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Scalativity LLC, Article 2, November 2012

Published online at http://www.Scalativity.com/

Fractal Physics Theory Success Summary and Proposed Experiments


Leonard J. Malinowski
Scientist
LJMalinowski@gmail.com

Abstract
This article summarizes important results from six Fractal Physics Theory articles and proposes many experiments that
will either support or refute the theory. Fractal Physics Theory is a scientific paradigm that claims the entire Universe
and its composite quantum scale pieces such as nuclei, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and electric field lines are all
fractals. For instance a pure neutron is composed of 1.2 x 10 57 subquantum scale Hydrogen atoms. An electron is
composed of 1.2 x 1052 subquantum scale Iron atoms with an excess of 2.1 x 10 40 subquantum scale electrons. A
photon is composed of 4.5 x 1080 subquantum scale photons. The Fractal Universe also contains cosmic scale pieces
self-similar to quantum scale pieces such as cosmic scale nuclei, cosmic scale electrons, cosmic scale photons, cosmic
scale neutrinos, and cosmic scale electric field lines that are all fractals. For instance, ten billion years ago, the presolar system was a cosmic scale neutron. Our visible Universe is a cosmic scale ~ 1 Megaton fission explosion that
detonated ~ 1 titanic scale second ago, relative to the human scale. All the electromagnetic radiation and neutrinos
emitted by a star during its fusion burning cycle is one cosmic scale antineutrino.

1. Introduction
The current scientific paradigm, Modern Physics, stands on the pillars of Quantum Mechanics and Relativity, which
were erected early in the 20th century prior to space-flight, computers, even the Great Depression. Quantum Mechanics
introduced deviations from Euclidean geometry and typical human scale observations in order to understand atomic
scale data. Continuous properties of space, matter, energy, charge, etc, are replaced by quantized properties of space,
matter, energy, charge, etc. The certainty of an objects trajectory is replaced with trajectory probabilities. Quantum
Mechanics also eliminates the ability to simultaneously measure the precision of select property pairs such as position
and momentum. Relativity also introduced deviations from Euclidean geometry and typical human scale observations
in order to understand an objects properties when velocities approach the speed of light and properties of cosmic scale
matter (gravity). Space and time are combined into space-time. Matter is equated to energy. Properties such as length,
time and mass are linked to the relative velocity of an observer. Gravity becomes the curvature of space-time.
Modern Physics prefers to unify Quantum Mechanics and Relativity, but complete unification has not been achieved.
The author was born into this Modern Physics dichotomy paradigm while harboring an almost instinctual faith in the
infinite, rejecting a beginning or ending of time, or a limit to scale, whether minimum (subquantum) or maximum
(supercosmic). As the years continue to pass and experimental data amasses knowledge, the world has witnessed
another non-Euclidean geometry, Fractal Geometry [1], exponentially increase in its applicability to understand diverse
phenomena of the Universe. A truly Fractal Universe must incorporate infinity completely into Physics as well as scale
relativity [2], with the understanding that there must exist a self-similarity between scales. Quantum Mechanics and
Relativity have repeatedly been confirmed through experiment therefore these Modern Physics concepts must be valid
as a subset in a Fractal Universe. General Relativity does not address the ubiquity of cosmic scale charged objects so it
fails to describe galactic structure (missing mass and massive black holes) and larger stellar masses (neutron stars and
stellar mass black holes). Quantum Mechanics does not address nuclei and electron substructure, which contain
ubiquitous subquantum scale charged objects, so it fails to describe internal binding of nuclei (strong nuclear force and
weak nuclear force) and nuclei and electron lilliputian scale phase transitions (wave form and particle form).

2. Fractal Physics Theory Foundation & Cosmic Scale Nuclear Explosion Cosmology
2.1.

Postulates [3]

Fractal Physics Theory (FPT) is based on extending the two Special Relativity postulates to scale.
I.

Scale Relativity absolute uniform scale cannot be detected.

Scientists (human observers) exist at the human scale whereby all measured properties of the Universe can be
compared relative to the scientists approximate mass, size, and awareness of time passage. FPT insists our human
scale is arbitrary.

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Fractal Physics Theory Success Summary and Proposed Experiments

II.

The speed (c) of electromagnetic radiation in vacuum is independent of scale.

Based on these two postulates, it is possible to reorganize the vast quantity of experimental data amassed by science
into a much simpler, more symmetric, and more predictive framework. Many facets of Fractal Physics Theory already
match experimental data, but more importantly, many experiments can be conducted that could refute FPT.
How can the human scale be relative? Stars and galaxies appear to dominate the large scale, while atoms, photons,
and neutrinos appear to dominate the small scale. The ubiquity of Fractal Geometry provides the answer. The sum is
composed of self-similar parts and infinite magnification reveals infinite resolution.
2.2.

Neutrinos and Stars [4]

Consider stars:

have mass and radiate energy;

undergo fusion which alters their chemical composition;

have masses ranging over two orders of magnitude;

exist individually, in binary and more complex systems;

can explode with tremendous energy as nova and supernova;

are found in galaxies.


Consider nuclei that are in the process of the beta decay moment:

have mass and radiate energy;

undergo a change which alters their composition;

have masses ranging over two orders of magnitude;

exist individually, in binary systems when capturing neutrons;

can suddenly release beta particles with very high kinetic energy;

are found in radioactive materials.


