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Use and Abuse of Springs to Model Foundations Rob Day and Joe Muccillo – Technical
Use and Abuse of Springs to
Model Foundations
Rob Day and Joe Muccillo – Technical Directors
AECOM Australia Pty Ltd
14 Aug 2013
Part 1 – The Geotechnical Viewpoint
Part 1 – The Geotechnical
Viewpoint

Outline

- What is the conflict?

- The limitations of spring models to represent soil continuum

- The plate load test

- Behaviour of footings/rafts

- Behaviour of vertically loaded piles and pile groups

- Behaviour of laterally loaded piles and pile groups.

- Behaviour of propped sheetpile excavations

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

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piles and pile groups. - Behaviour of propped sheetpile excavations Use and Abuse of Springs August
What’s the conflict?
What’s the conflict?

Conflicting points of view

Structural Engineer: “SPRING CONSTANT”
Structural Engineer:
“SPRING CONSTANT”

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

Page 5

Conflicting points of view Structural Engineer: “SPRING CONSTANT” Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013
Conflicting points of view Structural Engineer: “SPRING CONSTANT” Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013

Conflicting points of view

Structural Engineer: “SPRING CONSTANT”
Structural Engineer:
“SPRING CONSTANT”

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

Geotechnical Engineer: “MODULUS OF SUBGRADE REACTION” (HIGHLY VARIABLE WITH GEOMETRY/LOAD)
Geotechnical Engineer:
“MODULUS OF SUBGRADE
REACTION” (HIGHLY
VARIABLE WITH
GEOMETRY/LOAD)

Page 6

August 15, 2013 Geotechnical Engineer: “MODULUS OF SUBGRADE REACTION” (HIGHLY VARIABLE WITH GEOMETRY/LOAD) Page 6

Conflicting points of view

Conflicting points of view Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Geotechnical Engineer: “DEFLECTIONS UNDER

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

Geotechnical Engineer: “DEFLECTIONS UNDER KNOWN LOAD AND GEOMETRY”
Geotechnical Engineer:
“DEFLECTIONS UNDER
KNOWN LOAD AND
GEOMETRY”

Page 7

Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Geotechnical Engineer: “DEFLECTIONS UNDER KNOWN LOAD AND GEOMETRY”

Conflicting points of view

Structural Engineer: “DEPENDS ON FOUNDATION STIFFNESS”
Structural Engineer:
“DEPENDS ON FOUNDATION
STIFFNESS”

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

Geotechnical Engineer: “DEFLECTIONS UNDER KNOWN LOAD AND GEOMETRY”
Geotechnical Engineer:
“DEFLECTIONS UNDER
KNOWN LOAD AND
GEOMETRY”

Page 8

Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Geotechnical Engineer: “DEFLECTIONS UNDER KNOWN LOAD AND GEOMETRY”

Conflicting points of view

Structural Engineer: “DEPENDS ON FOUNDATION STIFFNESS”
Structural Engineer:
“DEPENDS ON FOUNDATION
STIFFNESS”
Structural Engineer: “DEPENDS ON FOUNDATION STIFFNESS” Use and Abuse of Springs Geotechnical Engineer:

Use and Abuse of Springs

Geotechnical Engineer: “DEFLECTIONS UNDER KNOWN LOAD AND GEOMETRY”
Geotechnical Engineer:
“DEFLECTIONS UNDER
KNOWN LOAD AND
GEOMETRY”

Page 9

Engineer: “DEFLECTIONS UNDER KNOWN LOAD AND GEOMETRY” Page 9 NEED TO REACH A COMPROMISE August 15,

NEED TO REACH

A COMPROMISE

August 15, 2013

A typical foundation scenario

A typical foundation scenario Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 10
A typical foundation scenario Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 10
A typical foundation scenario Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 10
A typical foundation scenario Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 10
A typical foundation scenario Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 10
A typical foundation scenario Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 10
A typical foundation scenario Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 10
A typical foundation scenario Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 10

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

Page 10

A typical foundation scenario Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 10

Typical Spring Constant Examples

RAFT

LATERAL

PILE FRAME SUPPORT Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 11
PILE
FRAME SUPPORT
Use and Abuse of Springs
August 15, 2013
Page 11

Why do Geotechnical Engineers HATE Springs?

- Soil does not behave like a spring

- The bigger the loaded area the softer the elastic response per unit area

- Soil behaves inelastically from quite low stress levels and undergoes extensive plastic yield at higher stresses.

- Hence there is a fear that springs will be used for other than intended purpose.

Use and Abuse of Springs

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is a fear that springs will be used for other than intended purpose. Use and Abuse

Typical settlement contours under a loaded area

Typical settlement contours under a loaded area Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Typical settlement contours under a loaded area Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page
Footings and Rafts
Footings and Rafts

Uniform load on a raft supported by springs

UNIFORM LOAD q

Uniform load on a raft supported by springs UNIFORM LOAD q Use and Abuse of Springs
Uniform load on a raft supported by springs UNIFORM LOAD q Use and Abuse of Springs
Uniform load on a raft supported by springs UNIFORM LOAD q Use and Abuse of Springs
Uniform load on a raft supported by springs UNIFORM LOAD q Use and Abuse of Springs
Uniform load on a raft supported by springs UNIFORM LOAD q Use and Abuse of Springs
Uniform load on a raft supported by springs UNIFORM LOAD q Use and Abuse of Springs
Uniform load on a raft supported by springs UNIFORM LOAD q Use and Abuse of Springs
Uniform load on a raft supported by springs UNIFORM LOAD q Use and Abuse of Springs

Use and Abuse of Springs

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K s

Uniform load on a raft supported by springs UNIFORM LOAD q Use and Abuse of Springs
Soil springs from textbooks Bowles - Foundation Analysis and Design 5 th Ed Soil K
Soil springs from textbooks
Bowles - Foundation
Analysis and Design
5 th Ed
Soil
K s , kN/m 3
- The modulus of subgrade reaction
(Ks)
Loose sand
4800
-- 16000
Medium dense sand
9600
-- 80000
- The units are pressure/deflection
e.g. kPa/m
Dense sand
64000 – 128000
Clayey medium
dense sand
32000
– 80000
- Typical values from Bowles’ book
Silty medium dense
sand
24000
-- 48000
Clayey soil
q u 200 kPa (4 – ksf)
12000
– 24000
Clayey soil
200 < q u 400 kPa
24000
– 48000
Clayey soil
q u > 800 kPa
> 48000
Use and Abuse of Springs
August 15, 2013
Page 16
Structural Engineer: “EASY! – WHAT’S THE PROBLEM?”
Structural Engineer:
“EASY! – WHAT’S
THE PROBLEM?”

