ML  1
1.1
DIVISIBILITY :
A nonzero integer a is said to divide an integer b if there exists an integer c such that
b= ac. The integer b is called dividend, integer a is known as the divisor and integer c is
known as the quotient.
For example, 5 divides 35 because there is an integer 7 such that 35 = 5 7.
If a nonzero integer a divides an integer b, then it is written as a  b and read as a a
divides b, a/b is written to indicate that b is not divisible by a.
1.2
Ex.1
r b. If ba, than r = 0.
Show that any positive odd integer is of the form 6q + 1 or, 6q + 3 or, 6q + 5, where q is
some integer.
Sol.
Let a be any positive integer and b = 6. Then, by Euclids division lemma there exists
integers a and r such that
a = 6q + r, where 0
r < 6.
r < 6 r = 0, 1,2,3,4,5]
a = 6q + 1 or, a = 6q + 3 or, a = 6q + 5.
[ a is an odd integer, 6q, a
6q + 2, a
6q + 4]
Use Euclids Division Lemma to show that the cube of any positive integer is of the form 9m,
9m + 1 or 9 m + 8, for some integer q.
Sol,
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
x3 = (3q + 2)3
x3 = 27q3 + 54q2 + 36q + 8
x3 = 9q(3q2 + 6q + 4) + 8
x3 = 9m + 8, where m = 3q2 + 6q + 4)
Hence, x3 is either of the form 9m of 9m + 1 or 9m + 8.
Ex.3
Sol.
Prove that the square of any positive integer of the form 5q + 1 is of the same form.
Let x be any positives integer of the form 5q + 1.
When x= 5q + 1
x2 = 25q2 + 10q + 1
x2 = 5(5q + 2) + 1
Let m = q (5q + 2).
x2 = 5m + 1.
Hence, x2 is of the same form i.e. 5m + 1.
1.3
Ex.4
Sol.
Use Euclids division algorithm to find the H.C.F. of 196 and 38318.
Applying Euclids division lemma to 196 and 38318.
38318 = 195 196 + 98
196
= 98 2 + 0
The remainder at the second stage is zero. So, the H.C.F. of 38318 and 196 is 98.
Ex.5
Sol.
If the H.C.F. of 657 and 963 is expressible in the form 657x + 963 (15), find x.
Applying Euclids division lemma on 657 and 963.
963 = 657 1 + 306
657 = 306 2 + 45
306 = 45 6 + 36
45 = 36 1 + 9
36 = 9 4 + 0
So, the H.C.F. of 657 and 963 is 9.
Given : 657x + 963 (15) = H.C.F. of 657 and 963.
657 x + 963 (15) = 9
657 x = 9 + 963 15
657 x = 14454
14454
22.
657
Ex.6
What is the largest number that divides 626, 3127 and 15628 and leaves remainders of 1, 2
and 3 respectively.
Sol. Clearly, the required number is the H.C.F. of the number 626  1 = 625, 3127  2 3125 and
15628  3 = 15625.
15628  3 = 15625.
Using Euclids division lemma to find the H.C.F. of 625 and 3125.
3125 = 625 5 + 0
Clearly, H.C.F. of 625 and 3125 is 625.
Now, H.C.F. of 625 and 15625
Resonance
15625 = 625 25 + 0
So, the H.C.F. of 625 and 15625 is 625.
Hence, H.C.F. of 625, 3125 and 15625 is 625.
Hence, the required number is 625.
Ex.7
Sol.
1.4
144 cartons of coke cans and 90 cartons of Pepsi cans are to be stacked is a canteen. If each
stack is of same height and is to contains cartons of the same drink, what would be the
greatest number of cartons each stack would have ?
In order to arrange the cartons of the same drink is the same stack, we have to find the
greatest number that divides 144 and 90 exactly. Using Euclids algorithm, to find the H.C.F. of
144 and 90.
144 = 90 1 + 54
90 = 54 1 + 36
54 = 36 1 + 18
36 = 18 2 + 0
So, the H.C.F. of 144 and 90 is 18.
Number of cartons in each stack = 18.
p
, where p and q are coprimes, and prime factorisation of q is of the
q
p
be a rational number, such that the prime factorisation of q is not of the form
q
2m 5n where m, n are non  negative integers. Then, x has a decimal expansion which is non
 terminating repeating.
Ex.8
Sol.
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PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
Ex.9
Sol.
Check whether 6n can end with the digit 0 for any natural number.
Any positive integer ending with the digit zero is divisible by 5 and so its prime factorisations
must contain the prime 5.
6n = (2 3)n = 2 n 3 n
6 n does not end with the digit zero for any natural number n.
