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Chapter1:MatterandMeasurements

1.1TheStudyofChemistry
Atomsarethebuildingblocksofmatter.
Moleculesareformedwhentwoormoreatomsarejoinedtogetherinspecificshapes.
1.2ClassificationofMatter
StatesofMatter
Gas(Vapor)
Nofixedshapeorvolume.
Moleculesarefarapartandmovingathighspeeds.
Repeatedlycollidingwitheachotherandthewallsofcontainer.
Liquid
Nofixedshape,butdefinitevolume.
Moleculesareclosertogether,butstillmovingrapidly,causingthemto
slideovereachother.
Solid
Fixedshapeandvolume.
Moleculesarecloselypackedtogetherandcanonlyvibratefromtheir
fixedpositions.
PureSubstances
Substances
Matterthathasdistinctpropertiesandacompositionthatdoesntvary
fromsampletosample.
Example:waterandtablesalt
Allsubstancesareeitherelementsorcompounds.
Elements
Cannotbebrokendownintosimplersubstances.
Eachelementiscomposedofonlyonekindofatom.
Theperiodictableisusedtoorganizetheelements.

Closelyrelatedelementsaregroupedtogetherin
verticalcolumns.
Compounds
Substancescomposedoftwoormoreelements.
Mostelementsinteractwitheachothertoform
compounds.
Compoundpropertiesdifferfromthepropertiesofthe
elementsitscomposedof.
LawofConstantComposition
Alsoknownaslawofdefiniteproportions.
Statesthattheelementalcompositionofapure
compoundisalwaysthesame.
Apurecompoundhasthesamecomposition
andproperties,regardlessofsource.
Puresubstancesmayhavemorethan
onecrystallineform,whichcanhave
slightlydifferentpropertiesfromeach
other.
Mixtures
Combinationoftwoormoresubstance.
Eachsubstanceretainsitsownchemicalidentityandproperties.
Whilepuresubstanceshavefixedcompositions,the
compositionsofmixturescanvary.
Substancesthatmakeupamixturearecalledthecomponents.
Canbeeitherheterogeneousorhomogeneous.
Homogeneousmixturesareuniformthroughout.
Example:air,sugarwater,etc.
Alsocalledsolutions.

Heterogeneousmixturesarenotuniformthroughout.
Example:oilandwater
1.3PropertiesofMatter
PropertiesofMatter
Organizedaseitherchemicalorphysical.
Physicalpropertiesmeasuredwithoutchangingtheidentityand
compositionofsubstance.
Example:color,odor,density,meltingpoint,boilingpoint,
hardness.
Chemicalpropertiesdescribethewayasubstancemaychangeor
reacttoformothersubstances.
Example:flammability(theabilitytoburninthepresenceof
oxygen)
IntensiveProperties
Thequantityofsampledoesnotmatter.
Canbeusedtoidentifysubstances.
Example:temperature,meltingpoint,density.
ExtensiveProperties
Thequantityofsampledoesmatter.
Relatetotheamountofsubstancepresent.
Example:massandvolume.
PhysicalandChemicalChanges
PhysicalChange
Physicalappearanceofsubstancechanges,butnotitscomposition.
Example:evaporationofwater.
Allchangesofstatearephysicalchanges.
ChemicalChange
Alsocalledchemicalreactions.
Substanceistransformedintoachemicallydifferentsubstance.

Example:whenhydrogenisburnedinair,itcombineswithoxygento
formwater.
SeparationofMixtures
Filtration
Processusedtoseparateaheterogeneousmixtureintoitscomponents
throughtheuseofamedium(filter).
Takesadvantageofthedifferencesintheirproperties.
Distillation
Processofseparatingsubstancesfromliquidmixturesthrough
vaporisationandcondensation.
Dependsonthedifferentabilitiesofsubstancestoformgases.
Usedforhomogeneousmixtures.
1.4UnitsofMeasurement
Introduction
Manypropertiesofmatterarequantitative(associatedwithnumbers)
Unitsusedforscientificmeasurementsarefromthemetricsystem.
SIUnits
NamedaftertheFrenchSystemeInternationaldUnites.
Hassevenbaseunits.
Masskilogram(kg)
Lengthmeter(m)
Timesecond(sa)
Temperaturekelvin(K)
AmountofSubstancemole(mol)
ElectricCurrentAmpere(A)
LuminousIntensityCandela(cd)
Prefixesareusedtoindicatedecimalfractionsormultiplesofvariousunits.
Examples:
Giga(G)109

