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Topic : Electric Field &


Mohammed Potential
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Coulomb’s Law For IIT-JEE

Coulomb’s Law
If two stationary and point charge Q1 and Q2 are kept at a distance r, then it is
found that force at attraction or repulsion between them is

Q1Q2 kQ Q
F∝ 2
i.e. F = 12 2
r r
(k = Proportionality constant)
Q1 Q2
In C.G.S. (for air) k = 1, F = Dyne
r2
In S.I. (for air)
1 Q1 Q2
⇒F = . Newton (1 Newton = 105 Dyne)
4π ε0 r 2
ε0 = Absolute permittivity of air of free space
C2  Farad 
= 8.85 ×10 −12 =  . It’s i
N − m2  m 
dimensional formula is [M-1 L-3T4A2]
Vector form of coulomb’s law :
vector from of Coulomb’s law is

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→ Q1Q2 → Q1 Q2 ^ ^
F1 2= K 3 r1 2= K. 2 r1 ,2 w h r1e 2 ris ethe unit vector from first charge to second charge
r r
along the line joining the two charges.

Effect of Medium:

When a dielectric medium is completely filled in between charges rearrangement of


the charges inside the dielectric medium takes place and the force between the
same two charges decreases by a factor of K(dielectric constant)
F 1 Q Q
i.e. Fmedium = air = . 12 2
K 4π ε0 K r
(Here ε 0 K = ε 0ε r = ε = permittivity of medium)
If a dielectric medium (dielectric constant K, thickness) is partially filled between
the charges then effective air separation between the charges becomes
(r −t +t K )

1 Q1 Q2
Hence force F = 4π ε K .
0 (
r −t +t K ) 2

Principle of superposition:
According to the principle of super position, total force acting on a given charge
due to number
of charges is the vector sum of the individual forces acting on that charge due to
all the charges

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Net force on Q will be
→ → → → →
Fnet = F1 + F2 +.......... + Fn−1 + Fn
The magnitude of the resultant of two electric forces is given by

Fnet = F12 + F22 + 2 F1 F2 cos θ
F2 sin θ
And tan α =
F1 + F2 cos θ

For problem solving remember following standard results.

Q.1. Two identical charged spheres are suspended by string of equal length. The string
make an angle of 300 with each other. When suspended in a liquid of density 800
kg/m3. The angle remains the same. What is the dielectric constant of the liquid?
The density of the material of the sphere is 1600kg /m3.
Solution:

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Let T, T’ be the tensions in the string when spheres are in air and in liquid
respectively.

T sin θ = F T ' sin θ = F '


T cos θ = mg B +T ' cos θ = mg
⇒ F = mg tan θ
⇒ F ' = ( mg − B ) tan θ
F = electrostatic repulsion in ari
q2
F=
4π ε0 a 2
In liquid this force is F’ and is given as
q2
F= where k is a dielectric constant
4π ε0 ka 2
F
⇒F '= form force diagram
K
F mg
=
F' mg − B where B is Buoyant Force
V dg d 1600
⇒K = = = =2
V dg −Vfg d−f 1600 − 800

Q. 2. A ring has charge Q and Radius R. If a charge q is placed at its centre then
calculate the increase in tension in the ring?
Solution:
Consider a small element A. B θ is very small then AB = R (2 θ ).
Q Qθ
Charge on AB is dQ = 2π R ( 2 Rθ ) = π
dQ.q Qq θ
2T sin θ = =
4π ε0 R 2
4π ε0 R 2

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Qq θ Qq
2T θ = 8T =
4π 2 ε 0 R 2 8π 2 ε 0 R 2
Electric Field
The interaction between two charges is visualized in terms of the electric field
concept. A charge produces and electric field around itself. This field then exerts
force on the other charge. Thus, interaction between two charge is a two step
process.

Electric field intensity (E):


→ →
→ F → F
E= E = Lim
q0 q0 →0 q
0

Unit and Dimensional formula


Newton volt Joule
It’s S.I. unit - coulomb = meter = coulomb × meter
And C.G.S. unit-Dyne / stat coulomb.
Dimension: [E] = [MLT-3A-1]
Direction of electric field:

Electric field (intensity) E is a vector quantity. Electric field due to a positive
charge is always away from the charge and that due to a negative charge is
always towards the charge.
Relation between electric force and electric field:
→ → →
In an electric field E a charge (Q) experiences a force F = Q E . If charge is
positive then force is directed in the direction of field while if charge is negative
force acts on it in the opposite direction of field

Super position of electric field:

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→ → → →
E = E1 + E 2 + E3 + .......... ...

Electric field due to continuous distribution of charge: E = ∫dE

Q. 3. A cube of edge a meters carries a point charge q at each other. Calculate the
resultant force on
any one of the charges.
Solution:
Let us take one corner of cube as origin O(0, 0, 0) and the opposite corner as
P(a, a, a) we will
Calculate the electric field at P due to the other seven charges at corners.

