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:-'trrr. e~ri!NT-.

It ~


1 90~ .


~ining ~arbitttr!J.


by its aid constderablc sM ing in production is obtained.

There arc dra" backs, without doubt. to its use, but these
Ta e application of electricity to coal-mining machinery are a~ nothing when compared to the ad\'antages to be
in this country has made great strides during the last few looked for. Such is evident!,, the opinion of the members
Its adoption in our m ine3 came considerably of the Departmental Committee which has been consider
later than wa.s the case either on the Continent or in mg the use of electricity in mines, and whose report. has
America; but since the st!l.rt the progress has been fast. tcccntly been issued. One sentence of this report we 111ay
The numbers of collieries in Great Britain which arc now quote: - " When, therefore, W<' reflect upon the lllitigation
making use of electricity is large. Practically the only of severe and exhausting !abou t, and the far greater
direction in which this form of power is not employed efficiency that the use of clcctticit.y is likely to produce,
extensively is in winding a.od main ver.tilation. Possibly and which ought to result in benefit to the miner, the
this may come in time, but at present there are but few consumct, and the coaiO\\ net ulikc, we ha\'c no hesitation

! mulators, or faulty mains. From a number of most

interesting cxperimcntP, carried out by 1\Ir. Wm. Charles
)fountain-of Mesers Erne~t Scott and Mountain,
Limited, of ~ ewcastle-on behalf of the Departmental
Committee, with electric motors running in explosive
mixtures, it appeared that C\'en with an open-type motor
r.parking badly the mixture had to reach the strength of
10 to 1 before explosion took place. A mixture of 16 to 1
would not explode. An enclosed motor, on the other
hand, ran for three hours in a 10 to 1 mixture, with the
brushes specially adJusted to produce sparking, wtthout
explosion taking place. ?IIoreovcr, this same motor in


. -


plants o either types at worlt. \ ' entilation by electrical

means has hardly received the attention which we feel
will be devoted to it in the near future. Details of an
electrically-driven fan installation unfortunately reached
us t?o late for inclusion in this Supplement. They will,
however, be found in another pnrt of this issue. With
these two exceptions electricity may be said to be \\ idcl,y
and increasing!~ used in all depnrtmcnts of coal mining,
in lighting, pumping, hauling, coal cutting, and in working
the other munifarious machine!-! and apparatus at bank
which go to form the equipment of a modem collier,,.
It is the purpose of this Supplement to lay before our
readers some few details of these ''urious applications o{
electricity, and to die cuss the ad vauta.ges offered by this
form of power.
Twenty years ago it would have been hard to convince
a colliery manager that any but the methods he had been
brought up to were of any value. Now, howc,er,
conditions hMe altered. Econom.Y is Rought for in every
direction, and the desire to produce cheaply has in the
majority of instances oYercome consenatism.
l\Ioreover, the younger generation, ns it has grown up, hac;
imported modem ideas into the bU!,iness ; so that every
too of coal which can be saved is sMed, and seams arc
now worked to pay which fonnerly would have been
passed over as impracticable by hand methods. To this
end the electrica.lly-driven coal cutter has largely con
tl'ibuted, but the result is also due in some measure to all
the uses to wh ich electricity is put in the mines, and to the
more efficient haulage, pumping, and lighting thereby
Electricity offers a number of advantaaes for work in
coal mines. Perhaps t he chief of these
the ea-.e and
economy with which it can be comeycd and utili!-.ed to
fa.r-off points, and positions to which it would be well nigh
nnpossible to take any other form of power economicallJ.
Then, too, it is readily ad~p tcd to ditl'cring condWons, and




in saying that this new agent ought to be welcomed. " lo

welcoming it the Committee have drawn up a set oi rules
and regulations which the~ suggest shall be adhered to
in all mines using electricity.
We have, unfortunate!,\, not got the space to deal w1th
these suggested rulei! at any length. We way say. howe,cr, that the majority arc such as will be acceplcd b.'
users and makers alike a-> being most beneficial and
nccel'lsary to the safe use of this form of enetgy. There
arc other rules !'uggcsted, howc ,er, which it is thought
by our manufacturers and users-all of whom arc most
anxious to do ever.vthing "hich may conducc to the St\fct,r
of the miners-wiJI not only not do good, but may pos
sibly do harm by hampering the industry. However, '' e
understand that the 1Ion1e ofOce is being mo~;t
inHuentiall.r approached, and we ha\ c e' cr,v renHon to
hope that the final rules, '~hen issued, will be acceptable
to all.
J n the early days of elcctricttl engineering there \\ere
too few reall~ mechanical engineers who interested them
"ehcs in the design and manufacture of electrical plant.
Thi!-> stigma has long been remo\ cd, and now electrical
machines of all kinds are produced which attain a. high
state of mechanical perfection. Perhaps in no branch of
engineering is strength and endurance more culled for
than in coal mining. l>own a pit machines are constantly
being subjected to nuntberlcf!s strains which . above
ground would only come upon them very exceptionally.
All coal-mining machinery should be capable of being
I pulled up short without damage.
A fall of roof or any
<~imilar obstruction may suddenly stop a haulage system,
for example. Again, in damp mines, trouble may be met
"ith in the fonn of water. Thiq i<~ a contingency only
'er) remotely possible abo,:e .gro~n d.
When the use of electnc1ty m .coal mmes was fin,t
mooted, a great deal of ~tress" a" laJd on the ?anger from
explosion due to !~parking, whether from sw 1tches, com

the condition ran (or three-quarters or an hour irt

a mi.xture of 8 to 1 without the mixture being ex
ploded. It was also started and stopped several time!l
in rapid succession, again without explosion. The current
on these occasions wall. of course, considerably in excess
of the normal, and there wai consequently excessi\'G
These experiments ha' o hecn confirmed by other!'!, and
it '' ould appear, the>rcforc, that one of the chief reasons
for noL using electricity is, to a gtcat extent, remo,cd.
\\'ith so much preface, we can proceed to describe
,arious types of machines "hi eh are now at use in our
mines. In doing so we ha'e to acknowledge our indebtedness to the various makers who have pro"ided us
with the materials and information which we are now
able to lay before our readers. In a case of this kind it
is impo!isible to mention c,cry mal<er, and because the
names of some ma,\ be omitted, this hy no means
~ignilies that the m'\chine ~ they mo.nufacturc are 10 any
waJ inferior to those wl11ch arc illustrated.


Electrical coal winding ha!\ no~ been practised In thi!~

c>otmtry to the same extent L\~ abroad. There is a wide
spread feeling thnt it would not pay to discard the excel lent steam engines now employed in nearly every
inAtance. Possibly, ah;o, there is a certain distrust of things
electrical which remains ftom early times and prevents the
uc;e of electrical mA.Cbinery in this direction. Be this as it
may, the fact remains tl11it on!,, in a very limited numbe1
of instances is electric "indiog resorted to.
we are enabled to desert be one plant, at all event~:- 1
,.,.Juch has been at work in this country for some
tunc, and )la... ghen, so we understand, e\Cl,\

.Jrx 2-1 , 190-1



b&.tisfaction. The installation in que~>tion ib at work

in the Yictona Ptt of the lleckmondwike Collieries
Compan~, Limited. The ... cam being worked i... called
the Lo w :\Ioor Black Bed. Tbc winding plant became
necessan owing to the cropping m of a hu~>e .. fault
or ' thrO\\ ,.. about 1000 yard from the pit bottont.
H ere the ~et\llt ib thrO\\ 11 dO\\ n a 'ertical depth of
60 yard from the original le' cl. In order to "et at the
lowet portion of this seam. it. was found ~ece~"ar\
c~thcr to drh c a _large inclined drift or to sink a ~Staple
ptt. Had the dnft been dcctded upon, it would ha'e

diameter. The pit top is fitted with Callers or keps, the

whole being arranged exactly ab in ordinary cases. The
winding gear ewplo,Yed ib shown in Fig. 1, page i. It
i& said to be capable of raising from 1.30 to 200 tons per
day of 10 hour<~.
On the tmrface there is a horizontal singlec;.linder
engme, the C,\ tinder being 16in. diameter b,\ 36in ....troke.
The ... team pt'Ct'Sure i-; :;o lb. per ~-ooquare inch, and th<:
engine nm-; ~ti 80 tc,olut.iom, per minute. Thib engine
dth e., t\ continuou.,current compoundwound four pole
d~ nnmo of :iO,OOO wntt.s cn.pucit.', and capable of gi' ing

motion gearing i~o lllllchine cut forged steel, and the second
is machmemoulded ca!>t iron. There are two brake -one
of the ordinar.} btuHl type, and the other, which ma.' be
seen at the lefthund ~ide of the engrtning, is \\ orked
electrically, and it come;. into action immediately the
curr<:nt cca.,es to fio,,. It. i~-oo, "0 we gather, strong enough
to ... ustain the lot\d, so that no danger should en ue from
il.ll accidental bret\ki ng of the circuit.
An indicator,
\\ ork<:cl ofT the get\r, is pro,ided, and the whole is operated
b\ mcnnll of n liquid controlling ;.witch, arranged 01'
crsing !lnd speed t 'f:rllation. The whole of thi~



> "





--------- ----'~


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___


_ __

_ __ __


~ --~ ~ .

- ......;:



invoked a grudienL or ] in G, ~~ud a length or, St\y,

It waa calculated that this would cost
860 yards.
some 1960, wr. eas the staple pit was actuall_y
sunk at a co~>t ol .10 per yard, or a total of 600.
This shows a net saving of 1360, as against the
drilting scheme, and we gather that the cost ~f the
winding plant and of the fitting up of the shaft clid not
amount to more than would been required to fit up

\oiLs at 1::1.')0 l'C\ olutiom; per minute. The currcnt is

taken to the botto111 i-lht\ft b_v two lcngtha of 19fl 7 cable,
each 230 ,yards long. This cable i~ insulated with vul
canised bitu1ucn, tuld i~> protected with a double armour
ing of gnhanised steel \\ ires. The "in bye" cables, or
those running to the winding 'gear to the shaft bottom ,
consi~;t of t\\ o lOOOyard length-, of 19 17 cable, also
insulated with 'ulcanised bitumen, and supported by





the dr1ft "ith a lmuh\ge plauL The annual cost of main

tenance is in ft.nour of the Ktnplc pit, and the cost of
handling the coal about the same in each case. The coal
was, moreover, won nine months sooner than it would
have been had the drift been decided upon. The new
shaft is circular, and iH9ft. in dia.weter inside the walling.
It is fitted with two bead pulleys 3ft. in diameter, and
with two cages, each made to carr.} one tub, the cages
b~ing kept in poFition by two guides of wire rope Jin. in


mc;uiiLtot.; along th<> oacl. Thl' \\ inding gear c:otn.i.,b of a

clrum :3ft. in dituuctcr, drhcn by a fourpole motortbrough
b\ o se b. of rccluction geating, the mtio of reduction being
about 151 to 1. At the ordinary speed of winding, the
60 yards of rope are wound up in from 40 to 45 secs. The
motor iH serie~wound, and is designed to work up to 40
efTecti' e horsepower at o. speed of 500 re,olutions
per minutf"'. The armature is of the slotted drum
t.' pc, "ith forwcrwound embedded coilb. The firbt

intetct-.Ling in~Ltdlo.tion was suppbd by Messrs. Eroest

Scott and Mountain, and was carried out under the
1mpe1 'i~;ion and to the requirements of Mr. Parkin,
wanage of the Hcckmondwike Collieries.
The engraving :-how~> how cowpact the plant is.
Indeed, this ca.pabi)jty of conducing to compactness i& a
JUost u>.eful atttibutc of the electric motor.
An electrical winding engine for coal mines, which,
t_hough not a.t work in this country, was made by a British
fir1~1:-Messrs. Ma.ther and Platt-and is working in a
Bnt1sh Colony, is shown in Fig. 2, aboYe. This machine
is, as will be seen, provided with two drums, as it was sup
plied to be used in sinking as well as for winding. The
righthand drum is loose on its shaft, but can be thrown
into gear with the other by means of a. claw clutch at the
rightha.nd side of the machine-this clutch cannot be
seen in the engraving. The winclino drums are each 4ft.
in diameter, and the total work with which the machine
has been designed to deal is the li!ting of one ton a.t the
rate of ~OOft. a t:J?inute, or a speed of the drum of nearly 50
revolutiOns a mmute. A glance at the engraving will
serve to show how the machine is worked. The motor
~ves by a belt on to a countersha.ft.
An adjustable
JOCkey pulley presl:les on the top of the belt and keeps it
tight, this being necessary owing to the shortness of the
drive. The pulley runs free on the countershaft, but the
latter can be m ade to rc,ol ve with the pulley by means of
a l\Iather a.nd friction clutch, which we describe
in another part of this l:lupplement.
This clutch is
actuated by a signal lever. The countershafthas keyed to
it two be' cl wheels, either of which can be made to revohe
by a doubl~ ?rown clutch worked by the other signal lever
01~ the d_m mg platfonn.
These bevel wheels engage
"1Lh n. tbnd bevel "heel on a. cross shaft which carries a
toothed pin.ion ; thi>i in itR turn engages with the toothed
\\heel on the drum .,haft. From the end of the shaft is
tlllien a. t'mnll extension spindle which i pro\'ided with a
won11. This worm works into a wom1 wheel fixed at the
lower end of the 'ertical spindle of a re,olution indicator
ju ... t ns in ordinnry colliery \\'inding practice. The has~
p~a~e of the mtlchine is made up of cast iron girders -;ub
dl\ 1ded for cas.} t1o.n<~pol't, and to enable the 'ariou-;
pot'tions to he more readily lo" ered down a. shaft. The
motor ill~tstr?-ted is of the t~'o p~1ase induction type, with
a shortCircutted rotor. It 1s sru.d to be capable of giving
out 40 brake horsepower when running at a. speed of
750 revolutions per minute. The motors can be started
"light," thereby doing away with complicated switch
gear. On starting, the friction clutch is out of gear, and
all that the motor has to do is to turn the belt and the
loose pulley on the countersha.ft. The double crown