The vast majority of stars are fractally self-similar to nuclei in the process of beta decay. Stars are cosmic scale nuclei
in the process of cosmic scale beta decay. The sum of electromagnetic and neutrino radiation emitted by a star over its
life time is one cosmic scale antineutrino. An observer existing at the lilliputian scale (with mass ~ 7 x 10-56 kilograms,
and height ~ 5 x 10-24 meters) literally sees via neutrino energy. Likewise, by self-similarity, an observer at the
human scale literally sees via cosmic scale neutrino energy. Billions of years perceived at the human scale is
perceived at the titanic scale as ~ one microsecond. From self-similarity, 1 s perceived at the human scale is
perceived as billions of years at the lilliputian scale. It is fact that time, length, and mass are all relative to reference
frame motion. Fractal Physics Theory proposes that time, length, mass, etc., are relative to reference frame scale.
2.3. Definitions
A curious observation provides a convenient way to define a set of scales. A familiar human scale mass 57.768 kg
divided by the quantum scale neutron mass 1.675 x 10-27 kg equals 3.449 x 1028. Multiplying 57.768 kg by 3.449 x
1028 equals the cosmic scale solar system mass 1.992 x 1030 kg.
Object any system of mass and/or energy that exists in the universe, symbolized by O. Examples of objects: electron,
proton, neutron, atom, molecule, photon, person, car, house, planet, star, and galaxy.
Observable the measurement of a property of an object, symbolized by f(O). Examples of observables: an electrons
charge, a persons height, a planets mass, and a stars luminosity. For convenience, consider an observer always
present to witness the observable.
Scale a reference frame for establishing measurement units and defining their relationships
Fractal Universe the infinite set of scales, the scale contents, and the relationships between the scales, which
comprise physical reality.
Human Scale a reference frame scaled to the mass range of humans. The human observer is an object in a scale. The
observer is part of their scale. The units meter, kilogram, and second are relative to a humans scale of size, mass, and
awareness of time passage. Let an object located in the human scale be denoted by m = 0. Let an observation made in
the human scale be denoted by n = 0.

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Fractal Physics Theory Success Summary and Proposed Experiments

Cosmic Scale a reference frame scaled to the mass range of stars. Let an object located in the cosmic scale be
denoted by m = 1. Let an observation made in the cosmic scale be denoted by n = 1.
Quantum Scale a reference frame scaled to the mass range of atomic nuclei. Let an object located in the quantum
scale be denoted m = -1. Let an observation made in the quantum scale be denoted by n = -1.
Titanic Scale a reference frame more massive than but self-similar to the human scale. A reference frame scaled to
the mass range of humans multiplied by the factor M = (1.992 x 1030 kg)/(1.675 x 10-27 kg) ~ 1.19 x 1057. Let an
object located in the titanic scale be denoted by m = 2. Let an observation made in the titanic scale be denoted by
n = 2.
Lilliputian Scale a reference frame less massive than but self-similar to the human scale. A reference frame scaled to
the mass range of humans divided by the factor M ~ 1.19 x 1057. Let an object located in the lilliputian scale be
denoted by m = -2. Let an observation made in the lilliputian scale be denoted by n = -2.
Supercosmic Scale a reference frame more massive than but self-similar to the cosmic scale. A reference frame
scaled to the mass range of stars multiplied by the factor M ~ 1.19 x 1057. Let an object located in the supercosmic
scale be denoted by m = 3. Let an observation made in the supercosmic scale be denoted by n = 3.
Subquantum Scale a reference frame less massive than but self-similar to the quantum scale. A reference frame
scaled to the mass range of atomic nuclei divided by the factor M ~ 1.19 x 1057. Let an object located in the
subquantum scale be denoted by m = -3. Let an observation made in the subquantum scale be denoted by n = -3.
Scale Relativity the relativity of scale. The laws of physics are scale invariant. That is, the laws of physics are the
same in every scale as viewed from that scale. The laws of physics in scale m as observed in scale n = m are equivalent
to the laws of physics in scale m + x as observed in scale n = m + x. Where m, n, and x are defined by the set {,,
2, 1, 0, 1, 2,, +}. Every object exists within all the infinite scales simultaneously. Therefore, the measurement
of any observable of an object requires the specification of two scales, the objects scale and the observers scale.
Scaling Fractal represented by the symbol , is a unit less number that relates properties of self-similar objects
through simple division. Tables 1a, 1b list the SI units for seven defined scales.
Table 1a, International System of Units (SI) at Several Scales
Scale
Mass
Luminous Intensity
m
Name
Unit (kg)
Log(unit)
Unit (cd)
Log(unit)
85
50
4.10
x
10
85.61
1.76
x
10
50.25
3
Supercosmic

Length or Time
Unit (m or s)
Log(unit)
2.33 x 1035
35.37

Quantum
Lilliputian

1.19 x 1057
3.45 x 1028
1.00
2.90 x 10-29
8.41 x 10-58

57.08
28.54
0.00
-28.54
-57.08

3.14 x 1033
5.60 x 1016
1.00
1.78 x 10-17
3.18 x 10-34

33.50
16.75
0.00
-16.75
-33.50

3.79 x 1023
6.16 x 1011
1.00
1.62 x 10-12
2.64 x 10-24

23.58
11.79
0.00
-11.79
-23.58

Subquantum

2.44 x 10-86

-85.61

5.68 x 10-51

-50.25

4.29 x 10-36

-35.37

2
1
0

Titanic
Cosmic
Human

-1
-2
-3

Log(unit)/m =

28.538

16.748

11.789

Table 1b, International System of Units (SI) at Several Scales


Scale
Current
Mole
m
Name
Unit (A)
Log(unit) Unit (mol)
Log(unit)
25
1.33
x
10
25.12
1.00
0.00
3
Supercosmic
16
5.60 x 10
16.75
1.00
0.00
2
Titanic

Temperature
Unit (K)
Log(unit)
3.24 x 10-21
-20.49
-14
2.19 x 10
-13.66

1
0
-1

Cosmic
Human
Quantum

2.37 x 108
1.00
4.22 x 10-9

8.37
0.00
-8.37

1.00
1.00
1.00

0.00
0.00
0.00

1.48 x 10-7
1.00
6.76 x 106

-6.83
0.00
6.83

-2

Lilliputian

1.78 x 10-17

-16.75

1.00

0.00

4.57 x 1013

13.66

-26

-25.12

1.00

0.00

3.09 x 1020

20.49

-3

Subquantum

7.54 x 10

Log(unit)/m =

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8.374

0.000

-6.830

Fractal Physics Theory Success Summary and Proposed Experiments

2.4.