Let us take one corner of cube as origin O(0, 0, 0) and the opposite corner as
P(a, a, a). We will
calculate the electric field at P due to the other seven charges at corners.
Expressing the field of a point charge in vector form.
→ q ^
E= .r
4π 0 rε3
(i) Field at P due to A, B, C
→ q → → →
E1 = AP + BP + CP 
4π ε0 a 3  

q  ^ ^ ^
= 3  ia + ja + ka 
4π 0 a   ε
(ii) Field at P due to D, E, F
DP = EP = FP = aV2
→ q  → → →

E2 = DP + EP + FP
(
3 
4π ε0 a 2  ) 

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q       ^^ ^^ ^^
= 3ai+ k aj++ + ai k
4π 0a     
q  ^ ^ ^
= 2  i+ j+ k 
4π 0 2 a   ε
(iii) Field at P due to O
OP = aV3
→ q →
E3 = . OP
4π ε0 a 3 a
3
( )

q  ^ ^ ^
= 3  ia + a j+ ak
()
4π 0 3 3 a   ε

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→ q  ^ ^ ^
E3 = 2  i + j + k 
( )
4π 0 3 3 a  
Resultant field at P
ε
→ → → →
E = E1 + E 2 + E 3

 
^^^
→ iq j++ k
E =   1+ 1 + 1  out ward along OP

2 
4π 0 a  2 3 3 ε
Electric Potential Definition :
Potential at a point in a field is defined as the amount of work done in bringing a
unit positive test charge, from infinity to that along any arbitrary path (infinity is
point of zero potential). Electric potential is scalar quantity, it is denoted by
W
V;V =
q0
Unit and dimensional formula
Joule
S.I. unit : = volt
Coulomb
1
C. G. S. unit: Stat volt (e.s.u) 1volt = Stat volt
300
Dimension : [V] = [ML2T-3A-1]
Types of electric potential:
According to te nature of charge potential is of two types
(i) Positive potential : Due to positive charge
(ii) Negative potential : Due to negative charge
Potential of a system of point charges:

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V =k
Q1 Q Q
+k 2 +k 3 +k
( − Q4 ) + .......... ..
r1 r2 r3 r4
X
kQ1
In general V = ∑
i =1 r1

Electric potential due to a continuous charge distribution


dQ
V = ∫d V , = ∫
4πε0 r
Graphical representation of potential: As we move on the line joining two charges
then variation of potential with distance is shown below

Potential difference: In an electric field potential difference between two points


A and B is defined as equal to the amount of work done (by external agent) in
moving a unit positive charge form point A to point B
W
i.e., V B −V A = q
0

Q. 4. A charge q =10 µC is distributed uniformly over the circumference of a ring of


radius 3m placed on X-Y plane with its centre at origin. Find the electric potential
at a point P(0, 0, 4m)
Solution:
The electric potential at P

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1 q
V = r0 = 3 2 + 4 2 = 5m
4π ε0 r0
9 ×10 9 ×10 −5
V = = 1.8 ×10 4 volt .
5
Electric Field and Potential Due to Various charge Distribution
Point charge: Electric field and potential at point P due to a point Q is

Q → Q ^ 1  Q
E = k 2 o r E = k 2 r k =  , V = k
r r  4π 0  ε r
Graph

Line charge: Electric field and potential due to a charged straight conducing wire
of length l and charge density λ


Ex = ( sin α + sin β )
r

And E y = ( cos β − cos α )
r

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λ  r2 +l2 −l 
V = log e  
2π ε0  r 2 + l 2 + l 
(i) If point P lies at perpendicular bisector of wire i.e. α = β ;
2kλ
Ex = sin α and E y = 0
r
π
(ii) If wire is infinitely long i.e. l → ∞ so α = β = ;
2
2kλ λ
Ex = and E y = 0 ⇒ E net =
r 2π ε0 r
−λ
And V = 2π ε log e r + c
0

(iii) If point P lies near one end of infinitely


π
Long wire i.e. α = 0, and β =
2

Ex = E y =
r
2 kλ
⇒E net = E x2 + E y2 =
r

Charged circular ring:


At point P
kQx kQ
E= ,V=
(x 2
+R )
2 3/ 2
x2 + R2

kQ
At centre x = 0 so Ecentre = 0 and Vcentre =
R

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kQ kQ
At point on the axis such that x >>R E = 2
, V =
x x
R
If x = ±
2
Q Q
E max = and Vmax =
6 3π ε0 a 2
2 6π ε0
Graph

Some more results of line charge: If a thin plastic rod having charge density λ is
bent in the following shapes then electric field at P in different situations shown
in the following tatble.

