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Coulomb’s Law

If two stationary and point charge Q1 and Q2 are kept at a distance r, then it is

found that force at attraction or repulsion between them is

Q1Q2 kQ Q

F∝ 2

i.e. F = 12 2

r r

(k = Proportionality constant)

Q1 Q2

In C.G.S. (for air) k = 1, F = Dyne

r2

In S.I. (for air)

1 Q1 Q2

⇒F = . Newton (1 Newton = 105 Dyne)

4π ε0 r 2

ε0 = Absolute permittivity of air of free space

C2 Farad

= 8.85 ×10 −12 = . It’s i

N − m2 m

dimensional formula is [M-1 L-3T4A2]

Vector form of coulomb’s law :

vector from of Coulomb’s law is

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 1

→ Q1Q2 → Q1 Q2 ^ ^

F1 2= K 3 r1 2= K. 2 r1 ,2 w h r1e 2 ris ethe unit vector from first charge to second charge

r r

along the line joining the two charges.

Effect of Medium:

the charges inside the dielectric medium takes place and the force between the

same two charges decreases by a factor of K(dielectric constant)

F 1 Q Q

i.e. Fmedium = air = . 12 2

K 4π ε0 K r

(Here ε 0 K = ε 0ε r = ε = permittivity of medium)

If a dielectric medium (dielectric constant K, thickness) is partially filled between

the charges then effective air separation between the charges becomes

(r −t +t K )

1 Q1 Q2

Hence force F = 4π ε K .

0 (

r −t +t K ) 2

Principle of superposition:

According to the principle of super position, total force acting on a given charge

due to number

of charges is the vector sum of the individual forces acting on that charge due to

all the charges

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 2

Net force on Q will be

→ → → → →

Fnet = F1 + F2 +.......... + Fn−1 + Fn

The magnitude of the resultant of two electric forces is given by

→

Fnet = F12 + F22 + 2 F1 F2 cos θ

F2 sin θ

And tan α =

F1 + F2 cos θ

Q.1. Two identical charged spheres are suspended by string of equal length. The string

make an angle of 300 with each other. When suspended in a liquid of density 800

kg/m3. The angle remains the same. What is the dielectric constant of the liquid?

The density of the material of the sphere is 1600kg /m3.

Solution:

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 3

Let T, T’ be the tensions in the string when spheres are in air and in liquid

respectively.

T cos θ = mg B +T ' cos θ = mg

⇒ F = mg tan θ

⇒ F ' = ( mg − B ) tan θ

F = electrostatic repulsion in ari

q2

F=

4π ε0 a 2

In liquid this force is F’ and is given as

q2

F= where k is a dielectric constant

4π ε0 ka 2

F

⇒F '= form force diagram

K

F mg

=

F' mg − B where B is Buoyant Force

V dg d 1600

⇒K = = = =2

V dg −Vfg d−f 1600 − 800

Q. 2. A ring has charge Q and Radius R. If a charge q is placed at its centre then

calculate the increase in tension in the ring?

Solution:

Consider a small element A. B θ is very small then AB = R (2 θ ).

Q Qθ

Charge on AB is dQ = 2π R ( 2 Rθ ) = π

dQ.q Qq θ

2T sin θ = =

4π ε0 R 2

4π ε0 R 2

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 4

Qq θ Qq

2T θ = 8T =

4π 2 ε 0 R 2 8π 2 ε 0 R 2

Electric Field

The interaction between two charges is visualized in terms of the electric field

concept. A charge produces and electric field around itself. This field then exerts

force on the other charge. Thus, interaction between two charge is a two step

process.

→ →

→ F → F

E= E = Lim

q0 q0 →0 q

0

Newton volt Joule

It’s S.I. unit - coulomb = meter = coulomb × meter

And C.G.S. unit-Dyne / stat coulomb.

Dimension: [E] = [MLT-3A-1]

Direction of electric field:

→

Electric field (intensity) E is a vector quantity. Electric field due to a positive

charge is always away from the charge and that due to a negative charge is

always towards the charge.

Relation between electric force and electric field:

→ → →

In an electric field E a charge (Q) experiences a force F = Q E . If charge is

positive then force is directed in the direction of field while if charge is negative

force acts on it in the opposite direction of field

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 5

→ → → →

E = E1 + E 2 + E3 + .......... ...

→

Q. 3. A cube of edge a meters carries a point charge q at each other. Calculate the

resultant force on

any one of the charges.

Solution:

Let us take one corner of cube as origin O(0, 0, 0) and the opposite corner as

P(a, a, a) we will

Calculate the electric field at P due to the other seven charges at corners.