2-f, 190-l


clutch is then thrO\\ n to whichever side 1t ib desired, the

friction clutch is gradually closed, and the motor takes
up the load. Starting and stopping is brought about by
means of a switch worked by foot from the driving plat

in Fig. 4 below. It is installed at the Dean and

Chapter Colliery, near Ferryhill in D wham, belonging to
~lel"srs. Bolcko", \'aughan, and Co., Limited. It is dri, en
b.' a thn cph'\c;e induction type motor of 100 horse-power


only it is belt dri,en on to pulJeys en both side;

of a cross shaft. The pump plungers ba,e a diameter
of 6in. with a ..troke of 12in. The) arc designed for
de}i,eting 150 gnllons per minute-9000 gallons per hour

- - - - - -------- --- -- ----



--------- -


.~~------------------- ----~-~------------------




form , and the whole may be temted a workmanlike and nnd GOO 'olt:- per phal-le. The petiodicity is 50, and it
rulllo at 5 0 re\ olutiom1 per minute. The lllotor i~> fitted
compact piece of engineering design.
with !<lip ringR for "tarting, and is prodded with a le\ e1
which t->hortcircuits the rotor, and raises the brushes
--"hen full speed il> reached. It dri' es the pump~> b.\
means of l'ix 1tin diameter cotton ropes. The pwup is
of the threeC,\ tinder horizontal type, the crank axle being
wean~; of a cross shaft and
Messrs. J:..rncst Scott and Mountruo possess the great dri' en from both euds by

advantage as manufacturers of electrical mining machi gearing, lhi.., being a Rpecial feature in all .Jlessr.:;. Scott
oer,y in being also maker of the engines to dri,e the and Mountain\ larger mining pumps. The rams are or
generators, and of the' arious geats and appliances which gun-metal, and lOin. in diameter, and the stroke i~; lJin,

-against a head of 800ft. This pump is dtiveu in a

somewhat unusual manner by weans of the two-pole
undertypc motor shown in Fig. ;), on tbib page. It \\ill
be seen that this ml)tor, which is of 60 brnke horse-power,
ha!i fom bearing:- ROd t" o tlanged pulle~s . Jn a sm11!kr

Fi & 5 T WO



are drh en Ly the lllOlob. Thus the.) are makers of

hauling and '' inding gear>l, and also of pumps. \ Ve hM e
seen a number of each type both at rest and in motion,
and we propo!!e to gi'e descriptions of se,eral of In the Jo.rger of pumps this firm prefers
rope dri,ing for trnnRmittiog the power of the motors
to the pumps. Fo1 the smaller bowe' er, gear
ing is employed. The first pump which we propose
to de~-.crihc, and ''hi eh has been speciaJiy det-i!.{necl
!or chi\ ing b,, ropc!j Crow an electric wotor, i!o; b hO\\ n



The nmuucr of t'CYolulions it> about 42 per lll.inutc, and

the pump ib cont-trucled to deliver 500 gallons per minute
under a head of 400ft. Anothet feature about thi~-. firm'R
pumps j., that all the pump bands, vahes, glands, &c.,
are all inlerchangeable.
At the Bronghton and Plas Power Collierie.:;, near
\\"rcxhtun , }[cssrs. Ernest ScotL tuld Mountain ha' e
installed several electricallydrh en pumping plants.
One of these it> siluilur in de~:;ign, though ~mall er. to the
, pump just clcbcribcd and shown in Fg. 1 abo\ c,



plo.nt than the foregoing, and at the same colliery, the

pump hM, l1ke the foregomg, three barrels. each 4in. m
ditunctcl' and Uin. Hlrokc. It l'i de-.:ignc<l to <lcliver
GO gnllons of waler per minute again!\t a bead of 125ft.
H i'i drh en b,\ a 5 horse-power motor. Still another bel.
&l!>O at the Broughton and Plab Po" er Collier.", is <:hO\\ n

.J I



in Pig. 7, belo''. This h n 'e~ compact plant, and i,

o sub-di,iclcd in con .... trucllon - ns, mdecd, are all the
pmnps made h.\ this finn - thu.t there is no difficulLy in
getting it in pieces do\\ n a -.haft. no lllt\tter how snHI-11
this may be. ThiH set, a~l\in, has three bttrrcls, each ;)iu.
'" diameter and ha\ ing tl 7in ....troke. H i... capable or
deli\ering 0 g1tllons per winute again .... t tt head of :l:JOft.
"hen runumg at, approxnuately, .;;) re\ olutions pet'
minute. The pump i1:1 dri' en through clouble reduction

\ E ~

J, 19 0 I

the engranng-;-connectiu~ it to the other pole or the

circuit. The d1pper plate 1s attached to the rod work1ng
in the vertical guide. Thh; rod has. o. piston fitted to 1t,
which is pressed upwardH by 9: ~opnug. If the !an.dle lb
drawn to one side or the other, 1t pull ~:~ dO\\ n th1., p1ston,
depre~sing the plate into the liquid, and if the hawlle i~
let go. it Hies back, due lo tbe pressure of the 1-pnng, to
the olfpo,ition. Thert! 1s a. small lockmg catch\\ luch can
be seen on the top of the connecting link, ''"hich holds

eou1pound enclosed engine of 330 mdicated horse po" er

dri,ing d1rect a :lOO-kilowatt oix-pole generator of the
same \'OI tage ns the foregoi11g; one :lOO brake horsepO\\ er
motor; two 150 brake horHe-power motorH; two cnd_lesH
rope haulage gears for opemting three roads; tbc vanou!i
pumping 1110tors to which '' e ~MC ulluded, _and . f'?ur
7 ~ bor"c-power motor-., these bemg euplo.' ed 10 dn\'lng
machiner,\, including the Kcrecn~, at bank. .
A compact little double centrifugal pumpmg plant b.'




gearing by an 11! brake hotsepowcr motor of MeR!;rs.

Scott and Mountain's Class S type. The motor has four
pole~;, and is what is tenned seH-contained--tbat i;,, it ht\S
no need of an outside bea1-iog, l>oth bcaringb being carried
in th e end covers. It runs at970 re,olutions per JUinut<:.
In addition to the foregoing, there is another 5 hotse
power motor fitted '' ith '~onn gear tc<luctioo for dri' ing

the same firm is shown in Fig. 3, page ii. Thls is at

work at the Langle.v Park Colliery of the Comett lron
CompanJ. Limited. The motor, which is of the entirel,)
enclosed t,\ pe, gi,es 20 orakc h orse-power at 950 re,olutionl! per minute.
'l'he pump il! intended to deliver
200 gallonH per minute agt\inst a head of 100ft. It is
started nnd stopped by one of the finn '11 iquid wining






the handle in the central position. In fiery pits thih fi rm

has fitted metallic controllers, with the S\\ itches arranged
to work in oil.
By the courtesJ' of ;\Iessrs. Scott and Mountain, we
\'isited two collieries tiLted up b_y them, and were enabled
to obKervc their methods or installing pumping machiner,\',
F igs. 13 and 14, page 'i., gi,e o.n t!xcellent ideo. of l\\O


n. smgle barrel pump whi eh was pl'l:\ iouasl.' dri H:ll Lj swilchef., one of '' hicl, for forwurJ Ol' Lack\\ ttrd uml~1;.,tuurul pmupin~ plant:;. on<. of them dn\ ell lJY a
We may, perhaps, mention here, though it is not
immediately connected with pumpin g, Wi.t':~ which for the
moment we are dea.ling, tho.t Messrs . S~ott and Mow1tain
have installed a large a.111ount of electrical machlnery at
this collierv. This includes two horizontal compound
engines, each of :J.jO indicated horsc-pO\\ er; two 200-.kilowatt compound-wound four-pole generators, rope drnen,
with a voltage of () 0 to 600 at full load; one vertical

working, is Rhown i11 Fig. 6, page iii. This il:> the tJ pe of

reversing switch the fi11n recomm ends for pumping,
haulage gears, &c., in non -fiery Ulines. It is \cry
siluilar to the fot1u tl!~ed in the \\indin~ gear at
the Ileck rnonchdke Collier~, and sho\\ n m Fi~. 1,
page 1.
The couuuutntor is in the form of two
plates; the large plate is attached to the top of the
switch, '' hich i.... one pole of the circuit; the l>maller plate
is insulated from this, and has a tenniual - not ShO\\ n in

direct.-cun-ent and the other by n three-phase motor. 'l'he

first o! these is at. work at the ~outh Durham Collie I':\ ComPM.V'H pit t~t Bi~-ohop Auckland. 'l'IH plant is vcr,, '~-oimilnr
to thut nt l\l cssrs. Bolcl<ow, \'aughnn's D ean and Chapter
Collier), altcad~ clescrihccl. Thcu lll'C bH> sets, nnrl each is
de-..igned to deliH:l 500 gallon .... of'' ulcr pet minute against
a head of 400ft. The motors arc of 120 effecti'c horsepo" er, and are '' ouml for 1-30 'olt!-1 direct current. They
arc o the four-pole entirely open t~ pc, and l'C' oh e


.J l'Xt:

~I, 190 I


-00 re\olutionc; per 111inute. The.' dri' e the pumps b.\

rope. and run aL 4-iO re\ oluLion<,, the pumps makinu ~H
revolutions pu lll;nul".
The <ngra\ ing shows "thC'
switehb:nml and 111 ~ins, bolh clcc Ltic and '''~Ler. In the
engraving, Fig. 14, is ~oohown the undetground pump-room
at the TyTaygt Colliery of the Tredegnr Iron and Coal Corn
p:1ny. L imitt'd. The pump~ are identic:~.! in form with

F ig . 9- THREE-':~YLINDER

that already desctihnd, but the plungers are 9in. in

diameter with a 15in. Rtroke, n,nd they make 26 revolutions per minute. They aae designed to deliver 250
~allons of water per minute against a head of 650ft.
The motor is, as already stated, three-phase, with a
periodicity of 4.0. Its horRe-powet is 75, and it runs at
590 revolutions per minute. We are infotmed that its
efficiency is 8 per cent., with a power factor of 0 93.
Starting switches, volt meters, ammeters, fuses, &c., are
provided, and may be seen in the engra,ing.
At this colliery also this firm has installed a large
amount of plant which is of intereRt because it is three
phase. The main engines are horizontal coupled-corn
pound, and run at a slow speed. 'l'hey dri,e the
generators by cotton ropes. The pressure of the
generators, which are of the revolving field type, is from
500 to 550 volts per phase, and the periodicity 40. Each
generator has 14 poles, and gi,es 290 amperes per phase
at 500 volts with a non-inducti,e load, each ha,'iog an
output of 250 kilo. volt-amperes, and there are three of
them. Two pits are equipped, and the c-urrent is stepped
up to 2000 volts for ttansmission from the one to the
other. Three-core cables insulated with vulcanised fibre
and vulcanised bitumen. The main cables are double
steel wire armoured. D own the Old C'oal Seam shaft,
which is 220 yardH deep, the cables each weigh 2J tons
in the shaft. They arc fixed on twelve steel gtrders,
12in. x 6in., spaced u.t 60fL. centres, and the cable is hung
in a double pitch pine cleat, lift. )Qng by lOin. square.. It
is fastened to the joi~;t by 1in. diameter bolts passmg
thaough the wood, and having a ~in. wwught iron plate
back and front. Underground the cables have been
laid as far A.'! possible in steel semi-tube!! filled solid w.ith
bitumen compound in all swampy places. The tu~mg
runs at the Ride of and below the rails of the engrne
plane. where risks of damage from falls or wrecked
journeys is remote. Hubbish i!! filled ovet t~~ tubes
throughout their length to an a,erage depth of lJm. All
these cables nre laid throu~h intake roads. There are
several JOint boxes in the lines. all of the three-core

Fo~. 11

20-H. P.