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Charged cylinder
(i) Non-conducting uniformly charged cylinder
(ii) Conducting charged cylinder

If point of observation (P) lies outside the cylinder then for both type of
cylindrical charge distribution
λ −λ
Eout = , and Vout = log e R + c
2πε0 r 2πε0
If point of observation lies at surface i.e. r =R so for both cylinder
λ −λ
E Surface = and Vsurface = log e R + c
2πε0 R 2πε0
If point of observation lies inside the cylinder then for conducting cylinder Ein = 0
λr
and for non-conducting Ein =
2π ε0 R 2
Graph

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(A) For non-conducting cylinder
(B) For conducting cylinder
Charged conducting sphere (or shell of charge) : If charge on a conducting sphere
of radius R is Q (and σ =surface charge density) as shown in figure then electric
field and potential in different situation are

(i) Out side the sphere: If point P lies outside the sphere
1 Q σ R2
Euot = . =
4π ε0 r 2 ε 0 r 2
1 Q σ R2
And Vuot = . =
4πε0 r ε0 r
(Q = σ × A = σ × 4πR 2 )
(ii) At the surface of sphere: At surface r = R
1 Q σ
So, Es = . 2 =
4π ε0 R ε0
1 Q σR
And Vs = . =
4πε0 R ε0
(iii) Inside the sphere: Inside the conducting charge sphere electric field is zero
and potential remains constant every where and equals to the potential at the
surface.
Ein = 0 and Vin = constant = Vs

Graph

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Uniformly charged non-conducting sphere: Suppose charge Q is uniformly
distributed in the volume of a non-conducting sphere of radius R as shown below

(i) Out side the sphere: If point P lies outside the sphere
1
Q 1 Q
Eout = . and Vout = .
4πε0 r 2 4πε0 r
If the sphere has uniform volume charge density
Q ρR 3 ρR 3
ρ= then Eout = and V =
3ε 0 r
out
4 3
πR 3ε 0 r 2
3
(ii) At the surface of sphere: At surface r = R
1 Q ρR 1 Q ρR
Es = . 2 = and Vs = . =
4π ε0 R 3ε 0 4πε0 R 3ε0
(iii) Inside the sphere: At a distance r from the centre
1 Qr ρr
Ein = . 3 = { Ein ∝r}
4π ε0 R 3ε 0
1 Q[3R 2 − r 2 ] ρ (3R 2 − r 2 )
And Vin = . =
4π ε0 2R 3 6ε 0
3 1 Q 3
At centre r = 0 so, Vcentre = 2 × 4πε . R = 2 Vs
0

Graph

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i.e. Vcentre >Vsurface >Vout
Infinite thin plane of charge: Consider a thin infinite non-conducting plane having
uniform surface charge density is σ . Electric field and potential near the sheet
are as follows
σ σr
E=
2ε 0
( E ∝ r0 ) and V =
2ε 0
+C

Electric field due to two thin infinite plane parallel sheet of charge: Consider two
large, uniformly charged parallel. Plasts A and B, having surface charge densities
are σ A and σB respectively. Suppose net electric field at points P, Q and R is to
be calculated

1
At P, E P = −( E A + E B ) = − 2ε (σ A + σ B )
0

1
At Q, EQ = ( E A − E B ) = 2ε (σ A − σ B )
0

1
At R, E R = ( E A + E B ) = 2ε (σ A + σ B )
0

Special case
(i) If σ A + σ B = σ then E P = E R = σ / ε 0 and Eq = 0
(ii) If σ A = σ and σ B = −σ then E P = E R = 0 and EQ = σ / ε 0
Hemispherical charged body
σ σR
At centre O, E = 4ε , V =
2ε 0
0

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Uniformly charged disc: At a distance x from centre O on it’s axis
E=
σ 
1 −
2ε 0 
x
x +R 
2 2

 V =
σ
2ε 0
[ x2 − R2 − x ]

σ
If x → 0, E ≈ 2ε i.e. for points situated near the disc, it behaves as an infinite
0

sheet of charge
Potential Due to Concentric Spheres
(1) If two concentric conducting shells of radii r1 and r2 (r2 > r1) carrying
uniformly distributed charges Q1 and Q2 respectively. Potential at the surface of
each shell

1 Q1 1 Q2
V1 = . + .
4π ε0 r1 4π ε0 r2
1 Q1 1 Q2
V2 = . + .
4π ε0 r2 4π ε0 r2
(2) The figure shows three conducting concentric shell of radii a, b and c (a < b <
c) having charges Qa , Qb and Qc respectively

Potential at A;
1  Qa Qb Qc 
VA =  a + b + c 
4π ε0  

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Potential at B;
1  Qa Qb Qc 
VB = + + 
4π ε0  b b b 
Potential at C;
 Qa Qb Qc 
1
VC =  c + c + c 
4π ε0
 