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Structural Engineer: “EASY! – WHAT’S THE PROBLEM?” Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page
Structural Engineer: “EASY! – WHAT’S THE PROBLEM?” Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page

Uniform load on a raft supported by springs

=q/K s

Uniform load on a raft supported by springs =q/K s UNIFORM LOAD q Use and Abuse

UNIFORM LOAD q

Uniform load on a raft supported by springs =q/K s UNIFORM LOAD q Use and Abuse
Uniform load on a raft supported by springs =q/K s UNIFORM LOAD q Use and Abuse
Uniform load on a raft supported by springs =q/K s UNIFORM LOAD q Use and Abuse
Uniform load on a raft supported by springs =q/K s UNIFORM LOAD q Use and Abuse
Uniform load on a raft supported by springs =q/K s UNIFORM LOAD q Use and Abuse
Uniform load on a raft supported by springs =q/K s UNIFORM LOAD q Use and Abuse
Uniform load on a raft supported by springs =q/K s UNIFORM LOAD q Use and Abuse

Use and Abuse of Springs

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K s

Uniform load on a raft supported by springs =q/K s UNIFORM LOAD q Use and Abuse

Uniform load on a raft supported by springs

=q/K s

Uniform load on a raft supported by springs =q/K s UNIFORM LOAD q K s CONSTANT

UNIFORM LOAD q

load on a raft supported by springs =q/K s UNIFORM LOAD q K s CONSTANT LOAD
load on a raft supported by springs =q/K s UNIFORM LOAD q K s CONSTANT LOAD
load on a raft supported by springs =q/K s UNIFORM LOAD q K s CONSTANT LOAD
load on a raft supported by springs =q/K s UNIFORM LOAD q K s CONSTANT LOAD
load on a raft supported by springs =q/K s UNIFORM LOAD q K s CONSTANT LOAD
load on a raft supported by springs =q/K s UNIFORM LOAD q K s CONSTANT LOAD
load on a raft supported by springs =q/K s UNIFORM LOAD q K s CONSTANT LOAD
load on a raft supported by springs =q/K s UNIFORM LOAD q K s CONSTANT LOAD

K s

CONSTANT LOAD AND DEFLECTION ON ALL SPRINGS IRRESPECTIVE OF RAFT SIZE/STIFFNESS – NO BENDING!

Use and Abuse of Springs

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ON ALL SPRINGS IRRESPECTIVE OF RAFT SIZE/STIFFNESS – NO BENDING! Use and Abuse of Springs August

Modulus of Subgrade Reaction – Plate Load Test

Modulus of Subgrade Reaction – Plate Load Test Typically 0.3m diameter Use and Abuse of Springs
Modulus of Subgrade Reaction – Plate Load Test Typically 0.3m diameter Use and Abuse of Springs

Typically 0.3m diameter

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Modulus of Subgrade Reaction – Plate Load Test Typically 0.3m diameter Use and Abuse of Springs

Uniform load on a RIGID circular plate

UNIFORM LOAD q = 100kPa

0.3m diameter (D) E = 10MPa, = 0.3, c, = ? Assume elastic
0.3m diameter (D)
E = 10MPa,
= 0.3,
c, = ? Assume elastic

Semi–infinite soil

Use and Abuse of Springs

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(D) E = 10MPa, = 0.3, c, = ? Assume elastic Semi–infinite soil Use and Abuse

Elastic pressure response

Half of average Asymptotes to infinite
Half of average
Asymptotes to
infinite

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Elastic pressure response Half of average Asymptotes to infinite Use and Abuse of Springs August 15,

Elastic – plastic response for a stiff clay

Plastic yield starts at edge: – zero for granular, ~ 2cu for cohesive
Plastic yield
starts at edge:
– zero for granular,
~ 2cu for cohesive

Average pressure

Use and Abuse of Springs

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at edge: – zero for granular, ~ 2cu for cohesive Average pressure Use and Abuse of

Elastic – plastic response for a stiff clay

Progressive yield Ultimate bearing pressure
Progressive yield
Ultimate bearing pressure

Average pressure

Use and Abuse of Springs

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stiff clay Progressive yield Ultimate bearing pressure Average pressure Use and Abuse of Springs August 15,

Elastic – plastic response for a stiff clay

Ks = 47,000kN/m 3 Integrate area under pressure curve
Ks = 47,000kN/m 3
Integrate area under pressure curve

Use and Abuse of Springs

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for a stiff clay Ks = 47,000kN/m 3 Integrate area under pressure curve Use and Abuse

Effect of footing size

Effect of footing size Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 26

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Effect of footing size Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 26

For a RIGID CIRCULAR plate at LOW STRAINS

= = . .( )
=
=
.
.( )

i.e. INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO DIAMETER OF CIRCLE (D)

Use and Abuse of Springs

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= = . .( ) i.e. INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO DIAMETER OF CIRCLE (D) Use and Abuse

Settlement of RIGID irregular shape

Using a uniform spring analogy a uniform load would settle by an equal amount at all springs

=q/K s

load would settle by an equal amount at all springs =q/K s Use and Abuse of

Use and Abuse of Springs

UNIFORM LOAD q

settle by an equal amount at all springs =q/K s Use and Abuse of Springs UNIFORM
settle by an equal amount at all springs =q/K s Use and Abuse of Springs UNIFORM
settle by an equal amount at all springs =q/K s Use and Abuse of Springs UNIFORM
settle by an equal amount at all springs =q/K s Use and Abuse of Springs UNIFORM
settle by an equal amount at all springs =q/K s Use and Abuse of Springs UNIFORM
settle by an equal amount at all springs =q/K s Use and Abuse of Springs UNIFORM
settle by an equal amount at all springs =q/K s Use and Abuse of Springs UNIFORM

August 15, 2013

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K s

settle by an equal amount at all springs =q/K s Use and Abuse of Springs UNIFORM

Settlement of RIGID irregular shape

Settlement of RIGID irregular shape Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 29

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Settlement of RIGID irregular shape Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 29

Settlement of a FLEXIBLE raft

1m Thick Raft
1m Thick
Raft

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Settlement of a FLEXIBLE raft 1m Thick Raft Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013

Superposition of load

• Why does this happen?