Rwe \le l type. The boxes are accommodated ~n substan

tie.l bri k pits constructed in cement, with cast 1ron coverll.
One p 1mp is worked at a distance of 1900 yards from th.e
shaft. There are thirteen moton; at Ty Tryst, thear



aggaegate output being I t.i brak<' horAe> power. Fig. 16,

}>!l.l{C' \i .. !lhO\\,; :\ di.,LrilmLtll~ hoard at the Old Coal Seam
pu11tp-roott1. I L ''ill l1e "een Lhnt thete are no lllarllle or
<>lnle p:mel-;, the ~>wilche~. ,\:c., beina tnounted on an ana)e.
iron frame, an1l insulated b_y p oa;elain insulators. The
m:~.ker:; infoam us lhat in damp pumproomti this con
struction hnc; gi,cn excellent results. The Bed'' ellt,




Colliery is about a mile from Ty Tryst. Fig. 17, page vi.,

shows the step-down transformer and low.tension distributing board a.t the formet place, and Fig. 26, page x.,
one of the Rttwtets a"ld controllets used for the

.;o horse-power

rentrifugal pump, coupled direct on the

c;ame bed-pint< to an endo.,ed L.\ pe motor with gratings for
'entilation un1l in.,pecton. 'fhe suction nnd discharge
pipes ar<:, it ''all be cd, ea t in one with the bed
plate. This pump is intended to raise 240,000 gallons of
water per hour against a. head of 25ft. The speed of the
motor is 400 re\'olutions per minute. Fig. 11 represents
a 20 horse-power enclosed type motor, direct coupled on
the same bed-plate thtough double reduction gearing to a
set of three throw vertical plunger pumps.
diameter of the plunger is 4~in., and the stroke Sin.
The motor tuns at 1\ Rpeed of 500 re,olutions per minute,
and the combined set was designed to deliver 3000 gallons
of water per hout against a head of 900ft. per minute.
Fig. 12 represents a much smaller pump than either of
the fotegoing. It is, as will be seen, a thtee-throw pump,
the cylinders being set at an angle of 120 de g. apart. This
dip pump was made to deliver 4200 gallons of water per
hour against a head o 120ft., the motor being of 5 horse
power, ~tnd running at 800 revolutions per minute. All
the motors in the foregoing combined sets were of the
firm's standard enclosed mining type, were direct-current
machines, and were wound for a voltage of 450.
Another firm which mal<es engines, pumps, hauJing
and other gear, besides electric machinery, is Messrs.
:\l ather and Platt.
A type of pump which they
strongly recommend for work in coal mines is their cen
trifugal pump. Among the points wherein this pump i:1
claimed to possess special advantages may be mentioned
that it has no moving parts in contact saring in its bearings, and that hence weo.r and tear are at a minimum ;
that it has no need of air vec;selt:, and since it runs at a
high speed it can be designed to occupy a small space;
that h easy foundations are unnecessary ; and that, owing
to the Rpeed of its rotation, the pump can be coupled direct
to the spindle of an electt-ic or other motor, thus ob\'iating
the necessit.Y of gearing. The feature of this pump is
that it consi~->ts of one or more sets o vanes or impellers,
each running in its own chambet but upon the same shaft.
T he height to which a given quantity of water can be
pumped \'aries directly with the number of chambers thus
used togethet in series.
Axial thrust is ~liminated
in this pump.
The water enters the re,ohing
wheel nxit\l ly, ttfwese.> the euned internal passages
between the \'anc3, a1d is di~ch:.a.rged tangentially at tho

-- - - -=-




gears at thic; colliery, for both pumping and hauling are

done there. The whole installation is full of inter~st.
There is IH no means agreement as to whether it is
better to use direct or polyphase cunent io coal mines.
Three-phase cunent is being ex ten si vely u~>ed, but
it is doubtful if it will ever entirely displace direct
Fig. 8, page i,., shows a pumping pla nt electrically
equipped by the Electric Construction Company. The
motor is o the three-phase type of 36 brake horse-power. It
works at 40 volts and 50 periods per second. It is direc~
coupled through double teduction gearing to a three
throw hoa-izontal pump, made by Messrs . .] oseph Evans
and Co., of Woherhampton. There is a. bye-pass on the
rising main which allows the motor to be started up
aaainst o. light lond.
It will be observed that the
b;d-plate is Hubdividecl to enable the machine to be casil_y
got down a shaft. and that the whole forms a well
designed and ... trong conRtruction.
The pump has
C\ tinders 1:lin. U\ 9ir.
In Figs. 9, 10, il, and 12, on this page, nre gi,en illustra
tions of a series of pump~, electrically equipped by ?\le<;srs.
)fMor and Coulson. and especially designed for work in
mine~. These illustralionR \'ety

describe them
sehe~, but we nH\~ usefully add the folio" ing infom1a
tion :-Fig. 9 is intended to delivet 2000 gallons of water
per hour againNt a. head of 660ft. The pumps are three
throw, and are connected through double reduction
gearina to an enclosed motor bolted to the t-ame
bedpl~te. The speed of the motor, which is pro,ided ,~ ith grating covered door" for inspection pur
poseR, is 600 te,olutions per minute, and it is of
12 brake hotse-po'' er.
The pump plungers are
Sin. in diameter, and the strol<e is 5in. Fig. 10 shows a




pe.-ipher.r into a stationary guide ring which conveys it.lo

~be annular chamber in the body of the pump, where the
velocity is converted into pressure head. Tbe water is
nowhere forced to undergo a sudden change of dircctio:1

F l~.





or to meet with a sudden difference of cross section in

the pa-;Rage... \\ e ha' e pre\ iou-.1,, referred to the con
t-t1uction of thi" pump, nnd there i'i therefore no need to
cliscns!l it ftn1.lwr here. "e hl\\ e merel~ tn'>erted the
foregoing \.{1 muku our dc ..cription of lhe engro.nng-

.J t s ~;



l'ig. l.i. ht:"IO\\ -tLil tlw cllnrt>r. Thi... illu ..ttn.tion l'(')ln'
f,>llt<'hambt'tl'cl pump, <h-.i~twcl to lift 1000
gallons of "ftll'l" pl:l' tninult ngain.. t u. lotul head ol ;J20fl.
This rt'pl"t>"t'nb 't'l',\ twarl.' 100 hor ..C'-powcr. 'l'his pump

F og. 1?-P..JM P



tu:le, on "hich prc-. .. tht> Lru ..hes. Jn the cngrt\\ ing the
motor '" -.ho'' n '' ith its lic1uid starting re"'t..,tance. "hidt is
tUTangNI to ... hurt-circuit a<. soon ns th<' motor hus rl'ached
itq nonnnl "'P<Nl. \\ ,. do not (JUiU !mow '' h<thrr n lit nit,




posed of r;oft annular di~cs clamped in n co.'lt iron frame

und <;tamped "ith slots for the in;;ulated conductors. The
rotor winditl" is of the drum type. and the ends of the
c1rcuit... are Crought out and att~ched to ~lip ling~ on the

sufllr<'. Tl would l1e im idio>Us to ~~t~ that thi ... flnn ol'lhat
hrul done the m (Is!. \\ ork nf thi-. kincl, unci we >-h.tll u.ttempt
no ~;uch thing. Sn eral makcts ha' e Lcen rourteous
cnough to place photogrnph ... ancl p~trticulars t~l out di,.

Fi a;. 14-PUMP ROO M ,

is coupl~d direct through n tltxible coupling to a 160 bmke has been teached to the head obtainable b:-. putting more
hon.e-powcr three-pha ...e induction molot, working at 220 and more pumps in -;eries; but we under.,tand. at all e,ent...,
,-olts, a periodicity of .;o, and a speed o 750 reyoJutions that ) fessrs. ) f ather and P latt are prepared to supply
per minute under nonnnl conditions. The motor ha'! pump" of this type to work under a head or OOft.
eight poles and a comparati ,ely lnrge diamete1.
These fttcts, taken togethen\'ith the special type
of slot U!ooed. enable a high
power factor to be obtained. There i!,, a 2 mm.
clearance between roto
and stator. T he actual
pump efficienCJ is said to
be 75 per cent. at full load,
and the combined fullload efficienc-' of pump
and motor ~9 5 per cent.
This makes the efficiency

of the motor 92 6 pet

cent. at full load, and it i-;
therefore not surprising
to find that the temperat ure rise is low. No doubt
the motor has been thus
designed with a view t.o
its working for prolonged
periods in position'! where
t he ,entilation may be

none too good. \\' e understand that the temperat ure rise after eight hours'
continuous l"tln at full
load was only 1 deg.
Cent. The efficiency

this motor does not fall

seriously e'en when the
load is varied 2;3 per cent
either l\bo'e or below fu ll load.
Thi'i motor mav

be taken a<; a typical exan1ple or the three- pha~e
motor made by Messr,. :\father and P latt, saving thllt
Electricit\ lends it;;clf readily
to haulage work, and
it-. perioclicit\ of 50 i>o 10 in excess of what i'l

tLctualh take~ ac; the standard. The c.;tator i. . com hnulng.e and pumping form lhP two directionH in




lllld we fo>hall now ptoccc<l to descti lw rertain

installationR which appear to us to embody feature;. which
are wotth y of notice. ) f essrs. Emest Scott and ) fountain
lun c ,.upplied a large number of haulage gears of
different kinds, and their
experience in this direction is undoubtedly extensive.
\Ve haH; had
thP opportunity of seeing
so111e of their installations.
notabh one 111 \\ hich
electt;city "as just in the
process of being used for
replacing a steam engine.
This firm usually prefers
to driYe its m ining hauling engines of the large
!>ize by m eans of ropes,
and the smaller sizes by
gearing. An example of
the fotmer is shown in
Fig. 18, p age ,ii.
Thi<; is installed in the
llroughton and Pia<; Power
Colliery near Wrexham,
where there are a num ber
of electricallvdriven
nge plants at work. The
particular gear \\ hich we
illustrate is situated at a
point 1130 yar d'! from t he
Rhaft bottom. It iH dl'iYen
b.\ ropes by a 150 brake
horRe-power rontiououscunent motor, and it is
proYided with three clrums
for endless ropes. This
gellr is of speciall.\ heavy
clef>ign, the rope wheels being 6ft. 6in . diameter, and each
fitted with H all's type of friction clutch and automatic
brake, the clutch and brake being operated by hand wheel
from the driYing platfonn. The driYing pulle,\ is 8ft. in
diameter. grooYed for nine ropes 1 {in. diamctet. Thi.,


which electt;city it> most employed in Tiriti~h coal mines.

It wo\tlcl be quite impo'lr;ible to de<~ct;Le a hundredth part
of the nuu1erous electrically-dri' en plants for either of
these purpose.,, and a ..,hort reference to one or two mu . . t

2-+, 1904



hauh\ge gear iRconstntcted to deliver about850 tons to the

pit bottom per shift or eigh t h om.,, the total length of road
operated being 4470 yards. A haulage-room ""itch board
i~ pro\ ided near the tnotor, consi.,ting of enamelled ..,)ate



.J u~E 2 ~, 190 ~


m:>unlecl with douhle-polC' switch and double-pol<"

fuqeq, ampl!ae metea. recording amphe meter. and ,olt
meter. A double-pole liquid switch il> all>o proYided for
starting purposes. Another 150 horse-power motor is at
work at the shaft bottom driving an exio.;ting haulage gear
through ropes.
At Gatewen Collier,, " hich ih &itnated 2000 yards a" ay
from the Baoughton 'and Plas power generating station,
there is a large endless rope haulage gear with three rope
''heel._, dri\'en by a 200 brake horse power electric motoa.
The m otor and haulage geat are fixed at a point 1200
yards from the shaft hottom, and the motor dri,es on to
the gei\r through ten cotton dw:mg rope~'>. each 1 tin,

di\'ision. The heel plate of thiq machine is made up or

rolled Joists, bolted together in such a way that they
can rea.dily be taken apart and got down a shaft. The
m otor in this particular instance is one of the firm' s
standard steel-clad opcnL.} pc continuous-current IIIOtor~>.
with a machine-cut pinion, which engages with a gear
wheel mounted on a cross-shaH, carrying on its other
end a helical pinion. This, in its turn, engages wHh a
helical wheel, keyed to the main driving shaft. On
this main shaft, and capable of being connected to it
by friction alutcheK, are two hauling pulleys for working
two Repart~tc road!!. Doth or these are 7ft. in diameter.
They arc of ca-;t iron, and the dri\'ing face in each

a hancl "he<' I. Jt will h<? eddent that either pulley or

both 111a,, be "oa kNI, und in the particular utachine ill us
trated each i!; intended to take a max-imum working load
of 30 hOt ...e-powet. ThP machine is illustrated in Fig. 20


p ll:;{C \'Ill.

