A.

The Determination of Benefit
The benefit is the whole "acceptance" which is expected to be received and
taken into account with the planned establishment of a project. Various kinds of
classification depends on the project or type of project. Subjects or who conduct
evaluations also determine the kinds of benefits that set. For the government will be
different from when the evaluation was performed by individuals or private
businesses.
The nature of the construction projects exercised by government is actually in
order to increase public welfare.Public welfare in this not only that can be measured
with physical size directly but also indirectly even intangibles.Public welfare will
increase if there are incremental the value of the product of a goods or services
produced from project or activity that can promote the fulfillment public need either
physically or nonphysic
For prospective creditors (eg banks) will be different from the prospective
borrower. For agricultural projects will different with industrial projects, public
utilities projects in contrast to the company solely for profit, the cooperative will be
different from the limited liability company. As with other activities in determining
the benefits of a project should be carried out rationally, widely and well.
B. The purpose of the Project Benefit Analysis
Benefit analysis of the project is to evaluate the use of economic resources so
the scarce resource can be used efficiently. Especially for the government, this project
benefit analysis used to make public decisions by considering the welfare of society.
C. Various Benefits of a Job in General
Benefits should be considered by each evaluator project is a benefit that can be
valued in money and benefits that can not be valued in money.

The advantage that is can be measured by money ( self-explanatory ), even all the
benefits that may be imputed with money. These benefits may be goods and
services traded in the 'market', such as rice, textiles, home prices, wages, etc.

The improvement of the quality of products.  Reduction or avoidance of losses . the time difference sale or difference of form. Especially for non-economic projects. The benefits that can not be valued with money (itangible benefits) are benefits that are qualitative in the sense that it is inconceivable that it can be valued in money. the time of the sale. Increased dance. Project Benefits not only seen from the output. and changes of form. Transportation cost reduction as a result of renewing carting equipment.Value of a goods rose due to the difference place. Change of location. For a project of this benefit may actually more important to consider. Project directly benefits arise because of the increase or decrease in the value of project output costs that may be caused by the following four points: a. and indirect benefits that are hard to see in the project. c.This is caused by an increase in product physically are able to meet the needs of residents. resulting in time savings. Sometimes project built indeed aimed at improving the quality of a goods or services.The activities of a project that can really to increase public welfare is a project that capable of producing an additional ( incremental ) output goods or services in the works. The next classification should also be considered by each elevator project is a direct benefit. which in turn resulted in a decrease in costs. Direct benefits is obtained or enjoyed the benefits of the project concerned. increasing feelings of love in the country. The benefits of the project can be either the cost savings attributable to:  Information technology Utilization that resulted in time savings that would reduce the cost per unit. Rise in the physical of product. d. b. rising nationalism and national pretise an example of intangible benefits.To rise in value can also occur even though inthe same but in different times. 1.

2. For individual businesses such indirect benefits should also be taken into consideration when considering the effort the public interest and the interests of society. Indirect benefits are benefits received by the parties outside the project or business concerned. A kind of benefits is still to be counted as the benefits of the project.  Benefits arising because the economies of scale. but appear due to the construction project. The project causes this increasing efficiency resources use as a result scale activities the relatively great that the lower prices and increasing purchasing power society. so increase skills society. project hold an education or training to support its activities. Indirect benefit is the advantage that is arising outside the project itself. dams and other. The immediate benefit is the increase in rice yield due to the increase in land productivity as a direct result of increased well irrigation rice fields.Indirect benefits project is among others caused by the following:  Induced multiplier effect in benefit obtained from other activities arising as a result he built a project. For example: Project construction of dams to irrigate the fields. indirect benefits actually received by the public. Project a relatively large usually using technological purposes which need workers with competence certain. For infrastructure such as roads. For example: .So as to run the projects.  Benefits that arises because improvements quality labor (dynamic secondary effect). benefit directly connected with the main purpose of the projects or program.Direct benefits arise because an increase in the result or productivity by the presence of a project or the program.Essentially. Not preclude the possibility that the benefits indirect can be greater than the benefit directly.

3. consumer surplus may also arising due to setting prices by the government so that price happened lower than the real price. it can be used several steps:  Measuring SO2 emissions. the dam can also provide other recreational areas such as power stations. where greening and so on. Intangible benefits can be determined by direct measurement. however does not exist in calculating of project. Itangible Benefit is the benefit resulting by the presence of projects can not always be measured and counted. to determine the benefits of SO2 pollution control programs.The increase in the productivity of the land outside the irrigation of dam area.  Measuring the quality of ambient air  Estimating the impact on both human health and in terms of health. Consumer surplus is benefits arising from project. In addition. Lowness in price led consumers can save the cost of the difference between ability and willingness to pay with what actually they paid or secrete. but could identify for example:  Improvement of the living environment  Repair the income distribution  A security patch Benefits projects that intangibles and counted remains to be considered and it shall be mentioned in the proposal. . Consumer Surplus Consumer surplus incurred if output project cause lower price output. In a state of prices unchanged. For example.There were times when benefit it difficult measured by money. Estimating the value of these impacts D. in. especially for public facilities.

the weakness of this benefit analysis. Conclusions In fact benefit analysis is useful as a guide for the construction of a project. Thus. The weakness of the analysis of the benefits of the project is to provide quantitative benefits. Special to the government. However. . if carried too far. Advantages and Weaknesses Advantage of use analysis of the benefits and cost in determining program was guaranteeing the use of economy efficient.E. it is necessary precision in determining the factors related to project benefits. Or as an illustration in developing a project. F. this way will reckon economic condition thoroughly so can increase the use of factors the production and can be achieved the maximum public welfare. the government no longer held by the representatives of the people who carry the aspirations of the people. while most projects there are both private and government that can not be measured quantitatively. If used is governments program. but the government will be carried out by robots. keep in mind also benefits could change over time.

Modul Ekonomi Publik Bagian VI: Analisis Biaya dan Manfaat.2012.REFERENCE  Anwar. Purwokerto: UPT. Evaluasi Proyek-Proyek Pembangunan Pemerintah. Teori dan Studi Kasus).ub. Nurul (2011). http://apecon.id/files/2013/01/Bagian-VI-Analisis-Biaya-dan-Mnafaat. Dasar-Dasar Evaluasi Proyek (Perhitungan.  Ferry Prasetya. Consumer and Produsen Surplus.pdf.  Soetrisno (1981).ac.com/2014/03/consumer-and-producer-surplus-2/ Diakses: 16 Oktober 2014 .mscuttle.lecture. http://yfeb. Yogyakarta: Toko Gunung Agung. Diakses: 14 Oktober 2014. 2014. Percetakan dan Penerbitan Universitas Jendral Soedirman.  Surekav.

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