• Need to understand how the soil and loads interact

• Consider a uniform flexible strip load on a deep soil

UNIFORM LOAD = 100kPa

1m wide strip E = 10MPa, = 0.3, c, = ? Assume elastic
1m wide
strip
E = 10MPa,
= 0.3,
c, = ? Assume elastic

Use and Abuse of Springs

Semi–infinite soil

August 15, 2013

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strip E = 10MPa, = 0.3, c, = ? Assume elastic Use and Abuse of Springs

Single 1m wide strip

Settlement bowl extends way beyond footing Edge of footing
Settlement bowl
extends way
beyond footing
Edge of footing

Use and Abuse of Springs

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wide strip Settlement bowl extends way beyond footing Edge of footing Use and Abuse of Springs

Nine 1m wide strip loads at 2.5m centres

Nine 1m wide strip loads at 2.5m centres Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Nine 1m wide strip loads at 2.5m centres Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013

Settlement of a strip footing line load

LINE LOAD P = 100kN/m = 22mm

LINE LOAD P = 100kN/m = 22mm

0.5m wide strip 2m wide strip E = 10MPa, = 0.3, c, = ? Assume
0.5m wide
strip
2m wide
strip
E = 10MPa,
= 0.3,
c, = ? Assume elastic

Use and Abuse of Springs

Semi–infinite soil

August 15, 2013

Page 34

strip E = 10MPa, = 0.3, c, = ? Assume elastic Use and Abuse of Springs

Settlement of a FLEXIBLE raft is superposition of many small square loads

1m Thick Raft
1m Thick
Raft

Use and Abuse of Springs

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FLEXIBLE raft is superposition of many small square loads 1m Thick Raft Use and Abuse of

Effect of finite soil depth or layering

UNIFORM LOAD = 100kPa

Depth H

Width B=1m E = 10MPa, = 0.3, c, = ? Assume elastic
Width B=1m
E = 10MPa,
= 0.3,
c, = ? Assume elastic

Rigid Base

H Width B=1m E = 10MPa, = 0.3, c, = ? Assume elastic Rigid Base Use

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H Width B=1m E = 10MPa, = 0.3, c, = ? Assume elastic Rigid Base Use

Real Soils not linear elastic – purely plastic

- High modulus at very small strains

- Brittle, strain hardening and strain softening behaviour

- Time dependent consolidation

Use and Abuse of Springs

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hardening and strain softening behaviour - Time dependent consolidation Use and Abuse of Springs August 15,

Consolidation with time

2000 pressure 1500 1 10 100 1000 10000 0% 1000 2% 500 4% 0 0
2000
pressure
1500
1
10
100
1000
10000
0%
1000
2%
500
4%
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
6%
time (min)
8%
time (min)
10%
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
0%
12%
5%
14%
10%
16%
15%
18%
20%
20%
Use and Abuse of Springs
August 15, 2013
Page 38
strain
pressure (kPa)
Strain

Non linear stress-strain behaviour

Non linear stress-strain behaviour Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 39

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Page 39

Non linear stress-strain behaviour Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 39

Conclusions for spread footings and rafts

Conclusions for spread footings and rafts Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 - At

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

- At low strains spring stiffness much higher around edges than in middle

- Hence higher bending moments (typically 2 to 3 times higher for stiff footings at low strains)

- For eccentric loads uniform springs over-estimate rotation (typically by 2 to 4 times)

Page 40

footings at low strains) - For eccentric loads uniform springs over-estimate rotation (typically by 2 to

Conclusions for spread footings and rafts

Conclusions for spread footings and rafts Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 - Springs

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

- Springs go plastic at lower stresses near edge than in middle

- Spring stiffness HIGHLY DEPENDENT on size of loaded area

Page 41

go plastic at lower stresses near edge than in middle - Spring stiffness HIGHLY DEPENDENT on

Conclusions for spread footings and rafts

Conclusions for spread footings and rafts Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 - Shape
Conclusions for spread footings and rafts Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 - Shape

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

- Shape of raft affects spring stiffness distribution

- Adjacent footings can have a very significant effect on settlement

Page 42

raft affects spring stiffness distribution - Adjacent footings can have a very significant effect on settlement

Spring Recommendations For Footings/Rafts:

- DON’T use uniform springs

- Vary springs to take into account size and shape of footing, proximity of other footings and location of spring relative to centroid and perimeter of raft

- (as a rule of thumb edge spring is about double centre springs and corner springs three to four times middle springs).

- Check for highly loaded springs that may have gone plastic and replace with loads when appropriate.

- ITERATIVE PROCESS BETWEEN STRUCTURAL AND GEOTECHNICAL DESIGNERS.

Use and Abuse of Springs

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- ITERATIVE PROCESS BETWEEN STRUCTURAL AND GEOTECHNICAL DESIGNERS. Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013
Axially Loaded Piles and Pile Groups
Axially Loaded Piles and Pile Groups

Single axially loaded pile

Single axially loaded pile Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 45

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

Page 45

Single axially loaded pile Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 45

Interaction between two identical rigid axially loaded piles

Poulos and Davis Elastic Solutions

identical rigid axially loaded piles Poulos and Davis Elastic Solutions Use and Abuse of Springs August

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

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identical rigid axially loaded piles Poulos and Davis Elastic Solutions Use and Abuse of Springs August

Interaction between two identical rigid axially loaded piles

Poulos and Davis Elastic Solutions

Two identically loaded floating piles 3 diameters apart settle approximately 1.5 times as much as a single pile

3 diameters apart settle approximately 1.5 times as much as a single pile Use and Abuse

Use and Abuse of Springs

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3 diameters apart settle approximately 1.5 times as much as a single pile Use and Abuse

Consider a group of 25 piles at 3D floating in a stiff clay soil – single pile 5mm settle at 500kN

at 3D floating in a stiff clay soil – single pile 5mm settle at 500kN Use

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

at 3D floating in a stiff clay soil – single pile 5mm settle at 500kN Use

Page 48

at 3D floating in a stiff clay soil – single pile 5mm settle at 500kN Use
Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 49

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

Page 49

Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 49
Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 50

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

Page 50

Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 50

Conclusions for Vertical Piles/Groups:

- Axial stiffness of a single pile is non linear from quite low load levels

- Interaction effects of pile groups have similar issues to raft footing interactions.