We have Raid that the motor shown is for continuous

current. The makers, however, have supplied the same
plant for worlcing with polyphase motors. Here the
friction clutcheH come in most usefully, as the motor can
be run up to Kpeed with practically no work on it.
may be, too, that it is desired that the hauling plant should
bo worl<od in a place where there is either a considerable
nmount of watc1 or where there is fear of gas. I n this case








diametea. The haulage gear is like that shown in case is made up of a number of segments of wrought
Fig. 18, and is abo of a specially heMy design, the rope iron, which are bolted to the pulleys, so as to act as
wheels being 6ft. in diameter and each fitted with one of the driving surface for recehing the endless rope, and
Hall's type of friction clutch and automatic brake, the., so as to be readily removed and replaced when
clutch and gear for ,.ach rope being operated by hand wear has taken place. Four hand wheels will be
noticed on the driving platform. T wo of these are
wheel from the dl'iving platform.
Another type of hauling gear made by this firm is fot actuating the clutches, and two for the band
shown in Fig. 19, below. In this case the drive is brakes. The clutch forms the subject of one of the 6rm't~
direct through wonn and helical gearing. The motor is patentR. It consist~; of a friction boss attached to the
of the two-pole undertype, and is of 50 brake horse-power. pulle,y, a fixed sleeve on the shaft, and a ft-iction band.
The two drums arc fitted with a Land brake, and The sleeve iK pro,ided with a Aange, and is of suffi cient
either can be p ut into gear by means of a clutch. The length to cal'l'y th.e. friction boss and the pulley. ~t iR
levers working the brakes and clutches are placed close k~yed the dr1vmg sha:ft by means of a key prov1ded
together. The wotm is of steel and the worm '~heel o f w1th a g1b ha~d and carrym.g ~ set screw. .To the flange
phosphor bron;r,e; the helical gear is of steel. This plant on the Rleeve 1s bolted the frwt!o~ band, w~tch em~:>races
would do equally well for winding as; for haulage. Indeed, the bosR on the pulley. The fnctton band IS made tn two

the motor shown in Fig. 21, ix., would be employed.

This is claimed by the makers to be absolutely air and
watertight. Special end cover,;; are employed with t heir
flanges turned to lit the turned-up edges of the steel yoke
casting. The end CO\'ers are of cast iron, and are solid.
The co,er at the commutator end has an opening on
either side to admit of access to the brush holders, the
openings having hinged Jjds which fit down tightly.
They are provided with a window, which may either be
of mica or CO\'ered with a very fine mesh wiro gauze.
The cover at the pulle.v end has no openings at all. It
will be obkct"Yed that the steel casing is heavil.Y ribbecl
so as to di!!!!ipatc the heat generated.
A compact and well-arranged hauling plant is shown in
Fig. 22, page ix., which represents one of a pair of exactly
similar machines which were supplied some little while ago




we understand that one in.,lallu.tion ha~ been supplied

with this idea. H ere ngain we would draw attention to
the compactncs;s obtainable h.' the use of an elertric
molor when geared direct to its wOtk.
:\Iessrs. M ather and Platt. o f Manchester, ma ke a sub
stantial form of hauling geat which is worthy of a some
what extensive notice. 'Ve have preYiousl.v drawn atten
tion to the ab11olute necessity of having colliery machinery
strong enough to Htand rough usage. It is quite a
different matter working below ground to what it is on the
surface, and the makers in this instance have fully
realised this. Another feature which has been observed
is accessiuility of parts and capability of easy sub



pal'ts, which nre connected together b~ a pair of right and

lcfbhnnded Hets of '-CI'CWH working in two lugs on the halves
of the fri ction band. To these right and left handed ... ere\\~'
are rigid!,, connected two arms connected b.' link~ tonloo~'e
"lee\"C!, \\ hich io.; worked by t~ !~hifting fork. " Then the
loose ~;)cc' c i-; pu~hed toward~ the clutch the two anns
arc thrown away from the Hhaft, and the right and left.
handed !\Crews arc tumed in such a manner that they

draw the two hahes of the friction band together. The

result is that the boss on the pulley is gripped, and the
pulley re"ohe~o~ with the shaft. The whole of this gearing
is enclosed in cast iron casing, to keep out the coal and
other dust. Each pulley h as a band brake worked by

bs )fessrs. )favor and Coulson, o Glaqgow, to the Dal

mcny Oil Compan~ for u"e in its collieries. As will le seen.
the motor and all the remainder of the hauling gear
arc mounted on one bed-plate. The motor is of the
fourpolc type, and of 60 brake hor e-power. A pinion
on the motor Rha!t, on the end, remote from the commu
tator, engage!! with a gear wheel, which is carried on a
shat. This Rhaft has mounted on it another pinion,
which, in its turn, gears with the toothed wheel on the main
shan, which carries the hauling drum. Arranged near
together, HO as to be readily worked by one man, are the
controller- which is 'ery similar in appearance to an
tramwa, controller-the clutch leYer, and tl: o


.J (");E 2-l, 1904










































br~liE' Je,e_,... ~:he tota! len.~tb of. tl e hu~ln~e "?rl.c~l ~y j g,~ar

th1~ plant1~ .IL ~ani::. tht maxunum gtad1ent IS l m 1...

n_nd _th~re IS some 110 yards or. this; the t?tnl .' erticnl
:'s~.'s .300ft. One haulage ~op~ IS used, and tb~ ?1ameter
IS am. The gauge of the. rails lS. 3~ . and the railS thelll
selves are made of an~le 1ron, wetgbmg 2~ lb. to the ) ard
The tubs run on 13m. \\heels, and we1gh 5 cwt. when
empty and a.1 8.\'erage of 1 ton when loaded. DUI ing a

it... C>If \\'u,; 1 ~ 1 ade by .:\fes,1..,, Tf<'<>nan nn 1J Frotule.

r;, a, 2-l ~hO\\s a c;mvle drum hnular>c, 'l'ht> motor in this
ca~e iR of the totJiy enclosed t_,J.w. and it ch-ives the
haulage chum through double 1eduction geat. The <lrum
can he thrown into gear by means of a hand wheel and
clutch. The whole can he mounted on,, heels for moving
about from point to point undergtouncl. Fia. 25 shows a
~eat. and compact little endless rope hnulageo plant, which
ts dnven through double reduction gear by an enclosed t.}pe
motot. The ,arious portions of this machine are easily
taken apart, and the whole forms a worlunan-like job.

is no part of our intention in the present Supplement
to single out the machine of a ny one maker and to say,
'This is the best electrically-dri' en coal cutter." Indeed,
such a thing would only be possible nfter long and exhausti,e trials, which would probahl,r go to show that
each type had special attributes of its own not entitely
-;bared by all the others. We much ptefer to think that
each type has its own special uses and to desctibe the
construction of several, setting out at the same time the
maker's claims for thew. The drill type of cutter pure
and simple does not appear to be held in much favour in
this country,
and the electrically-worked
coal cutters

may be broadly divided into three cIJ.sses, namely :- (l J

The disc machine; 12) the bar mnchinc; and (3) the



the bar thtough g<>nring, and iL nh-.o drives the haulage
gear through a wotm on n continuation of the armature Rpindle on the Hide remote from the coal-cutter bnr.
The rate of feed can be altered while the machine is running.
These cutting machine~; are made in three standard sixes.
The power required to dtive these are 12, 18. and 26
brake horse-power respectively. The depth of undercut
in the three case~ is 2ft. 6in. to 3ft. 6in., 3ft. to 4ft. 6!n.,
and 4ft. to 6ft. respecti,ely.
The makers claim a number of advantages of this type
of coal cutter. The number of parts, they inform us, is
fewer than in any other cutter. There are no bearings or
rubbing Rurfaces under the coal where dust and dirt
might subject them to excessive " ear, an objection to
which some of the machines in use are open. The cutters
are capable of being securely fixed to the cutter bnr and
allow of simultaneous and easy inspection. The cut with
this mo.chine can be made either on the pavement or at
the roof, or at any intermediate point, and the bar may
be tilted to suit the rise or clip of the seam. :'\Ioreo,er,
the angle at which the bar works lllny be altered at will
while the apparatus is in operation, thus rendering it
possible for the holeing to be made in the best position.
It is further claimP.d that it is almost impossible for the
bar to be choked or jambed, and there is nearly entire
absence of end thrust. The coal it produces is said to be
rounder nnd the waste leHs than from any other machine,
a~ the loose coal is not dragged out and broken up.
The diagram given in Fig. 28, page xi., shows a repro-


test made of one of these hauling plants nt its colliery it was

found that the time t aken to accc~crate in hoisting was
15 sec.; the time occupied .n running at full speed
2 min. 57 sec. ; and the time taken to retard, 2 seconds:
These times add up to 3 m in. 14 sec., which represents an
average of 3t miles an hour. A complete cycle from
starting to wind to starting to wind is performed in
8 minutes, so that 7t cyc!e1 are got into the hour. I n
ordinary wot!<ing fhe tubq, each weighing 1 ton fuiiJ
!Jaded, arc hauled ate \Ch lift, so that with 7} cycles tbif
represents a total of, say, 28 tons per hour. 'l'he numbet
of watts taken to start the hau Iage wa ' 2 ,200 ; the
number absorbed during acceleration, 2.>,850; and the
number during maximum speed on the maximum gradient.
30,500. An important point in collier.v work is to hMe
the various parts of which n machine is composed made
as small and easily handled as possible. It will be seen
that this point has not been forgotten in the present
machine. The two ends of the bed-plate are separatt
from the sides, but are attached to them bv bolts.
The following in connection with these plant:;
are of interest. The drums are 3ft. 6in. in diameter, and
are provided with flanges. They are large enough to bold
200 fathoms of ~in. rope. Each drum is built up of two
cast iron cheeks, and is cleated with Jin. steel. T he cast
iron cheeks are bushed with gun-metal, and one has cast
upon it a flange for the brnle, while the other has cast
upon it claws for engnging with a clutch on the sho.t.
The brake is of the ordinary bnnd t,vpe, and i.s operated
by foot. The drum at full speed willtnake ;}4 re,olutions
per minute. The spur on the drum shaft is 4ft. 6in.
diameter and 7in. wide on th ! teeth, which are 2~in.
pitch. The pinion on the intetmediatc shaft is 1ft. 3in. in
diameter, the width and pitch being the !lame. T he spur
on the intermediate shaft, which revohes a.t 122 revolu tions per minute, is 3ft. Gin. in diameter nnd 6in. wide,
the teeth being 1 ~in. pitc!1. 'l:his with a raw bide
pinion 12io. in diameter, '' hich is keyed to the motor
shaft, which reYohcs at 42:> re' olutions per minute. The
armature of the motor is of the ~Jotted drum type, the



chain machine. Through the courtesy of the mal1ers we

.ne enabled to describe instances of each of these tJpe!'.
The Hurd, or, as its makers. :\Iessrs. l\Iavor and CouiSO:l, ha,e called it, the " Pickquick " con.l cutter, is shown
m the engraving Fig. 27, page xi. We desctibed this coal
cutter at some length in our issue of March 7th, 1902,
but in order to make this Supplement complete in itself
we may repeat a few particulars. .\ s will be seen from
the illustration, the cutter consists of a bar-sometimes
made taper nnd sometimes parallel-into which are fHted
the cutting teeth. There is a spiral groo,c on the bar


slots being lined with insulating channels before the wind

ing is put on. The armature coils are former wound.
The m a~ et coils are also wound on forme1 s, and are
detachable from the pole arms.
Figs. 23, 24, and 25, pages ix. and x., reptesent three haulage plants which have been electl'icall.v equipped by the
Electric Construction Company. The first of these is a
double drum haulage fitted with screw-down friction
clutches for operating the drums, these being worked by
band wheel. There is also a foot brake gear. The motor
is of the open four-pole type, and it is started u p with a
controller aimilar to those used on tramcars. The h aulage