Ex.10 Find the LCM and HCF of 84, 90 and 120 by applying the prime factorisation method.
Sol. 84 = 22 3 7, 90 = 2 32 and 120 = 23 3 5.
Prime factors
2
3
5
7
Least exponent
1
1
0
0
HCF = 21 31 = 6.
Common prime
factors
2
3
5
7
Greatest exponent
3
2
1
1
= 2 3 33 51 71
=8957
= 2520.
LCM
Ex.11 In a morning walk three persons step off together, their steps measure 80 cm, 85 cm and 90
cm respectively. What is the minimum distance each should walk so that they can cover the
distance in complete steps ?
Sol. Required minimum distance each should walk so, that they can cover the distance in complete
step is the L.C.M. of 80 cm, 85 cm and 90 cm
80 = 24 5
85 = 5 + 17
90 = 2 32 5
LCM = 24 32 51 171
LCM = 16 9 5 17
LCM = 12240 cm, = 122 m 40 cm.
Ex.12 Prove that
Sol.
2 is an irrational number.
a
where, a and b are co primes i.e. their HCF is 1.
b
a
( 2)2
Resonance
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a2
b2
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
a2 = 2b2
a2 is multiple of 2
a is a multiple of 2
a2 = 4c2
2b2 = 4c2
b2 = 2c2
....(i)
b2 is a multiple of 2
b is a multiple of 2
....(ii)
From (i) and (ii), a and b have at least 2 as a common factor. But this contradicts the fact that
a and b are coprime. This means that
Ex.13 Prove that 3
Sol.
2 is an irrational number.
5 is an irrational number.
5 is rational.
3 5
a
b
a
5
b
3b a
5
b
3b a
is a rational number]
b
5 is irrational
5 is an irrational number.
13
has terminating decimal
3125
expansion or not.
Sol.
13
13
0
3125 2 55
This, shows that the prime factorisation of the denominator is of the form 2m 5n.
Hence, it has terminating decimal expansion.
Ex.15 What can you say about the prime factorisations of the denominators of the following rationals
:
(i) 43.123456789
Sol.
(i) Since, 43.123456789 has terminating decimal, so prime factorisations of the denominator
is of the form 2m 5n, where m, n are non  negative integers.
(ii) Since, 43. 123456789has nonterminating repeating decimal expansion.
denominator has factors other than 2 or 5.
Resonance
So, its
2.
Find the HCF and LCM of following using Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic method.
(i) 426 and 576
(ii) 625, 1125 and 2125
3.
Prove that
3 is an irrational number.
4.
Prove that
5 is irrational number.
5.
6.
Prove that
7.
8.
Without actually performing the long division, state whether the following rational number will
have a terminating decimal expansion or non  terminating decimal expansion :
[CBSE 
2008]
(i)
[CBSE  2008]
3 is irrational.
77
210
(ii)
15
1600
9.
An army contingent of 616 members is to march behind and army band of 32 members in a
parade. The two groups are to march in the same number of columns. What is the maximum
number of columns in which they can march?
10.
There is a circular path around a sports field. Sonia takes 18 minutes to drive one round of the
field, while Ravi takes 12 minutes for the same. Suppose they both start at the same point and
at the same time, and go in the same direction. After how many minutes will they meet again
at the starting point ?
11.
2 and
3.
[CBSE 
2008]
12.
Use Euclids Division Lemma to show that the square of any positive integer is either of the
form 3m of 3m + 1 for some integer m.
[CBSE  2008]
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
ANSWERS
(Sujective DPP 1.1)
1.
(i) 2
2.
(i) 6,40896
7.
No
8.
(i) Nonterminating
9.
8 columns
10.
36 minutes
11.
(ii) 179
(ii) 125, 95625
(ii) Terminating
3
2
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PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
LINEAR EQUATIONS
IN TWO VARIABLES
ML2
2.1
R [ belongs, to R
form x & y) A, B, C,
Real No.]
[Line  to Yaxis]
If A = 0, B
[Line  to Xaxis]
If A
If A
origin]
0, B
C, C
It is called a linear equation in two variable because the two unknown (x & y) occurs only in
the first power, and the product of two unknown equalities does not occur.
Since it involves two variable therefore a single equation will have infinite set of solution i.e.
indeterminate solution. So we require a pair of equation i.e. simultaneous equations.
Standard form of linear equation : (Standard form refers to all positive coefficient)
a1x + b1y + c1 = 0
....(i)
a2x + b2y + c2 = 0
....(ii)
Elimination By Substitution :
Ex.1
Solve x + 4y = 14 .....(i)
7x  3y = 5 ....(ii)
Sol.
