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Leonard J. Malinowski

Scientist

LJMalinowski@gmail.com

Abstract

This article summarizes important results from six Fractal Physics Theory articles and proposes many experiments that

will either support or refute the theory. Fractal Physics Theory is a scientific paradigm that claims the entire Universe

and its composite quantum scale pieces such as nuclei, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and electric field lines are all

fractals. For instance a pure neutron is composed of 1.2 x 10 57 subquantum scale Hydrogen atoms. An electron is

composed of 1.2 x 1052 subquantum scale Iron atoms with an excess of 2.1 x 10 40 subquantum scale electrons. A

photon is composed of 4.5 x 1080 subquantum scale photons. The Fractal Universe also contains cosmic scale pieces

self-similar to quantum scale pieces such as cosmic scale nuclei, cosmic scale electrons, cosmic scale photons, cosmic

scale neutrinos, and cosmic scale electric field lines that are all fractals. For instance, ten billion years ago, the presolar system was a cosmic scale neutron. Our visible Universe is a cosmic scale ~ 1 Megaton fission explosion that

detonated ~ 1 titanic scale second ago, relative to the human scale. All the electromagnetic radiation and neutrinos

emitted by a star during its fusion burning cycle is one cosmic scale antineutrino.

1. Introduction

The current scientific paradigm, Modern Physics, stands on the pillars of Quantum Mechanics and Relativity, which

were erected early in the 20th century prior to space-flight, computers, even the Great Depression. Quantum Mechanics

introduced deviations from Euclidean geometry and typical human scale observations in order to understand atomic

scale data. Continuous properties of space, matter, energy, charge, etc, are replaced by quantized properties of space,

matter, energy, charge, etc. The certainty of an objects trajectory is replaced with trajectory probabilities. Quantum

Mechanics also eliminates the ability to simultaneously measure the precision of select property pairs such as position

and momentum. Relativity also introduced deviations from Euclidean geometry and typical human scale observations

in order to understand an objects properties when velocities approach the speed of light and properties of cosmic scale

matter (gravity). Space and time are combined into space-time. Matter is equated to energy. Properties such as length,

time and mass are linked to the relative velocity of an observer. Gravity becomes the curvature of space-time.

Modern Physics prefers to unify Quantum Mechanics and Relativity, but complete unification has not been achieved.

The author was born into this Modern Physics dichotomy paradigm while harboring an almost instinctual faith in the

infinite, rejecting a beginning or ending of time, or a limit to scale, whether minimum (subquantum) or maximum

(supercosmic). As the years continue to pass and experimental data amasses knowledge, the world has witnessed

another non-Euclidean geometry, Fractal Geometry [1], exponentially increase in its applicability to understand diverse

phenomena of the Universe. A truly Fractal Universe must incorporate infinity completely into Physics as well as scale

relativity [2], with the understanding that there must exist a self-similarity between scales. Quantum Mechanics and

Relativity have repeatedly been confirmed through experiment therefore these Modern Physics concepts must be valid

as a subset in a Fractal Universe. General Relativity does not address the ubiquity of cosmic scale charged objects so it

fails to describe galactic structure (missing mass and massive black holes) and larger stellar masses (neutron stars and

stellar mass black holes). Quantum Mechanics does not address nuclei and electron substructure, which contain

ubiquitous subquantum scale charged objects, so it fails to describe internal binding of nuclei (strong nuclear force and

weak nuclear force) and nuclei and electron lilliputian scale phase transitions (wave form and particle form).

2. Fractal Physics Theory Foundation & Cosmic Scale Nuclear Explosion Cosmology

2.1.

Postulates [3]

Fractal Physics Theory (FPT) is based on extending the two Special Relativity postulates to scale.

I.

Scientists (human observers) exist at the human scale whereby all measured properties of the Universe can be

compared relative to the scientists approximate mass, size, and awareness of time passage. FPT insists our human

scale is arbitrary.

II.

Based on these two postulates, it is possible to reorganize the vast quantity of experimental data amassed by science

into a much simpler, more symmetric, and more predictive framework. Many facets of Fractal Physics Theory already

match experimental data, but more importantly, many experiments can be conducted that could refute FPT.

How can the human scale be relative? Stars and galaxies appear to dominate the large scale, while atoms, photons,

and neutrinos appear to dominate the small scale. The ubiquity of Fractal Geometry provides the answer. The sum is

composed of self-similar parts and infinite magnification reveals infinite resolution.

2.2.

Consider stars:

Consider nuclei that are in the process of the beta decay moment:

can suddenly release beta particles with very high kinetic energy;

The vast majority of stars are fractally self-similar to nuclei in the process of beta decay. Stars are cosmic scale nuclei

in the process of cosmic scale beta decay. The sum of electromagnetic and neutrino radiation emitted by a star over its

life time is one cosmic scale antineutrino. An observer existing at the lilliputian scale (with mass ~ 7 x 10-56 kilograms,

and height ~ 5 x 10-24 meters) literally sees via neutrino energy. Likewise, by self-similarity, an observer at the

human scale literally sees via cosmic scale neutrino energy. Billions of years perceived at the human scale is

perceived at the titanic scale as ~ one microsecond. From self-similarity, 1 s perceived at the human scale is

perceived as billions of years at the lilliputian scale. It is fact that time, length, and mass are all relative to reference

frame motion. Fractal Physics Theory proposes that time, length, mass, etc., are relative to reference frame scale.