The Big Bang is a cosmic scale nuclear fission explosion

The Big Bang is a cosmic scale nuclear fission explosion about 1 titanic scale second into the fireball. The Big Bangs
energy came from cosmic scale fission reactions:
Uranium 235 nucleus + 1 neutron larger fission product + smaller fission product + few neutrons
The fission products peak around 95 solar masses and 135 solar masses. Newly formed fission products, on any scale,
are neutron rich and undergo a series of beta decays (appear as stars relative to some scale). A large percentage of a
nuclear fission explosions Uranium 235 and 238 do not take part in the fission. This provides much of the Universes
missing mass (radiating at 2.7 K in some scale). Combining data for the following: fission product yields, fission
product decay rates, neutron cross sections, an estimate of the pre-explosion Universe cosmic scale chemical
composition and the time since the Big Bang, allows the mass of essentially every star in the Universe to be determined
(not included in this series of articles).
Many free cosmic scale neutrons are still colliding with cosmic scale nuclei and scattering (gamma bursts) or are being
absorbed (binary star systems) while some are undergoing beta decay (the solar system).
2.5.

Calculation of cosmic scale cation charge at or near Sagittarius A (Sgr A*) [5]

Reference [5] scales observational data of S-stars that move in elliptical orbits within the central arcsecond of the
Milky Way Galaxy. Table 2 lists the gravitational potential energy between a massive black hole (MBH) at one foci
and the cosmic scale electron rest mass for S-stars at pericenter. This article considers a Coulombic potential energy
between a net positive charged object at one foci and a negative charged S-star at pericenter. A small adjustment is
made to the gravitational potential energy in Eq. (1) by using the relative cosmic scale electron mass. The gravitational
potential energy, EP(g), is equated to the Coulombic potential energy, EP(C). The distances drop from the calculation and
Eq. (1) is solved for the net positive charge (Z) at the position of Sgr A*:
- GMm2/R = - k(Zq)q/R, and solve for Z:
Z = GMm2/(kq2) = 6.0
G=
M=
m2 =
k=
q=
R=

(1)

6.6742 x 10-11 Nm2/kg2


MBH, see reference [5]
relative cosmic scale electron mass (for an S-star)
8.987551788 x 109 Nm2/C2
3.40123 x 1021 C
distance from S-star to Sgr A*

Fractal Physics Theory demonstrates that a cosmic scale cation of cosmic scale +6 charge can account for an attractive
potential energy at the Galactic Center near Sgr A*. Consider the fact that out of the infinite values of Z possible, only
integers from 1 to 92 are possible, and only integers from 1 to 22 are probable in Fractal Physics Theory. Equation 1
and Table 2 data convincingly supports Fractal Physics Theory!
Table 2, Net Charge at the Galactic Center Near Sgr A*
Star

M (kg)(1)

Cs-e- mass(v) (kg)(2)

Z (Coulomb)(3)

S1
S2
S8
S12
S13
S14

8.6477 x 1036
8.5683 x 1036
8.6406 x 1036
8.5965 x 1036
8.5922 x 1036
8.6184 x 1036

1.08361 x 1027
1.08394 x 1027
1.08366 x 1027
1.08376 x 1027
1.08362 x 1027
1.08417 x 1027

6.02
5.96
6.01
5.98
5.98
6.00

(1)

MBH, see reference [5]


Relative cosmic scale electron mass at Pericenter
(3)
Z = Net positive charge near Sgr A* using Eq. (1)
(2)

The physics of our Universe does not allow black holes to form. Cosmic scale charged masses fill the Universe and
consequently electromagnetic forces dominate both stellar and galactic structure. The orbital data carefully measured
for S-stars in the Galactic Center, when scaled using Fractal Physics Theory, yield data remarkably close to atomic data
found in authoritative texts such as the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. A cosmic scale +6 cation resides at

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the Galactic Center, guiding its formation and structure. It is likely that similar cosmic scale cations reside at the
centers of many spiral galaxies, guiding their formation and structure. The Milky Way Galaxy may have a partner
spiral galaxy forming around the partner to Sgr A* cosmic scale fission fragment. The majority of spiral galaxies
may be similarly paired.
2.6.

Scaling Fractals ()

The mass scaling fractal is determined by dividing the mass of a cosmic scale neutron (1.9928 x 1030 kg, identified as
the pre-solar system mass) by the mass of the quantum scale neutron (1.6749 x 10-27 Kg):
Mass = M = 1.190 x 1057
By postulate 2, the speed of light scaling fractal is unity (c = c/c = 1). Therefore, Energy = Masscc = Mass;
energy and mass scale at the same rate.
The length scaling fractal is determined by dividing the estimated radius of a cosmic scale proton (3.789 x 108 m) by
the radius of the quantum scale proton (1.0 x 10-15 m):
Length = L = 3.789 x 1023
By postulate 2, c = 1, therefore time = Length/c = Length; time and length scale at the same rate.
It follows that:

1 nanosecond to the human scale is 12 million years to the lilliputian scale

12 billion years to the human scale is 1 microsecond to the titanic scale

1 angstrom to the human scale is 253 Astronomical Units to the lilliputian scale

12 billion light years to the human scale is 300 meters to the titanic scale.
Scaling Fractals are determined for many physical observables such as length, mass, time, current, charge, magnetic
fields, forces, constants, etc., all of which reduce to:
observable = (lengthj/2)(Massk/2)

(2)

j, k = {, , 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, , }
2.7.