- Corner/end piles in rigid pilecaps tend to attract much higher loads (although some pile yield can redistribute load)

Use and Abuse of Springs

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much higher loads (although some pile yield can redistribute load) Use and Abuse of Springs August

Spring Recommendations Vertical Piles/Groups:

- For groups of piles sharing a pilecap generally DON’T use uniform springs, especially if floating – Need to do pile group analysis.

- In practice for single pile supports more than about 10 diameters apart with high end bearing interaction tends to be small

- Check for highly loaded springs that may have gone plastic and replace with soft springs or loads when appropriate.

- ITERATIVE PROCESS BETWEEN STRUCTURAL AND GEOTECHNICAL DESIGNERS.

Use and Abuse of Springs

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- ITERATIVE PROCESS BETWEEN STRUCTURAL AND GEOTECHNICAL DESIGNERS. Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013
Laterally Loaded Piles and Pile Groups
Laterally Loaded Piles and Pile Groups

Laterally loaded piles

• In some ways, a laterally loaded pile can be considered similar to a strip footing.

• BUT, the ground surface and the limit of passive resistance have a major effect on stiffness near the surface

E = 10MPa, = 0.3, c, = ? Assume elastic
E = 10MPa,
= 0.3,
c, = ? Assume elastic

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

=

= +
= +

+

Page 54

near the surface E = 10MPa, = 0.3, c, = ? Assume elastic Use and Abuse

Effect of pile diameter

• Remember footing width relationship:

Effect of pile diameter • Remember footing width relationship: Use and Abuse of Springs August 15,

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Effect of pile diameter • Remember footing width relationship: Use and Abuse of Springs August 15,

Effect of pile diameter

- Doubling the pile diameter halves pressure for a given load

- BUT doubling diameter also halves modulus of subgrade reaction.

- => Net effect is CHANGING PILE DIAMETER DOES NOT CHANGE THE STIFFNESS of the equivalent spring in the elastic range.

K = (0.8 to 1.8) Es where Es in MPa and K is a spring stiffness in MN/m per metre of pile length

- BUT diameter does increase the passive pressure limit.

Use and Abuse of Springs

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of pile length - BUT diameter does increase the passive pressure limit. Use and Abuse of

Effect of pile diameter

P

Ks= P/
Ks=
P/
Effect of pile diameter P Ks= P/ Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 P
Effect of pile diameter P Ks= P/ Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 P

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

P

Ks= P/
Ks=
P/

Page 57

Effect of pile diameter P Ks= P/ Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 P
Effect of pile diameter P Ks= P/ Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 P
Effect of pile diameter P Ks= P/ Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 P
Effect of pile diameter P Ks= P/ Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 P

SINGLE Lateral loaded pile

• Passive limit has big effect particularly in sand

D

SAND P max = K~E s 3K p D Use and Abuse of Springs August
SAND
P max =
K~E s
3K p D
Use and Abuse of Springs
August 15, 2013
CLAY P max = 2c u D 3D P max = 9c u D
CLAY
P max = 2c u D
3D
P max = 9c u D

Page 58

SAND P max = K~E s 3K p D Use and Abuse of Springs August 15,

Single pile in clay – analogy to plate load test

Single pile in clay – analogy to plate load test Use and Abuse of Springs August
Single pile in clay – analogy to plate load test Use and Abuse of Springs August

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Single pile in clay – analogy to plate load test Use and Abuse of Springs August

Laterally loaded pile groups– analogy with strip footings

Laterally loaded pile groups– analogy with strip footings Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

Page 60

Laterally loaded pile groups– analogy with strip footings Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013

Interaction between lateral and vertical stiffness

H H displace displace=x >>x Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 61
H
H
displace
displace=x
>>x
Use and Abuse of Springs
August 15, 2013
Page 61

Spring Recommendations Lateral Piles/Groups:

- Same spring irrespective of pile diameter

- Very sensitive to passive limits hence replace springs with loads in upper parts of piles

- Must consider softer springs for rows of piles.

- Need to also use vertical springs to check mode of bending

- ITERATIVE PROCESS BETWEEN STRUCTURAL AND GEOTECHNICAL DESIGNERS.

Use and Abuse of Springs

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- ITERATIVE PROCESS BETWEEN STRUCTURAL AND GEOTECHNICAL DESIGNERS. Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013
Ground movement induced loading Propped Flexible Retaining Walls
Ground movement induced loading
Propped Flexible Retaining Walls