2.3. Definitions

A curious observation provides a convenient way to define a set of scales. A familiar human scale mass 57.768 kg

divided by the quantum scale neutron mass 1.675 x 10-27 kg equals 3.449 x 1028. Multiplying 57.768 kg by 3.449 x

1028 equals the cosmic scale solar system mass 1.992 x 1030 kg.

Object any system of mass and/or energy that exists in the universe, symbolized by O. Examples of objects: electron,

proton, neutron, atom, molecule, photon, person, car, house, planet, star, and galaxy.

Observable the measurement of a property of an object, symbolized by f(O). Examples of observables: an electrons

charge, a persons height, a planets mass, and a stars luminosity. For convenience, consider an observer always

present to witness the observable.

Scale a reference frame for establishing measurement units and defining their relationships

Fractal Universe the infinite set of scales, the scale contents, and the relationships between the scales, which

comprise physical reality.

Human Scale a reference frame scaled to the mass range of humans. The human observer is an object in a scale. The

observer is part of their scale. The units meter, kilogram, and second are relative to a humans scale of size, mass, and

awareness of time passage. Let an object located in the human scale be denoted by m = 0. Let an observation made in

the human scale be denoted by n = 0.

Cosmic Scale a reference frame scaled to the mass range of stars. Let an object located in the cosmic scale be

denoted by m = 1. Let an observation made in the cosmic scale be denoted by n = 1.

Quantum Scale a reference frame scaled to the mass range of atomic nuclei. Let an object located in the quantum

scale be denoted m = -1. Let an observation made in the quantum scale be denoted by n = -1.

Titanic Scale a reference frame more massive than but self-similar to the human scale. A reference frame scaled to

the mass range of humans multiplied by the factor M = (1.992 x 1030 kg)/(1.675 x 10-27 kg) ~ 1.19 x 1057. Let an

object located in the titanic scale be denoted by m = 2. Let an observation made in the titanic scale be denoted by

n = 2.

Lilliputian Scale a reference frame less massive than but self-similar to the human scale. A reference frame scaled to

the mass range of humans divided by the factor M ~ 1.19 x 1057. Let an object located in the lilliputian scale be

denoted by m = -2. Let an observation made in the lilliputian scale be denoted by n = -2.

Supercosmic Scale a reference frame more massive than but self-similar to the cosmic scale. A reference frame

scaled to the mass range of stars multiplied by the factor M ~ 1.19 x 1057. Let an object located in the supercosmic

scale be denoted by m = 3. Let an observation made in the supercosmic scale be denoted by n = 3.

Subquantum Scale a reference frame less massive than but self-similar to the quantum scale. A reference frame

scaled to the mass range of atomic nuclei divided by the factor M ~ 1.19 x 1057. Let an object located in the

subquantum scale be denoted by m = -3. Let an observation made in the subquantum scale be denoted by n = -3.

Scale Relativity the relativity of scale. The laws of physics are scale invariant. That is, the laws of physics are the

same in every scale as viewed from that scale. The laws of physics in scale m as observed in scale n = m are equivalent

to the laws of physics in scale m + x as observed in scale n = m + x. Where m, n, and x are defined by the set {,,

2, 1, 0, 1, 2,, +}. Every object exists within all the infinite scales simultaneously. Therefore, the measurement

of any observable of an object requires the specification of two scales, the objects scale and the observers scale.

Scaling Fractal represented by the symbol , is a unit less number that relates properties of self-similar objects

through simple division. Tables 1a, 1b list the SI units for seven defined scales.

Table 1a, International System of Units (SI) at Several Scales

Scale

Mass

Luminous Intensity

m

Name

Unit (kg)

Log(unit)

Unit (cd)

Log(unit)

85

50

4.10

x

10

85.61

1.76

x

10

50.25

3

Supercosmic

Length or Time

Unit (m or s)

Log(unit)

2.33 x 1035

35.37

Quantum

Lilliputian

1.19 x 1057

3.45 x 1028

1.00

2.90 x 10-29

8.41 x 10-58

57.08

28.54

0.00

-28.54

-57.08

3.14 x 1033

5.60 x 1016

1.00

1.78 x 10-17

3.18 x 10-34

33.50

16.75

0.00

-16.75

-33.50

3.79 x 1023

6.16 x 1011

1.00

1.62 x 10-12

2.64 x 10-24

23.58

11.79

0.00

-11.79

-23.58

Subquantum

2.44 x 10-86

-85.61

5.68 x 10-51

-50.25

4.29 x 10-36

-35.37

2

1

0

Titanic

Cosmic

Human

-1

-2

-3

Log(unit)/m =

28.538

16.748

11.789

Scale

Current

Mole

m

Name

Unit (A)

Log(unit) Unit (mol)

Log(unit)

25

1.33

x

10

25.12

1.00

0.00

3

Supercosmic

16

5.60 x 10

16.75

1.00

0.00

2

Titanic

Temperature

Unit (K)

Log(unit)

3.24 x 10-21

-20.49

-14

2.19 x 10

-13.66

1

0

-1

Cosmic

Human

Quantum

2.37 x 108

1.00

4.22 x 10-9

8.37

0.00

-8.37

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.48 x 10-7

1.00

6.76 x 106

-6.83

0.00

6.83

-2

Lilliputian

1.78 x 10-17

-16.75

1.00

0.00

4.57 x 1013

13.66

-26

-25.12

1.00

0.00

3.09 x 1020

20.49

-3

Subquantum

7.54 x 10

Log(unit)/m =

8.374

0.000

-6.830

2.4.

