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You are on page 1of 6

Mats Larsson, Christian Rehtanz

Abstract Wide-area phasor measurements provide a dynamic view of the power system in short-term intervals. The

time synchronization and concentration of these measurements opens up a range for wide area applications for protection and control. For each kind of instability, related

detection and action schemes can be defined to limit or prevent the system from severe disturbances or even collapses.

This paper proposes a novel predictive method for emergency frequency control to be used on such occasions. The

proposed method avoids the drawbacks of local underfrequency load shedding schemes, such as delayed response

and overshedding, by basing control on synchronized phasor measurements. A single machine equivalent for each

power system island including the frequency sensitivity of

loads, is computed online using phasor measurements. Using this model the progression of frequency stability after

a contingency is predicted and stabilizing load shedding is

determined in a co-ordinated way for the supervised area of

the power system.

Keywords Power Systems, Frequency Control, Stability.

I. Introduction

OWER supply has become so important for the entire society that large efforts must be made to prevent

power systems from collapse [1]. One way is to provide a

system wide protection complementary to the conventional

local equipment and SCADA/EMS system [2]. Increasing

demand on the power system increases the likelihood of

system problems such as instabilities and collapses. While

it is not possible to predict or prevent all contingencies

that may lead to power system collapse, a wide area protection system that provides a reliable security prediction

and optimized coordinated actions is able to mitigate or

prevent large area disturbances. The main tasks are early

recognition of instabilities, increased power system availability, operation closer to the physical limits, increased

power transmission capability with no reduction in security, better access to low-cost generation and minimization

of load shedding. Pre-calculations of the stability for one or

a combination of two contingency events address a part of

the problem. This requires a huge calculation effort and the

systems state for which a case is calculated must fit most

exactly to the actual systems state. For unexpected contingency cases this approach is not useful. Conclusively, the

major drawbacks of all these approaches are due to that the

information that can be obtained from steady-state view

is limited. The solution for this is a departure from the

SCADA-based approach to an on-line measurement system using synchronized Phasor Measurement Units (PMU)

(christian.rehtanz@ch.abb.com) both are with ABB Schweiz

AG, Corporate Research, 5405 Baden-D

attwil, Switzerland.

[3]. Together with the stability assessment and stabilization algorithms such a system is called wide area protection

system in the following. PMUs offer phasors of voltage,

currents and frequency together with a satellite triggered

time stamp in time intervals down to 20 ms. Single installations of such units are in an experimental stage at

many utilities [4]. Previously, methods for voltage stability

monitoring [5, 6] and corrective control [7] based on phasor

measurements have been presented.

This paper contributes further on the topic of instability detection and control with methods for monitoring and

control of frequency stability.

II. Frequency Stability

Frequency stability denotes the ability of a power system

to operate with the (average) system frequency within normal operating limits. Failure to do so may cause damage

to generation and/or load side equipment.

Underfrequency load shedding (UFLS) is the most

widely used protection against frequency instability. Typically, load is shed based on a local frequency measurement

in several steps of 5-20 % (of the total feeder load) each.

Typical threshold values are 57-58.5 Hz for 60 Hz systems

or 48-48.5 Hz for a 50 Hz system [2]. Usually there is also

a time-delay intended for noise rejection. The main drawback of these schemes is their delayed response since they

must wait for the frequency to decline before taking action.

It is well known (see e.g., [8]) that the power mismatch

following the outage of a generator or a tie-line can be

calculated from the initial rate-of-change of the frequency

and the system inertia constant according to the formula

P

d

Hsystem

dt

(1)

load that has to be shed to arrest further frequency decline. Many authors have proposed UFLS relays based on

the frequency rate-of-change [912]. These schemes avoid

the delayed response of the relays of traditional type and

are decentralized and therefore cheap and easy to implement. There are however significant drawbacks also to this

approach:

The system inertia constant is assumed to be known

The load frequency sensitivity is assumed to be known.

The voltage sensitivity of the load is assumed to be

known.

The above assumptions make this type of relays difficult

or perhaps impossible to tune so that they operate reliably. Particularly the system inertia constant is difficult to

233

know in advance, since it may change drastically for example due to islanding of the system. The method proposed

here avoids the above mentioned assumptions by instead

extracting the relevant information from wide-area measurements as follows:

The inertia constants of on-line generators are supplied

by the wide-area measurement system.