Strings are subquantum scale atomic orbitals

In string theory particles are perceived as highly localized vibration of Planck length strings:
lp = (-1,0G1,0c-3)1/2

(3)

= [(1.054 5717 x 10-34 Js)(6.6742 x 10-11 Nm2/kg2)(299 792 458 m/s)-3]1/2 = 1.62 x 10-35 m
From the Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom and in particular quantized angular momentum:
= h/p

Combined with the de Broglie relation:


The relation has long been known:

mvnrn = n

2rn = nh/pn = n

The smallest atomic orbital circumferences are the ground state Helium shells (1s2 orbital) of the heaviest atoms. The
diameter of the helium shell for Radon (z = 86) ~ 0.02 . This shell has an average circumference = 2(1 x 10-12 m) =
6.28 x 10-12 m, which is also the smallest ground state wavelength of an atomic orbital in the quantum scale.
Fractal Physics Theory length scaling fractal:

L = 3.789 x 1023

A self-similar Radon atom existing at the subquantum scale will have a self-similar subquantum scale 1s2 orbital
circumference measured relative to the human scale:
[Radon, 1s2 circumference]-3,0 = 6.28 x 10-12 m/3.789 x 1023 = 1.66 x 10-35 meters
Vibrating string particles correspond to subquantum scale atoms. Strings are subquantum scale atomic oscillators.

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2.8.

Fractal certainty principle

Plancks constant is not scale invariant. Measuring an electrons position with subquantum scale electromagnetic
radiation (a small percent of a single neutrino) will not significantly alter the electrons momentum. The position and
momentum of an electron can be determined, for practical purposes, simultaneously.
The fractal certainty principle:
[x]m,n[p]m,n [0.5]m,n

[t]m,n[E]m, n [0.5]m,n

(4)

m (object scale location), n (observable scale location)


n, m = {- -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 +}
The Fractal certainty principle embodies a paradigm shift for scientific inquiry. Fractal Physics Theory proposes it is
always possible to draw a picture of physical phenomena which can accurately describe the reality of the phenomena.
2.9.

Experiment 1. Construct a Quantum Camera

FPT predicts that neutrino/antineutrino energy is mainly composed of subquantum scale electromagnetic radiation
(emr) emitted from quantum scale stars. Quantum cameras placed near concentrations of beta decaying matter can
capture images that when scaled-up, will resemble images of stars and galaxies. This subquantum scale emr can be
imaged, perhaps from bits of nuclear material, since nuclear material is composed of many different lilliputian scale
elements. Exposure times of 1 femtosecond will image subquantum scale emr for 12 lilliputian scale years. Aperture
sizes of 1 femtometer correspond to 379,000 subquantum scale kilometers. The Quantum camera must collect,
channel, and amplify subquantum scale photons until one quantum scale photon can be effected. The process continues
until an image is formed.
2.10.

Solar system is a cosmic scale neutron midway through cosmic scale beta decay FPT matches
experimental data

Our solar system is one cosmic scale neutron midway through the process of cosmic scale Beta decay. The sum total of
all the electromagnetic radiation and neutrino radiation emitted by the Sun in ~ 9 billion years is one cosmic scale
antineutrino.
Consider neutron Beta decay:

n p + e- + antie

(5)

The mass of the neutron (1.6749 x 10-27 kg) before the decay exceeds the masses of the proton (1.6726 x 10-27 kg) and
electron (9.1094 x 10-31 kg) after the decay. The missing mass (1.39 x 10-30 kg) is converted to energy (1.25 x 10-13 J),
the kinetic energy of the proton and the electron and creates the antineutrino. The energy liberated during cosmic scale
neutron beta decay (1.25 x 10-13 J) x (Energy = 1.190 x 1057) = 1.49 x 1044 J.
The current solar luminosity (3.8515 x 1026 W) radiating for 9 billion years equals 1.09 x 1044 J.
2.11.

Pre-Solar system mass was a cosmic scale neutron FPT matches experimental data

The neutron mass (1.6749 x 10-27 kg) divided by the electron mass (9.1094 x 10-31 kg) equals 1839.
The pre-solar system mass (1.9928 x 1030 kg) divided by 1839 equals the cosmic scale electron mass (1.084 x 1027 kg).
Planetary masses sum to 2.67 x 1027 kg. Therefore the Iron-Nickel cores of the planets could be the seeds of one
forming cosmic scale electron.
2.12.

The Big Bang looks like a Cosmic Scale 1 Megaton fission explosion FPT matches experimental data

Galactic spectra increase in redshifts as the estimated distances to these galaxies increase. Only a nuclear explosion,
about 1 second into the fireball, if viewed from the lilliputian scale, would have properties self-similar to human scale
observations of a Big Bang with all galaxies hurdling away from each other. The tremendous energy released that
powers a 1 Megaton nuclear explosion takes place in 0.60 s, which the lilliputian scale perceives as 7 billion years.
From self-similarity, FPT proposes that the energy that powered the Big Bang explosion was generated in 7 billion
years. Most of this energy, 99.9%, is released in the last 7 generations of fission. Therefore most of the Big Bang
energy was generated in the 840 million years immediately preceding the Big Bang. After 1.8 seconds, a 1 Megaton
nuclear explosion has a fireball radius of 960 meters. If our visible universe is 13.6 billion years old, then it could
have a radius = ct = 1.3 x 1026 meters. This corresponds to a titanic scale radius of 340 meters.

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2.13.

Missing Mass in Cosmology FPT matches experimental data

The dynamics of galaxies and other cosmic structures require far more matter to exist in their vicinity than the matter
estimated present from observed stars. FPT considers the vast majority of visible stars to be cosmic scale neutron
rich cosmic scale fission fragments undergoing cosmic scale beta decay, the result of a cosmic scale fission explosion.
The amount of stable, non-decaying nuclei in a fission nuclear explosion far exceeds the amount of nuclei decaying.
Consequently, FPT predicts the missing mass to be a multitude of cosmic scale nuclei (from 1 to 240 solar masses)
with surface temperatures ~ 2.7 K distributed within and around galaxies. A significant percent of galactic dynamics
can be attributed to cosmic scale molecular bonds; electrostatic attractions of positively charged cosmic scale nuclei for
negatively charged cosmic scale electrons.
2.14.