The Big Bang is a cosmic scale nuclear fission explosion about 1 titanic scale second into the fireball. The Big Bangs

energy came from cosmic scale fission reactions:

Uranium 235 nucleus + 1 neutron larger fission product + smaller fission product + few neutrons

The fission products peak around 95 solar masses and 135 solar masses. Newly formed fission products, on any scale,

are neutron rich and undergo a series of beta decays (appear as stars relative to some scale). A large percentage of a

nuclear fission explosions Uranium 235 and 238 do not take part in the fission. This provides much of the Universes

missing mass (radiating at 2.7 K in some scale). Combining data for the following: fission product yields, fission

product decay rates, neutron cross sections, an estimate of the pre-explosion Universe cosmic scale chemical

composition and the time since the Big Bang, allows the mass of essentially every star in the Universe to be determined

(not included in this series of articles).

Many free cosmic scale neutrons are still colliding with cosmic scale nuclei and scattering (gamma bursts) or are being

absorbed (binary star systems) while some are undergoing beta decay (the solar system).

2.5.

Calculation of cosmic scale cation charge at or near Sagittarius A (Sgr A*) [5]

Reference [5] scales observational data of S-stars that move in elliptical orbits within the central arcsecond of the

Milky Way Galaxy. Table 2 lists the gravitational potential energy between a massive black hole (MBH) at one foci

and the cosmic scale electron rest mass for S-stars at pericenter. This article considers a Coulombic potential energy

between a net positive charged object at one foci and a negative charged S-star at pericenter. A small adjustment is

made to the gravitational potential energy in Eq. (1) by using the relative cosmic scale electron mass. The gravitational

potential energy, EP(g), is equated to the Coulombic potential energy, EP(C). The distances drop from the calculation and

Eq. (1) is solved for the net positive charge (Z) at the position of Sgr A*:

- GMm2/R = - k(Zq)q/R, and solve for Z:

Z = GMm2/(kq2) = 6.0

G=

M=

m2 =

k=

q=

R=

(1)

MBH, see reference [5]

relative cosmic scale electron mass (for an S-star)

8.987551788 x 109 Nm2/C2

3.40123 x 1021 C

distance from S-star to Sgr A*

Fractal Physics Theory demonstrates that a cosmic scale cation of cosmic scale +6 charge can account for an attractive

potential energy at the Galactic Center near Sgr A*. Consider the fact that out of the infinite values of Z possible, only

integers from 1 to 92 are possible, and only integers from 1 to 22 are probable in Fractal Physics Theory. Equation 1

and Table 2 data convincingly supports Fractal Physics Theory!

Table 2, Net Charge at the Galactic Center Near Sgr A*

Star

M (kg)(1)

Z (Coulomb)(3)

S1

S2

S8

S12

S13

S14

8.6477 x 1036

8.5683 x 1036

8.6406 x 1036

8.5965 x 1036

8.5922 x 1036

8.6184 x 1036

1.08361 x 1027

1.08394 x 1027

1.08366 x 1027

1.08376 x 1027

1.08362 x 1027

1.08417 x 1027

6.02

5.96

6.01

5.98

5.98

6.00

(1)

Relative cosmic scale electron mass at Pericenter

(3)

Z = Net positive charge near Sgr A* using Eq. (1)

(2)

The physics of our Universe does not allow black holes to form. Cosmic scale charged masses fill the Universe and

consequently electromagnetic forces dominate both stellar and galactic structure. The orbital data carefully measured

for S-stars in the Galactic Center, when scaled using Fractal Physics Theory, yield data remarkably close to atomic data

found in authoritative texts such as the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. A cosmic scale +6 cation resides at

the Galactic Center, guiding its formation and structure. It is likely that similar cosmic scale cations reside at the

centers of many spiral galaxies, guiding their formation and structure. The Milky Way Galaxy may have a partner

spiral galaxy forming around the partner to Sgr A* cosmic scale fission fragment. The majority of spiral galaxies

may be similarly paired.

2.6.

Scaling Fractals ()

The mass scaling fractal is determined by dividing the mass of a cosmic scale neutron (1.9928 x 1030 kg, identified as

the pre-solar system mass) by the mass of the quantum scale neutron (1.6749 x 10-27 Kg):

Mass = M = 1.190 x 1057

By postulate 2, the speed of light scaling fractal is unity (c = c/c = 1). Therefore, Energy = Masscc = Mass;

energy and mass scale at the same rate.

The length scaling fractal is determined by dividing the estimated radius of a cosmic scale proton (3.789 x 108 m) by

the radius of the quantum scale proton (1.0 x 10-15 m):

Length = L = 3.789 x 1023

By postulate 2, c = 1, therefore time = Length/c = Length; time and length scale at the same rate.

It follows that:

1 angstrom to the human scale is 253 Astronomical Units to the lilliputian scale

12 billion light years to the human scale is 300 meters to the titanic scale.

Scaling Fractals are determined for many physical observables such as length, mass, time, current, charge, magnetic

fields, forces, constants, etc., all of which reduce to:

observable = (lengthj/2)(Massk/2)

(2)

j, k = {, , 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, , }

2.7.

In string theory particles are perceived as highly localized vibration of Planck length strings:

lp = (-1,0G1,0c-3)1/2

(3)

= [(1.054 5717 x 10-34 Js)(6.6742 x 10-11 Nm2/kg2)(299 792 458 m/s)-3]1/2 = 1.62 x 10-35 m

From the Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom and in particular quantized angular momentum:

= h/p

The relation has long been known:

mvnrn = n

2rn = nh/pn = n

The smallest atomic orbital circumferences are the ground state Helium shells (1s2 orbital) of the heaviest atoms. The

diameter of the helium shell for Radon (z = 86) ~ 0.02 . This shell has an average circumference = 2(1 x 10-12 m) =

6.28 x 10-12 m, which is also the smallest ground state wavelength of an atomic orbital in the quantum scale.