which serves to bring out tbc pieces cut away. The bat
is an-anged on a head which is capable of such mo\'ement that the bar can be turned in almost any direction,
and can cut upwardq or downwards or at any angle.
The motot driYing the cutter is of the four-pole completely enclosed type, with two shunt-wound magnet
coils. The armature is of the slotted drum type. If
alternating cunent is used, then a motor of the threephase type is put in. The motor is then of the squirrel
cage tJpe with slip rings. The stator core, with the con
ductors buried in its slots, is contained in a cylindrical
cast steel shell with ribs cast upon it. The motor drhes

du.::tion of four continuous recording ammttet records

made on four successive dass "-ith a n.edium-sized " P ickquick" bar coal cutter. These records were being made
at a time when we Yisited the colliery where the machine
was at work, though, as a fact, actual cutting wns not
going on while we were there. We ha,e, however, been
supplied with copies of the records by l\Iessrs. :\IMor and
Coulson. It will Le seen that in the first record the
machine was cutting up hill with the gear end leading.
In this instance 120 yards was cut in 5t hours, including
stoppages. These amounted in this case to well over
70 min. If taken at 75 min., this would represent an
actual cutting time of 4 hours-an n\'erage of 30 yards on
hour or 1 in. a minute. The average depth of cut was
3ft. 9in. The average \'Oitage at the switchboard was
480, and the amperes consumed may be read on the
diagram. T he other three records, first, a cut of 120 yards
in 5t hours includin~ stoppages, the machine cutting down
hill, haulage end leading; secondly, a cut of 120 yards in
5t hours including stoppages, cutting up hill, gear end
leading; and thirdly, a cut of 120 yards in 5t hours including
stoppages, the machine working down bill, haulage end
leading, and feeding by graYity alone. An examination
of these diagrams show that the average current being
used was about 15 amperes, though the machine was
frequentl,v working in full cut with 10 amperes. or even
under. Taking the average at 15 amperes, however, this
represents an expenditure of energy equal to 480 X 15
= 7200 watts, or, say, 9 65 horse-power. We may a.dd
the following details: The machine was working with a
direct-current motor. The bar was tapered, anrl 4ft.
long. The machine was on rails. The inclination was
1 in 5, the position of the holeing was at the pavement
level, the holeing was done in coal, and the nature of the
roof was " fakes." The seam was 2ft. Sin. thick. One
man was employed in driving, two in rail-laying, and one
in clearing holeings. The tonnage output per man per
shift was 27t. The driver was getting 6s. 6d. per shift,
the rail-layers 6s., and the man cleating holeings 5s. 2d.
The coc;t of labour per ton was, as a total, 2 57d. The
machine was cutting at the rate of 37 .) square yards
per hour, or 150 square yards per Hhift. The electricity
consumed per ton of coal produced was 26 units. One
hundted and ten tons were obtained in the shift, and
25 per cent. of small coal was produced. The duration of
the shift at the face was Se\'<'n hours, and from bank to
bank nine hours. The makers claim that tbi.., expenditure of energy. amounting to on!,, 26 unit per ton o
coal raised, is an exceptionally noteworthy performance.
The next cutter to which we shall draw attention is a
disc mnchine, and it is made by Messrs. Eroest Scott and
:Mountain. This machine is made to work with three
standard sizes of disc!'. These cli~cs , 4It., 6ft., and 6ft. in
diamet~r, will undercut about 3ft. Sin., 4ft. 6in., and

,JPN'E 24, 1904


fift. 6in. re,.pecti' ely.

An exatnination of this machine, which is illustrated in Fig. 29, page xii.. will
show that it is compactly designed and o;;trongly put
together. Tts "orking parts are all enclosed, and its
ge'l.ring runs on ball bearings and in an oil bath. The
o' cra\1 dimensions of the machine are fL. 6in. long,
;Ht. :Jin. wide, and lft. 2in. high ftom the rail to the top
of the casing. T he total height from Hoor to the Lop of
the m'l.chine is, with rails, 1ft. lOin., and with skids
lfL. 8in.
The L':>tal weight is approxit tUl.tely 42 cwt.


The armature shaft is prolonged at both ends,

passing out or the enclosed case. in which the armature
rnns through glands. One end of the shaft driYes the
disc through bevel gearing and a toothed wheel engaging
with the slotted teeth on the cutting wheel. The other
end of the shaft works the feed gear, which is adjustable
in throw, and worl<s in an oil bath. There is an idle
pulley on the rope drum to carry the rope back under the
machine when cutting backwards. I n connection with
this feed geat we may mention that the drum which

and nte more cheap!,) made than <~haped cutiet'tl. The

boxes themselves can be rcmoYed and replaced c;hould
the.v be damaged.
The switch gear is contained in two cast-iron boxes on
the top of the machine. In one of these is the resist.
ance, and in the other a multiple contact switch, which
can be worked by handles from either end of the machine.
A reversing plug switch is also proYided to enable the
llll.Chine to ue tun in the opposite direction if required.
We had an opportunity of carefully examining one of
these cutters, nnd could appreciate how c;pa.ce bad been
The illustration shown in Fig. 30, page xii., represents
the coal cutter made by the Diamond Coal Cutter Company, and fitted with two 10 hor:<~e-power three-phase
motors. The usual voltage for which these motors ate
wound is from 400 to 500, and the general periodicity 40
or 50 per second . The motors run at 700 revolutions per
minute. They are of the slip ring type, are entirely
enclosed, and are guaranteed to be gas-tight. There arc
four reductions in speed from the motors to the cutter
wheel. The fhst is from the motors through bevel
geating to the intermediate shafts, thence through spur
gearing to a common main shaft, whence the cuttet
wheel is dri ,en by a bevel pinion. The feed is of the
ratchet type dri,en by the motors, and it can be adjusted
from half a tooth to seven or eight teeth at a time.
Practicall.Y the whole machine is constructed of steel.
[ts over-all height is less than 20in. The cutter wheels
:1re made to bole to a depth of 4ft. 6in. or 15ft. 6in., as
may be desired, and the holing is done at the Roor level.
The machine is what the makers call their standard
" longwall " type. It is mounted on sledges, and is fitted
with a recently patented steering apparatus. The body
of the machine runs on two broad steel angles. The
front end is prevented fl'om digging into the coal by the
extended fender shown, and on the gob, or goaf, side is a
similar fender extending forward, and a long trailing rod
or rail, which may be 12ft. or 15ft. in length, is hinged
from the centre of the goaf side sledge, and adjusted by
means of a screw at the back end of the machine. All
these fenders may be adjustable, and made so as to suit

-'"' -


Another size of machine is also m! bv this firm

which is intended for working thin seams.' It can be
made to work with the same !lized discs as the firstmentioned machine, namely, discs Yarying from 4ft. to
6ft. in diameter, and permitting of an undercut varying
from 3ft. 6in. to 5It. 6in. The overall dimensions of this
machine are 8ft. lOin. long, 3ft. Sin. wide, and 17in. hi~h
from the top of the rail to the top of the casing. The
weight of this type of machine is 34 cwt., and it is to be
noted that both types of machine are proYided with
motors of the same power, namely, 25 horse-power.
power is found by the makers to be that required in
normal working, but we are informed that the motors are
capable of giving from 30 to 40 horse-power for short
periods, should the cutter become jambed or the work
become suddenl.v very heavy. These coal-cutters are
only used for the long-wall system of working, and we
understand that there is only a small demand for
machines to work on the board and pillar ot on the
pillar and st all systems. The essentials required for



hauls on to the wire rope, thus drawing the machine

along, is made to run freely on its shaft, but is capable of
being clamped to it by the action of a winged nut, which
works on a left-handed screw on the pulley shaft. In
ordinary working the revolution of t he pulley only tends
to tighten it on its shaft by reason of this left-banded
screw, but if for any reason it is necessary to stop the
fP.ed of the machine, a slight blow with a hammer is
sufficient to undo the nut and to allow the Rhaft to revolve
without taking the pulley round with it. It is claimed
that this is a most important feature.
All the working parts of thjs machine, including even
the bearing of the cutting wheel, are enclosed, and the
motor runs in what we are informed is a gas-tight case.
There are, however, openings for examination and adjustment which can be hermetically closed by means of
doors. The motor requires in practice from 50 to 60
amperes, with an electromotive force of from 420 to
450 volts, and it is said that a machine of this type, when
in fair working order and handled by men accustomed to



F ig . 25 - ENDLESS ROPE

satisfactory coal-cutting with these machines are a good

floor and roof, and that the material in which the cutter
clisc works should not be too hard, and as free as possible
from ironstone balls.
The motor casing is made of steel, and there are but
two poles, these being placed on the horizontal diameter.
A portion of one of the poles is removable, so that the
armature may be readily got at a.nd ta,ken out if neces-





the work, should be capaLle of cutting from 60 yards to

80 yards per shirt, though under favourable conditions,
where the undercutting is soft, 120 yards, so we
understand, been cut in one shirt. The cutter disc is
made in halves, and is arranged with a plain circular
periphery, in which a slot is turned for securing .the
cutter boxE:s. These latter are arranged to hold straight
cutters, which require a minimum of work to produce,




given circumst ances. The back end of the machine is

further kept up to its work by a h auling rope being
att ached to the rear end by means of a long rod, which
may be seen in the engraving. These machines are also
mounted on carrier wheels to r un on rails, but the sledge
arrangement is now more commonl.Y adopted. They are
made to cut backwards or forwards ; it is only necessary
to reverse the steering apparatus, bolt holes being left for
that pm-pose. T he cutting tools are reversed by changing
round the detachable boxes-the subject of another of the
firm's patents-and the switch is also reversible.
There is, of course, no novelty in the mounting of "longwall" coal cutters on sledges, but owing to the difficulty
of keeping the machine up to its worl< this system has not
been much used. The makers of this machine however
cla~ that th~ adoption of their method of guidn;g a sledge:
carn.ed machme has led to some ~xcellent results being
obtamed. They have been makmg experiments for a
considerable time with various arrangements in order t o
enable the simplicity of sledges to be made available in
practical use. There is a great deal of time lost in laying the
o_rdinary railroad ~long the _coal face, though the comparat tve ease of spraggmg the nuls and sleepers affords a reliable
means of taking up the thrust. which has causerl this to
be the uni versa) method. The guides which the Diamond
Coal Cutter Company has now adopLed afford, it is claimed,
all :he stability required-~he long trailing rod butting
aga.mst the props at a constdera.ble dista11ce behind the
machine, where a good leverage is obtained. At one
colliery, where some of the older pattem " Diamond "
machi~cs have been converted to run on sledges, the
followmg results have, so we arc informed, ueen obtained:In a seam about 4ft. thick, ::>00 yards of face were undetcut_to a. depth of 5ft. 6in. in inferior coal interspersed with
P.'ntes m 15 ~ houts, and, sub~eq\tently, in the presence of
se,eral representa.ti,eK ftom other collieties, 200 \'ards of
the Rame face were undercut in 51 hourK. These, it is
claimed, arc recotdR for ' longwall " coal cutting. It is
further asserted that by the use of sledges fewer attendants arc. required. because no rail-laying is necessary.
The D1amond Coal Cutter C'ompany claims to ha\'e
had the largest experience of any firm in this rountry in
polyphase coal cutter working. I t, of course, uses direct


C 0 U L S 0 N .. P I C K Q U I C K .,








- - - ':,JFE FJcyfu~










F ig .27


<urrent motor:> 1\~ well for this work. n i... the firm' s opinion of the casing is removable so that the armature can be got at ammtme is prolonged at either end. At one end it is provided
that there is undouhtedl.\ & hwge field for polyphase machuleR, and taken out if necessary. There is an observation door over with a mitre wheel, which gelus into another mitre wheel. This,
hut that whether in the long run the~ will prove quite so satis
... . .. . __ .........12o Yds cut tn ~J h ours tircludlllj es: ..... ... _ ...- ................... . '1
factory as the continuous current machines, e:o.-perience only
('1\Jl decide. It "ill be interesting for our readers to compare
41 0 4
CuHin g Up hill-:;.. Gea r En d lead ing.
thi:> 'iew with that of :\I a. Holidav.
of the Ackton H&ll CollierY,

given in another column. lie, it will be seen, is o. strong
advocate of-three-phase current for mining work, and particu
lady coal cutters. The motors fitted to the machine illustrated
in Fig. 30 are designed to ghe their full horse-power con
~~ ..
tinuously without O\ crheating. With regard to repairs, the finn
has not fow1d that there is an~ ~reat difference between the
~ ........- ...... _,_ 120 Yds. CUI tn 5 ( h ours i ncludl n.9 stopp1.9u .....
........................._.. -
cost of either system-direct or pol~phase-provid ed t he 1111\
12/ 4 / 04
C ultong Downh ill - Hau l a~e End Leadin9.
ehine!' in each case nrc equally suitabl.v designed.
Another form of electrically-worked conl cutter is that made
by Mather a.nd P It is shown in outline and elevation in
l<'igs. 31 and 32. pages xii. and xiii. This machine is at present
made in two si1es, ~o,;, 1 and 2, the particulars of which arc
us follows :..
13/ 4/ 0 4 .
"r )
Xo. 1.
"0. -
tift. 6in.
'ft. 6in.