Let us take one corner of cube as origin O(0, 0, 0) and the opposite corner as

P(a, a, a). We will

calculate the electric field at P due to the other seven charges at corners.

Expressing the field of a point charge in vector form.

→ q ^

E= .r

4π 0 rε3

(i) Field at P due to A, B, C

→ q → → →

E1 = AP + BP + CP

4π ε0 a 3

q ^ ^ ^

= 3 ia + ja + ka

4π 0 a ε

(ii) Field at P due to D, E, F

DP = EP = FP = aV2

→ q → → →

E2 = DP + EP + FP

(

3

4π ε0 a 2 )

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 6

q ^^ ^^ ^^

= 3ai+ k aj++ + ai k

4π 0a

q ^ ^ ^

= 2 i+ j+ k

4π 0 2 a ε

(iii) Field at P due to O

OP = aV3

→ q →

E3 = . OP

4π ε0 a 3 a

3

( )

q ^ ^ ^

= 3 ia + a j+ ak

()

4π 0 3 3 a ε

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 7

→ q ^ ^ ^

E3 = 2 i + j + k

( )

4π 0 3 3 a

Resultant field at P

ε

→ → → →

E = E1 + E 2 + E 3

^^^

→ iq j++ k

E = 1+ 1 + 1 out ward along OP

2

4π 0 a 2 3 3 ε

Electric Potential Definition :

Potential at a point in a field is defined as the amount of work done in bringing a

unit positive test charge, from infinity to that along any arbitrary path (infinity is

point of zero potential). Electric potential is scalar quantity, it is denoted by

W

V;V =

q0

Unit and dimensional formula

Joule

S.I. unit : = volt

Coulomb

1

C. G. S. unit: Stat volt (e.s.u) 1volt = Stat volt

300

Dimension : [V] = [ML2T-3A-1]

Types of electric potential:

According to te nature of charge potential is of two types

(i) Positive potential : Due to positive charge

(ii) Negative potential : Due to negative charge

Potential of a system of point charges:

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 8

V =k

Q1 Q Q

+k 2 +k 3 +k

( − Q4 ) + .......... ..

r1 r2 r3 r4

X

kQ1

In general V = ∑

i =1 r1

dQ

V = ∫d V , = ∫

4πε0 r

Graphical representation of potential: As we move on the line joining two charges

then variation of potential with distance is shown below

A and B is defined as equal to the amount of work done (by external agent) in

moving a unit positive charge form point A to point B

W

i.e., V B −V A = q

0

radius 3m placed on X-Y plane with its centre at origin. Find the electric potential

at a point P(0, 0, 4m)

Solution:

The electric potential at P

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 9

1 q

V = r0 = 3 2 + 4 2 = 5m

4π ε0 r0

9 ×10 9 ×10 −5

V = = 1.8 ×10 4 volt .

5

Electric Field and Potential Due to Various charge Distribution

Point charge: Electric field and potential at point P due to a point Q is

Q → Q ^ 1 Q

E = k 2 o r E = k 2 r k = , V = k

r r 4π 0 ε r

Graph

Line charge: Electric field and potential due to a charged straight conducing wire

of length l and charge density λ

kλ

Ex = ( sin α + sin β )

r

kλ

And E y = ( cos β − cos α )

r

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 10

λ r2 +l2 −l

V = log e

2π ε0 r 2 + l 2 + l

(i) If point P lies at perpendicular bisector of wire i.e. α = β ;

2kλ

Ex = sin α and E y = 0

r

π

(ii) If wire is infinitely long i.e. l → ∞ so α = β = ;

2

2kλ λ

Ex = and E y = 0 ⇒ E net =

r 2π ε0 r

−λ

And V = 2π ε log e r + c

0

π

Long wire i.e. α = 0, and β =

2

kλ

Ex = E y =

r

2 kλ

⇒E net = E x2 + E y2 =

r

At point P

kQx kQ

E= ,V=

(x 2

+R )

2 3/ 2

x2 + R2

kQ

At centre x = 0 so Ecentre = 0 and Vcentre =

R

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 11

kQ kQ

At point on the axis such that x >>R E = 2

, V =

x x

R

If x = ±

2

Q Q

E max = and Vmax =

6 3π ε0 a 2

2 6π ε0

Graph

Some more results of line charge: If a thin plastic rod having charge density λ is

bent in the following shapes then electric field at P in different situations shown

in the following tatble.