Fractal Physics Theory length scaling fractal:

L = 3.789 x 1023

A self-similar Radon atom existing at the subquantum scale will have a self-similar subquantum scale 1s2 orbital

circumference measured relative to the human scale:

[Radon, 1s2 circumference]-3,0 = 6.28 x 10-12 m/3.789 x 1023 = 1.66 x 10-35 meters

Vibrating string particles correspond to subquantum scale atoms. Strings are subquantum scale atomic oscillators.

2.8.

Plancks constant is not scale invariant. Measuring an electrons position with subquantum scale electromagnetic

radiation (a small percent of a single neutrino) will not significantly alter the electrons momentum. The position and

momentum of an electron can be determined, for practical purposes, simultaneously.

The fractal certainty principle:

[x]m,n[p]m,n [0.5]m,n

[t]m,n[E]m, n [0.5]m,n

(4)

n, m = {- -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 +}

The Fractal certainty principle embodies a paradigm shift for scientific inquiry. Fractal Physics Theory proposes it is

always possible to draw a picture of physical phenomena which can accurately describe the reality of the phenomena.

2.9.

FPT predicts that neutrino/antineutrino energy is mainly composed of subquantum scale electromagnetic radiation

(emr) emitted from quantum scale stars. Quantum cameras placed near concentrations of beta decaying matter can

capture images that when scaled-up, will resemble images of stars and galaxies. This subquantum scale emr can be

imaged, perhaps from bits of nuclear material, since nuclear material is composed of many different lilliputian scale

elements. Exposure times of 1 femtosecond will image subquantum scale emr for 12 lilliputian scale years. Aperture

sizes of 1 femtometer correspond to 379,000 subquantum scale kilometers. The Quantum camera must collect,

channel, and amplify subquantum scale photons until one quantum scale photon can be effected. The process continues

until an image is formed.

2.10.

Solar system is a cosmic scale neutron midway through cosmic scale beta decay FPT matches

experimental data

Our solar system is one cosmic scale neutron midway through the process of cosmic scale Beta decay. The sum total of

all the electromagnetic radiation and neutrino radiation emitted by the Sun in ~ 9 billion years is one cosmic scale

antineutrino.

Consider neutron Beta decay:

n p + e- + antie

(5)

The mass of the neutron (1.6749 x 10-27 kg) before the decay exceeds the masses of the proton (1.6726 x 10-27 kg) and

electron (9.1094 x 10-31 kg) after the decay. The missing mass (1.39 x 10-30 kg) is converted to energy (1.25 x 10-13 J),

the kinetic energy of the proton and the electron and creates the antineutrino. The energy liberated during cosmic scale

neutron beta decay (1.25 x 10-13 J) x (Energy = 1.190 x 1057) = 1.49 x 1044 J.

The current solar luminosity (3.8515 x 1026 W) radiating for 9 billion years equals 1.09 x 1044 J.

2.11.

Pre-Solar system mass was a cosmic scale neutron FPT matches experimental data

The neutron mass (1.6749 x 10-27 kg) divided by the electron mass (9.1094 x 10-31 kg) equals 1839.

The pre-solar system mass (1.9928 x 1030 kg) divided by 1839 equals the cosmic scale electron mass (1.084 x 1027 kg).

Planetary masses sum to 2.67 x 1027 kg. Therefore the Iron-Nickel cores of the planets could be the seeds of one

forming cosmic scale electron.

2.12.

The Big Bang looks like a Cosmic Scale 1 Megaton fission explosion FPT matches experimental data

Galactic spectra increase in redshifts as the estimated distances to these galaxies increase. Only a nuclear explosion,

about 1 second into the fireball, if viewed from the lilliputian scale, would have properties self-similar to human scale

observations of a Big Bang with all galaxies hurdling away from each other. The tremendous energy released that

powers a 1 Megaton nuclear explosion takes place in 0.60 s, which the lilliputian scale perceives as 7 billion years.

From self-similarity, FPT proposes that the energy that powered the Big Bang explosion was generated in 7 billion

years. Most of this energy, 99.9%, is released in the last 7 generations of fission. Therefore most of the Big Bang

energy was generated in the 840 million years immediately preceding the Big Bang. After 1.8 seconds, a 1 Megaton

nuclear explosion has a fireball radius of 960 meters. If our visible universe is 13.6 billion years old, then it could

have a radius = ct = 1.3 x 1026 meters. This corresponds to a titanic scale radius of 340 meters.

2.13.

The dynamics of galaxies and other cosmic structures require far more matter to exist in their vicinity than the matter

estimated present from observed stars. FPT considers the vast majority of visible stars to be cosmic scale neutron

rich cosmic scale fission fragments undergoing cosmic scale beta decay, the result of a cosmic scale fission explosion.

The amount of stable, non-decaying nuclei in a fission nuclear explosion far exceeds the amount of nuclei decaying.

Consequently, FPT predicts the missing mass to be a multitude of cosmic scale nuclei (from 1 to 240 solar masses)

with surface temperatures ~ 2.7 K distributed within and around galaxies. A significant percent of galactic dynamics

can be attributed to cosmic scale molecular bonds; electrostatic attractions of positively charged cosmic scale nuclei for

negatively charged cosmic scale electrons.