I' .......... ... --- . i
...~ ..... - - -'~120 Yds cut in sf hQurs lfiCIUdlf1j slopp1ges.
:Ut. tin.
lft. lOin.
lft. lOin.
. . 2ft. 2in. ..
Height ..

ball bearings. The other end of the prolonged armature shaft

1 drives the feed gear, which con~;ists of a steel worm and wheel,
steel ratchet and pawl gear, this htwing a variable throw and a
rope drum.. Th_e jib is made up of rolled s~el. plates. with
planed clu~Ul shdes and steel wheels. The eh run IS tua.d~ up of
alternate ~tnks of forged_ and. cast steel, the latte~ hol~lmg the
tools, which ate all of tdeottcal s hape. The ::.\\ ttcb as of the
bun-el type, and with the starting resistance can be quickly
removed and teplaced in case of need. The main gearing, >~witch,
nnd resistance 1\t'e all protected by a hinged cast iron co,er.
The gearing r un,; in 8.11 oil bath.
With this mt\Chine the makers claim, amongst other a.dvan1 tages, that t he "kerf" or undercut " is absolutely cleared
I from debris, l:lince the tools bring out a.ll the loose pieces into
I the road; that owing to the na rrowness of the chain-currying
jib the coal can be wedged or spragged up within 2ft. of the
smface which is being cut, thus minimising the danger of the
jib getting bound by the settling down of the coal ttfter it has
been cut; that the high speed of the working part s gi \CS the
tools sufficient momentum to o\ercome temporary obstructions.
such as lumps of pyrite~. without undul,v straining the motor:
and that the ttex:ibility of the Jib counteracts the evil etl'ects of
uule,el rnils, and nids the tools in s pringing out the thb,.is in
pieces of considerable size without cutting or tenl'ing adion,
thus enabling the tools to their edge foa a long time.
For a six-foot. undercut, 3.3 tools arc used in the cbttin. The'e
are small, plnin, and of identicnl shape. The machim is de

, signed to work right or left-hnndcd on the long wall. The jib,
14/ 4/ 0 4 .
as already mentioned. is made to bWing through nn angle ot
C u tting Do wnh lfi - Ha u la9 End Leading
180 deg. This swinging motion is brought about bv means of
feed ing by Gra vo t_y only.
a detachable ratchet le,er, which works on to a biJtiarc-headed
spindle actuating n worm, which gears into the teeth of the
I worm-wheel at the back end of the jib. The Jib euts its w&v

into the coo,l n.t t he start. n.nd does not, so we undcrstnnd,
1 quire great ~<pace to be holed by hand before beginning each
T..- r ..,c;' "'-""''
run down the f11ce.
This type of toal cutter is probably the let\st used in this
. .
cotantry. though it is in considerable fa Your in Ute t: nitcd States,
the bru~hes, whach shuts down on to ~achined su r~aces, whach,j m 1ts turn, drives a four-thread steel worm workmg_ on to n cut where, of course. the machine mining of coal is much mor<'
we mfonned, can be mude gas-tight. The spmdle of the . phosphor bronze wheel. The thrust of the worm IS taken on u~.ual tht\n it is here. It is, however, a. type which S<;cms to



\\'eight l.'omploto
l ' ndoreut up t()

13 cwt.


... ...

2:3 cwt.

Hi1e ;\o. 1 ha.-; been de!ligned for serum or fair tbielmess and
fa.irh level, while );o. :l is for thin set\lllS with a bad roof ~nd

so nnle,el
as to necessitate the use of a lighter machine. These
machines po!;sess se\ eral points of ditlerencc from the others by
different maker-. "hich we ha.Yc d~scrihcd. The greatest of
the.,e. perhaps, is the fact that the cutting tools are carried on
an endles "hich reYoiYes on two wheels, one at eiU1er
end of a jib, which can be racked horizontall_y through n.n
m1~le of 180 deg.
The construction of this machine will be
understood by a consultation or tbc illustration~. The

bod\ is of cast steel, nnd it runs on two paias of double-llunged

Tbe motor is carried midway between these two sets
of'' heel~, with its spindle placed hori1ontnlly. The motor is of
the totally enclosed four-pole type, and is made gus-tight if
desired, while in all cases being made dust -proof. The top part





Sw 4 t H

. ~.



possess some useful features. \Ye conficlenLJ,v anticipate

a great increas<' in the nu m ben; of elcctl'ically-dri\en coni
cutter~; in Great Britain. \\ eae it for nothing eh;e machine cutting has th<' b'l'ca.t a.d,antage of producing less
dross and more round coni, but it must not be forgotten
that machine \Cr.'' considerably reduce the amount of

too, the wnlennay hll.\e de,.,taucti\eOrdalllaging.cffectson

protC'C'ti' c C'O\ <aingH such tls ltt\d oa e'en gah am~"<ed steel;
or it ana~ be of ~>uch qual it.' a!-. to hose no effect whatev~r
upon these metals. Agnin, in soane mines direct current as
used, in others polyphase. This of itself, of cour~e,
necest.ih\teb a 't~r~ ing nutnber of cable~. Here, agaan,

Fi g. 29 - DISC COAL

labour, and, indeed, produce a ton of coal for 6d. less in

cost than is the case with hand labour. It will perhaps
be said that compresHed nir will do all that electricity
can accomplish, but there is no comparison between the

Fi ~.




different practices are favoured in different place@. Thus

some prefer concentric or multiple core cables; some
two or more cablce, as the case may be. Hence it is
impossible to lay down any hard-and-fast rule on the



able want of uniformity in this direction. \\'e haYe had

occasion Lo remark this during 'it>ib; to a number of
collierie... quite re~ently, and 11" long as t~e matn~ scn e
the purpose requared of them and sene at well, at does
not appear to us to matter ' ery much of '~hat
t~ pe the~ or how the.' arc run. \Ye have seen


mains taken along a heading simply suspended in marline

loops. Such a method might appear crude, yet it
answers its purpose, and has this advantage, that if any
extraordinary pressure comes on the cable, such as a fall


difficuny in getting the power to the tool in each case. 11ubject. Even aR to running the m9.ins themselves.
Electricity has by fat the greater advantage.
whetht>t' simple or compound, no single method i!i
employed. \Vhen it comc!i to be considered what
exceedini]I.Y diverse circumstance!-! obtain, it i!l perhaps
well nigh inevitable that this should be '10. n lllO.,\
As might be expected, there is a considerable cli versity be, for inHtnnce, that in one colliery 11tationaay pumpof opinion as to which kind of mains or what system ing ot hauling plants ttlone arc required; in 1\nothcr

of roof, the m!l.line breaks and the cable drop!C!, while it

is not subjected to any strain it cannot bear, and hence
is not n1ptured. Some colliery ananagers regard annouriog of any kind ar-; a danger which is latent, until by some
injury the armouring comeb in contact with the eo: e;
otherR would not cliHpense with s.rmouring at any price.
Some ''ould not put in any but a lead-sheathed

Fig . 3'-~ HAIN

of running them should be employed in mine!!. This

is, perhaps, the less to be wondered at, seeing the very
different conditions under which mains are called upon
to work in different localities. Thus, in one place the
mine may be perfectly dry o.nd free from water, while in
other~ any amount of water may be met with. Then,




there may be movable pumping plants or coal cutters.

In one case the machiners ml\y be close to the shaft
bottom and removed far from any interference; in another
the motors may be many hundreds of yards away from
the shaft and subject at all times to danger of damage.
Whatever the reason or reasons may be, there is a notice-

~able, otherR condemn le:ld as utterly unsuitable in e\'ct y

mstance. It co.n, therefore, be said that there is no oa c

stando.rd method, and that each colliery must be equipp< d
according to its own special features.
It is a noticeable !act that all our manufacturelS al'e
doing theu utmost to coal mining by means of elec

lncity a,, t.afe as anything human can be. The cable
111akert> are by no tueanl! bebindhand in this, as will be
amply e-. ident b) the' ariou s appliances which are shown
in Figs. :33 to 42, on this and page xi,.., and which are of the
dc ... ign ancl ma nufacture of CaJiender's Cable and Con
"truct ion Company, L imited.
One or the lllO!!t important things to attend to is the


vulcanised bitumen and double armoured. This cable, it

is claimed, bei.J)g lllecbanicall.' protected, may be fixed in
a shaft '' ithoult any other cdvering, occupies but little
space, is practically fireproof, and may very easily be
manipulated "hen ~;uitable fittings and 'clamp.. are
pro,!ded. Home of the collier.' engineer!! prefer rigid
fixings for the cable!! being taken down ,hafts ; others, on


)) "


~ 11~

I/ ~







' \.






"' i

1/ ~ ~


- ~ ~~ \ ~ ')~2_










,. ,


I ........

'ibration without inJury to a cable. This method i,, bow

ever, by no means universally emplo,yed. Judging from
our experience we should say that the cable in the
maJority of in~;tances is run down ~>hafts without casing,
but i~t held in a greater or less number of clamps
l'lCCured to the lining of the mines, or to the buntons, in
a. 'arieh of ways. In cases where there is tubbing or
cast' iron lining the engineers or managers are generally
8.\ C'h!c, and rightly loo, to any boles not properly plugged
being made in this lining. I n cases where unplugged
holes are not allowed the clamp may be held in poFition

1- '
\ '- .//

7 ...



- ...





' I





F l& 37 - METHODS OF


by means of a. tightly fitting screw bolt, which will not

permit of the ingress of water into the shaft. When ,
however, it is permitted to have an unplugged bole,
Messrs. Callenders have devised a method by which the
Sw.o. t N Se. '
clamp or casing may be hooked in, the hole in t he tubbing
being made slightly oblong. This device is shown in
Fig. ::14. In this a single cable is shown secured in a.
m ethod of taking the main cables down a shaft. In the other hand, think tha t the cable should be so bung clnmp which is provided at its back with a right-angled
another place we refer to the method in\ented by Mr. H oli that it can swing about should it receive a blow, deeming
day, of the Ackton H all Colliery Company. mher methods that it is thus less liable to recehe injury. To such a
are to take the cables down the shaft in oak or teak casing, system belongs the invention of Mr. H oliday, just alluded
or to clamp them in se' eral ways on their way down the to. Mr. H olida.Y, however, prefers one suspension and
one only. I n the majority of instances, perhaps, there
r~slened lo 3tde
are m ore than one point of sus\" e,sil>n-perhaps even al'l
r~stened to s ide

. .

'"'""'"' of sh~fl

of sh~ft


\ '.

!\' ' ' "t

. 44:I ' :\.,

' ' \' ,

\ \ \ , ,

I \ \'





Tea!q or 06k



()) :

I ())



f'or 3 phase
workin!J .