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 12

Charged cylinder

(i) Non-conducting uniformly charged cylinder

(ii) Conducting charged cylinder

If point of observation (P) lies outside the cylinder then for both type of

cylindrical charge distribution

λ −λ

Eout = , and Vout = log e R + c

2πε0 r 2πε0

If point of observation lies at surface i.e. r =R so for both cylinder

λ −λ

E Surface = and Vsurface = log e R + c

2πε0 R 2πε0

If point of observation lies inside the cylinder then for conducting cylinder Ein = 0

λr

and for non-conducting Ein =

2π ε0 R 2

Graph

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 13

(A) For non-conducting cylinder

(B) For conducting cylinder

Charged conducting sphere (or shell of charge) : If charge on a conducting sphere

of radius R is Q (and σ =surface charge density) as shown in figure then electric

field and potential in different situation are

(i) Out side the sphere: If point P lies outside the sphere

1 Q σ R2

Euot = . =

4π ε0 r 2 ε 0 r 2

1 Q σ R2

And Vuot = . =

4πε0 r ε0 r

(Q = σ × A = σ × 4πR 2 )

(ii) At the surface of sphere: At surface r = R

1 Q σ

So, Es = . 2 =

4π ε0 R ε0

1 Q σR

And Vs = . =

4πε0 R ε0

(iii) Inside the sphere: Inside the conducting charge sphere electric field is zero

and potential remains constant every where and equals to the potential at the

surface.

Ein = 0 and Vin = constant = Vs

Graph

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 14

Uniformly charged non-conducting sphere: Suppose charge Q is uniformly

distributed in the volume of a non-conducting sphere of radius R as shown below

(i) Out side the sphere: If point P lies outside the sphere

1

Q 1 Q

Eout = . and Vout = .

4πε0 r 2 4πε0 r

If the sphere has uniform volume charge density

Q ρR 3 ρR 3

ρ= then Eout = and V =

3ε 0 r

out

4 3

πR 3ε 0 r 2

3

(ii) At the surface of sphere: At surface r = R

1 Q ρR 1 Q ρR

Es = . 2 = and Vs = . =

4π ε0 R 3ε 0 4πε0 R 3ε0

(iii) Inside the sphere: At a distance r from the centre

1 Qr ρr

Ein = . 3 = { Ein ∝r}

4π ε0 R 3ε 0

1 Q[3R 2 − r 2 ] ρ (3R 2 − r 2 )

And Vin = . =

4π ε0 2R 3 6ε 0

3 1 Q 3

At centre r = 0 so, Vcentre = 2 × 4πε . R = 2 Vs

0

Graph

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 15

i.e. Vcentre >Vsurface >Vout

Infinite thin plane of charge: Consider a thin infinite non-conducting plane having

uniform surface charge density is σ . Electric field and potential near the sheet

are as follows

σ σr

E=

2ε 0

( E ∝ r0 ) and V =

2ε 0

+C

Electric field due to two thin infinite plane parallel sheet of charge: Consider two

large, uniformly charged parallel. Plasts A and B, having surface charge densities

are σ A and σB respectively. Suppose net electric field at points P, Q and R is to

be calculated

1

At P, E P = −( E A + E B ) = − 2ε (σ A + σ B )

0

1

At Q, EQ = ( E A − E B ) = 2ε (σ A − σ B )

0

1

At R, E R = ( E A + E B ) = 2ε (σ A + σ B )

0

Special case

(i) If σ A + σ B = σ then E P = E R = σ / ε 0 and Eq = 0

(ii) If σ A = σ and σ B = −σ then E P = E R = 0 and EQ = σ / ε 0

Hemispherical charged body

σ σR

At centre O, E = 4ε , V =

2ε 0

0

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 16

Uniformly charged disc: At a distance x from centre O on it’s axis

E=

σ

1 −

2ε 0

x

x +R

2 2

V =

σ

2ε 0

[ x2 − R2 − x ]

σ

If x → 0, E ≈ 2ε i.e. for points situated near the disc, it behaves as an infinite

0

sheet of charge

Potential Due to Concentric Spheres

(1) If two concentric conducting shells of radii r1 and r2 (r2 > r1) carrying

uniformly distributed charges Q1 and Q2 respectively. Potential at the surface of

each shell

1 Q1 1 Q2

V1 = . + .

4π ε0 r1 4π ε0 r2

1 Q1 1 Q2

V2 = . + .