Largest Stellar masses are ~ 150 solar masses FPT matches experimental data

Modern Physics estimates the largest stellar masses to be about 150 solar masses. FPT estimates the Suns mass to be
about 1 cosmic scale atomic mass unit (amu). The largest fission product masses, from either controlled fission or
nuclear explosions are about 150 amu. Newly formed fission products undergo a series of beta decays until stable
nuclei are formed. Each beta decay process radiates antineutrino energy from the nucleus. The final stable nuclear
mass is only slightly less than its parent fission product.
2.15.

WMAP 30 Kelvin anisotropies FPT matches experimental data

Anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation have been detected by WMAP at 30 K.
Applying the Doppler formula to the FPT predicted ambient flux of cosmic scale neutrons emitting radiation at T =
2.725 K but measured at T = 2.725 K 30 K indicate an ambient flux of cosmic scale neutrons moving at 3.3 km/s.
Nuclear explosion debris contains thermal neutrons with velocities as low as 2.2 km/s, and velocity is scale invariant.
2.16.

High energy cosmic ray acceleration FPT matches experimental data

Fissioning nuclei almost always split into two large fragments of unequal mass plus a few neutrons. Once formed, the
fission fragments rip through the electron cloud of the original fission nucleus as they pass into the surrounding
medium. The new born fission fragments appear as highly energetic and highly ionized (+20 to +22) ions. Any
quantum scale atoms in the path of newly formed cosmic scale ions will have their positive nuclei blasted away. The
Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cut off process applies to the highest energy cosmic rays interacting with the 2.7 K
CMB radiation through photoproduction or photodisintegration. Cosmic ray energies greater than 5 x 10 19 eV that
travel over 150 million light years will have their flux noticeably reduced due to these interactions. Therefore the
highest energy cosmic rays must be accelerated by cosmologically local sources. The cosmic scale proton charge is
3.40 x 1021 C. A quantum scale proton and cosmic scale proton separated by Neptunes orbital radius experiences
Coulomb potential energy:
(8.99 x 109 Nm2/C2)(1.60 x 10-19 C)(22)(3.40 x 1021 C)/30 AU = 24.0 J = 1.5 x 1020 eV
This energy is the same order of magnitude measured for very high energy cosmic rays! Furthermore, due to the
interaction of cosmic rays with CMB photons, the requirement of a cosmologically local accelerator is met. With the
enormous abundances of highly charged, spinning, spherically distributed cosmic scale electrons, it is readily apparent
why cosmic rays are observed to arrive at earth from all directions.
2.17.

Solar cycle of 22.2 years FPT matches experimental data

Unfissioned cosmic scale Uranium has combined with cosmic scale Oxygen to crystallize into cosmic scale UO2
crystals forming the core of the Milky Way galaxy. The UO2 crystal system is cubic; the structure type is fluorite. The
quantum scale length of the cells edge at room temperature = 5.47 x 10 -10 m which is fractally self-similar to the
cosmic scale UO2 crystal cells edge length = 2.07 x 1014 m = 1385 AU. The solar cycle is about 22.2 years long. The
solar system has a velocity of 368 km/s 2 km/s calculated from WMAP data. The solar system travels 1723 AUs
during one solar cycle. If the solar system travels at a 30 angle to a cells edge through a cosmic scale Uranium
Dioxide crystal, it will pass through 1 cosmic scale UO2 crystal in 22.2 years. Therefore regular periodicity observed in
the solar system can be correlated to points of gravitational and electric potential maxima and minima of cosmic scale
molten UO2.
2.18.

CMBR Temperature is 2.725 K FPT matches experimental data

Radiation emitted from the Sun is close to a black body curve; it is reasonable to expect radiation emitted at 2.725 K
would fit a black body curve. Stellar spectra reveal a majority of Hydrogen and Helium is present in hot stars. In Earth

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Fractal Physics Theory Success Summary and Proposed Experiments

labs, with surface gravity = 9.81 m/s2, Helium has a normal boiling point 4.222 K with atmospheric pressure 101325
Pa, and a superfluid transition temperature 2.1768 K with saturated vapor pressure 3130 Pa. FPT predicts local dark
cosmic scale solar mass neutrons, with surface gravity = 926 m/s2, are relatively near the solar system. FPT predicts
some cosmic scale neutrons have pure Helium atmospheres radiating at 2.725 K.
2.19.

Experiment 2. Echo Radar off nearby cosmic scale nuclei

If radar focused at anisotropies in the CMBR is reflected back within weeks then the current Big Bang model is
incorrect. Local cosmic scale nuclei and their cosmic scale electrons can be mapped by radar echo.
2.20.

Gamma-ray bursts are cosmic scale neutron collisions FPT matches experimental data

FPT proposes that gamma ray bursts arise from cosmic scale neutrons colliding with cosmic scale nuclei. Gamma-ray
bursts are currently detected by orbiting satellites ~ 1/day or 1/86400 seconds. Therefore the cosmic scale neutron
collision rate = 1.16 x 10-5 collisions/second measured relative to the human scale. This corresponds to a cosmic scale
neutron collision rate = 4.38 x 1018 collisions/second relative to the cosmic scale. This rate is self-similar to quantum
scale neutron collision rates in solid fissioning material just prior to explosion time.
2.21.

Supernovae and Nova are cosmic scale beta decay explosion moments FPT matches experimental data

One second into a 1 Megaton fission bomb explosion will have particles of radioactive and stable matter coalescing.
Many of the radioactive nuclei will be experiencing beta decay. At the end of beta decay an explosion occurs typically
hurtling the newly formed beta particle off at great velocities with the newly formed nuclei recoiling in the opposite
direction at a lower but high velocity.
2.22.

