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Presentaion

Dr. U. D Dwivedi
(Asst. Professor)
Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology,
Raebareli

A Wavelet-based Carrierless PWM


Scheme for dc-ac Converter

Outline
Introduction
1-Phase Inverter: Square-wave, Multi-pulse and PWM
Why A new modulation technique?
Wavelet Modulation (WM)
Generation of Switching Pulses using WM
Inverter Switching Scheme with WM Inverters
Simulation Results for a 1-pahse WM Inverter
Conclusions

DC to AC Conversion (INVERTER)
DEFINITION: Converts DC to AC power by switching the
DC input voltage (or current)in a pre-determined sequence so
as to generate AC voltage (or current) output.
Uses power electronics switches

TYPICAL APPLICATIONS:

From small car adapter to large converters in solar and


wind powered systems.
Industrial drives, Traction, HVDC, Un-interruptible power
supply (UPS), etc.

1-Phase Inverter: Square-wave, Multipulse and PWM


(a) Square wave

No control on output voltage


magnitude,

No Harmonics control

(a)

1-phase Inverter
(b) Multi-pulse

Controllable output voltage


Magnitude,

Limited degree of Harmonics


control
(b)

(c) Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

A better square wave notching is shown


this is known as PWM technique.

Both amplitude and frequency can be controlled


independently.
(c)

Sine-PWM Inverter
A high freq. Carrier wave is compared with a
low freq. sine wave to generate switching signal.

Switching Pulse Generation with SPWM

Output Voltage Control

PWM Inverters
Main Objectives:
1.
2.

To generate good quality controllable output ac voltage


And to minimize harmonic distortion , filtering requirements, and
switching losses etc.

Higher switching freq. => less lower order harmonics and low
filtering requirements, but higher switching losses
Sinusoidal PWM, Random PWM, Space Vector modulation, Selective
Harmonics Elimination (SHE), etc.

Problem :
the inverter can be modelled only as a lumped and averaged supplyto-load element
limited capabilities to effectively represent inverters, difficult to
correlate them with modulation techniques.

Wavelet Based PWM Inverters


Motivation:
A new PWM scheme based on non-uniform sampling and
wavelet theory proposed in IEEE Transaction on Industrial
Electronics (VOL. 56, NO. 7, JULY 2009)
Advantages:
Significant reduction in Harmonics compared to SPWM, RPWM, etc
Effective Inverter Model

Problem :
No output voltage magnitude control capability
Higher switching losses

Proposed: (Improved and generalization of basic WM scheme)


Full output voltage control capability
50% Reduction in switching losses

Wavelet Based PWM Inverters


Motivation:
A new PWM scheme based on non-uniform sampling and
wavelet theory proposed in IEEE Transaction on Industrial
Electronics (VOL. 56, NO. 7, JULY 2009)
Advantages:
Significant reduction in Harmonics compared to SPWM, RPWM, etc
Effective Inverter Model

Problem :
No output voltage magnitude control capability
Higher switching losses

Proposed: (Improved and generalization of basic WM scheme)


Full output voltage control capability
50% Reduction in switching losses

From Wavelets to Wavelet Modulation (WM)

Wavelets are defined by the wavelet function (t) ( also called the mother
wavelet) and a scaling function (t).

Haar wavelet:
1

(t ) = 1
0

0 t < 1/ 2,
1/2 t < 1,
otherwise;

0 t < 1,

1
0

(t ) =

otherwise.

Dilation and translation of (t) generates a family of Haar scaling function:

j , k (t ) = H (2 j +1 t k ),
where, j is scale parameter
and k is translation parameter.

Contnd..

In PWM, the output voltage is controlled by varying the width and position
of the pulses.

To generate variable width pulses, two Haar scaling functions are


combined to construct a new scaling function given as

j (t ) = H (2 . j +1 t ) + H (2 . j +1 (t 1 + 2 ( . j +1) )),
where, j is scale parameter and 1,

is a constant.

Function j , is subtracted from the original Haar scaling function H to


obtain a synthesis function :

% j (t ) = H j (t ) j (t ).

Contnd..

Function j , is subtracted from the


original Haar scaling function H to
obtain a synthesis function :

% j (t ) = H j (t ) j (t ).

% j creates two samples at each


dilation (scale) j at
td 1 = 2 ( . j +1) ,
td 2 = 1 2 ( . j +1)

Wavelet Modulation (WM)

Switching Pulse Generation using WM


The start and end of time of each pulse w.r.t. a common reference
is calculated as

Tm
.[ d + 2 ( . j +1) ],
D
Tm
=
.[ d + 1 2 ( . j +1) ], for d = 0,1, 2,....., D 1. D is the no. pulse per cycle
D

td 1 =
td 2

Here, no carrier signal is required.

Switching Strategy Incorporated with Proposed WM


Basic WM

Proposed
50% Reduction in Switching Losses
With proposed method

Implementations

Easy to implement as only two equations are required to generate the


switching signal

The proposed wavelet modulation scheme has been implemented using a


MATLAB code and is finally converted to an equivalent SIMULINK
model.

The developed WM simulink-block has been converted to a dSPACE


model for hardware implementaion.

Extensive simulations have been carried out on single phase voltage source
inverter using the developed simulink block to analyse the performance of
the scheme.

Implementations

Easy to implement as only two equations are required to generate the


switching signal

The proposed wavelet modulation scheme has been implemented using a


MATLAB code and is finally converted to an equivalent SIMULINK
model.

Extensive simulations have been carried out on single phase voltage source
inverter using the developed simulink block to analyse the performance of
the scheme

The inverter output can be expressed as:


J 1
J
J 1
J

Vo (t) =Vdc
% j (t) + % j (t) %J j (t Tm /2) %J j (t Tm /2)
j=1

j=1
j=1
j=1

WM-Pulse Generator
WM-Simulink Block

WM-Inverter and Load

WM Embedded function

WM-Simulink Block

Basic WM Inverter Output Voltage

Proposed Wavelet PWM Inverter: Results


= 0.4

Proposed Wavelet PWM Inverter: Results


= 0.25

Fundamental Inverter Output Voltage Control


V1 v e r s u s

v e rs u s V1

dSPACE Output of Developed WM-Simulink Block

Conclusions

The main advantage of the WM scheme is that a single synthesis function,


derived using wavelet theory, can be used to generate the switching signal
as well as to model the inverter output which is not possible with other
modulation techniques.

Extensive simulations have been carried out on single phase VSI to analyse
the performance of the proposed scheme for a wide range of frequency and
output voltage magnitudes.

The proposed scheme provides a controllable output voltage with a


significant reduction in harmonics and switching losses.

The developed WM simulink-dSPACE model can be easily interfaced with


external hardware (inverter).