Multi-propped, staged diaphragm wall in sand

August 15, 2013 Page 64
August 15, 2013
Page 64

Use and Abuse of Springs

Stage 3 Excav. to elev. -3.00 on PASSIVE side Net Pressure (kPa) Moment (kNm/m) displacement
Stage 3
Excav. to elev. -3.00 on PASSIVE side
Net Pressure (kPa)
Moment
(kNm/m)
displacement (m)
70
20
-30
-80
60
20
-20
-60
-100
-140
-180
-220
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
0.020
0
0
0
-2
-2
-2
-4
-4
-4
-6
-6
-6
-8
-8
-8
-10
-10
-10
-12
-12
-12
-14
-14
-14
-16
-16
-16
-18
-18
-18
-20
-20
-20
Use and Abuse of Springs
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Depth (m)
Depth (m)
Depth (m)
Stage 5 Excav. to elev. -6.00 on PASSIVE side Net Pressure (kPa) Moment (kNm/m) displacement
Stage 5
Excav. to elev. -6.00 on PASSIVE side
Net Pressure (kPa)
Moment
(kNm/m)
displacement (m)
70
20
-30
-80
60
20
-20
-60
-100
-140
-180
-220
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
0.020
0
0
0
-2
-2
-2
-4
-4
-4
-6
-6
-6
-8
-8
-8
-10
-10
-10
-12
-12
-12
-14
-14
-14
-16
-16
-16
-18
-18
-18
-20
-20
-20
Use and Abuse of Springs
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Depth (m)
Depth (m)
Depth (m)
Stage 7 Excav. to elev. -9.00 on PASSIVE side Net Pressure (kPa) Moment (kNm/m) displacement
Stage 7
Excav. to elev. -9.00 on PASSIVE side
Net Pressure (kPa)
Moment
(kNm/m)
displacement (m)
70
20
-30
-80
60
20
-20
-60
-100
-140
-180
-220
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
0.020
0
0
0
-2
-2
-2
-4
-4
-4
-6
-6
-6
-8
-8
-8
-10
-10
-10
-12
-12
-12
-14
-14
-14
-16
-16
-16
-18
-18
-18
-20
-20
-20
Use and Abuse of Springs
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Depth (m)
Depth (m)
Depth (m)
Stage 9 Excav. to elev. -12.00 on PASSIVE side Net Pressure (kPa) Moment (kNm/m) displacement
Stage 9
Excav. to elev. -12.00 on PASSIVE side
Net Pressure (kPa)
Moment
(kNm/m)
displacement (m)
70
20
-30
-80
60
20
-20
-60
-100
-140
-180
-220
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
0.020
0
0
0
-2
-2
-2
-4
-4
-4
-6
-6
-6
-8
-8
-8
-10
-10
-10
-12
-12
-12
-14
-14
-14
-16
-16
-16
-18
-18
-18
-20
-20
-20
Use and Abuse of Springs
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Depth (m)
Depth (m)
Depth (m)
Stage 11 Excav. to elev. -15.00 on PASSIVE side Net Pressure (kPa) Moment (kNm/m) displacement
Stage 11
Excav. to elev. -15.00 on PASSIVE side
Net Pressure (kPa)
Moment
(kNm/m)
displacement (m)
70
20
-30
-80
60
20
-20
-60
-100
-140
-180
-220
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
0.020
0
0
0
-2
-2
-2
-4
-4
-4
-6
-6
-6
-8
-8
-8
-10
-10
-10
-12
-12
-12
-14
-14
-14
-16
-16
-16
-18
-18
-18
-20
-20
-20
Use and Abuse of Springs
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Depth (m)
Depth (m)
Depth (m)
All props wished into place and excavation in single stage Net Pressure (kPa) Moment (kNm/m)
All props wished into place and excavation in single stage
Net Pressure (kPa)
Moment
(kNm/m)
displacement (m)
70
20
-30
-80
60
20
-20
-60
-100
-140
-180
-220
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
0.020
0
0
0
-2
-2
-2
-4
-4
-4
-6
-6
-6
-8
-8
-8
-10
-10
-10
-12
-12
-12
-14
-14
-14
-16
-16
-16
-18
-18
-18
-20
-20
-20
Use and Abuse of Springs
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Depth (m)
Depth (m)
Depth (m)

Spring Recommendations For Retaining Walls:

- Spring analogies are usually not suitable for retaining wall design particularly when there are multiple construction stages.

- Retaining wall analysis should generally be carried out by geotechnical engineer first and then the structural adequacy and compatibility/interaction checked.

- Waler and anchor design needs to consider 3D effects

- ITERATIVE PROCESS BETWEEN STRUCTURAL AND GEOTECHNICAL DESIGNERS.

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- ITERATIVE PROCESS BETWEEN STRUCTURAL AND GEOTECHNICAL DESIGNERS. Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013
A case study in structural and geotechnical iteration – The Second Gateway Bridge
A case study in structural and
geotechnical iteration –
The Second Gateway Bridge

Sir Leo Hielscher Bridges Opened May 2010

Sir Leo Hielscher Bridges Opened May 2010 Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Sir Leo Hielscher Bridges Opened May 2010 Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page

Geology (North)

Geology (North) (NORTH) ABUTMENT B SOFT ALLUVIUM STIFF ALLUVIUM GRAVEL FAULT? S DRIVEN OCTAGONAL PRESTRESSED PILES
(NORTH) ABUTMENT B SOFT ALLUVIUM STIFF ALLUVIUM GRAVEL FAULT? S DRIVEN OCTAGONAL PRESTRESSED PILES FLEXIBLE
(NORTH) ABUTMENT B
SOFT ALLUVIUM
STIFF ALLUVIUM
GRAVEL
FAULT?
S
DRIVEN OCTAGONAL PRESTRESSED PILES
FLEXIBLE ROCK SOCKETS
JOIN LINE

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S DRIVEN OCTAGONAL PRESTRESSED PILES FLEXIBLE ROCK SOCKETS JOIN LINE Use and Abuse of Springs August

Geology (South)

(SOUTH) 2xVERTICAL EXAGGERATION RESIDUAL/WEAK ASPLEY-TINGALPA STIFF ALLUVIUM SANDSTONE/SILTSTONE COAL SEAMS WIDE
(SOUTH)
2xVERTICAL EXAGGERATION
RESIDUAL/WEAK
ASPLEY-TINGALPA
STIFF ALLUVIUM
SANDSTONE/SILTSTONE
COAL
SEAMS
WIDE
FAULT
BEDDING
SHEAR
INTERSECTING
FAULTS
SPREAD
FOOTINGS ON
ROCK
BORED
ROCK SOCKETTED PILES
Use and Abuse of Springs
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Page 75
JOIN LINE

Fault weathered to hard clay at Pier 1

Fault weathered to hard clay at Pier 1 Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013

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Fault weathered to hard clay at Pier 1 Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013

Discovered in construction when structure finalised

- Wide fault zone weathered to hard clay was exposed in part of the footing excavation.

- Plate load tests indicated bearing capacity and modulus much lower than adopted in design.

- To avoid pier and deck redesign, resized footing to provide adequate bearing capacity without significantly changing rotational stiffness.

- Achieved using an eccentric footing.

- Iterative approach with sensitivity checks.

