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FIELD EMISSION IMAGING AND TRANSPORT

CHARACTERISTICS OF NANO-COMPOSITE FILMS


Final Evaluation (B.Tech Project-part 1)
November 29, 2013
(Department of Physics, IIT Delhi)
Under the supervision of

Prof. Pankaj Srivastava and Dr. Santanu Ghosh

Presented by,
Sumit Kumar(2010PH10873)
Palash Biswas(2010PH10859)
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OVERVIEW
1. INTRODUCTION
(Slide No. 3)
(Regarding Field Emission, F-N equation, CNTs and problems associated with it)
2. OBJECTIVES
3. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES
(CNT preparation, Indium Deposition, Field Emission Set up)
4. RESULTS

(Slide No. 4)
(Slide No. 5- 7)

(Slide No. 8- 13)

5. CONCLUSIONS

(Slide No. 14)

6. REFERENCES

(Slide No. 15)

7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

(Slide No. 16)

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INTRODUCTION
Field Emission:
1) Emission of electrons from surface of a
material in presence of high electric fields
2) Also known as Fowler-Nordheim tunneling
(High electric field narrows the potential
barrier; electron have finite tunneling
probability)

Carbon Nanotubes:
1) It shows high current density under low
fields attributed to its shape (high aspect
ratio), robustness, mechanical strength,
conductivity, ease in manufacture and
processing
2) The stability of current density with time
attributed to CNT is low.
3) coating CNT with oxides and hexaborides of
metal increases the temporal stability of field
emission compromising drastically with the
current density.
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F-N EQUATION :

e is the electron charge


h is the Planck constant
is the Fermi level relative to the bottom of the
conduction band
is the work function (energy to move an
electron from fermi level to vacuum)
m is the electron mass
F is the electric field (volts/meter)
j is the current density (amps/sq meter)

Assumptions in F-N Theory


1) Emitting surface is a metal that obeys the
free electron model with Fermi-Dirac statistics
2) Surface is planar
3) Temperature = 0 K (all electrons below Fermi
level)
4) The potential in the metal is constant and its
electron states are unaffected by applied field
3

OBJECTIVES
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

7)
8)

To grow Carbon Nanotube using Catalytic Chemical vapour Deposition


To Deposit Indium Layer over CNT using Thermal vapour Deposition
To analyze the field emission from CNT , Indium coated CNT
To observe the temporal stability of current density at constant voltage applied for
Indium coated CNT
To oxidise Indium coated CNT by annealing it in a tubular furnace
To analyze the field emission and its temporal stability of Indium oxide coated CNT
and compare it with the Indium coated CNT and pristine CNT
To observe the field emission of other oxides over CNT
To utilize the oxide coated CNT for display devices

PROGRESS
1) Growth of CNT
2) Deposition of Indium over CNT ( Thickness : 10 nm and 20 nm)
3) Field emission of CNT and Indium coated CNT
4) Temporal stability of Indium coated CNT
5) SEM of pristine CNT
6) X-Ray diffraction of Indium coated CNT
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EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES
1) Catalytic Chemical Vapour Deposition
A solution of 10 ml xylene with 2 g of ferrocene was prepared and kept in ultrasonic
bath for 20 min.
Fe(C5H5)2 was used as catalyst during CVD along with xylene, C8H10, which acts
carbon source
A solution of 10 ml xylene with 2 g of ferrocene was prepared and kept in ultrasonic
bath for 20 min and then put into a quartz tube
Maximum temperature of 750oCelsius was set on the double zoned tubular furnace

Fig 1: Double zone furnace and tube arrangement for catalytic CVD to produce CNTs
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EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES
2) Thermal Vapour Deposition

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Material deposited

Thickness

Pressure

In coated CNT (1)

10 nm

8.0 10-5 torr

In coated CNT (2)

20 nm

7.5 10-5 torr

Fig 2. Thermal deposition chamber used to


deposit indium over CNT substrate

EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES
3) Field Emission set-up

Fig 3. Field emission set up for CNT composites on Si substrates

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EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES
S.No

Sample

Thickness of
sample
(nm)

Distance between
anode and sample
(m)

Variation of applied
voltage
(V)

CNT

200

100-3000

In coated CNT

10

200

100-3000

In coated CNT

20

200

100-3000

Table : Field emission parameters with pressure of 10-6 torrs.

4) Temporal Stability of current density of the In coated CNT sample was


observed at constant applied voltage of 3000 Volts
5) Morphology: SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) of pristine CNT was carried
out which gives information about the surfaces topography and confirms the
presence of carbon nanotubes. The presence of indium with C in other two
samples was confirmed by XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) studies.
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RESULTS
1) CNT Sample

Fig 5. SEM images of Pristine CNT

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RESULTS

Fig 6. F-N plot and J-E plot for pristine CNT

Turn on Field: 1.31 V/m.