4π ε0 r2 4π ε0 r2

(2) The figure shows three conducting concentric shell of radii a, b and c (a < b <

c) having charges Qa , Qb and Qc respectively

Potential at A;

1 Qa Qb Qc

VA = a + b + c

4π ε0

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 17

Potential at B;

1 Qa Qb Qc

VB = + +

4π ε0 b b b

Potential at C;

Qa Qb Qc

1

VC = c + c + c

4π ε0

(3) The figure shows two concentric spheres having radii r1 and r2 respectively (r2

> r1). If charge on inner sphere is +Q and outer sphere is earthed then

1 Q 1 Q'

V2 = . + . =0

4πε0 r2 4πε0 r2

⇒Q ' =−Q

(ii) Potential of the inner sphere

V1 =

1 Q

+.

1

.

( −Q ) = Q 1 + 1

4πε0 r1 4πε0 r2 4πε0 r1 r2

(4) In the above case if outer sphere is given a charge +Q and inner sphere is

earthed then

(i) In this case potential at the surface of inner is zero, so if Q’ is the charge

induced on inner sphere

1 Q ' Q

Then V1 = + =0

4πε0 r1 r2

r1

i.e. Q ' = Q

r2

(ii) Potential a at the surface of outer sphere

1 Q' 1 Q

V2 = . + .

4πε0 r2 4πε0 r2

1 r1 Q r1

V1 = − Q + Q = 1 −

4π ε0 r2 4π ε0 r2 r2

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 18

Relation Between Electric Field and Potential

(1) In an electric field rate of charge of potential with distance is known as

potential gradient.

(2) Potential gradient is a vector quantity and it’s direction is opposite to that of

electric field.

(3) Potential gradient relates with electric field according to the following relation

dV volt

E =− ; This relation gives another unit of electric field is .

dr meter

(4) In the above relation negative sign indicates that in the direction of electric

field potential

decreases.

(5) Negative of the slope of the V-r graph denotes intensity of electric field i.e.

V

tan θ = = −E .

r

→ ^ ^ ^

(6) In space around a charge distribution we can also write

E = xiE + Ey j+ z kE .

∂V ∂V ∂V

where E x = − ∂ x , E y = − ∂ y and E Z = − ∂ z

dV

(7) With the help of formula E = − d r , potential difference between any two

points in an electric field can be determined by knowing the boundary conditions

2→ → 2

d V = −∫ E . dr = −∫ E.dr cos θ

1 1

Q. 5. A uniform electric field of 100 v/m is directed at 300 with +ve x-axis as shown in

figure. Find the potential difference VBA. If OA = 2m and OB = 4m.

Solution:

Here VA > VB & VB – VA will be –ve

d AB = OA cos 30 0 + OB sin 30 0

=2×

2

3 1

+4× =

2

( 3 +2 )

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 19

∴VB −V A = −E d AB

(

= −100 2 + 3 ).

Motion of charge particle in electric field

(1) When charged particle initially at rest is placed in the uniform field

Suppose a charge particle having charge Q and mass m is initially at rest in an

electric field of strength E. The particle will experience an electric force which

causes it’s motion.

(i) Force and acceleration: The force experienced by the charged particle is F =

QE.

F QE

Acceleration produced by this force is a = = .

m m

(ii) Velocity: Suppose at point A particle is at rest and in time t, it reaches the

point B where it’s velocity becomes v. Also if ∆V =Potential difference between

A and B, S = Separation between A and B

QEt 2 Q ∆V

⇒v = =

m m

QEt

(iii) Momentum: Momentum p = mv, p = m × =Q E t

m

2 Q ∆V

Or p =m × = 2 m Q ∆V

m

(iv) Kinetic energy: Kinetic energy gained by the particle in time t is

2

1 1 Q Et Q 2 E 2t 2

K= mv 2 = m =

2 2 m 2m

1 2QV

Or K = m × = Q ∆V

2 m

(v) Work done: According to work energy theorem we can say that gain in kinetic

energy = work due in displacement of charge i.e. W =Q ∆V

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 20

Where ∆V = Potential difference between the two position of charge Q. (

→ →

∆V = E .∆ r = E∆r cos θ where θ is angle between direction of electric field and

direction of motion of charge).

→ ^^^

If charge Q is given a displacement r = r1 + 2 + 3krjri in an electric field

→ ^ ^ ^

E = 1iE + E2 j+ 3kE . The work done is

→ →

W =QE . r =Q( E1 r1 + E 2 r2 + E3 r3 ) .

Work done in displacing a charge in an electric field is path independent.