Galaxies are cosmic scale radioactive particles FPT matches experimental data

One second into a 1 Megaton fission bomb explosion will have particles of radioactive and stable matter coalescing.
Many of the radioactive nuclei will be experiencing beta decay.
2.23.

Binary stars are cosmic scale neutron absorption by cosmic scale nuclei FPT matches experimental data

One second into a 1 Megaton fission bomb explosion will have many nuclei in the process of absorbing free neutrons.
When this neutron capture process involves both the host nucleus and the captured orbiting neutron decaying, the pair
will appear as quantum scale binary stars.

3. Fractal Physics Theory Electrons, Photons, Wave-Particles, and Atomic Capacitors


3.1.

Fractal electron [6]

Modern Physics does not theoretically determine the electrons mass, electric charge, magnetic dipole moment, and
spin. These values can only be determined by measurement. The magnetic dipole moment is due to the spin. Modern
Physics considers the electron spin to be a Quantum Mechanical property that can not be visualized.
Fractal Physics Theory calculates the electrons mass, electric charge, magnetic dipole moment, and spin from the
properties of subquantum scale atoms. The electrons mass is composed of 1.2 x 10 52 of the most energetically stable
subquantum scale nuclei such as subquantum scale Iron and subquantum scale Nickel. Iron, Nickel, and to a lesser
extent Cobalt all have the unique duel distinction of being both stellar thermonuclear endpoints and when cool enough,
ferromagnets. The electrons charge is due to an excess of 2.1 x 1040 subquantum scale electrons on its surface.
Conducting metals contain a gas of mobile electrons that flow about the relatively stationary positive matrix. The
electron has a reservoir of 1.2 x 1052 subquantum scale conduction electrons available to provide surface current
generating the electrons magnetic dipole moment.
3.2.

Experiment 3. Electron lilliputian scale phase energy predictions

Fractal Physics Theory calculates the energies required to heat, melt, boil, disperse and completely ionize the
subquantum scale iron atoms of an electron (Table 3). For a given object, such as an electron, FPT predicts its wave
form to contain slightly higher mass-energy content than its particle form.

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Table 3, Electron phase energies relative to the Human scale


Phase #
Electron Phase
Energy (eV)
1
Heating Solid
5.46 x 10-6
2
Melting Solid
1.41 x 10-6
3
Heating Liquid
4.32 x 10-6
4
Boiling Liquid
3.57 x 10-6
5
Work against qs-gravity
0.015
to disperse gas
6
Ionizing Iron
0.400
3.3.

Wave/particle duality

Each subquantum scale atom composing an electron shares the same translational velocity as the electron. Encounters
with external fields of ambient objects can stimulate conversion of some of the electrons translational kinetic energy
into increasing the internal kinetic energy of the electrons subquantum scale atoms; the parallel subquantum scale
atoms translational velocities become randomized. The electron becomes hotter in the lilliputian scale and changes
phases. The quantum scale gaseous phase electron is now spreading out in space, delocalizing. Classical objects emit
radiation from their surface according to the Stefan-Boltzmann equation:
P = (surface area)T4

(6)

For a constant mass and size, a 10-fold increase in temperature results in a 10,000-fold increase in energy radiated per
unit time. According to the Viral Theorem, as a cloud expands, half of the gravitational potential energy gained comes
from the kinetic energy of the cloud. As a gas expands it cools. Self-similar lilliputian scale equations are predicted by
FPT to apply to objects such as electrons. For a given particle, a higher particle momentum has the potential to
generate a higher lilliputian scale internal temperature, leading to quantum scale phase changes, and emitting
subquantum scale radiation rapidly, thus limiting the delocalized size of the wave form (Figure 1).
Figure2,1,Electron
Electrondual
dualslit
slitexperiment
experiment
Figure

Screen

Electron waveform,
Qs-gaseous disk
Electron particle,
Qs-solid sphere

-V

+V

3.4.

Fractal Atomic Absorption and Emission FPT matches experimental data

A capacitor is a device that stores energy in an electrostatic field. A capacitor is charged if its plates carry equal and
opposite charges +q and q. Charge is directly proportionally to the potential difference between the plates, q = CV. A
charged capacitor has stored in it an electric potential energy U equal to the work done by an external agent as the
capacitor is charged. This energy can be recovered if the capacitor is allowed to discharge. FPT proposes that the 1.2 x
1052 subquantum scale atoms of the electron, in the ground state Hydrogen atom, disperses to occupy space within a
volume of radius b = a0. The 2 x 1040 excess subquantum scale electrons distribute themselves evenly across the
surface area of this volume. The ground state of this H-atom is now a spherical capacitor with capacitance:

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Fractal Physics Theory Success Summary and Proposed Experiments

C = (40ab)/(b a)
0
a
b

(7)
= permittivity constant
= the protons radius ~ 1fm
= a0

Using rn = n2r, spherical capacitor energy levels are calculated and n transitions between these energy levels
exactly reproduces the Bohr atom transition energies.
3.5.

Experiment 4. Measure the radius of the solid phase quantum scale electron

Fractal Physics Theory calculates the solid phase of the quantum scale electron to have a radius = 7.2 x 10-17 m.
3.6.

Origin of equal & opposite charges

Modern Physics does not explain why the proton charge is exactly equal and opposite the electron charge. FPT
proposes that during neutron beta decay 2.1 x 1040 subquantum scale electrons are ionized from the forming proton and
adhere to the forming electron. Exactly equal and opposite charges arise on the proton and electron.
3.7.

Experiment 5. FPT predicts the electrons mass slightly exceeds the positrons mass

If the subquantum scale Iron/Nickel main body of the electron includes 2.1 x 10 40 excess subquantum scale electrons,
then it seems reasonable to suspect the main body of the positron is also subquantum scale Iron/Nickel with 2.1 x 1040
missing subquantum scale electrons. The electron mass is predicted to exceed the positron mass by:
2(2.123 x 1040)(9.109 3826 x 10-31 kg)/(1.189 533 x 1057) = 3.25 x 10-47 kg
3.8.