....(iii)
7 (14  4y)  3y = 5
98  28y  3y = 5
98  31y = 5
93 = 31y
93
y3
31
Resonance
7x  3 (3) = 5
7x  3 (3) = 5
7x = 14
14
2
7
2.1 (b)
Ex.2
Sol.
Solve 9x  4y = 8 .....(i)
13x + 7y = 101 ....(ii)
Multiply equation (i) by 7 and equation (ii) by 4, we get
Add
63x 28y
= 56
52x + 28y
= 404
115x
= 460
460
x 4.
115
36  8 = 4y
28 = 4y
28
7
4
2.1 (c)
a1x + b1y + c1 = 0
a2x + b2y + c2 = 0
b1
b2
c1
c2
a1
a2
a1 b1
a2 b2
y
x
1
x
1
Ex.3
Sol.
b1c2 b2c1
a1b2 a2b1
Also,
y
1
a2c1 a1c2
a1b2 a2b1
Solve 3x + 2y + 25 = 0
.....(i)
x + y + 15 = 0
....(ii)
Here, a1 = 3 b1 = 2, c1 = 25
a2 = 1 b2 = 1, c2 = 15
Resonance
10
25
15
3
1
2
1
y
y
x
1
x
1
2 15 25 1 25 1 15 3 3 1 2 1 30 25 25 45 3 2
y
x
1
5 20 1
..(i)
y
x
1
1,
5
20 1
X = 5, y =  20
So, solution is x = 5 and y =  20.
2.2
CONDITIONS
FOR
SOLVABILITY
(OR
CONSISTENCY)
OF
SYSTEM
OF
EQUATIONS:
2.2
then the given system of equations have unique solution (i.e. only one solution) and solutions
are said to be consistent.
2.2 (b)
a1b2  a2b1
a1 b1
b2 b 2
No Solution :
Two lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2 = 0, if the denominator a1b2  a2b1 = 0
then the given system of equations have no solution and solutions are said to be consistent.
a1b2 a2b1 0
2.2
a1 b1
a2 b2
a1 b1
a2 b2
then system of
Find the value of P for which the given system of equations has only one solution (i.e. unique
solution).
Sol.
Px  y = 2
....(i)
6x  2y = 3
....(ii)
a1 = P, b1 = 1, c1 =  2
a2 = 6 b2 =  2, c2 = 3
Conditions for unique solution is
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
a1 b1
a2 b2
11
P 1
6 2
Ex.5
P3
Sol.
a1 = k, b1 = 4, c1 = (k  4)
a2 = 16, b2 = k, c2 =  k
Here condition is
a1 b1 c1
a2 b2 c2
k
4 (k 4)
16 k
(k )
k
4
16 k
k2 = 64
k=
also
4 k4
k
k
4k = k2  4k
k(k8) = 0
Ex.6
Determine the value of k so that the following linear equations has no solution.
(3x + 1) x + 3y  2 = 0
(k2 + 1) x + (k  2) y  5 = 0
Sol.
Here
a1 = 3k + 1, b1 = 3 and c1 = 2
a2 = k2 + 1, b2 = k  2 and c2 =  5
3k 1
2
k 1
3k 1
2
k 1
Now,
a1 b1 c1
a2 b2 c2
3
2
k2 5
3
3
2
and
k2
k2 5
3k 1
2
k 1
3
k2
(3k + 1) (k  2) = 3(k2 + 1)
3k2  5k  2 = 3k2 + 3
5k  2 = 3
 5k = 5
k=1
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
12
Clearly,
3
2
for k =  1.
k2 5
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
13
2.
4.
(D) None
(D) 4
(D) ad 
bc = 0
5.
3
14
(B) 4 & k
3
14
(C)
6
14
&k
5
3
(D)
6
14
&k
5
3
6.
On solving
(D) x =
(C) x = 6, y = 4
(D) None
25
3
40
2
1,
5 we get :
x y x y
x y x y
(A) x = 8, y = 6
of these
8.
(C) x = 2, y = 3
(B) x = 4, y = 6
3
2
(B) k
3
2
(C) k 6
(D) k = 6
9.
If
1 1 1
then z will be :
x y z
(A) y  x
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
(B) x  y
(C)
yx
xy
(D)
14
xy
yx
x y 7
x y 6
and
3 12 2
6 8 8
2.
0.7x  0.5y +
0.08 = 0
3.
3 2x 5 3y
50
2 3x 7 2y 2 5 0
4.