Use and Abuse of Springs

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an eccentric footing. - Iterative approach with sensitivity checks. Use and Abuse of Springs August 15,

Revised Footing Design

Revised Footing Design Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 78

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

Revised Footing Design Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 78

Page 78

Revised Footing Design Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 78

Variable springs calibrated to 2D FE analysis

SETTLEMENT OF RIGID RECTANGULAR FOOTING ON AN ELASTIC LAYER OF FINITE DEPTH Foundation spring stiffness
SETTLEMENT OF RIGID RECTANGULAR FOOTING ON AN ELASTIC LAYER OF FINITE DEPTH
Foundation spring stiffness calibrated against FEAR output for rigid vertically loaded footing of same dimensions
Displacements (mm)
PROJECT
New Gateway Bridge
DESCRIPTION
pier 1 13x11m footing on fault with 2-way loads
SLS (in service) Case 246
6.175
INPUTS
X width of rectangle (B<L)
B
11
m
5.525
Y length of rectangle
L
13
m
Non-Uniform Subgrade Modular
Ratio Simulating
Fault
depth to rigid layer>10E but H<5B
H
23
m
4.875
Young's modulus of soil
E
400
MPa
4.225
poissons ratio
v
0.3
6.175
APPLIED LOADS:
5.525
3.575
Xcoord of Pvert (relative to centre of footing)
xp
1.75
m
4.875
Ycoord of Pvert (relative to centre of footing)
yp
0.00
m
2.925
14.0-15.0
4.225
Pvert
Pvert
64,700
kN
3.575
13.0-14.0
2.275
Mxz (longitudinal)
Mxz
38300
kNm
2.925
12.0-13.0
Myz (transverse)
Myz
10200
kNm
2.275
1.00-
1.10
1.625
Area of spring
A
0.3575
m2
1.625
11.0-12.0
0.90-
1.00
0.975
LOAD CENTROID PROPERTIES
0.975
0.80-
0.90
10.0-11.0
0.325
X coord of weighted spring group centroid
xc
1.710
m
Y (L) axis (m)
-0.325
0.70-
0.80
0.325
Y coord of weighted spring group centroid
yc
-0.321
m
9.0-10.0
Y (L) axis (m)
-0.975
0.60-
0.70
Moment Mxz about xc
Mxzc
40859
kNm
-0.325
8.0-9.0
-1.625
Moment Myz about yc
Myzc
30973
kNm
0.50-
0.60
-2.275
Z
axial stiffness at (xc,yc)
Kzc
6072
kN/mm
7.0-8.0
0.40-
0.50
-0.975
-2.925
XZ rot stiffness about (xc,yc)
Kmxzc
67614
kNm2/mm
0.30-
0.40
6.0-7.0
-3.575
-1.625
YZ rot stiffness about (xc,yc)
Kmyzc
113830
kNm2/mm
-4.225
0.20-
0.30
5.0-6.0
total axial deflection at (xc,yc)
sc
10.7
mm
-4.875
-2.275
XZ rotation (longitutudinal)
Rxz
0.60
mm/m
-5.525
4.0-5.0
YZ rotation (transverse)
Ryz
0.27
mm/m
-6.175
-2.925
3.0-4.0
Maximum bearing pressure
3911
kPa
Minimum bearing pressure
46
kPa
-3.575
2.0-3.0
X (B) axis (m) not to relative scale
Maximum settlement
15
mm
1.0-2.0
-4.225
Minimum settlement
5
mm
0.0-1.0
centre of column settlement
11
mm
-4.875
Maximum bearing pressure on fault material
708
kPa
Average pressure on fault material
165
kPa
-5.525
average load on worst fault corner over 9 nodes
365
kPa
-6.175
Meyerhof bearing pressure on south/fault
207
kPa
Meyerhof bearing pressure on north rock
1007
kPa
X (B) axis (m) not to relative scale
Bearing Pressure
(kPa)
Approx. Moments in Longitudinal Direction (kNm/m)
6.175
6.175
5.525
5.525
4.875
4.875
4.225
4.225
3800-4000
3600-3800
3.575
3.575
3400-3600
2.925
2.925
3200-3400
2.275
12000-13000
2.275
3000-3200
11000-12000
1.625
1.625
2800-3000
10000-11000
0.975
2600-2800
0.975
9000-10000
2400-2600
0.325
0.325
8000-9000
Y (L) axis (m)
Y (L) axis (m)
2200-2400
-0.325
-0.325
7000-8000
2000-2200
6000-7000
-0.975
-0.975
1800-2000
5000-6000
-1.625
-1.625
1600-1800
4000-5000
-2.275
1400-1600
-2.275
3000-4000
1200-1400
-2.925
-2.925
2000-3000
1000-1200
1000-2000
-3.575
-3.575
800-1000
0-1000
-4.225
-4.225
600-800
-4.875
400-600
-4.875
200-400
-5.525
-5.525
0-200
-6.175
-6.175
X (B) axis (m) not to relative scale
X (B)
axis (m) not to relative scale
-6.98
-6.43
-5.88
-5.33
-4.78
-4.23
-3.68
-3.13
-2.58
-2.03
-1.48
-0.93
-0.38
0.18
0.73
1.28
-6.98
1.83
-5.88
2.38
-4.78
2.93
-3.68
3.48
-2.58
-1.48
-0.38
0.73
1.83
2.93
-6.98
-6.98
-6.43
-6.43
-5.88
-5.88
-5.33
-5.33
-4.78
-4.78
-4.23
-4.23
-3.68
-3.68
-3.13
-3.13
-2.58
-2.58
-2.03
-2.03
-1.48
-1.48
-0.93
-0.93
-0.38
-0.38
0.18
0.18
0.73
0.73
1.28
1.28
1.83
1.83
2.38
2.38
2.93
2.93
3.48
3.48

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0.73 0.73 1.28 1.28 1.83 1.83 2.38 2.38 2.93 2.93 3.48 3.48 Use and Abuse of
Part 2 – The Structural Viewpoint
Part 2 – The Structural Viewpoint

Outline

- Why do structural engineers need springs

- Types of springs and how we use them

- Examples

• Typical Bridge

• Gateway Bridge Approach Spans

Use and Abuse of Springs

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use them - Examples • Typical Bridge • Gateway Bridge Approach Spans Use and Abuse of

Why do Structural Engineers NEED Springs

- Structural model needs to be supported on SOMETHING

- Pinned or fixed supports not realistic.

- High level of redundancy in structure (indeterminant)

- Load transfer and sharing depends on relative stiffness of both structural elements and supporting ground

- Lots of load cases to be considered (Permanent, Temporary, Dynamic, different combinations, load factors etc.)