(2) When a charged particle enters with an initial velocity at right angle to the

uniform field

When charged particle enters perpendicularly in an electric field, it describe a

parabolic path as shown

(i) Equation of trajectory: Throughout the motion particle has uniform velocity

along x-axis and horizontal displacement (x) is given by the equation x = ut

Since the motion of the particle is accelerated along y-axis

2

1 QE x

So y = ; this is the equation of parabola which shows y ∝x

2

2 m u

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 21

QEt

(ii) Velocity at any instant: At any instant t, vx = u and v y =

m

→ Q 2 E 2t 2

So v = v = v x2 + v y2 = u 2 +

m2

If β is the angle made by v with x-axis than

vy QEt

tan β = =

vx mu

Equilibrium of charges

Definition: A charge is said to be in equilibrium, if net force acting on it is zero.

A system of charges is said to be in equilibrium if each charge is separately in

equilibrium.

Type of equilibrium: Equilibrium can be divided in following type.

(i) Stable equilibrium: After displacing a charged particle from it’s equilibrium

position, if it returns back then it is said to be in stable equilibrium. If U is the

d2U

potential energy then in case of stable equilibrium is positive i.e. U is

d x2

minimum.

(ii) Unsatble equilibrium: After displacing a charged particle form it’s equilibrium

position, if it never returns back then it is said to be in unstable equilibrium and

d2U

in unstable equilibrium is negative i.e., U is maximum.

d x2

(iii) Neutral equilibrium: After displacing a charged particle form it’s equilibrium

position if it neither come back, nor moves away but remains in the position in

which it was kept it is said to be in neutral equilibrium and in neutral equilibrium

d2U

is zero i.e. U is constant.

d x2

Table: Different cases of equilibrium of charge

Suspended charges system of three collinear charge

mg

Freely suspended charge In equilibrium QE = mg ⇒ E = Q

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 22

In the following fig. three charge Q1, Q and Q2 are kept along a straight line,

charge Q will be in equilibrium if and only if | Force applied by charge Q1 | = |

Force applied by charge Q2|

Suspension of charge form string

Q1 Q2 = Q2 Q

x12 = x 22

2

Q x

⇒ 1 = 1

Q2 x2

This is necessary condition for Q to be in equilibrium. If all the three charges

(Q1, Q and Q2) are similar, Q will be in stable are similar while charge Q is of

different nature so Q will be in unstable equilibrium.

Time period of Oscillation of a charged Body

(1) Simple pendulum based: If a simple pendulum having length 1 and mass of bob

m oscillates about it’s mean position than it’s time period of oscillation

l

T = 2π

g

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 23

Case-1: If some charge say +Q is given to bob and an electric field E is applied

in the direction as shown in figure then equilibrium position of charged bob (point

charge) changes from O to O’.

On displacing the bob from it’s equilibrium position 0’. It will oscillate under the

effective acceleration g’. where

mg ' = ( mg ) 2 + ( QE ) 2 ⇒g'= g 2 + ( QE / m )

2

l l

T1 = 2π = 2π

g' ( g + (QE / m 2 ) )1/ 2

2

Case-2: If electric field is applied in the downward direction then.

Effective acceleration

g’ = g + QE / m

So new time period

l

T2 = 2π

g + ( QE / m )

T2 < T

acceleration.

g’ = g + QE / m

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 24

So new time period

l

T3 = 2π T3 > T

g + ( QE / m )

4π ε0 mR 3

T = 2π

A neutral point is a point where resultant electrical field is zero.

(1) Neutral point Due to a system of two liked point charge: For this case neutral

point is obtained at an internal point along the line joining two like charge.

from Q2 then

At N | E.F. due to Q1 | = | E.F. due to Q2|

2

1 Q1 1 Q2 Q x

i.e. . 2 = . 2 ⇒ 1 = 1

4π ε0 x1 4π ε0 x 2 Q2 x2

x x

Short Trick: x1 = Q / Q + 1 and x2 =

Q1 / Q2 + 1

2 1

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 25

(2) Neutral point due to a system of two unlike point charge: For this condition

neutral point lies at an external point along the line joining two unlike charges.

Suppose two unlike charge Q1 and Q2 separated by a distance x from each other.

Here neutral point lies outside the line joining two unlike charges and also it lies

nearer to charge which is smaller in magnitude.

If |Q1| < |Q2| then neutral point will be obtained on the side of Q1, suppose it is

at a distance l form Q1 so

x

l=

Q2 / Q1 −1

(3) Zero potential due to a system of two point charge

(i) If bothe charges are like then resultant potential is not zero at any finite

point.

(ii) If the charges are unequal and unlike then all such points where resultant

potential is zero lies on a closed curve.

(iii) A long the line joining the two charge, two such points exits, one lies inside

and one lies outside the charges on the line joining the charges. Both the above

points lie nearer the smaller charge.