(3) The figure shows two concentric spheres having radii r1 and r2 respectively (r2
> r1). If charge on inner sphere is +Q and outer sphere is earthed then

(i) Potential at the surface of outer sphere


1 Q 1 Q'
V2 = . + . =0
4πε0 r2 4πε0 r2
⇒Q ' =−Q
(ii) Potential of the inner sphere
V1 =
1 Q
+.
1
.
( −Q ) = Q  1 + 1 
 
4πε0 r1 4πε0 r2 4πε0 r1 r2 
(4) In the above case if outer sphere is given a charge +Q and inner sphere is
earthed then
(i) In this case potential at the surface of inner is zero, so if Q’ is the charge
induced on inner sphere
1 Q ' Q 
Then V1 =  +  =0
4πε0  r1 r2 
r1
i.e. Q ' = Q
r2

(Charge on inner sphere is less than that of the outer sphere).


(ii) Potential a at the surface of outer sphere
1 Q' 1 Q
V2 = . + .
4πε0 r2 4πε0 r2
1  r1  Q  r1 
V1 = − Q + Q  = 1 − 
4π ε0  r2  4π ε0 r2  r2 

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Relation Between Electric Field and Potential
(1) In an electric field rate of charge of potential with distance is known as
potential gradient.
(2) Potential gradient is a vector quantity and it’s direction is opposite to that of
electric field.
(3) Potential gradient relates with electric field according to the following relation
dV volt
E =− ; This relation gives another unit of electric field is .
dr meter
(4) In the above relation negative sign indicates that in the direction of electric
field potential
decreases.
(5) Negative of the slope of the V-r graph denotes intensity of electric field i.e.
V
tan θ = = −E .
r

→ ^ ^ ^
(6) In space around a charge distribution we can also write
E = xiE + Ey j+ z kE .

∂V ∂V ∂V
where E x = − ∂ x , E y = − ∂ y and E Z = − ∂ z
dV
(7) With the help of formula E = − d r , potential difference between any two
points in an electric field can be determined by knowing the boundary conditions
2→ → 2
d V = −∫ E . dr = −∫ E.dr cos θ
1 1

Q. 5. A uniform electric field of 100 v/m is directed at 300 with +ve x-axis as shown in
figure. Find the potential difference VBA. If OA = 2m and OB = 4m.
Solution:
Here VA > VB & VB – VA will be –ve
d AB = OA cos 30 0 + OB sin 30 0

=2×
2
3 1
+4× =
2
( 3 +2 )

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∴VB −V A = −E d AB
(
= −100 2 + 3 ).
Motion of charge particle in electric field
(1) When charged particle initially at rest is placed in the uniform field
Suppose a charge particle having charge Q and mass m is initially at rest in an
electric field of strength E. The particle will experience an electric force which
causes it’s motion.
(i) Force and acceleration: The force experienced by the charged particle is F =
QE.
F QE
Acceleration produced by this force is a = = .
m m
(ii) Velocity: Suppose at point A particle is at rest and in time t, it reaches the
point B where it’s velocity becomes v. Also if ∆V =Potential difference between
A and B, S = Separation between A and B
QEt 2 Q ∆V
⇒v = =
m m

QEt
(iii) Momentum: Momentum p = mv, p = m × =Q E t
m
2 Q ∆V
Or p =m × = 2 m Q ∆V
m
(iv) Kinetic energy: Kinetic energy gained by the particle in time t is
2
1 1 Q Et  Q 2 E 2t 2
K= mv 2 = m  =
2 2  m  2m
1 2QV
Or K = m × = Q ∆V
2 m
(v) Work done: According to work energy theorem we can say that gain in kinetic
energy = work due in displacement of charge i.e. W =Q ∆V

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Where ∆V = Potential difference between the two position of charge Q. (
→ →
∆V = E .∆ r = E∆r cos θ where θ is angle between direction of electric field and
direction of motion of charge).

 
→ ^^^
If charge Q is given a displacement r =  r1 + 2 + 3krjri  in an electric field

 
 
→ ^ ^ ^
E =  1iE + E2 j+ 3kE  . The work done is
 → →
W =QE . r  =Q( E1 r1 + E 2 r2 + E3 r3 ) .
 

 
Work done in displacing a charge in an electric field is path independent.