- Serviceability deflections are often critical

- Cost and Time associated with more rigorous analysis methods

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critical - Cost and Time associated with more rigorous analysis methods Use and Abuse of Springs

Why we LIKE Springs

Behaviour of springs is predictable and easy to understand

Springs are easy to incorporate into the software most structural engineers use

In a lot of cases structure response is not that sensitive to the spring values used. (Sensitivity test – 50% to 200% x Spring value)

Use and Abuse of springs

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the spring values used. (Sensitivity test – 50% to 200% x Spring value) Use and Abuse

Types of Springs used by Structural Engineers

Global Springs

- Easy to include in structural models

- Makes use of foundation analysis software to derive spring stiffness

- As soil behaviour is non linear spring stiffness depends on load. Therefore iteration required.

- Interaction between degrees of freedom can be significant and requires consideration.

Presentation Title

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Page 84

degrees of freedom can be significant and requires consideration. Presentation Title August 15, 2013 Page 84
degrees of freedom can be significant and requires consideration. Presentation Title August 15, 2013 Page 84

Column

degrees of freedom can be significant and requires consideration. Presentation Title August 15, 2013 Page 84

Equivalent Global Springs

Equivalent Global Springs Presentation Title August 15, 2013 Page 85 Equivalent Spring X H H M

Presentation Title

August 15, 2013

Page 85

Equivalent Spring X H H
Equivalent Spring
X H
H

M

M

Equivalent Global Springs Presentation Title August 15, 2013 Page 85 Equivalent Spring X H H M
Equivalent Global Springs Presentation Title August 15, 2013 Page 85 Equivalent Spring X H H M
Equivalent Global Springs Presentation Title August 15, 2013 Page 85 Equivalent Spring X H H M

Equivalent Global Springs

Equivalent Global Springs Presentation Title August 15, 2013 Page 86 Equivalent Spring X H + X

Presentation Title

August 15, 2013

Page 86

Equivalent Spring

X H + X H

H + H L EI + X H + X M … (1) = +
H + H
L
EI
+
X H + X M … (1)
=
+
H + M …
(2)
=

Solve for EI and L

Spring X H + X H H + H L EI + X H + X

Types of Springs used by Structural Engineers

Soil Springs (Winkler Springs)

- Soil structure interaction modelled directly by soil springs

- Pile Cap or spread footing flexibility can be modelled

- Does not account for pile group effects

- For pile groups foundation stiffness should be calibrated against pile group analysis.

Presentation Title

August 15, 2013

Page 87

Column

foundation stiffness should be calibrated against pile group analysis. Presentation Title August 15, 2013 Page 87
foundation stiffness should be calibrated against pile group analysis. Presentation Title August 15, 2013 Page 87
foundation stiffness should be calibrated against pile group analysis. Presentation Title August 15, 2013 Page 87

Types of Springs used by Structural Engineers Multi Parameter Models

- Models the effects of shear in soil

- Some models are readily incorporated into standard frame analysis software. Some are not.

- Continuum analysis may be just as easy

analysis software. Some are not. - Continuum analysis may be just as easy Use and Abuse
analysis software. Some are not. - Continuum analysis may be just as easy Use and Abuse

Use and Abuse of Springs

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analysis software. Some are not. - Continuum analysis may be just as easy Use and Abuse

Typical Bridge Example

Typical Bridge Example Lateral restraint block Precast deck girders Elastomeric Bearings Bored Pile/Column Presentation

Lateral restraint block

Typical Bridge Example Lateral restraint block Precast deck girders Elastomeric Bearings Bored Pile/Column Presentation
Typical Bridge Example Lateral restraint block Precast deck girders Elastomeric Bearings Bored Pile/Column Presentation

Precast deck girders

Elastomeric Bearings

Bored Pile/Column

Presentation Title

August 15, 2013

Page 89

Bridge Articulation

- Deck restrained laterally by restraint blocks.

- Longitudinally structure “floats” on elastomeric bearings

- Deck continuous between movement joints at abutments

- Longitudinally structure “floats” on elastomeric bearings - Deck continuous between movement joints at abutments

Typical Bridge Example

- Longitudinal loads are shared between piers due to shear deformation of elastomeric bearings

- Column and foundation stiffness also play a part in load sharing between piers

- Lateral loading transferred through restraint blocks to each pier

- Load sharing affects design of columns, piles, bearings and movement joints.

- Structure modelled as 3D frame including piles.

- Winkler spring model works well in this case due to limited pile group effects

Presentation Title

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Page 90

Winkler spring model works well in this case due to limited pile group effects Presentation Title

Typical Bridge Example

Typical Bridge Example Presentation Title August 15, 2013 Page 91

Presentation Title

August 15, 2013

Page 91

Typical Bridge Example Presentation Title August 15, 2013 Page 91

Typical Bridge Example

Typical Bridge Example Spring replaced with reaction force if passive limit exceeded Presentation Title August 15,

Spring replaced with reaction force if passive limit exceeded

Presentation Title

August 15, 2013

Page 92

Bridge Example Spring replaced with reaction force if passive limit exceeded Presentation Title August 15, 2013

Typical Bridge Example

- Deformation behaviour of individual piles should be calibrated against those of an equivalent laterally loaded pile

- Need to check whether soil passive limits are reached. If so then affected springs are removed and replaced with a force equal to the passive limit. Likely to require iteration.

Presentation Title

August 15, 2013

Page 93

replaced with a force equal to the passive limit. Likely to require iteration. Presentation Title August

Rigid vs Flexible Pile Caps

- Can influence load distribution in pile groups

- Pile group analysis software normally does not consider pile cap stiffness

- Can be included in structural model with Winkler springs but pile group effects not accounted for.

Presentation Title

August 15, 2013

Page 94

pile group effects not accounted for. Presentation Title August 15, 2013 Page 94 Column Pile Cap

Column Pile Cap

pile group effects not accounted for. Presentation Title August 15, 2013 Page 94 Column Pile Cap

D

Rigid if L/D < 2

L

pile group effects not accounted for. Presentation Title August 15, 2013 Page 94 Column Pile Cap

Bridge Abutment

Bridge Abutment Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 95

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Page 95

Bridge Abutment Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 95

Second Gateway Bridge Layout Overview

Second Gateway Bridge Layout Overview Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 96 -

Use and Abuse of Springs

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- Visually mirrors the existing bridge

- 1.6km long

- 260m main span, 71m approach spans.