Fractal photon

Fractal Physics Theory proposes that a photon is the result of an enormous collection of subquantum scale photons.
These subquantum scale photons all travel together in the same direction, are the same frequency, and are in phase. A
photon is the result of an enormous amplification of coherent subquantum scale photons. A photon is a subquantum
scale LASER pulse. Regardless of its frequency, a single photon has angular momentum spin S = = 1.054 572 x 10-34
Js. Using the scaling fractal = 4.506 624 x 1080, yields the cosmic scale value []1,0 = 4.752 559 x 1046 Js. A cosmic
scale photons spin angular moment of 4.752 559 x 1046 Js is due to the sum of the spin angular moment of 4.506 624 x
1080 photons. It is proposed that a photon is composed of 4.506 624 x 1080 subquantum scale photons. Each of the
4.506 624 x 1080 subquantum scale photons composing a single photon all have the same wavelength and frequency as
the parent photon. These subquantum scale photons all have the same energy equal to 1/4.506 624 x 1080 of the parent
photons energy.
3.9.

Fractal Beta Decay

Subquantum scale cosmic rays are proposed to exist flowing randomly amongst nuclei and electrons. These
subquantum scale cosmic rays will impinge upon the surfaces of nuclei and electrons if not deflected by protective
electric and magnetic fields. Protons and electrons are naturally protected from subquantum scale cosmic rays by their
inherent force fields. Free neutrons and neutrons bound in nuclei have various amounts of their surface areas
unprotected (exposed to bombarding subquantum scale cosmic rays). Various amounts of subquantum scale Helium is
available on free neutrons and nuclei to act as subquantum scale thermonuclear engine coolant, boiling away excess
heat which results from subquantum scale cosmic rays penetrating the nuclear surface.
3.10.

Experiment 6. Lower Beta-decay activity rates using subquantum scale liquid Helium

3.11.

Experiment 7. Predict when specific free neutrons will beta decay

The probabilistic nature of Beta decay can be improved upon. Detailed knowledge of the subquantum scale chemical
composition of free neutrons or nuclei and their neutron surface area exposure level will provide more accurate
predictions of specific nuclear lifetimes.
3.12.

Experiment 8. Raise Beta-decay activity rates by increasing flux of subquantum scale cosmic ray particles

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Fractal Physics Theory Success Summary and Proposed Experiments

4. Fractal Physics Theory - Nucleons and the Strong Nuclear Force


4.1.

Fractal Strong Nuclear Force [7]

The binding energy of a nucleus is the energy released when individual protons and neutrons are brought together to
form a nucleus. The strong nuclear force is claimed to be a combination of inter-nucleon interactions and intra-nucleon
interactions (Figure 2). The inter-nucleon interactions involve quantum scale (qs) gravitational attraction, the reducing
effects of the intervening neutrons lilliputian scale (ls) dielectric on proton-proton Coulomb repulsion and a variety of
lilliputian scale electromagnetic attractions induced by a proton on adjacent neutrons. The intra-nucleon interactions
involve subquantum scale (sqs) fusion of the nucleons composite subquantum scale atoms, which results in increasing
the subquantum scale nuclear bonds of the subquantum scale atomic nuclei composing the nucleons.

Figure 2, Fractal Strong Nuclear Force Diagram

Strong Nuclear Force


Figure 2, Diagram of the fractal strong nuclear force

Inter-nucleon Forces

Qs-Gravity

Proton-neutron
Polarized sqs-atoms
U = -E

4.2.

Ls-Coulombic

Proton-neutron-proton
ls-Dielectric
U = +pp/(4r)

Intra-nucleon Forces

Sqs-Fusion

Proton-neutron
Conduction sqs-electrons
U = -pnq/(40r)

Fractal nucleon quantum scale chemical compositions FPT matches experimental data

With just two postulates, that the pre-solar system mass is the mass of a cosmic scale neutron and that a cosmic scale
neutron is composed of 100% Hydrogen atoms, FPT can calculate the fractal chemical compositions and binding
energies of all nuclei (Z = 1 to 92+), refer to Tables 4, 5. It seems miraculous that the only way to obtain the mass of
the most stable nuclei such as Iron 56 by this FPT method, is to completely fuse all the subquantum scale Hydrogen
and subquantum scale Helium available in 56 separate protons and neutrons all the way to 100% subquantum scale Iron
56. No further subquantum scale fusion is possible. The Iron 56 nucleus is one of the most stable nuclei precisely
because it is composed entirely of subquantum scale Iron 56 atoms.
4.3.

Quantum scale gravity

Modern Physics Theory and Fractal Physics Theory diverge significantly on this point. FPT proposes that the
gravitational constant, G, is not scale invariant. The gravitational constant scaling fractal:
G = Length/Mass = 3.185 x 10-34 = [G]1,0/[G]-1,0
[G]1,0 = 6.6742 x 10-11 m3/(s2kg) gravitational constant at cosmic scale, measured relative to human scale
[G]-1,0 = 2.0956 x 1023 m3/(s2kg) gravitational constant at quantum scale, measured relative to human scale
4.4.

Experiments 9.a, 9.b, 9.c, etc., Many experiments will be able to distinguish between Modern Physics
Theorys gravitation constant and Fractal Physics Theorys quantum scale gravitation constant.

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Fractal Physics Theory Success Summary and Proposed Experiments

4.5.