32- :'<1ETHOD



shaft in massi,e wooden cleats. Sometimes where the

cleats come the cables are bound with marline, but this
is not always
the case. Messrs . Callender s ba,e e'l'ohed

a. series of methods which mdy be chosen from to suit

hste or con,enience. The difficulties in the wav
are not

F ie . 35- CABING AND


many as five or six in a depth of 400 or 500 yards. One

of the methods of suspending a l'in gle threecore or triple
concent1ic cable, to take an example, as devised by
Messrs. Callenders, is shown in Fig. 33.
H ere it is supposed that it is required to take a triple
cable down a mine shaft for threephase working. The
cable is held in an oak or teak clamp-preferably the
former-the cover of which is securely screwed to the
back. Two hooks ar e screwed into this clamp, which is
then bung by steel ropes to two eyes built or cemented
or screwed into the side of the shaJt, according to the
nature of 'the lining. Then, in [ order to prevent




Such a method. of course, would be equally
applicable to the fixing of casing.
\\'hen rock or brick lining is met with this firm suggests
the ur.e of lewis bolts. l~igs. 35 and 36. show two
examples of this m ethod. The first represents two single
cables in a piece of casing with a lewis bolt attached to
it. The other shows a. single triple concentric cable in a.
clamp, this being provided n ith two lewis bolts. In all
cases it is most advisable that the cables should be kept
well clear of the side of the Rhaft.
Fig. i37, above, iR interesting as showing three alter


Fi~. 3~ -






to he ignored, for cnch hundred ,vurds of, sa.y, a 10.16

cable weigh some 70 lb. in copper alone, and "hen this
comes to be multiplied b~ t-uc, se\en, 01 eight, the weight
to be with becomes considerable.
l\!csl,ra. Cnllcnrlcrs' sto.IHlo.rrl pnlcticc i" to u"e for mine
r.hafts R paper or Jute in .. ulalcd cable "'hcathcd ,dth


the accumulation of coal dust on the top of

the clamp nnd round the cable. a. metal shield
is pro' idcd oiT which the pieces '~hich would
otherwise rest slip ensil,\ .
T his ic; of all the
gl'eatcl' consec1uence in mines where there is a. lot of
water. for the coal dust is certain to attract the moisture,
and th<> cfl'cct tnight be serious. It co.n be" ell imagined
that a deuce of thi:; kind "ould allow of considerable

nati\ e method~> propo.,cd b.' thi" finn of ~ecuring ca~ing

or clamps to the bun tons or baulk 'I c; ' imber "I ich
project from the side into the Rhaftb -- tnost mines.
There can be no clou bt thnt m ethods lik , :-me of the fore
going llhould be employed in the im1 urtant business of
taking mains clown the shaftq, hut it ba'l to be admitted
tho.t such care of the m is uJt to.k.. n io e' ery instance.
One point should certainly be remembered, tho.t is that
llccumuhtliollb of l'Onl- e&pccially, as already "aiel, in "et
mines-f.hould l,c guntdc(l ngain"t. As lhi" ma~ be

.Jt ~E :2-l, 190-!



readily and cheaply done, there IS no reason why such a

imple prccautton -.hould not be taken.
As to the ca.blc1:1 in the minel> thcw~;ehes, these are all
too frequentlJ ntn "tthout any 'ery great regard to their
comparath el~ fragile nature. An ingenious contri' ance,
which ib shown in Fi~. 3H, page xiii., has JUst been patented
by Me"t;. C1lllendcr... Thit., t\s shown, is made so as to
be lhed by dri' ing into the pit prop1:1 or other timbers in
a naine, but. in another fonu it m ay be attached by means
of conch screws. H will be "<Cen thu.t the clip holding the

grummet let into a \' -11haped groove cast round

the top of the box. The lid is also provide~ with
a protruding \', which corresponds exactly w1th the
V on the top of the box. The con!lequence is that when
the nuts and bolt,. nttached to the sides of the box and of
the lid are screwed up. the rubb('o; ~rummet icomprel!sed
in ~>ucb a "t\.) that it i!impossil ~~or water to get through.
The boxes arc provided with ar.~ltor blocks for m echanic

necting boxes the oul) tool ncce ... -~r;\ for rem~:)\ ing the
links or fuses as the ca;..c wa\ be, IS a porcelam handle
~>O bhaped a, to render shocks a practical impossibility.


of the tir11t C~>lli cries 10 this country to adopt
electricity tw o. wcans of trant~Jllitting power on a large

Fi e. 40 T HREE CORE



cable is suspended from a. hook in which it is quite free to

mo,e, so that any pressure or movement from the side is
allo,~cd for, nnd if it becomes too great the clip simply
slips oiT the hook and the cable falls. Pressure from the
top, such as a fall ot sinking of the roof, is provided fot
by the nature of the clip itself. This is made so that any
pressure much greater than tht~ot due to the cable itseli
causes the latter to be forced out of the clip a.nd to fall.
With such a.n appliance as this it should be well nigh


'' ''

Fig . 43 - MOTOR


ally scct111ng the steel wire armouring-wheil cables of thls

character are used. These anchor blocks are designed
with the object of eno;uring not only a good mechanical
grip, but also electrical cnntinuit,, between the armourings
of the cables leading to and from the box. All the
interior 6ttin~s of the boxes are mounted on ~;epara.te
porcelain insulators. The cables are sealed inside the
boxes with hox compound, '' hich is poured in hot and



scale wo.1:1 the Ackton Hall Colliery at Featherstone, near

Pontefract. We ha' e recently been permitted, by the
courtes.)' of :\fr. Hol'lyn H oliday, the manager, to visit
this collier), and we h:ne been much struck with the
intelligence with which electricity has been employed
there to assibt in carrying on the great variety of work
met with. H ere we find electricity employed in almost
every possible direction, the only exceptions being that it

F ig . 41 - THREE




impossible for a cable to be injured by any movement of

the walh; or roof of the heading.
Where it iH nr.ceHsary to mal<c a joint in a cable this
finu recommends the formt~tion o an inset on one side
of the road, and the placing in this of a straight th rough
disconnecting box, or a switch-box. Figs. :m, 40, and 41,
page xiii. and 1~bovc, show three examples of boxes, which
will explain thcmsehes, and which arc either of the dis
connecting or non-disconnecting type, and one of which
w ay be used either as a disconnecting or as a fuse box.




~ /1


i I




-- -



I n this case,, it must be remarked that such excel

lent means of making a. really good job of the work are
not always taken advantage of. Fig. 42, above, shows
a four-way network box by the same makers, which is
intended for a place where it is desired to take a number
of offshoots from one wain cable. All these boxes arc
rcndcrcu walct o.nd gas tigh L hy th c use of a ru bbcr




is not UBed fol' wi nuing or large fan dri ''ing. It is used,

howe\ er, for lighting, hauling, coal cutting, coal screening
and wa~hing, pumping, for the driving of tools, &c.
At present the preponderance of :\Ir. H oliday's machincrv
is direct current, but we are by no mean~ certain th~t
starting r/r uovo h e would not equip his collien entirely
with thrce-phnse plant.
1 A point to notice about the generating machinery nt
this collier.) il:! that it is largely d1i' en by stea m turbine~,
and tstco.m tmbines worl<ing me reo' er, without condenser .
" .e were informcd Ut at the Rteo.m con~;umption per kilo 8.\ eraged out :\bout 28lb. over the whole plant
installed. This would mean some 2llb. of steam per
h?rsepO\\ er per hour. This IllS.), perhaps, seem rather
high, but t~1ere t\re no \'Cr.' large units, and it m ust ah,o
Le taken mto a ccow1t that first cost was low and the
space taken up relatively small. There are in all seven
stea~ turbine-dt iven sets in the power-house.
sets hard when cold. As will be seen, division pieces are deta.tls o the;..e as follow'!: pr?vided, whi~h prevent the co~pound spreading where
\' olt-8.
sul, continuou~ current ;)oo
1t u1 not requ1red. Then , too, m some instances, oil is
'1' 300-kilowalt
hrec 1.0 ,
~<c l,
. ... .
used in addition for CO\ cring a ll the connections when
'J'wo 11
... .. .
the1.1e hMc been made. In l\Ic~wn. Callenders' cliscon
One 1;;0
., thrcc-l'hl\!lc
... ... . . :320

F 1g. 42-FOURWAY

F ig. 44 - VERTICAL

Jv~E 2-!, 190-!

In addition to these there are
One ..,0 _k' belt- driven ... . . .. . ... ...
Ono :lO- kilowatt belt. driven
dynam~ ...
.. ...
l)ne drect-c:uupled

the following:-

ment consists of two 5ft. diameter surging pulleys in

halves, each fitted with a. 3ft. diamet er friction clutch,
Ttu rned and bored nod bolted to the arms of the pulleys.
1Jese are provided with renewa ble segm ents in the rim,
~~nti;1 u~~s-!!~~re~i.
... ... ..
. 110
and are brass bushed so as to run loose on an upright
shaft which has two cast steel driving anus. On these
dynamo ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . ... ... 110
arm s are secured right and left-h and screws fitted with
The belt-drhen dynamos are run oft' a Hobey com- levers, and brass nuts which C'll'l'.Y the expa.r;ding semi-


Fig . 4 5 - B ELT


pound engine, and the direct-coupled m achine by a

Bumsted and Chandler engine. Then there axe two
motor generators, one of these consisting of a 110-volt
generator, coupled to a three-phase motor, and the other
a 400-kilowatt continuous-current generator, coupled to a.
500-volt continuous-current motot. In addition to the
foregoing, there is also a 60-kilowatt rotary converter,
500 volts continuous-current to 320 volts three-phase.
There are no less than fifts-three motots, of various
sizes, ranging in horse-power from It to 80. These
aggregate very nearly 1150 horse-power, and they are put
to very diverse uses. Thus, to t ake the direct-current
motors first, there a re three 80 horse-power motors, one
being used for an endless rope haulage, some It miles in
length, and two being used for working the Luhrig coal
washer, which is capable of dealing with 1000 tons per
day. There are four 60 horse-power motors, which work
the coal screens and endless rope haulages. Three
40 horse-power motors deal with a. disintegrator, an
endless rope haulage, and a sawmill. There a re ten
25 hor!)e-power rnotvrs, worldng main, ta il, and endless
rope haula.gcs, pumps, and the machinery in a. brickyard
belonging to the colliery, and situated some two miles
away. 1;ix I2 horse-power motors drive machiner,v in
the stables, the colliery c>tate workshops, the wagon
shop, and the coke oven hoist. Three 10 horse-power
motors drive pumps. Three of 6 horse-power are
employed m the joiners' shops and in working pumps.
There are six of 4 horse-power engaged in like work
and in dri,ing the mechanics' shop, while there are five of
It horse-power each, which are at work in the lamp-room,
for the lamp-cleaning machinery, for driving small fans,
and for working pumps.
Altogether, there are some ten three-phase motors
working in different places throughout the colliery. F irst
of all there are fout of 20 horse-power fitted specially to
Hurd coal cutters made by l\I avor and Coulsoo. To these
we shall refer in more detail later on . Then there are one
of 15 horse-power and fom of IO horse-power engaged in
pumping, and one, also of IO horse-power, working a
heading machine.
To complete the electrical ec1uipment there are thirtyfhe arc lamps a.nd about 1000 incandescent lamps.
To giYe merely this list of electrical appliances and
their applications affords but a faint idea of the ingenuity
with which they have been employed. Taking the
haulage at Ackton H a ll Colliery first, we find that there
are four separate installations. The largest of these is
situated close to the bottom of one of the shafts. We
illustrate it in Figs. 4.3 and 44, page xiY. It is interesting
in more ways than one. In the first place, the motors
a re not mounted at ground level, but are erected on a
platform carried on hcav_y timbers, the platform being
?uilt in a recess hewn out of the solid rock roof, and being
Nell up out of the way of tmythir1g passing in the road
underneath. 'l'here arc two direct-current motors, of
the type shown in Fig. 4:~. They are entirely open,
as this part of the colliery is ne' er likely to have
gas in it. We noticed that brushe~> made up of
thin brass strips were employed, and we were informed by Mr. H oliday that each motor man throughout
the mine made his own bt-ushes. The motors drive by
link belting on to two pulleys connected with the gearing
of the haulage mechanism. This, as will be seen in
Fig. 44, is of the vertical type. Jt was constructed by
~Ie ssrs. Qualter, H all and Co., of Barnsley. This ~rrange-


PLAf'-l T

circular friction segments. These are actua ted by means

of levers connected to a sliding sleeve on the shaft, and
are worked by hand wheels, screws, &c. The counter
gear consists of a strong spur wheel made in halves f'ixed










pulleys for duplicate driving. When first put down, this

plant only dro,e one- haulage rope, this being som e ruiJc
and a-half long. It later on became necessary to add
another haulage rope of about the same length, and all
that was done was t o add another motor and another
rope drum. On the occasion of our visit, this plant was
working most smoothly an d .;uccessfull y.
The next most important haulages at this colliery arc
three dri,en by 60 horse-power motors. Perhaps the
most interesting of these is situated .;ome 1000 yards !row
the pit shaft, and is employed in hauling the tubs up an
incline 600 yards long, a.nd htwing a gradient of 1 in 6.
The construction of this incline was rendered necessary
by a. fault being encountered which dxopped the seam
60 yards. It is interesting t o note that two seams overlie
one another in this pit, the depth of earth between them
being exactly 60 yards. The conseqence has been that
the uppex seam has, a t the fault, been found to come exactly
at the level of the lower seam, and can be worked from the
same level. The haulage plant working the incline is
shown in Fig. 45, herewith. The motor, which is again of
the entirely open type, drives the haulage mechanism
through a canvas belt. The gear itself was constructed
by Mr. Holiday, who used for it materials which he had
at ha.nd, and we may, perhaps, mention here that a point
which struck us at this colliery was the way in which
material at hand had been made use of. Special
machinery for special work is by no m eans the order of
the day, but rather the application of machinet-y already
on the site in any direction which it might be required.
Both Figs. 43 and 45 show well the conditions under which
electrical machinery may be expected to work underground. Indeed, the conditions in both cases may be
said to be above the a\erage, for water is very nearly
absent, a nd is, at a ll events, present in very small
quantities, thus forming a complete contrast with many
another mine.
In the back of the engraving, Fig. 45, will be seen a.
small countershaft secured to the rock roof of the
machinery chamber. This works a small ram pump.
It will be unnecessary to go much further into detail
with regard to the various haulage plants at this colliery.
We may, however, draw attention to Fig. 46, below,
which !'bows a plant wherein the motor is coupled direct
to the gear and not through a belt as in the other
instances. This gear was constructed by l\Iessrs. Qua.lter,
Hall and Co. It is carried on a steel girder frame, and
can be moYcd from place to place ns required. It consists of two hauling dt-ums in halves, 4ft. diameter, bushed
with brass, and working on A. main shaft driven by means
of jaw clutches. A spur wheel in ha lves is also keyed
on the shaft, and geaxs with a pinion on the countershaft, on which is a.lso keyed a. machine-cut spur wheel
gearing into a raw bide pinion on the motor spindle.
The motor is of 25 horse-power. The whole of the brake


ol: ".,



' I




r .. ,

i--! . J


PI an .

