex = t, ex dx = dt
or tan1 y +

1+ t
dt

=c

tan1 y + tan1 t = c
i.e., tan1 y + tan1 ex = c
\ tan1 1 + tan1 1 =c

10.

put y = 1, x = 0

= xe y + y 2 dy (y 0)
Sol. The differential equation is
x
ye y dx

dx

dx
= xex/y + y2 or ex/y y dy - x = y2

dy

dx
-x
ex / y y
dy
=1
...(i)
or
y2
let ex/y = z Differentiating w.r.t. y

y ex/y

ex / y

dx

dy y - x 1 dz

=
y2

dy

from (i)

t +1
dt = dx
2t
t +1
dt = dx + c
Integrating,
2t
1
1
1 + dt = x + c
2
t
1
or
(t + log 1 + 1) = x + c put, t = x y
2
1
[(x y) + log | x y |] = x + c
\
2
1
when x = 0, y = 1,
(1 + 0) = 0 + c
2
1
\ c=
2
1
1
solution is [(x y) + log |x y|] = x +
2
2
log |x y| = x + y + 1.
12. Solve the differential equation

dz = dy + c

e-2 x
y dx
= 1 (x 0).

x dy
x
Sol. The differential equation
e -2 x
dy
1
e -2 x
y dx
y=
+
= 1 or

dx
x
x
x dy
x

dx

y dy - x
y2 = 1

dz
=1
or dz = dy
dy

Integrating,

dt
t +1 + t -1
2t
dt
t -1
=
=1+
dx =
t +1
t +1
dx
t +1
or

p
p
or 2 tan1 1 = c or 2 = c \ c =
4
2
The particular solution of the diff. equ.
p
tan1 y + tan1 ex =
2
Solve the differential equation

ex / y

dy
+ x y 1 = 0
dx
dy
x - y -1
=put
dx
x - y +1
dy
dt
dy
dt
=1=
put x y = t, 1
or
dx
dx
dx dx
dt
t -1
=\ 1dx
t +1

or (x y 1)

dy
+ Py = Q
dx

linear equation of the form


where P =

z = y+ c

Required solution is ex/y = y + c.


11. Find a particular solution of the differential
equation (x y) (dx + dy) = dx dy, given that
y = 1, when x = 0.
Sol. The differential equation is
(x y) (dx + dy) = dx dy

1
e2 x
,Q=
x
x

I.F. = e Pdx = e2

The solution is y e 2
=

1
dx + c = 2
x

Reqd. sol. is y e 2

e -2
x

x +c

=2 x +c

e2

dx + c

23
13. Find a particular solution of the differential
dy
equation
+ y cot x = 4x cosec x (x 0), given
dx
p
that y = 0 when x = .
2
dy
Sol. The differential equation
+ y cot x = 4x cosec x
dx
dy
+ Py = Q
linear equation of the form
dx
P = cot x , q = 4x cosec x
I.F. = epdx = elog sin x = sin x
\ The solution is y sin x = 4x cosec x sin x dx + c
= 4x dx + c = 2x2 + c
2
i.e., y sin x = 2x + c
p
y = 0, x =
2
p2
2
Reqd. particular solution is

\c=

p2
(sin x 0)
2
14. Find a particular solution of the differential
dy
equation (x + 1)
= 2ey 1, given that y = 0
dx
when x = 0.
Sol. The differential equation is
dy
(x + 1)
= 2ey 1 variables are separable
dx
dy
dx
=
-y
2e - 1 x +1

y sinx = 2x2

Integrating

ey

2 - ey

2e

dy
-y

-1

dx
x +1

dx
x +1
\ ey dy = dt

dy =

Put 2 ey = t
dt
=
= log t = log (2 ey)
t

=
=

e
2 e

dy =
y

dx
xe1

ey
2-e

dy =

- log 2 - e y

dx
1

- log 2 - e

1
2 - ey

= log ( x + 1) + log c = log ( x + 1) c

1
= A ( say )
c
\ (x + 1) (2 ey) = A
Put x = 0, y = 0, 2 1 = A = 1
Reqd. particular solution is (x + 1) (2 ey) = 1
( x + 1) 2 - e y =

or

2 ey =

1
1
2x + 1
=
or ey = 2
x +1
x +1
x +1

2x + 1
, x 1
x +1

y = log
15.

The population of a village increases


continuously at the rate proportional to the
number of its inhabitants present at any time. If
the population of the village was 20, 000 in 1999
and 25000 in the year 2004, what will be the
population of the village in 2009?
Sol. Let y be the population at an instant t. Now
population increase at a rate a No. of inhabitants
\

dy
dy
a y or
= ky
dt
dt

dy
dy
\ y = kdt Integrating y = kdt + c
or log y = kt + c
...(i)
In 1999, t = 0 population = 20,000
\ log 20,000 = c Put the value of c in (i)
log y = kt + log 20,000 or log y log 20000 = kt

y
= kt
20000
In 2004, t = 5, y = 25000

or log

log

...(ii)

25000
1
5
= k 5 k = log
20000
5
4

Equ (ii) as log

y
5
1
= log t
20000 5
4

In 2009, t = 10
log

xe

= ( x + 1) c

y
5
5
1
=
log 10 = 2 log
20000 5
4
4
2

25
5
log = log
4
16

y=

y
25
=
20000 16

25
20000 = 25 1250 = 31250
16

24
16.

The general solution of the differential


y dx - x dy
equation
= 0 is
y
(a) xy = c
(b) x = cy2
(c) y = cx
(d) y = cx2

Sol. The differential equation is

ydx - xdy
=0
y

x -
dx

log x log y = c

17.

dy
= c (say)
y
x
or y = c

1 x 1
Put c = , = y = cx is the reqd. sol.
c y c
Option (c) is correct
The general solution of a differential equation
of the type

(b) y e P1 dx
(c) x e P1 dy
P dx
(d) x e 1

P1 dy

P1 dx

P1 dy

P1 dx

Sol. The linear differential equation is

dx dy
or
=0
x
y

Integrate,

( Q e ) dy + C
= (Q e
) dx + C
= (Q e
) dy + C
= (Q e
) dx + C

P dy
(a) y e 1 =

dx
+ P1 x = Q 1 is
dy

P1 and Q1 are the function of y


Hence the solu. is
x.e P1.dy =

(Q e
1

P1.dy

dx
P x = Q1
dy 1

I.F. = e P1.dy

) dy + C

option (c) is correct


18. The general solution of the differential equation
ex dy + (y ex + 2x) dx = 0 is
(a) x ey + x2 = C
(b) x ey + y2 = C
x
2
(c) y e + x = C
(d) y ey + x2 = C
Sol. The differential equation is
dy
ex dy + (yex + 2x) dx = 0 or e x
+ exy = 2x
dx
dy
= 1.y = 2x ex I.F. = epdx = ex
or
dx
\ Solution is yex = (2x)ex ex dx + c
= 2x dx + c = x2 + c yex + x2 = c
Option (c) is correct