Threshold Field: 1.79 V/m
Field Enhancemet Factor: 6218

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RESULTS
2) In coated CNT

Fig 7. XRD pattern of In coated CNT


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RESULTS

Fig 8. FN plot and J-E plot for low thickness Indium coated CNT

Field Emission is
averaged over 5
cycles

Fig 9. FN plot and J-E plot for high thickness Indium coated CNT
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RESULTS
S.No

Sample

In
Thickness
(nm)

Turn on
Field
(V/)

Threshold
Field
(V/)

Field
Enhancemet
Factor

Pristine CNT

1.31

1.79

6218

Indium coated CNT

10

2.02

2.77

3860

Indium coated CNT

20

1.11

1.41

4935

Table: Results obtained from Field Emission

Work Function Calculation


From F-N equation one can derive,
Where,
1 = work function of pristine CNT
2 = work function of In-CNT
slope1 = slope of FN curve of pristine CNT
slope2 = slope of FN curve of In-CNT
The work-function of In-CNT comes out to be 6.2 Volts
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RESULTS
Temporal Stability

Stability is greater for In-CNT at 0.74%

Fig 10: Emission current versus time at a constant voltage (3000


V) for LT In-CNT
Fig Reference: Rajkumar Patra, Santanu Ghosh, Himani Sharma and Vasant D. Vankar. High stability field
emission from zinc oxide coated multiwalled carbon nanotube films, Advanced Materials Letter, DOI
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CONCLUSIONS

1) The addition of In layer over the CNTs decreases the field enhancement factor and
hence increasing the turn-on field and the threshold field.
2) This is probably due deposition of In which reduces the aspect ratio of the CNTs
3) However, a greater thickness of the In causes a lower threshold and turn-on field
and hence higher current density. The field enhancement factor is also greater.
4) It was observed that the stability is greater for In-CNT at 0.74%
5) The current density by Indium coated CNTs (10 nm) meet the industry standards
Future Scope
1) To optimize the current density and temporal stability by varying the thickness of the
Indium layer over the CNT sample.
2) To observe field emission imaging where electrons strike the
phosphor to produce the colour display as an electronic visual display
3) Coating CNT with different metal oxide and observe its field emission characteristics

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REFERENCES
[1] Fowler, R. H.; Nordheim, L. P. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 1928
[2] Huang, C. S.; Yeh, C. Y.; Chang, Y. H.; Hsieh, Y.M.; Ku, C.Y.; Lai, Q.T. Diam. Relat. Mater. 2009, 18,452.
[3] deHeer, W. A.; Chatelain, A.; Ugate, D. Science 1995, 270, 1179.
[4] Cheng, Y.; Zhou, O. C. R. Physique 2003, 4, 1021.
[5] Lysenkov, D.; Mller, G. Int. J. Nanotechnology 2005, 2, 239.
[6] Rajkumar Patra, Santanu Ghosh, Himani Sharma and Vasant D. Vankar. High stability field emission from
zinc oxide coated multiwalled carbon nanotube films, Advanced Materials Letter, DOI
10.5185/amlett.2013.4465
[7] Ijima, S. Nature 1991, 354, 56.
[8] Handuja, S.; Srivastava, P.; Vankar, V. D. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 2010, 5, 1211.
[9] Srivastava, S. K.; Shukla, A. K.; Vankar, V. D.; Kumar, V. Thin Solid Films 2006, 515, 1552.
[10] Puretzky, A. A.; Geohegan, D. B.; Fan, X.; Pennycook, S. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2000, 76, 182.
[11] Meyyappan, M.; Delzeit, L.; Cassell, A.; Hash, D. Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 2003, 12, 205.
[12] Zhu, Y.; Elim, H. I.; Foo, Y. L.; Yu, T.; Liu, Y.; Ji, W.; Lee, J. Y.; Shen, Z.; Wee, A. T. S.; Thong, J. T. L.; Sow, C.
H. Adv. Mater. 2006, 18, 587.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
On the outset of this report we would like to extend our sincere and heartfelt obligations
towards all the people, without whose cooperation, help, guidance and motivation this
project could not be completed. We are indebted to Prof. Pankaj Srivastava and Dr.
Santanu Ghosh (Physics Department, IIT Delhi) for showing faith in us and their
constant guidance and support helped us to accomplish the project. We would like to
express our sincere gratitude to Sreekanth sir (Nanostech Laboratory, Physics
Department, IIT Delhi) whose guidance and invaluable discussions led to the completion
of the project.

Thank You!!
Questions??
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