2.14.

Largest Stellar masses are ~ 150 solar masses FPT matches experimental data

Modern Physics estimates the largest stellar masses to be about 150 solar masses. FPT estimates the Suns mass to be

about 1 cosmic scale atomic mass unit (amu). The largest fission product masses, from either controlled fission or

nuclear explosions are about 150 amu. Newly formed fission products undergo a series of beta decays until stable

nuclei are formed. Each beta decay process radiates antineutrino energy from the nucleus. The final stable nuclear

mass is only slightly less than its parent fission product.

2.15.

Anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation have been detected by WMAP at 30 K.

Applying the Doppler formula to the FPT predicted ambient flux of cosmic scale neutrons emitting radiation at T =

2.725 K but measured at T = 2.725 K 30 K indicate an ambient flux of cosmic scale neutrons moving at 3.3 km/s.

Nuclear explosion debris contains thermal neutrons with velocities as low as 2.2 km/s, and velocity is scale invariant.

2.16.

Fissioning nuclei almost always split into two large fragments of unequal mass plus a few neutrons. Once formed, the

fission fragments rip through the electron cloud of the original fission nucleus as they pass into the surrounding

medium. The new born fission fragments appear as highly energetic and highly ionized (+20 to +22) ions. Any

quantum scale atoms in the path of newly formed cosmic scale ions will have their positive nuclei blasted away. The

Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cut off process applies to the highest energy cosmic rays interacting with the 2.7 K

CMB radiation through photoproduction or photodisintegration. Cosmic ray energies greater than 5 x 10 19 eV that

travel over 150 million light years will have their flux noticeably reduced due to these interactions. Therefore the

highest energy cosmic rays must be accelerated by cosmologically local sources. The cosmic scale proton charge is

3.40 x 1021 C. A quantum scale proton and cosmic scale proton separated by Neptunes orbital radius experiences

Coulomb potential energy:

(8.99 x 109 Nm2/C2)(1.60 x 10-19 C)(22)(3.40 x 1021 C)/30 AU = 24.0 J = 1.5 x 1020 eV

This energy is the same order of magnitude measured for very high energy cosmic rays! Furthermore, due to the

interaction of cosmic rays with CMB photons, the requirement of a cosmologically local accelerator is met. With the

enormous abundances of highly charged, spinning, spherically distributed cosmic scale electrons, it is readily apparent

why cosmic rays are observed to arrive at earth from all directions.

2.17.

Unfissioned cosmic scale Uranium has combined with cosmic scale Oxygen to crystallize into cosmic scale UO2

crystals forming the core of the Milky Way galaxy. The UO2 crystal system is cubic; the structure type is fluorite. The

quantum scale length of the cells edge at room temperature = 5.47 x 10 -10 m which is fractally self-similar to the

cosmic scale UO2 crystal cells edge length = 2.07 x 1014 m = 1385 AU. The solar cycle is about 22.2 years long. The

solar system has a velocity of 368 km/s 2 km/s calculated from WMAP data. The solar system travels 1723 AUs

during one solar cycle. If the solar system travels at a 30 angle to a cells edge through a cosmic scale Uranium

Dioxide crystal, it will pass through 1 cosmic scale UO2 crystal in 22.2 years. Therefore regular periodicity observed in

the solar system can be correlated to points of gravitational and electric potential maxima and minima of cosmic scale

molten UO2.

2.18.

Radiation emitted from the Sun is close to a black body curve; it is reasonable to expect radiation emitted at 2.725 K

would fit a black body curve. Stellar spectra reveal a majority of Hydrogen and Helium is present in hot stars. In Earth

labs, with surface gravity = 9.81 m/s2, Helium has a normal boiling point 4.222 K with atmospheric pressure 101325

Pa, and a superfluid transition temperature 2.1768 K with saturated vapor pressure 3130 Pa. FPT predicts local dark

cosmic scale solar mass neutrons, with surface gravity = 926 m/s2, are relatively near the solar system. FPT predicts

some cosmic scale neutrons have pure Helium atmospheres radiating at 2.725 K.

2.19.

If radar focused at anisotropies in the CMBR is reflected back within weeks then the current Big Bang model is

incorrect. Local cosmic scale nuclei and their cosmic scale electrons can be mapped by radar echo.

2.20.

Gamma-ray bursts are cosmic scale neutron collisions FPT matches experimental data

FPT proposes that gamma ray bursts arise from cosmic scale neutrons colliding with cosmic scale nuclei. Gamma-ray

bursts are currently detected by orbiting satellites ~ 1/day or 1/86400 seconds. Therefore the cosmic scale neutron

collision rate = 1.16 x 10-5 collisions/second measured relative to the human scale. This corresponds to a cosmic scale

neutron collision rate = 4.38 x 1018 collisions/second relative to the cosmic scale. This rate is self-similar to quantum

scale neutron collision rates in solid fissioning material just prior to explosion time.

2.21.

Supernovae and Nova are cosmic scale beta decay explosion moments FPT matches experimental data

One second into a 1 Megaton fission bomb explosion will have particles of radioactive and stable matter coalescing.

Many of the radioactive nuclei will be experiencing beta decay. At the end of beta decay an explosion occurs typically

hurtling the newly formed beta particle off at great velocities with the newly formed nuclei recoiling in the opposite

direction at a lower but high velocity.

2.22.

Galaxies are cosmic scale radioactive particles FPT matches experimental data

One second into a 1 Megaton fission bomb explosion will have particles of radioactive and stable matter coalescing.