- Includes pedestrian and bicycle access.

- First crossing built circa

1985

- New crossing completed in

2010

spans. - Includes pedestrian and bicycle access. - First crossing built circa 1985 - New crossing

Second Gateway Bridge Overview

- Balanced Cantilever construction used for both main river spans and approach spans

- Range of Foundation Types Used

- Southern Approach Piers - Spread footings on rock

- Main River Spans – Up to 24 No. 1.8m diameter vertical rock socket piles in river pier pile caps

- Northern Approach Piers - 40-45No. Octagonal prestressed piles in a standardised 2m deep pilecap.

- Piers 14 & 17 - single row of 1.8m dia. rock sockets to give more flexible foundation.

- Different approach span articulation to existing bridge

Use and Abuse of Springs

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foundation. - Different approach span articulation to existing bridge Use and Abuse of Springs August 15,

BRIDGE LAYOUT – Existing Bridge Articulation

• Fixed abutment

• Columns pinned top and bottom

Halving joint Fixed Abutment Pinned bearings
Halving joint
Fixed
Abutment
Pinned bearings

Use and Abuse of Springs

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pinned top and bottom Halving joint Fixed Abutment Pinned bearings Use and Abuse of Springs August

BRIDGE LAYOUT – Existing Bridge Articulation

• Fixed abutment

• Columns pinned top and bottom

• All longitudinal loads transferred to abutment

Halving joint Fixed Abutment Pinned bearings
Halving joint
Fixed
Abutment
Pinned bearings

Use and Abuse of Springs

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transferred to abutment Halving joint Fixed Abutment Pinned bearings Use and Abuse of Springs August 15,

BRIDGE LAYOUT – Second Bridge Articulation

• Pot bearing joints spaced 4 to 5 spans

• Columns fixed top and bottom

Halving Joint Halving Expansion Joint Joint Columns Fixed top and bottom
Halving
Joint
Halving
Expansion
Joint
Joint
Columns Fixed top and bottom

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Joint Halving Expansion Joint Joint Columns Fixed top and bottom Use and Abuse of Springs August

Second Gateway Bridge Articulation

• Expansion joints spaced 4 to 5 spans (Up to 350m apart)

• Columns fixed top and bottom

• Longitudinal loads shared but extra stresses due to restraint to creep and shrinkage in concrete

Halving Expansion Joint Halving Joint Joint Fixed connections
Halving
Expansion
Joint
Halving
Joint
Joint
Fixed connections

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Halving Expansion Joint Halving Joint Joint Fixed connections Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013

BRIDGE LAYOUT – Foundation requirements

- Potential for large stresses in spans due to concrete creep and shrinkage

- Hence piers and foundations need to be flexible in the longitudinal bridge direction

- BUT still strong/stiff enough to accommodate construction loading during deck cantilevering as well as lateral and vertical loads in service.

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deck cantilevering as well as lateral and vertical loads in service. Use and Abuse of Springs

Balanced Cantilever Construction

Precast segment Pier Segment cast integrally with pier Cast in situ stitch pour Cantilever tendon
Precast segment
Pier Segment cast
integrally with pier
Cast in situ stitch pour
Cantilever tendon
Continuity tendon
Cast in situ pier
Use and Abuse of Springs
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Page 103

Second Gateway Bridge Foundations

Second Gateway Bridge Foundations Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 104

Use and Abuse of Springs

August 15, 2013

Second Gateway Bridge Foundations Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 104

Page 104

Second Gateway Bridge Foundations Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 104

BRIDGE LAYOUT – Second Bridge Articulation

• Single row of bored rock sockets provides flexible foundation.

• This reduces shrinkage stresses by reducing curvature and resistance.

Halving Expansion Joint Joint Fixed connections
Halving
Expansion
Joint
Joint
Fixed connections

Use and Abuse of Springs

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and resistance. Halving Expansion Joint Joint Fixed connections Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013

Flexible piles for short piers

- Shorter piers at northern end – driven pile group too stiff.

- High stresses would have developed in piers and deck under creep and shrinkage.

- Adopted single row of 1.8m dia. rock sockets to give more flexible foundation.

Use and Abuse of Springs

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single row of 1.8m dia. rock sockets to give more flexible foundation. Use and Abuse of

Second Gateway Bridge Foundations

Second Gateway Bridge Foundations Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 107

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Second Gateway Bridge Foundations Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 107

Second Gateway Bridge Articulation

Halving Expansion Joint Halving Joint Joint
Halving
Expansion
Joint
Halving
Joint
Joint

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Bridge Articulation Halving Expansion Joint Halving Joint Joint Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013

Use of Springs for Approach Analysis of Approach Spans

- Global springs used at base of piers in approach spans.

- Spring stiffness based on pile group or foundation analysis

- Spring stiffnesses determined for both short term and long term loading

- Iterative procedure since spring stiffness depends on load in foundation (non linear behaviour)

- In practice required different spring stiffness for SLS and ULS load cases and for long and short term loading.

- Loads so determined were then used in pile group or foundation analysis to design piles or spread footings.

Use and Abuse of Springs

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in pile group or foundation analysis to design piles or spread footings. Use and Abuse of

Northern Approach Spans Pile Group

Northern Approach Spans Pile Group Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 110

Use and Abuse of Springs

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Page 110

Northern Approach Spans Pile Group Use and Abuse of Springs August 15, 2013 Page 110

Suggestions for better collaboration:

Structural engineers:

• Learn more about how geotechnical engineers do business

• Talk to geotechnical engineer early

• Explain the structures and the foundation loads clearly

• Check the sensitivity of the critical actions to the foundation stiffness

Geotechnical engineers:

• Learn more about how structural engineers do business

• Seek clarification from structural engineers on what they are using recommendations for

• Be open to using springs when appropriate

Use and Abuse of Springs

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using recommendations for • Be open to using springs when appropriate Use and Abuse of Springs
Thank You email address rob.day@aecom.com
Thank You
email address rob.day@aecom.com