(2) When a charged particle enters with an initial velocity at right angle to the
uniform field
When charged particle enters perpendicularly in an electric field, it describe a
parabolic path as shown
(i) Equation of trajectory: Throughout the motion particle has uniform velocity
along x-axis and horizontal displacement (x) is given by the equation x = ut
Since the motion of the particle is accelerated along y-axis

2
1  QE  x 
So y =    ; this is the equation of parabola which shows y ∝x
2

2  m  u 

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QEt
(ii) Velocity at any instant: At any instant t, vx = u and v y =
m
→ Q 2 E 2t 2
So v = v = v x2 + v y2 = u 2 +
m2
If β is the angle made by v with x-axis than
vy QEt
tan β = =
vx mu

Equilibrium of charges
Definition: A charge is said to be in equilibrium, if net force acting on it is zero.
A system of charges is said to be in equilibrium if each charge is separately in
equilibrium.
Type of equilibrium: Equilibrium can be divided in following type.
(i) Stable equilibrium: After displacing a charged particle from it’s equilibrium
position, if it returns back then it is said to be in stable equilibrium. If U is the
d2U
potential energy then in case of stable equilibrium is positive i.e. U is
d x2
minimum.
(ii) Unsatble equilibrium: After displacing a charged particle form it’s equilibrium
position, if it never returns back then it is said to be in unstable equilibrium and
d2U
in unstable equilibrium is negative i.e., U is maximum.
d x2
(iii) Neutral equilibrium: After displacing a charged particle form it’s equilibrium
position if it neither come back, nor moves away but remains in the position in
which it was kept it is said to be in neutral equilibrium and in neutral equilibrium
d2U
is zero i.e. U is constant.
d x2
Table: Different cases of equilibrium of charge
Suspended charges system of three collinear charge
mg
Freely suspended charge In equilibrium QE = mg ⇒ E = Q

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In the following fig. three charge Q1, Q and Q2 are kept along a straight line,
charge Q will be in equilibrium if and only if | Force applied by charge Q1 | = |
Force applied by charge Q2|
Suspension of charge form string

Q1 Q2 = Q2 Q
x12 = x 22
2
Q x 
⇒ 1 =  1 
Q2  x2 
This is necessary condition for Q to be in equilibrium. If all the three charges
(Q1, Q and Q2) are similar, Q will be in stable are similar while charge Q is of
different nature so Q will be in unstable equilibrium.
Time period of Oscillation of a charged Body
(1) Simple pendulum based: If a simple pendulum having length 1 and mass of bob
m oscillates about it’s mean position than it’s time period of oscillation
l
T = 2π
g

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Case-1: If some charge say +Q is given to bob and an electric field E is applied
in the direction as shown in figure then equilibrium position of charged bob (point
charge) changes from O to O’.

On displacing the bob from it’s equilibrium position 0’. It will oscillate under the
effective acceleration g’. where
mg ' = ( mg ) 2 + ( QE ) 2 ⇒g'= g 2 + ( QE / m )
2

Hence the new time period is


l l
T1 = 2π = 2π
g' ( g + (QE / m 2 ) )1/ 2
2

Since g’ > g, so T1 < T i.e. time period of pendulum will decrease.


Case-2: If electric field is applied in the downward direction then.
Effective acceleration
g’ = g + QE / m
So new time period
l
T2 = 2π
g + ( QE / m )
T2 < T

Case-3: In case 2 if electric field is applied in upward direction then, effective


acceleration.
g’ = g + QE / m

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So new time period
l
T3 = 2π T3 > T
g + ( QE / m )

(2) Charged circular ring: Having time period


4π ε0 mR 3
T = 2π
Qq

Neutral Point and Zero Potential:


A neutral point is a point where resultant electrical field is zero.
(1) Neutral point Due to a system of two liked point charge: For this case neutral
point is obtained at an internal point along the line joining two like charge.

If N is the neutral point at a distance x1 from Q1 and at a distance x2(=x-x1)


from Q2 then
At N | E.F. due to Q1 | = | E.F. due to Q2|
2
1 Q1 1 Q2 Q x 
i.e. . 2 = . 2 ⇒ 1 =  1 
4π ε0 x1 4π ε0 x 2 Q2  x2 
x x
Short Trick: x1 = Q / Q + 1 and x2 =
Q1 / Q2 + 1
2 1

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(2) Neutral point due to a system of two unlike point charge: For this condition
neutral point lies at an external point along the line joining two unlike charges.
Suppose two unlike charge Q1 and Q2 separated by a distance x from each other.