The frequency and voltage sensitivities of the load are

estimated on-line, during the initial stage following a disturbance, and are included in the system model on which

the control is based.

The actual load distribution is measured, and the effect

of disconnecting a certain feeder is therefore exactly known.

This knowledge can also be used to fine-tune the amount

of shedding employed or to use other criteria such as load

priorities or post-shedding power-flows.

The proposed method needs only a few tuning parameters that are easy to choose.

III. The Test System

In order to illustrate the method, simulations are carried out using the simple two-area test system shown in

Fig. 1. It is based on data given in reference [13]. Each

load is assumed to consist of five identical feeders that can

be switched out independently when there is a need for load

shedding. The generators are modelled using standard 6th

order models with first order fast excitation systems and

constant power governors.

To simulate the effect of measurement noise, random 0.01

Hz additive errors have been introduced on the generator

speed measurements and 0.02 % multiplicative errors on

the amplitudes and phase angles of the voltage and current phasors. These assumptions correspond to about twice

the noise levels specified by manufacturers of PMUs, e.g.

[14]. Communication delays of 0.25 s in either direction

between the PMUs and the central processing unit and a

computational delay of 0.25 s have also been included in

the employed simulation model.

d

dt

A. System Modelling

The method is based on a single generator model of each

power system island as proposed by [8]. However, the conservative assumption that the effect of governors can be

neglected is made. The frequency dynamics can then be

234

2Hsystem

(Pm Pe )

(2)

is the system inertia constant defined as follows

X

Hsystem =

Hi

(3)

1..N

Pm

Pm,i

1..N

Pe

Ploss +

(4)

Pl,i

(5)

1..M

loads, respectively. The active power losses are denoted

Ploss , the load consumed at bus i is denoted Pl,i , the mechanical power delivered to the shaft of generator i is denoted Pm,i , and the system average frequency is denoted

.

Each load is modelled using a static load model

Pl,i

Ql,i

Vi as,i

) (1 + ci ( s ))

V0,i

Vi bs,i

) (1 + di ( s ))

(1 ki )Q0,i (

V0,i

(1 ki )P0,i (

(6)

(7)

each load, V0,i is the nominal voltage, P0,i the nominal

load and s is the synchronous frequency. Linearizing the

load model and writing on vectorized form yields

PL

QL

= AV + C + Gk

= BV + D + Hk

(8)

(9)

To account for the effect of voltage variations on the load,

the model proposed by [8] is augmented with matrices of

sensitivity coefficients

The execution of the proposed method consists of separate steps. First, a single-machine equivalent model of the

system is formed based on the collected measurements. In

the next step, the model is employed to estimate the active

power imbalance in the system and subsequently a predicted steady-state frequency. Using the same model, the

amount of load shedding required to keep the frequency

above some target value is calculated. In the final step,

the calculated amount is allocated to different feeders using a simple iterative method considering the actual load

on the feeders.

V

V

= EPL

= F QL

(10)

(11)

V , PL and QL , the model can be written on the ordinary differential equation form

dx

dt

y

(12)

Code x

(13)

in this paper, the state vector contains only the system average frequency and is thus a scalar. Also other dynamic

states can be included, such as the states of an equivalent

governor models or dynamic load models. k is a vector of the load shedding inputs and d is a disturbance

input, modelling for example generator trippings. Note

that all equation are now written on incremental form, that

N8

N7

N1

G1

N6

N12

N10

Pg=7.1

PMU

PMU

G6

PMU

PMU

N5

PMU

PMU

PMU

PMU

N3

N2

8+j3

N4

PMU

j2

3.50 + j 0.5

PMU

8+j2

N11

3 + j 0.5

1.5 + j 0.3

3.50 + j 0.5

N9

PMU

PMU

Pg=6.4

G5

Pg=5

Pg=2

G4

Pg=2

G3

Pg=5

G2

10

15

20

25

30

35

10

15

20

25

30

35

10

15

20

Time (s)

25

30

35

backward difference approximation

avg (k) avg (k h)

(15)

h

where h is the selected sample interval. Note that the approximation error in the frequency derivative increases with

increasing h. Ideally, the derivative should be computed locally by each PMU and transmitted to the central point.