For internal point

(it is assumed that |Q1| < |Q2| )

Q1 Q2

At P, =

x1 ( x − x1 )

x

⇒ x1 =

( Q2 / Q1 + 1)

For external point

Q1 Q2

At P, =

x1 ( x + x1 )

x

⇒ x1 =

( Q2 / Q1 −1)

Electric potential Energy

(1) Work done in brining the given charge from infinity to a point in the electric

field is known as potential energy of the charge. Potential can also be written as

W U

potential energy per unit charge i.e. V = Q = Q

(2) Potential energy of a system of two charge

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 26

Potential energy of Q1 = Potential energy of Q2 = potential energy of system

U =k 1 2

r

In C.G.S U = 1 2

r

k n Q1Q2 1

It is given by U = ∑ k =

π

2 i, j r 4 0 ε

i≠ j

The factor of ½ is applied only with the summation sign because on expanding the

summation each pair is counted twice:

For a system of 3 charges

Q Q QQ QQ

U = k 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3

r12 r23 r13

(4) Work energy relation: If a charge moves from one position to another position

in an electric field so it’s potential energy change and work done by external force

for this change is W = Uf - Ui

(5) Electron volt (eV): It is the smaller practical unit of energy used in atomic and

nuclear physics. As electron volt is defined as “the energy acquired by a particle

having one quantum of charge (le), when accelerated 1 volt”

1j

i.e. leV =1.6 ×10 −19 C × =1.6 ×10 −19 J =1.6 ×10 −12

C

(6) Electric potential energy of a uniformly charged sphere: Consider a uniformly

charged sphere of radius R having a total charge Q. The electric potential energy

of this sphere is equal to the work done in bringing the charges from infinity to

3Q 2

assemble the sphere. U =

20 πε0 R

(7) Electric potential energy of a uniformly charged thin spherical shell: It is given

Q2

by the following formula U =

8πε0 R

(8) Energy density: The energy stored per unit volume around a point in an electric

U 1

field is given by U e = = ε 0 E 2 . If in place of vacuum some medium is

Volume 2

1

present then U e = ε0εr E

2

2

Force Charged Conductor:

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 27

To find force on a charged conductor (due to repulsion of like charges) imagine a

small part XY to be cut and just separated from the rest of the conductor MLN.

The field in the cavity due to the rest of the conductor is E2, while field due to

small part is E1. Then

σ σ

Outside the conductor E = E1 + E2 = ε Thus E1 = E2 = 2ε

0 0

(1) To find force, imagine charged part XY (having charge σ d A placed in the

cavity MN having field E2).

σ2

Thus force dF = (σ d A) E 2 or dF = dA . The force per unit area or electrostatic

2ε 0

dF σ 2

pressure p = .

dA 2ε 0

(2) The force is always outwards as ( ± σ ) is positive i.e. whether charged

2

positively or negatively, this force will try to expand the charged body. [A soap

bubble or rubber balloon expands on charging to it (charge of any kind + or –)

Equilibrium of Charged Soap Bubble

(1) For a charged soap bubble of radius R and surface tension T and charge

T

density σ . The pressure due to surface tension 4 and atmospheric pressure

R

Pout act radially inwards and the electrical pressure (Pel) acts radially outward.

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 28

4T σ 2

(2) The total pressure inside the soap bubble Pin = Pout + −

R 2ε 0

4T σ 2

(3) Excess pressure inside the charged soap bubble Pin − Pout = Pexcess = −

R 2ε 0

(4) If air pressure in inside and outside are assumed equal then

Pin = Pout i.e. Pexcess = 0,

4T σ 2

So, + −

R 2ε0

4T σ 2 8ε 0T 2T

(i) Charge density: Since − ⇒σ = =

R 2ε 0 R πkR

8ε 0T

(ii) Radius of bubble R =

σ2

σ 2R

(iii) Surface tension T =

8ε 0

(iv) Total charge on the bubble Q =8πR 2ε0T R

8T 32 π k T

(v) Electric field intensity at the surface of the bubble E = ε R =

0 R

8 RT

(vi) Electric potential at the surface V = 32 πRTk = ε0

Electric Dipole:

System of two equal and opposite charges separated by a small fixed distance is

called a dipole.

(1) Dipole moment: It is a vector quantity and is directed from negative charged

→

to positive charge along the axis. It is denoted as p and is defined as the

product of the magnitude of either of the charge and the dipole length i.e.

→

→

p = q2 l . Its S.I. unit is coulomb-meter of Debye (1 Debye = 3.3 x 10-30C

x m) and its dimension are M0L1T1A1.

(2) When a dielectric is placed in an electric field, its atoms or molecules are

considered as tiny dipoles.