Here neutral point lies outside the line joining two unlike charges and also it lies
nearer to charge which is smaller in magnitude.
If |Q1| < |Q2| then neutral point will be obtained on the side of Q1, suppose it is
at a distance l form Q1 so
x
l=
Q2 / Q1 −1
(3) Zero potential due to a system of two point charge
(i) If bothe charges are like then resultant potential is not zero at any finite
point.
(ii) If the charges are unequal and unlike then all such points where resultant
potential is zero lies on a closed curve.
(iii) A long the line joining the two charge, two such points exits, one lies inside
and one lies outside the charges on the line joining the charges. Both the above
points lie nearer the smaller charge.
For internal point
(it is assumed that |Q1| < |Q2| )
Q1 Q2
At P, =
x1 ( x − x1 )
x
⇒ x1 =
( Q2 / Q1 + 1)
For external point
Q1 Q2
At P, =
x1 ( x + x1 )
x
⇒ x1 =
( Q2 / Q1 −1)
Electric potential Energy
(1) Work done in brining the given charge from infinity to a point in the electric
field is known as potential energy of the charge. Potential can also be written as
W U
potential energy per unit charge i.e. V = Q = Q
(2) Potential energy of a system of two charge

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Potential energy of Q1 = Potential energy of Q2 = potential energy of system
QQ
U =k 1 2
r
QQ
In C.G.S U = 1 2
r

(3) Potential energy of a system of n charge


k n Q1Q2  1 
It is given by U = ∑  k =
π

2 i, j r  4 0 ε
i≠ j

The factor of ½ is applied only with the summation sign because on expanding the
summation each pair is counted twice:
For a system of 3 charges
Q Q QQ QQ 
U = k  1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 
 r12 r23 r13 
(4) Work energy relation: If a charge moves from one position to another position
in an electric field so it’s potential energy change and work done by external force
for this change is W = Uf - Ui
(5) Electron volt (eV): It is the smaller practical unit of energy used in atomic and
nuclear physics. As electron volt is defined as “the energy acquired by a particle
having one quantum of charge (le), when accelerated 1 volt”
1j
i.e. leV =1.6 ×10 −19 C × =1.6 ×10 −19 J =1.6 ×10 −12
C
(6) Electric potential energy of a uniformly charged sphere: Consider a uniformly
charged sphere of radius R having a total charge Q. The electric potential energy
of this sphere is equal to the work done in bringing the charges from infinity to
3Q 2
assemble the sphere. U =
20 πε0 R
(7) Electric potential energy of a uniformly charged thin spherical shell: It is given
Q2
by the following formula U =
8πε0 R
(8) Energy density: The energy stored per unit volume around a point in an electric
U 1
field is given by U e = = ε 0 E 2 . If in place of vacuum some medium is
Volume 2
1
present then U e = ε0εr E
2

2
Force Charged Conductor:

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To find force on a charged conductor (due to repulsion of like charges) imagine a
small part XY to be cut and just separated from the rest of the conductor MLN.
The field in the cavity due to the rest of the conductor is E2, while field due to
small part is E1. Then

Inside the conductor E = E1 – E2 = 0 or E1 = E2


σ σ
Outside the conductor E = E1 + E2 = ε Thus E1 = E2 = 2ε
0 0

(1) To find force, imagine charged part XY (having charge σ d A placed in the
cavity MN having field E2).
σ2
Thus force dF = (σ d A) E 2 or dF = dA . The force per unit area or electrostatic
2ε 0
dF σ 2
pressure p = .
dA 2ε 0
(2) The force is always outwards as ( ± σ ) is positive i.e. whether charged
2

positively or negatively, this force will try to expand the charged body. [A soap
bubble or rubber balloon expands on charging to it (charge of any kind + or –)
Equilibrium of Charged Soap Bubble
(1) For a charged soap bubble of radius R and surface tension T and charge
T
density σ . The pressure due to surface tension 4 and atmospheric pressure
R
Pout act radially inwards and the electrical pressure (Pel) acts radially outward.

(A) Uncharged bubble (B) Charged bubble

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4T σ 2
(2) The total pressure inside the soap bubble Pin = Pout + −
R 2ε 0
4T σ 2
(3) Excess pressure inside the charged soap bubble Pin − Pout = Pexcess = −
R 2ε 0
(4) If air pressure in inside and outside are assumed equal then
Pin = Pout i.e. Pexcess = 0,
4T σ 2
So, + −
R 2ε0
4T σ 2 8ε 0T 2T
(i) Charge density: Since − ⇒σ = =
R 2ε 0 R πkR
8ε 0T
(ii) Radius of bubble R =
σ2
σ 2R
(iii) Surface tension T =
8ε 0
(iv) Total charge on the bubble Q =8πR 2ε0T R
8T 32 π k T
(v) Electric field intensity at the surface of the bubble E = ε R =
0 R
8 RT
(vi) Electric potential at the surface V = 32 πRTk = ε0
Electric Dipole:
System of two equal and opposite charges separated by a small fixed distance is
called a dipole.

(1) Dipole moment: It is a vector quantity and is directed from negative charged

to positive charge along the axis. It is denoted as p and is defined as the
product of the magnitude of either of the charge and the dipole length i.e.

 →
p = q2 l . Its S.I. unit is coulomb-meter of Debye (1 Debye = 3.3 x 10-30C
 
x m) and its dimension are M0L1T1A1.
(2) When a dielectric is placed in an electric field, its atoms or molecules are
considered as tiny dipoles.