Proposed origin of the Muon FPT matches experimental data

Cosmic scale beta decay of a cosmic scale neutron ends with mostly Helium formed in the core of the cosmic scale
proton. When cosmic rays (~ 90% protons) strike Earths upper atmosphere (mainly Nitrogen and Oxygen nuclei)
many pions are released that quickly decay into muons. The muons mass is 1.883 531 x 10-28 kg, which is 11.261 %
of the proton mass. The 1.900 826 x 10-28 kg of subquantum scale Helium roughly calculated to exist in a proton is
extremely close, 100.9 %, to the muons mass. It is proposed that the collision of a high energy proton and a Nitrogen
or Oxygen nucleus are releasing coated subquantum scale Helium cores from protons, the pions. The charged pion
then sheds its subquantum scale coated layer and the subquantum scale Helium fuses to subquantum scale Iron, the
muon. Helium 4 has zero spin and pions have zero spin. This mass of fused Iron equals 100.6% of the cs-muons
mass.
Table 4, Idealized subquantum scale chemical compositions
*[Hydrogen]-3,0
[Helium]-3,0
[Carbon]-3,0
[Magnesium]-3,0
[Iron]-3,0
Particle
(% Mass)
(% Mass)
(% Mass)
(% Mass)
(% Mass)
n
100.00
--------p+
88.64
11.36
------e
--------100.00
d+
83.45
16.55
------t+
61.99
38.01
------3
He2+
60.67
39.33
------4
He2+
--80.96
19.04
----12 6+
C
8.84
5.72
75.44
10.00
--56 26+
Fe
--------100.00
*[O]-3,0 refers to an object located in the subquantum scale as observed from the human scale
Table 5, Fractal strong nuclear force
Quantum Scale
Lilliputian Scale
Particle
% Gravity
% Coulombic
d+
0.08
33.18
t+
0.05
17.41
3
He2+
0.06
15.80
4
He2+
0.04
7.78
12 6+
C
0.16
16.81
56 26+
Fe
0.46
7.13

Subquantum Scale
% Fusion
66.74
82.54
84.14
92.18
83.03
92.41

5. Fractal Physics Theory Neutrinos and stars


5.1.

The sum total of electromagnetic radiation and neutrinos emitted during a stars life time is one antineutrino
relative to the cosmic scale [8]

Neutrinos and antineutrinos both arise during subquantum scale nuclear fusion and as such are considered to be similar.
The totality of a stars radiated energy (electromagnetic radiation plus neutrinos) over its nuclear burning lifetime
comprises one cosmic scale antineutrino. The Suns energy that constantly bathes the Earth is part of a single cosmic
scale antineutrino (Table 6). Likewise, an antineutrino is the result of an ever spreading sphere of subquantum scale
photons, which are not in phase, and include a wide range of subquantum scale frequencies. Fractal antineutrinos
continuously delocalize as they propagate; this differs markedly from Modern Physics antineutrinos.
Table 6, Solar Cosmic Scale Antineutrino Energy Over 9 Billion Years
Solar Radiation
Power (Watts)
Energy (Joules)
% Energy
Photons
3.8418 x 1026
1.0911 x 1044
97.60
Neutrinos
9.4394 x 1024
2.6810 x 1042
2.40
Total
3.9362 x 1026
1.1179 x 1044
100.00
Fractal Physics Theory claims solar neutrinos do not oscillate but have their energies transformed by interactions
with stable atomic surfaces, the lilliputian scale 2.7 K cold nuclear and electron surfaces. The neutrinos initial range
of subquantum scale photon energies are lowered to 1.570 x 10-79 Joules from absorption/radiation by the nuclear and
electron surfaces. This absorption/radiation of initial neutrino energy also increases the initial number of subquantum

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Fractal Physics Theory Success Summary and Proposed Experiments

scale photons by a factor = [fusing nuclei, surface temperature]-2,0/[1.246 x 1014 K]. The Sun emits electromagnetic
radiation approximately as Plancks radiation law; therefore the majority component of neutrino energy is modeled
with a scaled version of Plancks radiation law. Several radiation equations are generalized to scale; scaled radiation
equations are used to model neutrino emission.
5.2.

Experiments 10.a, 10.b, 10.c, etc., Many experiments will be able to distinguish between Modern Physics
Theory neutrinos and Fractal Physics Theory neutrinos.

6. Conclusion
Fractal Physics Theory is a scientific paradigm that incorporates Fractal Geometry concepts of infinity, scale relativity,
and self-similarity between scales, into the Universe and all its component pieces. This article summarized successes
of six Fractal Physics Theory articles currently available. Dozens of facets of this theory already match experimental
data, but far more important, many experiments are proposed that can refute Fractal Physics Theory. One group of
experiments can explore fractal neutrinos, while another can explore the fractal electron, and a third set of experiments
can probe radioactivity. There are two sets of experiments that should be fairly easy to perform, one probing quantum
scale gravity, and the other detecting nearby dark stars. This is the dawning of the age of Scalativity, when humanity
embraces infinity, through Fractal Physics.

References
[1] B. Mandelbrot, Fractal Geometry of Nature, W. H. Freeman & Company, New York, 1983.
[2] L. Nottale, Fractal Space-time and Microphysics, Towards a Theory of Scale Relativity, World Scientific,
Singapore, 1993.
[3] L. J. Malinowski, Fractal Physics Theory Foundation, Fundamental J. Modern Physics 1(2) (2011), 133-168.
[4] L. J. Malinowski, Fractal Physics Theory Cosmic Scale Nuclear Explosion Cosmology, Fundamental J. Modern
Physics 1(2) (2011), 169-195.
[5] L. J. Malinowski, Fractal Physics Theory Cosmic Scale Cation (Sgr+6) at the Galactic Center, Scalativity LLC,
Article 1 (2012), 1-9.
[6] L. J. Malinowski, Fractal Physics Theory Electrons, Photons, Wave-Particles, and Atomic Capacitors,
Fundamental J. Modern Physics 2(1) (2011), 73-88.
[7] L. J. Malinowski, Fractal Physics Theory Nucleons and the Strong Force, Fundamental J. Modern Physics 2(1)
(2011), 23-72.
[8] L. J. Malinowski, Fractal Physics Theory Neutrinos and Stars, Fundamental J. Modern Physics 1(2) (2011),
197-221.

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