This would enable the use of a shorter sampling time and

thereby a more exact derivative approximation. To reduce

the effect of measurement noise and transients related to

rotor angle swings and excitation systems on the frequency

derivative estimate, a first order exponential filter is applied

to to the estimate as follows

avg (k)

f ilt (k)

0.2

f ilt (k

h)

(16)

The effect of the filter is illustrated in Fig. 2. It is apparent that a tradeoff between unwanted oscillations and

speed of convergence of the estimate must be made when

the value of the parameter is selected. If it is chosen

too large, the magnitude of the oscillations may be unacceptable and if the value is chosen too small, the convergence of the frequency derivative estimate may be too slow.

235

df/dt (Hz/s)

40

=0.5

40

0

0.2

0.4

0

=0.1

40

the filtering parameter . The estimate is computed using wide-area

measurements by the center-of-intertia method.

df/dt (Hz/s)

The frequency estimate provided by a PMU is an estimate of the local frequency at the site of the PMU. Therefore for each generator, the signal from a PMU as close as

possible to that generator is selected. In the control of frequency stability, it is the average frequency (in each power

system island) that is of interest. This is commonly defined

using the center-of-inertia method [15, pp.946].

P

H

Pi=1..N i i

(14)

avg =

i=1..N Hi

=1

0.4

0

avg

0

0.2

0.4

0

df/dt (Hz/s)

y = y y0 and k = k k0 where x0 , y0 and k0 are the

values of the respective variables at the linearization point.

In postcontingency cases it is not unlikely that the network

has been split into two or more separate islands. In those

cases, a single machine equivalent according to (12)-(13) is

formed for each island.

df/dt (Hz/s)

0

0.2

0.4

0

=0.5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

estimate is computed using a single measurement point.

used. Note that a similar filter is necessary also for local

UFLS relays based on the frequency derivative. By averaging the derivative estimated over all measurements, the

effect of electromechanical oscillations can be reduced [10]

and a filter with less delay can be used when the frequency

derivative estimate is calculated using the center-of-inertia

method than when only local measurements are applied.

As shown in Figs. 2-3, there are considerably more oscillations when only a single local measurement is used, and

therefore a slower filter must be used.

C. Estimation of Load Parameters

Fig. 4 shows a typical frequency response following the

loss of a generator (when no governor control is provided

by the remaining generators). The parameters ai , bi , ci

and di in the load model (8)(9) can be determined from

Close-up View

Frequency (p.u.)

Frequency (p.u.)

51

50

49

48

47

50

Time (s)

100

50

Data Range

49.9

49.8

10

12

11

Time (s)

13

The method triggers when the system average frequency

deviation is greater than 0.1 Hz or a frequency derivative

greater than 0.3 Hz/s. Measurement samples are then collected until a sufficiently large frequency variation has occurred, and the load parameters are then estimated in a

least-squares manner according to [16]. In this paper we

collect data for parameter estimation during the first 0.2

Hz of frequency decline.

D. Frequency Stability MonitoringTiming of Shedding

Once the load parameters have been determined, the system model can be written on the ODE form (12)-(13).

For the case with no governor control the response is

monotonous and the steady-state frequency is equal to the

minimum frequency. The current power mismatch can be

estimated as

d = 2Hsystem avg

f ilt (k)

(17)

and voltage sensitivity as well as applied control actions.

Thus, it is only at the instant of disconnection that the

power mismatch is equal the amount of generation or load

lost. Using the remaining power mismatch as estimated by

(17), the predicted steady-state output can be estimated

as

y = Code A1

ode (Bode k + Eode d)

(18)

is made, i.e, k = 0, so the predicted steady-state output

is written

y = Code A1

ode Eode d

(19)

Assume that a certain steady-state frequency y =

y + y0 has been calculated using (19) and that this

predicted frequency is found to be unacceptable. The required amount of load to shed can be found by setting

Bode = 1/(2Hsystem ), thus assuming that all load is shed

in a single point. The power step that needs to be applied

to keep the steady-state frequency estimate at a certain

can then be determined from (18) where

P =

y0 ) + Code A1

(yref

ode Eode d

Code A1

ode Bode

(21)

Fig. 7 shows the frequency response following disconnection of the two units G3 and G4. At time 60 s, (21) suggests

that 1.16 p.u. of active load needs to be shed to restore the

frequency to a target value of 49 Hz. Following shedding,

the frequency reaches a new steady-state at about 48.95

Hz. To illustrate the accuracy of the prediction also for

cases where the system frequency dynamics have not yet

settled, a second trip is applied at 86.5 s. At time 90 s, an

amount of 2.15 p.u. is shed, and the frequency reaches a

new steady-state at about 48.8 Hz.