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Water (H2O), Chloroform (CHCl3), Ammonia (NH3), HCl, CO molecules are same
example of permanent electric dipole.

(3) Electric field and potential due to an electrical dipole: If a, e and g are three
points on axial, equatorial and general position at a distance r form the centre of
dipole.

1 2p
(i) At axial point: Electric field and potential are given as E 0 = 4π ε . r 3 (directed
0

form –q to +q)
1 2p → →
Va = . . Angle between E a and p is 00.
4π ε0 r 2
1 2p
(ii) At equatorial point: E 0 = 4π ε . r 3 (directed form +q to –q) and Ve = 0. Angle
0
→ →
between E e and p is 1800.
p cos θ
1
(iii) At general point: E g = 4π ε . r 3
2p
(3 cos
θ + 1) and V g =
2 1
4π ε0
. . Angle
0 r2
→ → 1
between Ee and p is (θ + α ) (where tan α = 2 tan θ )
(4) Dipole in an external electric field: When a dipole is kept in an uniform
electric field. The net force experienced by dipole is zero as shown in figure.

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The net torque experienced by the dipole is τ = pE sin θ , .
Hence due to torque so produced, dipole align itself in the direction of electric
field. This is the position of stable equilibrium of dipole.
(i) Work done in rotation: Suppose initially, dipole is kept in a uniform electric
field at an angle θ1 . Now to turn it through an angle θ2 (with the field). Work
done W = pE ( cosθ 1 − cosθ 2 ) .

If θ 1 = 0 and θ 2 = θ i.e. initially dipole is kept along the field then it turn through
0

θ so work done p W (1 − cos θ)


(ii) Potential energy of dipole: It is defined as work done in rotating a dipole from
a direction perpendicular to the field to the given direction, i.e. form above
formula of work.
If θ 1 = 90 and θ 2 = θ ⇒ W = U = − pE cosθ
0

θ = 00 θ = 90 0 θ = 1800
Stable equilibrium Not in equilibrium un stable equilibrium
τ =0 τ max = pE τ =0
W = 0 W = pE Wmax = 2pE
Umin=-pE U = 0 Umax= pE

(iii) Equilibrium of dipole: When θ = 0 0 i.e. dipole is placed along the electric field
it is said to be in stable equilibrium, because after turning it through a small
angle, dipole tries to align itself again in the direction of electric field.
When θ = 180 0 i.e. dipole is placed opposite to electric field, it is said to be in
unstable equilibrium.
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(iv) Oscillation of dipole: In a uniform electric field if a dipole is slightly displaced
from it’s stable equilibrium position it executes angular SHM having period of
oscillation.
1
T = 2π
pE
where 1 = moment of inertial of dipole about the axis passing through
it’s centre and perpendicular to it’s length.
(5) Electric dipole in non-uniform electric field: In non-uniform electric field
Fnet ≠ 0, τ net ≠ 0

Motion of the dipole is combination of translatory and rotatory motion.

Table Dipole-dipole interaction

1 6 p1 p 2 1 2 p1 p 2
. .
4π ε0 r4 4π ε0 r3
(attractive)

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1 3 p1 p 2
.
4π ε0 r4

1 3 p1 p 2
.
4π ε0 r3

1 3 p1 p 2
.
4π ε0 r3

(perpendicular)

Important Points
∗ With rise in temperature dielectric constant of liquid decreses.
∗ Two point charges separated by a distance r in vaccum and a force F acting
between them. After filling a dielectric medium having dielectric constant K
completely between the charges, force between them decreases. To maintain the
force before separation between them has to be changed to r k . This distance
known as effective air separaton.
∗ For ta short dipole, electric field intensity at a point on the axial line is double
the electric field intensity at a point on the equatorial line of electric dipole i.e.
E axial = 2 E equatorial .

∗ Coulombs law is valid at a distance greater than 10-15m.


∗ Ratio of gravitational force and electrostatic force between
(i) Two electrons is 10-43/1.
(ii) Two protons 10-39/1
∗ At the centre of the line joining two equal and opposite charge V = 0 but E ≠ 0 .
∗ Electric field intensity and electric potential due to a point charge q, at a
distance t1 + t2 where t1 is thickness of medium of dielectric constant K1 and t2 is
thickness of medium of dielectric constant K2 are:
1 Q 1 Q
E= V =
(
4π ε0 t K + t K
1 2 2 ) 2 ;
(
4π ε0 t K + t K
1 2 2 ) 2

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∗ If an electron (charge and mass m) is moving on a circular path of radius r about
a positively charge infinitely long linear charge, (charge density λ ) then the

velocity of electron in dynamic equilibrium will be v =
2 πε0 m
∗ A metal plate is charged uniformly with a surface charge density σ . An electron
of energy W is fired towards the charged metal plate from a distance d, then for
Wε 0
no collision of electron with plate d = .