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 29

Water (H2O), Chloroform (CHCl3), Ammonia (NH3), HCl, CO molecules are same

example of permanent electric dipole.

(3) Electric field and potential due to an electrical dipole: If a, e and g are three

points on axial, equatorial and general position at a distance r form the centre of

dipole.

1 2p

(i) At axial point: Electric field and potential are given as E 0 = 4π ε . r 3 (directed

0

form –q to +q)

1 2p → →

Va = . . Angle between E a and p is 00.

4π ε0 r 2

1 2p

(ii) At equatorial point: E 0 = 4π ε . r 3 (directed form +q to –q) and Ve = 0. Angle

0

→ →

between E e and p is 1800.

p cos θ

1

(iii) At general point: E g = 4π ε . r 3

2p

(3 cos

θ + 1) and V g =

2 1

4π ε0

. . Angle

0 r2

→ → 1

between Ee and p is (θ + α ) (where tan α = 2 tan θ )

(4) Dipole in an external electric field: When a dipole is kept in an uniform

electric field. The net force experienced by dipole is zero as shown in figure.

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 30

The net torque experienced by the dipole is τ = pE sin θ , .

Hence due to torque so produced, dipole align itself in the direction of electric

field. This is the position of stable equilibrium of dipole.

(i) Work done in rotation: Suppose initially, dipole is kept in a uniform electric

field at an angle θ1 . Now to turn it through an angle θ2 (with the field). Work

done W = pE ( cosθ 1 − cosθ 2 ) .

If θ 1 = 0 and θ 2 = θ i.e. initially dipole is kept along the field then it turn through

0

(ii) Potential energy of dipole: It is defined as work done in rotating a dipole from

a direction perpendicular to the field to the given direction, i.e. form above

formula of work.

If θ 1 = 90 and θ 2 = θ ⇒ W = U = − pE cosθ

0

θ = 00 θ = 90 0 θ = 1800

Stable equilibrium Not in equilibrium un stable equilibrium

τ =0 τ max = pE τ =0

W = 0 W = pE Wmax = 2pE

Umin=-pE U = 0 Umax= pE

(iii) Equilibrium of dipole: When θ = 0 0 i.e. dipole is placed along the electric field

it is said to be in stable equilibrium, because after turning it through a small

angle, dipole tries to align itself again in the direction of electric field.

When θ = 180 0 i.e. dipole is placed opposite to electric field, it is said to be in

unstable equilibrium.

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 31

(iv) Oscillation of dipole: In a uniform electric field if a dipole is slightly displaced

from it’s stable equilibrium position it executes angular SHM having period of

oscillation.

1

T = 2π

pE

where 1 = moment of inertial of dipole about the axis passing through

it’s centre and perpendicular to it’s length.

(5) Electric dipole in non-uniform electric field: In non-uniform electric field

Fnet ≠ 0, τ net ≠ 0

1 6 p1 p 2 1 2 p1 p 2

. .

4π ε0 r4 4π ε0 r3

(attractive)

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 32

1 3 p1 p 2

.

4π ε0 r4

1 3 p1 p 2

.

4π ε0 r3

1 3 p1 p 2

.

4π ε0 r3

(perpendicular)

Important Points

∗ With rise in temperature dielectric constant of liquid decreses.

∗ Two point charges separated by a distance r in vaccum and a force F acting

between them. After filling a dielectric medium having dielectric constant K

completely between the charges, force between them decreases. To maintain the

force before separation between them has to be changed to r k . This distance

known as effective air separaton.

∗ For ta short dipole, electric field intensity at a point on the axial line is double

the electric field intensity at a point on the equatorial line of electric dipole i.e.

E axial = 2 E equatorial .

∗ Ratio of gravitational force and electrostatic force between

(i) Two electrons is 10-43/1.

(ii) Two protons 10-39/1

∗ At the centre of the line joining two equal and opposite charge V = 0 but E ≠ 0 .

∗ Electric field intensity and electric potential due to a point charge q, at a

distance t1 + t2 where t1 is thickness of medium of dielectric constant K1 and t2 is

thickness of medium of dielectric constant K2 are:

1 Q 1 Q

E= V =

(

4π ε0 t K + t K

1 2 2 ) 2 ;

(

4π ε0 t K + t K

1 2 2 ) 2

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 33

∗ If an electron (charge and mass m) is moving on a circular path of radius r about

a positively charge infinitely long linear charge, (charge density λ ) then the

eλ

velocity of electron in dynamic equilibrium will be v =

2 πε0 m

∗ A metal plate is charged uniformly with a surface charge density σ . An electron

of energy W is fired towards the charged metal plate from a distance d, then for

Wε 0

no collision of electron with plate d = .

eσ

∗ Newton’s third law is inapplicable in certain cases with reference to electrostatic

or electrodynamics. For instance, if a charge q1 is placed inside a conducting shell

while charge q2 is outside the shell as shown, then the force of q1 on q2 ≠ 0 while

force of q2 and q1 is zero.