" T HE



Elevation .



, . ...

,,/ . /'1



.-- i _.. __
' -......: ------ ~,~;.- ;...--/"'

.. ........o::..

----- ---







on an upright shaft. This gears into a pinion working on and clutch levers are brought to a position near to
a. counter shaft, on which is also keyed a bevel wheel gether, so that the whole is under control of one man.
The screens are driYen by an electric motor by means of
made in halves, gearing with two pinions \\Orking on
separate counter shafts on which arc ke~ ed strong belt l\ belt; the plant does not' call for nny ~;pecial mention.

being dealt with in the same way as an,v other aboveground installation. The same remark applies to the coalwashing machinery, which is driven by two 80 horse-power
motors. In both instances the work is well and easily
Regarding the various other applications of di rcctcunent motors to work of different ltinds, it is perhaps
unnecessary to speak. It may, however, be of interest to
repeat that they are employed for working a disintegrator ;
a saw mill; machinery in a brickyard belonging to the
colliery; chatT cutting in the stables; machinery in the
estate workshops and quarry; in the wagon, joiners', and
mechanics' shops, in the latter of which some of the
motors are coupled singly to larger sized machines; the


J U~E 24, 1904


XV l

wheel loose on its shaft, and close to it a disc which

was firmly fixed to the shaft. Oo the rim of this
disc was a projecting lug, and on the side of the bevel
wheel was another projection, wbi~h just clear~d ~he
rim of the disc, but engaged w1th the proJe.ctJOn
upon it. Thus, the bevel wheel could make practiCally
one revolution without driving the cutter wheel shaft, and
hence without doing any work. The motors were geared
5 to 1, so that they could make live revolutions free. A r~
versing switch was also .added, and with this an11.ngemen.t It
was found possible to hberate the cutter wheel, by lettmg
the motors run forward, giving a jerk to it. This combination worked so well that the resistance rings were done
away with, and the mo.
started by being connected

bottom they are given a sligb t bight before being looped

up to the insulators, so that any moisture which may
collect on and run down them will drip off at the bottom
of the bight or loop, and not reach the insulators.
We cannot leave this mine without making mention of
a three-phase pumping plant which has been installed.
A reservoir has been constructed in a field belonging to
the Colliery Company some 1000 yards away from the
shafts. The water from a stream some 500 or 600 yards
away is pumped into this reservoir by means of a centrifugal pump dri,en by two 10 horse-power motors coupled
direct on to the shaft on either side of the pump. These
motors have also been depri,ed of their slip rings, as have
the coal cutter motors, and a re started by being connected
direct t o the mains. An ingenious inductional contrivance,
invented by Mr. Holiday, shows when the water level
is gettio~ too low, so that t~e a.ttenda?t may know when
to switch off the current w1thout ha.vmg to walk the 5(0
or 600 yards to see. The water from the reservoir is
pumped to the pit mout~ by means of a set of elect~icall~
driven three-throw honzontal pumps, the motor m th1s
case being of 15 ho~se-power three-phase. ?'his is stat;ted
by the aid of res1stances, t~ere no~ b~mg suffic1ent
'give" in the system to perm1t of their bemg done awav
with. Its ordinary working current with a voltage of 320



-- ---r lg.



co~<e o,-e::I hoist; lamp cleaniug machinery; tar.s and

pumps. We muRt not forget to mention a point in connection with the coal washen1. It is necessary to run
these machines for considerable periods at about quader
speed to prevent the sludge from settling solid in the
tanks. Mr. Holiday obtains this slow speed by the use
of two motors, and by means of a switch which can couple
the two motor in series and the fields in parallel.
'Ve mentioned earlier oa that three-phase motors were
usE:d for working the coal cutters. .Mr. Holiday, who
believes strongly in the use of three-phase current in coal
cutting, was the first, in this country at all events, to
apply successfully this method of driving to coal-cutting
machinery, and we are enabled by his co1rtesy to give in
Fig. 47, above, a reproduction from a photograph of a
H urd coal cutter, made by .Messrs. Mavor and Coulson,
and adapted for three-phase working by Mr. H oliday himself. In a communication which he made some little while
ago to the Journal of the British Society of Mining
Students, he gives some reason for adopting three-phase
cutTent for coal cutters, and details some of the experiences be met with before attaining success. In commencing the subject he draws attention to the fact that,
with continuous coal cutters, the motors used are usually
of the series type. In these, he explains, insulation is
difficult because of the limited space, and maintenance is
not easy because of the severe vibrations to which the
motors are subjected, this vibration being one of the most
frequent causes of breakdown. Rubbing contacts are
also necessary with a consequent liability to sparking,
this being due perhaps to mechanical, perhaps to
electrical causes. He mentions the fa~t that makers do
their utmost to minimise the dangers consequent on this.
They design the motors in the first instance so that they
give a minimum of sparking and then enclose them completely in cases which are called "gas tight." Inspection
covers must, however, be pro\'ided, he continues, "and,
as they must be left so that the men in the pit can open
them, they are about as reliable as an unlocked safety
lamp in the hands of miners."
In s tarting a series motor, he goes on, if the full current is switched on suddenly while the motor is at rest,
a heavy rush of cun-ent passes through the armature,
which lasts until the fuses blow or until it is s witched off
again. If this rush of current lasts long, the armature is
burnt. Starting difficulties are overcome by means of
resistances, but these are a constant source of trouble.
Owina to varying temperature~ and t0 the vibration,
screw~ are liable to work loose and arcing to be set up.
On the other hand, with continuous current only two
cables are necessaty.
Two-phase currents be passes over, saying that there
are difficulties in starting. With three-phase currents
three cables are required. The motors start fairly well.
In these the full working cmTent passes through the
stationary part of the motors only; consequently there
is more room for insulation, and breakdowns are much
less frequent than with direct-current mot?t'S, T~c great
disadvantage of the three-phase wotor IS thn.t 1t has a
very small s tarting torque-not nearly as great a~ that in
a series continuous-current motot. In order to rncrease
this starting torque resistances are introduced into the
rotor circuit, and as a consequence there must be three
slip rings to convey the cutTent from the rotor to the
resistances. These rings are of solid brass, and they are
not liable to spark from electrical causes, but f!lay d? so
if subjected to vibration. . These were the consi~erat10ns
which confronted Mr. H oliday when he first set btmself to
work out the question of electrical coal cu ttin{:? H e deci.ded
finally that if the three-phase motor could be gt \'en su~Clen t
starting torque, it would be far safer and lc~s compli cate~
than the cootinuous-cutTent motor. In his first expenments he used a. Diamond Coal Cutter Company's cutter
wheel and two 10 horse-power Brown Boveri motors.
H e, after some experiment, made the driving bevel



directly to the mains. This Mr. Holiday considers to be

practically the secret of the application of three-phase
motors to coal cutting. H e has since adopted Hurd bat
cutters, and has fitted each with a 20 horse-power threephase motor. He has never had a !use blow with a
three-phase motor, though several times he has bad disc
machines pulled up dead. The reason for this is, as he
explains, that the motors and the mains have a high induction which checks the flow of current. H ence be iE
able to place all his fuses on the surface-a great point.
Mr. Holiday considers that the man,y advantages of threephase plant quite counterbalance the extra cost in cable.
H e has found these motors work well, and has never had
to change the bearings. He fits the motors to the cutters.
and makes his own switch-boxes at the colliery. Indeed.
this remark applies not only to coal cutters, but through
out the whole electric system. The coal cutter switches
are closed with an accurately machined' cover and cement

TH e.

E ... GI HC.EA "

F!g. 49- T HE


=s about 44 amperes. If the currer.t is switched right on

without the resista.nces, the motor simply hums without
moving, and a current of about 100 amperes passes.


Fig. 48 -CA BI:.E


joint. The handle works into the box through a gland.

H e has never hA.d an.v sparking. The voltage used is 320.
'Ye noticed at this mine an ingenious contrivanc:?,
for suspending the cables going down t~e shaft, which
has been patented by Mr. Holiday . .Mr. Holiday prefers to
use single cables fot this purpose, and to have them of
bard-drawn copper, with a light insulating covering. At
the top of the shaft each cable is gripped in the clamp,
and is held there by means of the six bolts a.nd nuts.
Thorough insulation is ensured by the construction of the
suspender, which consists of a n inverted cast iron basin
provided with a banger and with a central tube, up
through which the stalk of the cable grip is pas!ied. 'l'he
bottom of the annular space formed in the cast iron basin
by central tube is filled in with a ring of wooc1. Over this
is placed a ring of rubber, and the remainder of the space
is filled up with oil. The gripper stalk is passed through
a hole in an inverted thimble, and secured by a cotter.
The thimble is then dropped into the oil, and rests on the
rubber. The whole is then closed in with a domed
covering. Mr. Holiday informs us that he and others
have found this arrangem ent an!lwer admirably. The
two engravings-Figs. 48 and 49, on this page-show thiB
apparatus in section, and as it is an-anged in actual
practice. , In this cMe the three cables we1e each
600 yards long. 'l' be engraving i~:~ reproduced from a
photograph taken at the Ackton H all Colliery. The
suspenders are so ananged that the cables hang well
cleat of the side of the shaft, and when they reach the

Another colliery which we were enabled, by the

~ourtesy of its manager, 1\Ir. Houfton, to visit was that
belonging to the Bolsover Colliery Company. This pit ill
interesting in that, having some time ago adopted direct
::unent working for its haulage plants, it has recently
installed a fairly large three-phase plant. The direct
cunent plant at bank consists of a lOO-kilowatt compound
wound four-pole dynamo, giving 600 volts at 720 revolutions per minute, this being belt-driven by a ~ingle-cylin ccr
horizontal engine made by Messrs. J obn Davis and Son, of
Derby, and a two-pole Goulden dynamo, giving 67 amperes
and 5~8 volts at 630 re,olutions. It is dt;ven by a singlecylinder horizontal engine by means of an overhead
countershaft and belting. There are, in addition, two
lighting plants; one of these gi\'es 200 amperes 1 t
110 volts and 940 revolutions per minute, and the otl::e :
180 amperes at 110 volts at 805 revolutions per minute.
Both of these are driven by horizontal ltobey engine~:~.
The first-named generating plant drives a m otor which
is an exact counterpart of the dynamo as regards size, and
this actuates a haulage gear by means of a belt. The
second plant, until the installation of the three-phase
dynamo, drove a series-wound motor near the bottom of
the shaft, but at present this is not at worl<, though we
understand it is shortly to be re-employed.
The three-phase in~:~ talla.tion consists of a 180-kilowat~
Westinghouse generator running at 514 revolutions, anJ
with a voltage of 440. It is driven by a vertical Westinghouse engine with two cylinders, each 20in. by 16in.
stroke. The motor dQwn the pit is of the Westinghous:~
make and of 200 horse-power, and works at 580 revolution~
per minute, with a voltage of 400. It drives three
endless rope ba.ulages of 440 ,Yards, 3600 ya.rds-~:~hortls
to be m ade 4300 yards-and 2000 yard<; respectively. \\' e
were informed that the whole plant runs well and give l
no trouble whatever. The switch gear is quite orc1, a.J
there is no gas in the mine at this point.