Many of the radioactive nuclei will be experiencing beta decay.

2.23.

Binary stars are cosmic scale neutron absorption by cosmic scale nuclei FPT matches experimental data

One second into a 1 Megaton fission bomb explosion will have many nuclei in the process of absorbing free neutrons.

When this neutron capture process involves both the host nucleus and the captured orbiting neutron decaying, the pair

will appear as quantum scale binary stars.

3.1.

Modern Physics does not theoretically determine the electrons mass, electric charge, magnetic dipole moment, and

spin. These values can only be determined by measurement. The magnetic dipole moment is due to the spin. Modern

Physics considers the electron spin to be a Quantum Mechanical property that can not be visualized.

Fractal Physics Theory calculates the electrons mass, electric charge, magnetic dipole moment, and spin from the

properties of subquantum scale atoms. The electrons mass is composed of 1.2 x 10 52 of the most energetically stable

subquantum scale nuclei such as subquantum scale Iron and subquantum scale Nickel. Iron, Nickel, and to a lesser

extent Cobalt all have the unique duel distinction of being both stellar thermonuclear endpoints and when cool enough,

ferromagnets. The electrons charge is due to an excess of 2.1 x 1040 subquantum scale electrons on its surface.

Conducting metals contain a gas of mobile electrons that flow about the relatively stationary positive matrix. The

electron has a reservoir of 1.2 x 1052 subquantum scale conduction electrons available to provide surface current

generating the electrons magnetic dipole moment.

3.2.

Fractal Physics Theory calculates the energies required to heat, melt, boil, disperse and completely ionize the

subquantum scale iron atoms of an electron (Table 3). For a given object, such as an electron, FPT predicts its wave

form to contain slightly higher mass-energy content than its particle form.

Phase #

Electron Phase

Energy (eV)

1

Heating Solid

5.46 x 10-6

2

Melting Solid

1.41 x 10-6

3

Heating Liquid

4.32 x 10-6

4

Boiling Liquid

3.57 x 10-6

5

Work against qs-gravity

0.015

to disperse gas

6

Ionizing Iron

0.400

3.3.

Wave/particle duality

Each subquantum scale atom composing an electron shares the same translational velocity as the electron. Encounters

with external fields of ambient objects can stimulate conversion of some of the electrons translational kinetic energy

into increasing the internal kinetic energy of the electrons subquantum scale atoms; the parallel subquantum scale

atoms translational velocities become randomized. The electron becomes hotter in the lilliputian scale and changes

phases. The quantum scale gaseous phase electron is now spreading out in space, delocalizing. Classical objects emit

radiation from their surface according to the Stefan-Boltzmann equation:

P = (surface area)T4

(6)

For a constant mass and size, a 10-fold increase in temperature results in a 10,000-fold increase in energy radiated per

unit time. According to the Viral Theorem, as a cloud expands, half of the gravitational potential energy gained comes

from the kinetic energy of the cloud. As a gas expands it cools. Self-similar lilliputian scale equations are predicted by

FPT to apply to objects such as electrons. For a given particle, a higher particle momentum has the potential to

generate a higher lilliputian scale internal temperature, leading to quantum scale phase changes, and emitting

subquantum scale radiation rapidly, thus limiting the delocalized size of the wave form (Figure 1).

Figure2,1,Electron

Electrondual

dualslit

slitexperiment

experiment

Figure

Screen

Electron waveform,

Qs-gaseous disk

Electron particle,

Qs-solid sphere

-V

+V

3.4.

A capacitor is a device that stores energy in an electrostatic field. A capacitor is charged if its plates carry equal and

opposite charges +q and q. Charge is directly proportionally to the potential difference between the plates, q = CV. A

charged capacitor has stored in it an electric potential energy U equal to the work done by an external agent as the

capacitor is charged. This energy can be recovered if the capacitor is allowed to discharge. FPT proposes that the 1.2 x

1052 subquantum scale atoms of the electron, in the ground state Hydrogen atom, disperses to occupy space within a

volume of radius b = a0. The 2 x 1040 excess subquantum scale electrons distribute themselves evenly across the

surface area of this volume. The ground state of this H-atom is now a spherical capacitor with capacitance:

C = (40ab)/(b a)

0

a

b

(7)

= permittivity constant

= the protons radius ~ 1fm

= a0

Using rn = n2r, spherical capacitor energy levels are calculated and n transitions between these energy levels

exactly reproduces the Bohr atom transition energies.

3.5.

Experiment 4. Measure the radius of the solid phase quantum scale electron

Fractal Physics Theory calculates the solid phase of the quantum scale electron to have a radius = 7.2 x 10-17 m.

3.6.

Modern Physics does not explain why the proton charge is exactly equal and opposite the electron charge. FPT

proposes that during neutron beta decay 2.1 x 1040 subquantum scale electrons are ionized from the forming proton and

adhere to the forming electron. Exactly equal and opposite charges arise on the proton and electron.

3.7.

Experiment 5. FPT predicts the electrons mass slightly exceeds the positrons mass

If the subquantum scale Iron/Nickel main body of the electron includes 2.1 x 10 40 excess subquantum scale electrons,

then it seems reasonable to suspect the main body of the positron is also subquantum scale Iron/Nickel with 2.1 x 1040

missing subquantum scale electrons. The electron mass is predicted to exceed the positron mass by:

2(2.123 x 1040)(9.109 3826 x 10-31 kg)/(1.189 533 x 1057) = 3.25 x 10-47 kg

3.8.