5.
x
y 1.7
3
y
11
10 x 0
and
y
3
x
3
Prove that the positive square root of the reciprocal of the solutions of the equations
3 5
7 4
29 and
5(x 0, y 0) satisfy both the equation 2( 3x 4) 3(4y 5) 5
x y
x y
9x
6.
For what value of a and b, the following system of equations have an infinite no. of solutions.
2x + 3y = 7; (ab) x + (a +b) + b  2
7.
Solve :
(i)
7
x
6
y
15;
8
x
9
2y
bx ay
+ a + b = 0; bx  ay + 2ab = 0
a
b
8.
Solve:
9.
Solve :
10.
Solve x  y + z = 6
1
1
1
1
2
1;
1
3x 5y
5x 3y
15
x  22y  2z = 5
2x + y  3z = 1
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
15
11.
Solve, px + qy = r and qx = 1 + r
12.
13.
Find the value of k for which the following system of linear equation becomes infinitely many
solution. or represent the coincident lines.
(i) 6x + 3y = k  3
2k x + 6y = 6
14.
(ii) x + 2y + 7 = 0
2x + ky + 14 = 0
Find the value of k or C for which the following systems of equations be in consistent or no
solution.
(i) 2 x ky + k + 2 = 0
kx + 8y + 3k = 0
15.
(ii) Cx + 3y = 3
12x + Cy = 6
[CBSE 
2008]
16.
[CBSE 
2008]
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
16
LINEAR EQUATIONS
IN TWO VARIABLES
ML  3
3.1
Ex.1
(ii) 2x = 1
(iii) x + 4 = 0
Sol.
(i) x = 2
(ii) 2x = 1 x =
1
2
(iii) x + 4 = 0 x =  4
(iv) x = 0
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
17
(ii) y  2 = 0, (iii) 2y + 4 = 0
(i) y = 0
(ii) y  2 = 0
(iii) 2y + 4 = 0 y =  2
1
1
4
4
3
3
(ii) x = y
0
0
(ii) x =  y
x
y
1
1
2
2
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
0
0
18
Sol.
(i) x  y = 1
xy+1
x
y
0
1
1
0
2
1
(ii)
(ii) 2 x + y = 8
y = 8  2x
X
Y
0
8
1
6
2x + y = 8
2
4
Solution is x = 3 and y = 2
Area of is x = 3 and y = 2
Area of ABC =
=
3.2
1
BC AD
2
1
9 3 = 13.5 Sq. unit.
2
a1 b1
a2 b2
(ii) Lines are inconsistent (no solution) i.e. they do not meet at one point condition is
a1 b1 c1
a2 b2 c2
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
19
(iii) Lines are coincident (infinite solution) i.e. overlapping lines (or they are on one another)
condition is
a1 b1 c1
a2 b2 c2
3.3
WORD PROBLES :
For solving daily  life problems with the help of simultaneous linear equation in two variables
or equations reducible to them proceed as :(i) Represent the unknown quantities by same variable x and y, which are to be determined.
(ii) Find the conditions given in the problem and translate the verbal conditions into a pair of
simultaneous linear equation.
(iii) Solve these equations & obtain the required quantities with appropriate units.
Type of Problems :
(i) Determining two numbers when the relation between them is given,
(ii) Problems regarding fractions, digits of a number ages of persons.
(iii) Problems regarding current of a river, regarding time & distance.
(iv) Problems regarding menstruation and geometry.
(v) Problems regarding time & work
(vi) Problems regarding mixtures, cots of articles, porting & loss, discount et.
Ex.5
Sol.
Ex.6
Sol.
Find two numbers such that the sum of twice the first and thrice the second is 89 and four
times the first exceeds five times the second by 13.
Let the two numbers be x and y.
Then, equation formed are 2x + 3y = 89 ....(i)
4x  5y = 13 ...(ii)
On solving eq. (i) & (ii) we get
x = 22
y = 15
Hence required numbers are 22 & 15.
The numerator of a fraction is 4 less than the denominator If the numerator is decreased and
the denominator is increased by 1, then the denominator is eight time the numerator, find the
reaction.
Let the numerator and denominator of a fraction be x and y
Then, equation formed are y  x = 4
....(i)
y + 1 = 8 (x  2)
....(ii)
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
20
3
.
7
A number consists of two digits, the sum of the digits being 12. If 18 is subtracted from the
number, the digits are reversed. Find the number
Let the two digits number be 1y + x
Then, equations formed are
10y + x  18 = 10x + y
yx=2
......(i)
and
x + y = 12
......(ii)
On solving eq. (i) & (ii) we get
x=5
and
y=7
Hence number is 75.
Ex.8
Sol.
Ex.9
Sol.