On both occasions, the shedding is emulated by a fictitious generation unit (PQ-node) at bus 8 which injects

the required amount of active power. As shown in the figure, the calculated amount is reasonably accurate on both

occasions.

F. Compensation for Communication and Filtering Delays

y = y + y0

chosen for the parameter . Quicker convergence can be

achieved but this results in oscillations in the steady-state

frequency prediction.

Fig. 6 shows the steady-state frequency prediction error

in the same scenario. We can see a sharp increase in the

prediction error for the first few samples after each trip.

This is due to a one sample time delay before the plant

trips are noticed and subsequently to the time it takes for

the frequency derivative estimate to converge. Following

this initial spike, there is then a slower transient due to

the errors introduced by the linearization of the network

equations. As the frequency approaches its steady-state

value this error component also converges to zero.

(20)

frequency without load shedding for a case with sequential

tripping of generators G3 at 10.1 s, G4 at 85.2 s and G5 at

160 s. This corresponds to one third of the pre-disturbance

generation. Note that the last tripping is an unrealistically

large disturbance that is used only to illustrate that there

is some inexactness in the method due to the assumption

that the network is linear. For the two previous trippings,

the method accurately predicts the final frequency in 1-2

236

Note that there is a delay before ordered controls are carried out and their effect can be noticed in the measurements

from the power system. There are several sources of this

delay: for example the communication delay to the substation where the control is carried out, the actual time it

takes to apply the control, the communication delay of the

next set of measurements and the time constant of the filter

on the measurement signal. During this time, the steadystate frequency estimates provided by (18) and (19) are unreliable. This unreliabilty, in combined with the integrator

inherent in the control loop, may cause excessive control

action and frequency overshoot as a result. Therefore it is

52

computing the new control to apply. A compensation term

is therefore defined as

Actual Frequency

SteadyState Frequency Prediction

Frequency (p.u.)

50

48

the previous sample and is a tuning parameter that is

used to control the speed of forgetting old control actions

applied. In this paper we have use the value = 0.5. The

control to actually apply is then corrected as

46

44

42

40

0

50

100

Time (s)

150

200

the simulation with disconnection of the three units G3, G4 and G5

at 10.1 s, 85.2 s and 160 s, respectively.

The compensation mechanism is similar to anti-windup

which is often implemented in digital PID controllers.

G. Choice of Shedding Locations

1

0

(23)

The last step is to assign the calculated amount of shedding to the feeders where load is available for shedding.

The very basic, yet efficient, algorithm we employ in this

paper is:

1. Calculate the amount of load required for shedding using

(21).

2. Find loads with available steps, and calculate their actual step size, that is, taking the actual load on the feeders

into account.

3. Allocate one step of load shedding at the load with the

step size closest to the remaining amount to shed.

4. Repeat step 3 until at least the amount of load calculated in step 1 has been shed.

4

3

2

1

0

50

100

Time (s)

150

200

the three unit trippings.

50.5

Actual Frequency

SteadyState Frequency Prediction

50

49.5

Frequency (p.u.)

(22)

49

48.5

48

47.5

47

46.5

0

50

100

Time (s)

150

200

237

The simulations in the previous sections have been presented as illustrations of the various aspect of the proposed

method, such as its inaccuracy and computational procedure. In this final section of simulation results we present

closed loop simulation results to illustrate the method. For

comparison we present simulation results with local underfrequency load shedding (UFLS) relays employing the same

control step sizes at each load bus. The local relays have

been tuned to shed 20 % of the load at the frequencies 48,

47.8, 47.6 Hz with a random time delays between 0.1-0.2 s.

Fig. 8 shows the frequency response following the disconnection of the three units, with local UFLS and the

proposed scheme. We see that when the two small units

are tripped at 10 and 86 s, respectively, the local UFLS

scheme reacts later since is has to wait for the frequency

to decline sufficiently before ordering corrective action. On

the other hand, the proposed scheme applies stabilizing actions as soon as they can be accurately calculated and the

frequency decline is therefore arrested earlier. Another observation that can be made is that the reaction time, and

thereby the frequency decline, is slightly smaller at the second trip since no time is spent estimating the load parameters. When the large unit is tripped, the frequency decline is actually larger with the proposed scheme than with

the local scheme because of the time-delays introduced by

53

52.5

[3]

Local UFLS

Proposed Scheme

52

[4]

Frequency (Hz)

51.5

51

[5]

50.5

50

[6]

49.5

49

[7]

48.5

48

47.5

0

[8]

50

100

Time (s)

150

200

250

proposed scheme.