Mega(M)106
Kilo(k)103
Deci(d)101
Centi(c)102
Milli(m)103
Micro(ua)106
Nano(n)109
Pico(p)1012
Femto(f)1015
LengthandMass
SIbaseunitoflengthismeter.
Massmeasurestheamountofmaterialinanobject.
Temperature
Measureofhowhotorcoldanobjectis.
MeasuredwithboththeCelsiusandKelvinscale.
Freezingandboilingpointofwater:0Cand100C
Kelvinscale:C+273
Absolutezero(273.15Celsius)isthelowestattainabletemperature
ToconvertCelsiustoFahrenheitandviseversa:
C=5/9(F32)
F=9/5(C+32)
Volume
SIunitofvolumeis m3
Smallerunitslike cm3 canalsobeused
Liter(L),anotherunitofvolumethatisusedinchemistry,isnotaSIunit.
Instrumentsfrequentlyusedtomeasurevolumeare:
Graduatedcylinder
Syringe
Buret

Pipet
Volumetricflask
Density
Definedastheamountofmassinagivenvolume.

density = mass/volume

Commonlyexpressedas g/cm3 or g/mL


Waterhasadensityof1.00g/mL
Densityistemperaturedependentbecausemostsubstanceschangevolume
whenheatedorcooled.
Temperatureshouldbespecifiedwhennotingdensityotherwise,temperatureis
assumedtobe25C(normalroomtemperature).
1.5UncertaintyinMeasurement
Introduction
Twokindsofnumbers:exactnumbersandinexactnumbers
ExactNumbers
Havedefinedvalues
Canbedeterminedbycountingthenumbersofobjects.
InexactNumbers
Numbersobtainedbymeasurement
Inaccuracyduetolimitationsinequipmentandhumanerrors
PrecisionandAccuracy
Precision:measureshowcloselyindividualmeasurementsagreewitheachother.
Accuracy:referstohowcloselyindividualmeasurementsagreewiththecorrect
value.
Similarresultsfrommultipletrialsmaybeprecise,butnotnecessarilyaccurate.
SignificantFigures
Alldigitsofameasuredquantityarecalledsignificantfigures(sigfigs)
Moresigfigsimpliesagreatercertaintyforthemeasurement.
Multiplemeasurementsareaveragedtogether.

Determiningsigfigs:
Allnonzeros.
Zerosbetweennonzerodigits.
Example:1.03hasthreesigfigs.
ZerosatthebeginningofanumberareNOTsignificant.
Example:0.0026hastwosigfigs.
ZerosattheendofanumberissignificantIFthenumbercontainsa
decimal.
Example:0.0200containsthreesigfigs.
Example:3.0containstwosigfigs.
Example:10,300canhaveeither,3,4,or5sigfigsdepending
onhowitswritten.
Rewritingthenumberinexponentialnotationclearsthe
confusion.
Example: 1.03x104 hasthreesigfigswhile
1.030x104 hasfoursigfigs.
SignificantFiguresinCalculations
Numberofsigfigsisdeterminedbytheleastcertainmeasurement.
Finalanswershouldbereportedwithonlyoneuncertaindigit.
Rules
MultiplicationandDivision:
Answershouldcontainthesamenumberofsigfigsas
themeasurementwiththefewestsigfigs.
Example:6.221x5.2=32.3192(2sigfigs)
32
AdditionandSubtraction:
Answershouldhavethesamenumberofdecimalplaces
asthemeasurementwiththefewestdecimalplaces.

Example:20.42+1.322+83.1=104.842
104.8
Formultiplicationanddivision,sigfigsarecountedwhile
decimalplacesarecountedforadditionandsubtraction.
Whencalculationsrequiretwoormorestepsandananswerforeachstep,write
downatleastoneadditionaldigitbeyondthenumberofsigfigs.
1.6DimensionalAnalysis
Introduction
DimensionalAnalysis
Carryunitsthroughallcalculations.
Unitscanceleachotheroutthroughmultiplicationanddivision.
Ensuressolutionstoproblemsyieldproperunits.
Providessystematicwayofsolvingnumericalproblemsandawayto
checksolutionsforpossibleerrors.
ConversionFactor
Afractionwhosenumeratoranddenominatorarethesamequantitybut
expressedindifferentunits.
Example:2.54cm/1inand1in/2.54cm
UsingTwoorMoreConversionFactors
Examplesneededtobewrittenbyhand.
ConversionsInvolvingVolume
Examplesneededtobewrittenbyhand.