∗ Newton’s third law is inapplicable in certain cases with reference to electrostatic
or electrodynamics. For instance, if a charge q1 is placed inside a conducting shell
while charge q2 is outside the shell as shown, then the force of q1 on q2 ≠ 0 while
force of q2 and q1 is zero.

Questions:
Q. 1. (a) Two similar point charges q1 and q2 are placed at a distance r apart in air. If
a dielectric slab of thickness t and dielectric constant K is put between the
charges. Calculate the coulomb force of Repulsion.
(b) If the thickness of the slab covers half the distance between the charges the
coulumb Repulsive force is reduced in the ratio 4 : 9. Calculate the dielectric
constant of slab?
1 q1 q 2
Ans: a) 4π ε b) 4
(
0 r −t +t K ) 2

Q. 2. A thin non-conducting ring of Radius R has a linear charge density λ = λ0 . cos φ


where λ0 is a constant φ is the azimuthal angle. Find the magnitude of the
electric field strength on the axis of the ring as a function of the distance x form
its centre. Investigate the obtained function at x >>R.
λ0 R 2

Ans: E = . For x >>R the strength


(
4ε 0 x 2 + R 2 )
3/ 2

1
E≈ where P = πR 2 λ0
4π ε0

Q. 3. Four point particles, each of mass m and charge q are initially held in a plane at
the four corners of the square of side l0. If the particle are simultaneously
released they fly apart. Determine the velocity and acc. of each particle as it

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moves away. What will be the final velocity of each particle as they separated
infinitely apart?
Q2 1 1 
Ans: a= 2 
+ 2
4π ε0 m 2 r  2 

V2 =
( )
Q 1+ 2 2  1 1 
2
 −  and V2 =
(
Q2 1+ 2 2 )
8π ε0 m  r0 r  8π ε0 mr0

Q. 4. Figure shows a charged rod, bent in the form of an arc of a circle. The charge
distribution on the rod is shown in the figure the assembly is kept in a uniform
electric-field. Show that for small angular displacement the system will perform
S.H.M. Determine i + s –period.

m
Ans: T =
λ sin 2 θ0 E
Passage -1:
The imaging drum of a photocopier is +vely charged to attract –vely charged
particles of toner. Near the surface of the drum. Its electric field has magnitude
1.4 x 105N /C. A toner particles is to be attached to the drum with a force that
is 10 times the weight of the particle. Assume toner particles are made of carbon
12C.
1. Find charge to mass ratio of the charged toner particle?
a) 7 x 10-4c/kg b) 7 x 10-3c/kgc) 7 x 10-5c/kg d) 7 x 10-6c/kg

2. Find the number of carbon atoms that for each excess electron on a toner
particles?
a) 1.15 x 108 b) 1.15 x 107 c) 1.15 x 109 d) 1.15 x 1010

Passage-2
A region in space contains a total +ve charge Q that is distributed spherically
R
such that the volume charge density δ ( r ) = α for r ≤
2

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 r R
δ ( r ) = 2α1 −  for ≤ r ≤R
 R 2
Where α is a +ve constant f(r) = 0 for r ≥ R
R
1. What fraction of total charge is constained in the region r ≥ ?
2
a) 4/ 15 b) 8 /15 c) 7 / 15 d) None

2. If an electron is placed at the centre and slightly displaced it will execute S.H.M.
R
find the time period of oscillation assuming x <
2
ε0π mR 3 15 ε0π mR 3 7ε 0π mR 3
a) 2π b) 2π c) 2π d) None
8Q e 8Q e 8Q e

R
3. The electric-field in a region < r < R is
2
αR 3 2α r  r αR 3 2α r  r
a) + 1 −  b) + 1 − 
24 r ε 0
2
3ε 0  R 8 r ε0
2
6ε0  R
αR 3 2α r  r
c) + 1 −  d) None of these
16 r ε 0
2
3ε 0  R

Multiple Matching
1. Match Column-I with Column-II
Column-I Column-I
I

A) Force on an electron in an atom P) Gravitational force


B) Force between a proton and a neutron inside Q) Strong force
C) Force between a proton and proton inside R) Coulomb force
D) Conservative force S) Electric force
Ans: (A-P, R, S) (B – P) (C – P, Q, R, S) (D - P, Q, R, S)

2. Match Column-I with Column-II


Column-I Column-I
I

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A) Electric field due to a dipole at any point P) Zero
B) Electric field between the plates of a capacitor Q) αx −3
C) Electric field due to a long charged plate R) αd , the distance
between the plates
D) Electric field due to a ring at its centre S) Independent of
distance
Ans: (A-Q) (B – S) (C –S) (D - P)

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