[9]

[10]

local scheme uses an excessive amount of shedding and a

considerable frequency overshoot is present.

[11]

[12]

an exact model of the load demand. The impact of various load types on the proposed method is a subject for

further study. Also dynamic models could be used if the

state vector in (12) is extended. The effect of governor controls could be included in a similar manner. Note however,

that the parameters for these dynamic load and governor

models may be difficult to to obtain since they require estimation over a prolonged time window. In this paper we

use perhaps the simplest possible approach to the selection

of which loads to shed. Since the location of the shedding

is not critical from a frequency stability point of view, the

selection could be done based on other criteria, such as to

minimize overvoltages or steady-state angle differences, or

to consider prioritization or shedding rotation.

VII. Conclusion

A novel approach to frequency stability control has been

presented. A single-machine model of each power system

island and its connected load and generation is formed

based on wide-are phasor measurements. This model is

used to monitor frequency stability and determine the correct amount of load or generation to shed in order to restore

the frequency to a target value. Since control determination is based on a predictive strategy, the proposed method

avoids the delayed response of traditional underfrequency

load shedding relays.

References

[1]

[2]

scenario in the chilean interconnected system, IEEE Transactions on Power System, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 140714, November

1999.

System protection schemes in power networks, Tech. Rep.,

CIGRE Task Force 38.02.19, 2000.

238

[13]

[14]

[15]

[16]

A G Phadke, Synchronized phasor measurement in power systems, IEEE Computer Applications in Power, pp. 1015, April

1993.

T W Cease and B Feldhaus, Real-time monitoring of the TVA

power system, IEEE Computer Applications in Power, pp.

4751, 1994.

K T Vu et.al, Voltage instability predictor and its applications,

in Power System Computation Conference, PSCC, 1999, pp.

5605.

C Rehtanz and J Bertsch, A new wide area protection system,

in Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control V, August 26-31,

2001, Onomichi, Japan, 2001.

M Larsson and D Karlsson, System protection scheme against

voltage collapse based on heuristic search and predictive control, IEEE Transactions of Power Systems, to appear, 2002.

P M Anderson and M Mirheydar, A low-order system frequency

response model), IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol.

5, no. 4, pp. 7209, August 1990.

P M Anderson and M Mirheydar, An adaptive method for setting underfrequency load shedding relays), IEEE Transactions

on Power Systems, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 64755, May 1992.

D Novosel, K T Vu, D Hart, and E Udren, Practical protection

and control strategies during large power-system disturbances,

in 1996 IEEE Transmission and Distribution Conference Proceedings, 1996, pp. 5605.

S-J Huang and C-C Huang, An adaptive load shedding method

with time-based design for isolated power systems, Electrical

Power and Energy Systems, vol. 22, pp. 518, 2000.

V N Chuvychin, N S Gurov, S S Venkata, and R E Brown,

An adaptive approach to load shedding and spinning reserve

control during underfrequency conditions, IEEE Transactions

on Power Systems, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 180510, November 1996.

D Prasetijo, W R Lachs, and D Sutanto, A new load shedding scheme for limiting underfrequency, IEEE Transactions

on Power System, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 137178, August 1994.

Arbiter Systems, Model 1133A Power SentinelData Sheet,

www.arbiter.com.

P Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, Power System

Engineering Series. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994.

R Johansson, System Modelling and Identification, PrenticeHall, 1993.

(Computer Science and Engineering), Licentiate (Industrial Automation), and PhD (Industrial Automation) Degrees from Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden in 1993, 1997 and

2001, respectively. Since 2001 he has been employed by ABB Corporate Research, Switzerland working on the research and development

of wide-area stability controls for power systems. His research interests are power system

stability, optimal control and artificial intelligence applications in power systems.

in 1968. He received his diploma degree in

Electrical Engineering in 1994 and his Ph.D.

in 1997 at the University of Dortmund, Germany. He is now with ABB Corporate Research Ltd., Baden, Switzerland. His research

activities include the stability assessment, wide

area protection and integrated control of advanced power systems, information technology

applications and questions of distributed power

generation.

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