Questions:

Q. 1. (a) Two similar point charges q1 and q2 are placed at a distance r apart in air. If

a dielectric slab of thickness t and dielectric constant K is put between the

charges. Calculate the coulomb force of Repulsion.

(b) If the thickness of the slab covers half the distance between the charges the

coulumb Repulsive force is reduced in the ratio 4 : 9. Calculate the dielectric

constant of slab?

1 q1 q 2

Ans: a) 4π ε b) 4

(

0 r −t +t K ) 2

where λ0 is a constant φ is the azimuthal angle. Find the magnitude of the

electric field strength on the axis of the ring as a function of the distance x form

its centre. Investigate the obtained function at x >>R.

λ0 R 2

(

4ε 0 x 2 + R 2 )

3/ 2

1

E≈ where P = πR 2 λ0

4π ε0

Q. 3. Four point particles, each of mass m and charge q are initially held in a plane at

the four corners of the square of side l0. If the particle are simultaneously

released they fly apart. Determine the velocity and acc. of each particle as it

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 34

moves away. What will be the final velocity of each particle as they separated

infinitely apart?

Q2 1 1

Ans: a= 2

+ 2

4π ε0 m 2 r 2

V2 =

( )

Q 1+ 2 2 1 1

2

− and V2 =

(

Q2 1+ 2 2 )

8π ε0 m r0 r 8π ε0 mr0

Q. 4. Figure shows a charged rod, bent in the form of an arc of a circle. The charge

distribution on the rod is shown in the figure the assembly is kept in a uniform

electric-field. Show that for small angular displacement the system will perform

S.H.M. Determine i + s –period.

m

Ans: T =

λ sin 2 θ0 E

Passage -1:

The imaging drum of a photocopier is +vely charged to attract –vely charged

particles of toner. Near the surface of the drum. Its electric field has magnitude

1.4 x 105N /C. A toner particles is to be attached to the drum with a force that

is 10 times the weight of the particle. Assume toner particles are made of carbon

12C.

1. Find charge to mass ratio of the charged toner particle?

a) 7 x 10-4c/kg b) 7 x 10-3c/kgc) 7 x 10-5c/kg d) 7 x 10-6c/kg

2. Find the number of carbon atoms that for each excess electron on a toner

particles?

a) 1.15 x 108 b) 1.15 x 107 c) 1.15 x 109 d) 1.15 x 1010

Passage-2

A region in space contains a total +ve charge Q that is distributed spherically

R

such that the volume charge density δ ( r ) = α for r ≤

2

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 35

r R

δ ( r ) = 2α1 − for ≤ r ≤R

R 2

Where α is a +ve constant f(r) = 0 for r ≥ R

R

1. What fraction of total charge is constained in the region r ≥ ?

2

a) 4/ 15 b) 8 /15 c) 7 / 15 d) None

2. If an electron is placed at the centre and slightly displaced it will execute S.H.M.

R

find the time period of oscillation assuming x <

2

ε0π mR 3 15 ε0π mR 3 7ε 0π mR 3

a) 2π b) 2π c) 2π d) None

8Q e 8Q e 8Q e

R

3. The electric-field in a region < r < R is

2

αR 3 2α r r αR 3 2α r r

a) + 1 − b) + 1 −

24 r ε 0

2

3ε 0 R 8 r ε0

2

6ε0 R

αR 3 2α r r

c) + 1 − d) None of these

16 r ε 0

2

3ε 0 R

Multiple Matching

1. Match Column-I with Column-II

Column-I Column-I

I

B) Force between a proton and a neutron inside Q) Strong force

C) Force between a proton and proton inside R) Coulomb force

D) Conservative force S) Electric force

Ans: (A-P, R, S) (B – P) (C – P, Q, R, S) (D - P, Q, R, S)

Column-I Column-I

I

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 36

A) Electric field due to a dipole at any point P) Zero

B) Electric field between the plates of a capacitor Q) αx −3

C) Electric field due to a long charged plate R) αd , the distance

between the plates

D) Electric field due to a ring at its centre S) Independent of

distance

Ans: (A-Q) (B – S) (C –S) (D - P)

Flat No.301, Rukkus & Yellus Arcade, Fever Hospital Road, Barkathpura, Hyd-500065. 37

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