Fractal photon

Fractal Physics Theory proposes that a photon is the result of an enormous collection of subquantum scale photons.

These subquantum scale photons all travel together in the same direction, are the same frequency, and are in phase. A

photon is the result of an enormous amplification of coherent subquantum scale photons. A photon is a subquantum

scale LASER pulse. Regardless of its frequency, a single photon has angular momentum spin S = = 1.054 572 x 10-34

Js. Using the scaling fractal = 4.506 624 x 1080, yields the cosmic scale value []1,0 = 4.752 559 x 1046 Js. A cosmic

scale photons spin angular moment of 4.752 559 x 1046 Js is due to the sum of the spin angular moment of 4.506 624 x

1080 photons. It is proposed that a photon is composed of 4.506 624 x 1080 subquantum scale photons. Each of the

4.506 624 x 1080 subquantum scale photons composing a single photon all have the same wavelength and frequency as

the parent photon. These subquantum scale photons all have the same energy equal to 1/4.506 624 x 1080 of the parent

photons energy.

3.9.

Subquantum scale cosmic rays are proposed to exist flowing randomly amongst nuclei and electrons. These

subquantum scale cosmic rays will impinge upon the surfaces of nuclei and electrons if not deflected by protective

electric and magnetic fields. Protons and electrons are naturally protected from subquantum scale cosmic rays by their

inherent force fields. Free neutrons and neutrons bound in nuclei have various amounts of their surface areas

unprotected (exposed to bombarding subquantum scale cosmic rays). Various amounts of subquantum scale Helium is

available on free neutrons and nuclei to act as subquantum scale thermonuclear engine coolant, boiling away excess

heat which results from subquantum scale cosmic rays penetrating the nuclear surface.

3.10.

Experiment 6. Lower Beta-decay activity rates using subquantum scale liquid Helium

3.11.

The probabilistic nature of Beta decay can be improved upon. Detailed knowledge of the subquantum scale chemical

composition of free neutrons or nuclei and their neutron surface area exposure level will provide more accurate

predictions of specific nuclear lifetimes.

3.12.

Experiment 8. Raise Beta-decay activity rates by increasing flux of subquantum scale cosmic ray particles

10

4.1.

The binding energy of a nucleus is the energy released when individual protons and neutrons are brought together to

form a nucleus. The strong nuclear force is claimed to be a combination of inter-nucleon interactions and intra-nucleon

interactions (Figure 2). The inter-nucleon interactions involve quantum scale (qs) gravitational attraction, the reducing

effects of the intervening neutrons lilliputian scale (ls) dielectric on proton-proton Coulomb repulsion and a variety of

lilliputian scale electromagnetic attractions induced by a proton on adjacent neutrons. The intra-nucleon interactions

involve subquantum scale (sqs) fusion of the nucleons composite subquantum scale atoms, which results in increasing

the subquantum scale nuclear bonds of the subquantum scale atomic nuclei composing the nucleons.

Figure 2, Diagram of the fractal strong nuclear force

Inter-nucleon Forces

Qs-Gravity

Proton-neutron

Polarized sqs-atoms

U = -E

4.2.

Ls-Coulombic

Proton-neutron-proton

ls-Dielectric

U = +pp/(4r)

Intra-nucleon Forces

Sqs-Fusion

Proton-neutron

Conduction sqs-electrons

U = -pnq/(40r)

Fractal nucleon quantum scale chemical compositions FPT matches experimental data

With just two postulates, that the pre-solar system mass is the mass of a cosmic scale neutron and that a cosmic scale

neutron is composed of 100% Hydrogen atoms, FPT can calculate the fractal chemical compositions and binding

energies of all nuclei (Z = 1 to 92+), refer to Tables 4, 5. It seems miraculous that the only way to obtain the mass of

the most stable nuclei such as Iron 56 by this FPT method, is to completely fuse all the subquantum scale Hydrogen

and subquantum scale Helium available in 56 separate protons and neutrons all the way to 100% subquantum scale Iron

56. No further subquantum scale fusion is possible. The Iron 56 nucleus is one of the most stable nuclei precisely

because it is composed entirely of subquantum scale Iron 56 atoms.

4.3.

Modern Physics Theory and Fractal Physics Theory diverge significantly on this point. FPT proposes that the

gravitational constant, G, is not scale invariant. The gravitational constant scaling fractal:

G = Length/Mass = 3.185 x 10-34 = [G]1,0/[G]-1,0

[G]1,0 = 6.6742 x 10-11 m3/(s2kg) gravitational constant at cosmic scale, measured relative to human scale

[G]-1,0 = 2.0956 x 1023 m3/(s2kg) gravitational constant at quantum scale, measured relative to human scale

4.4.

Experiments 9.a, 9.b, 9.c, etc., Many experiments will be able to distinguish between Modern Physics

Theorys gravitation constant and Fractal Physics Theorys quantum scale gravitation constant.

11

4.5.

Cosmic scale beta decay of a cosmic scale neutron ends with mostly Helium formed in the core of the cosmic scale

proton. When cosmic rays (~ 90% protons) strike Earths upper atmosphere (mainly Nitrogen and Oxygen nuclei)

many pions are released that quickly decay into muons. The muons mass is 1.883 531 x 10-28 kg, which is 11.261 %

of the proton mass. The 1.900 826 x 10-28 kg of subquantum scale Helium roughly calculated to exist in a proton is

extremely close, 100.9 %, to the muons mass. It is proposed that the collision of a high energy proton and a Nitrogen

or Oxygen nucleus are releasing coated subquantum scale Helium cores from protons, the pions. The charged pion

then sheds its subquantum scale coated layer and the subquantum scale Helium fuses to subquantum scale Iron, the

muon. Helium 4 has zero spin and pions have zero spin. This mass of fused Iron equals 100.6% of the cs-muons

mass.

