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# Francesca Novelli

ENGR 2405

10/07/14

## Objective: For students to verify the proportionality and superposition theorems

Background: The Proportionality Theorem (a.k.a Linearity) says that the response in a circuit is
proportional to the source acting in the circuit. The following equation, Vout = K Vin , describes
the relationship between the proportionality constant K and the input and output voltages.
In Figure 1, Vin = 10V is the voltage source and Vout is the 5.1 k resistor.

The Superposition Theorem states that the response in a linear circuit with many sources can be
found by adding the individual responses caused by the separate independent sources acting
alone. When an independent sources acts alone, all of the other voltage sources are replaced by
short circuits and all other independent current sources are replaced by open circuits.
Materials & Equipment:
Assorted Resistors (1 k, 2 k, 5.1 k)
Variable Power Supply
Digital Multi Meter
Assorted jumpers, cables and wires
Paper & Pencil
Procedure:
Part 1: Proportionality Theorem
Measure Vout for the 4 input voltages
Calculate K in each case.
Plot a Graph with Vin on x-axis & Vout on the y-axis using Excel

Francesca Novelli

ENGR 2405

10/07/14

## Part 2: Superposition Theorem

Measure and record the voltage across the 5.1 k resistor
Construct Figure 3. Measure and record the voltage across the 5.1 k resistor.
Fill out Table 2 and verify Vout in the 3rd circuit equals to the sum of Vout in the 1st
and 2nd circuits.

## Task 1: Measure Vout & Calculate K

Vout (V)
0.589
1.177
2.354
2.943

Vin (V)
2
4
8
10
Vout = K Vin
K = (0.589)/(2)
K = 0.2945

K
0.2945
0.29425
0.29425
0.2943

K = Vout
Vin
K = (1.177)/(4)

K = (2.354)/(8)

K = (2.943)/(10)

K = 0.29425

K= 0.29425

K = 0.2943

Proportionality Constant K
3.5
3
2.5
2
Proportionality
Constant K

1.5
1
0.5
0
2

10

Francesca Novelli

ENGR 2405

10/07/14

## Task 2: Measure Vout for each of the three circuits

Power Source
Vout (V)
With only 10 V source
2.95
With only 5 V Source
2.95
With both 5V and 10V sources
5.9
Caluclated K value: K = 2.95V / 10V = 0.295