Table 4, Idealized subquantum scale chemical compositions

*[Hydrogen]-3,0

[Helium]-3,0

[Carbon]-3,0

[Magnesium]-3,0

[Iron]-3,0

Particle

(% Mass)

(% Mass)

(% Mass)

(% Mass)

(% Mass)

n

100.00

--------p+

88.64

11.36

------e

--------100.00

d+

83.45

16.55

------t+

61.99

38.01

------3

He2+

60.67

39.33

------4

He2+

--80.96

19.04

----12 6+

C

8.84

5.72

75.44

10.00

--56 26+

Fe

--------100.00

*[O]-3,0 refers to an object located in the subquantum scale as observed from the human scale

Table 5, Fractal strong nuclear force

Quantum Scale

Lilliputian Scale

Particle

% Gravity

% Coulombic

d+

0.08

33.18

t+

0.05

17.41

3

He2+

0.06

15.80

4

He2+

0.04

7.78

12 6+

C

0.16

16.81

56 26+

Fe

0.46

7.13

Subquantum Scale

% Fusion

66.74

82.54

84.14

92.18

83.03

92.41

5.1.

The sum total of electromagnetic radiation and neutrinos emitted during a stars life time is one antineutrino

relative to the cosmic scale [8]

Neutrinos and antineutrinos both arise during subquantum scale nuclear fusion and as such are considered to be similar.

The totality of a stars radiated energy (electromagnetic radiation plus neutrinos) over its nuclear burning lifetime

comprises one cosmic scale antineutrino. The Suns energy that constantly bathes the Earth is part of a single cosmic

scale antineutrino (Table 6). Likewise, an antineutrino is the result of an ever spreading sphere of subquantum scale

photons, which are not in phase, and include a wide range of subquantum scale frequencies. Fractal antineutrinos

continuously delocalize as they propagate; this differs markedly from Modern Physics antineutrinos.

Table 6, Solar Cosmic Scale Antineutrino Energy Over 9 Billion Years

Solar Radiation

Power (Watts)

Energy (Joules)

% Energy

Photons

3.8418 x 1026

1.0911 x 1044

97.60

Neutrinos

9.4394 x 1024

2.6810 x 1042

2.40

Total

3.9362 x 1026

1.1179 x 1044

100.00

Fractal Physics Theory claims solar neutrinos do not oscillate but have their energies transformed by interactions

with stable atomic surfaces, the lilliputian scale 2.7 K cold nuclear and electron surfaces. The neutrinos initial range

of subquantum scale photon energies are lowered to 1.570 x 10-79 Joules from absorption/radiation by the nuclear and

electron surfaces. This absorption/radiation of initial neutrino energy also increases the initial number of subquantum

12

scale photons by a factor = [fusing nuclei, surface temperature]-2,0/[1.246 x 1014 K]. The Sun emits electromagnetic

radiation approximately as Plancks radiation law; therefore the majority component of neutrino energy is modeled

with a scaled version of Plancks radiation law. Several radiation equations are generalized to scale; scaled radiation

equations are used to model neutrino emission.

5.2.

Experiments 10.a, 10.b, 10.c, etc., Many experiments will be able to distinguish between Modern Physics

Theory neutrinos and Fractal Physics Theory neutrinos.

6. Conclusion

Fractal Physics Theory is a scientific paradigm that incorporates Fractal Geometry concepts of infinity, scale relativity,

and self-similarity between scales, into the Universe and all its component pieces. This article summarized successes

of six Fractal Physics Theory articles currently available. Dozens of facets of this theory already match experimental

data, but far more important, many experiments are proposed that can refute Fractal Physics Theory. One group of

experiments can explore fractal neutrinos, while another can explore the fractal electron, and a third set of experiments

can probe radioactivity. There are two sets of experiments that should be fairly easy to perform, one probing quantum

scale gravity, and the other detecting nearby dark stars. This is the dawning of the age of Scalativity, when humanity

embraces infinity, through Fractal Physics.

References

[1] B. Mandelbrot, Fractal Geometry of Nature, W. H. Freeman & Company, New York, 1983.

[2] L. Nottale, Fractal Space-time and Microphysics, Towards a Theory of Scale Relativity, World Scientific,

Singapore, 1993.

[3] L. J. Malinowski, Fractal Physics Theory Foundation, Fundamental J. Modern Physics 1(2) (2011), 133-168.

[4] L. J. Malinowski, Fractal Physics Theory Cosmic Scale Nuclear Explosion Cosmology, Fundamental J. Modern

Physics 1(2) (2011), 169-195.

[5] L. J. Malinowski, Fractal Physics Theory Cosmic Scale Cation (Sgr+6) at the Galactic Center, Scalativity LLC,

Article 1 (2012), 1-9.

[6] L. J. Malinowski, Fractal Physics Theory Electrons, Photons, Wave-Particles, and Atomic Capacitors,

Fundamental J. Modern Physics 2(1) (2011), 73-88.

[7] L. J. Malinowski, Fractal Physics Theory Nucleons and the Strong Force, Fundamental J. Modern Physics 2(1)

(2011), 23-72.

[8] L. J. Malinowski, Fractal Physics Theory Neutrinos and Stars, Fundamental J. Modern Physics 1(2) (2011),

197-221.

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