The sum of a two  digit number and the number obtained by reversing the order of its digits is
165. If the digits differ by 3, find the number
Let unit digit be x tens digit be y no. will be 10y + x.
Acc. to problem (10y + x) + (10x + y) = 165
x + y = 15
...(i)
andx  y = 3
...(ii)
or (x  y) = 3
....(iii)
On solving eq. (i) and (ii)
we gets = 9 and y = 6
The number will be 69.
Ans.
On solving eq. (i) and (iii)
we gets x = 6 and y = 9
The number will be 96.
Ans.
Six years hence a mens age will be three times the age of his son and three years ago he was
nine times as old as his son. Find their present ages
Let mans present age be x yrs & sons present age be y yrs.
According to problem
x + 6 = 3 (y + 6)
[After 6 yrs]
and
x  3 = 9 (y  3)
[Before 3 yrs.]
On solving equation (i) & (ii) we gets x = 30, y = 6.
So, the present age of man = 30 years, present age of son = 6 years.
Ex.10 A boat goes 12 km upstream and 40 km downstream in 8 hrs. It can go 16 km. upstream and
32 km downstream in the same time. Find the speed of the boat it still water and the speed of
the stream.
Sol. Let the speed of the boat in still water be x km/hr and the speed of the stream be y km/hr
then speed of boat in downstream is (x + y) km/hr and the speed of boat upstream is (x  y)
km/hr.
12
Time taken to cover 12 km upstream
hrs.
x y
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
21
40
hrs.
x y
12
40
8
x y x y
.....(i)
16
hrs.
x y
32
hrs.
x y
16
32
8
x y x y
.....(ii)
160 600
8
x
y
....(i)
240 520 41
x
y
5
....(ii)
9
hrs. Find their speeds.
7
Let the speeds of the cars starting from A and B be x km/hr and y km/hr respectively.
Acc to problem 9 x 90 = 9 y
&
9
9
x y 90
7
7
..(i)
..(ii)
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
22
Ex.13 In a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, A = (2x + 11)0, B = (y + 12)0, C = (3y + 6)0 and D = (5x
Sol.
416
429
& y
13
13
x = 32 and y = 33
A = 750, B = 450, C = 1050, D = 1350
Ex.15 A vessel contains mixture of 24 milk and 6 water and a second vessel contains a mixture
of 15 milk & 10 water. How much mixture of milk and water should be taken from the
first and the second vessel separately and kept in a third vessel so that the third vessel may
contain a mixture of 25 milk and 10 water ?
Sol.
Let x of mixture be taken from Ist vessel & y of the mixture be taken from 2nd vessel and
kept in 3rd vessel so that (x + y) of the mixture in third vessel may contain 25 of milk &
10 of water.
A mixture of x from 1st vessel contains
mixture of y from 2nd vessel contains
4
3
x y 25
5
5
x 2
y 10
5 5
24
4
x
x x of milk &
of water and a
30
5
5
3y
2y
of milk &
of water.
5
5
....(i)
....(ii)
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
23
Ex.17 A man started his job with a certain monthly salary and earned a fixed increment every year. If
his salary was Rs. 4500 after 5 years. of service and Rs. 5550 after 12 years of service, what
was his starting salary and what his annual increment.
Sol. Let his initial monthly salary be Rs x and annual increment be Rs y.
Then, Acc. to problem
x + 5y = 4500
......(i)
x + 12 y = 5550
....(ii)
Solving these two equations, we get x= Rs. 3750 y = Rs 150.
Ex.18 A dealer sold A VCR and a TV for Rs. 38560 making a profit of 12% on CVR and 15% on TV. By
selling them for Rs. 38620, he would have realised a profit of 15% on CVR and 12% on TV. Find
the cost price of each.
Sol. Let C.P. of CVR be Rs x & C.P. of T.V. be Rs y.
112
115
x
y 38560
100
100
115
112
y 38620
100
100
Acc. to problem
.....(i)
and
....(ii)
2
intersects in :
3
points
2.
The sum of two numbers is 20, their product is 40. The sum of their reciprocal is :
(A)
1
2
(B) 2
(C) 4
(D)
1
10
3.
If Rs. 50 is distributed among 150 children giving 50 p to each boy and 25 p to each girl. Then
the number of boys is :
(A) 25
(B) 40
(C) 36
(D) 50
4.
In covering a distance of 30 km. Amit takes 2 hrs. more than suresh. If Amit doubles his speed,
he would take one hour less than suresh. Amits speed is :
(A) 5 km/hr.
(B) 7.5 km/hr.
(C) 6 km/hr.
(D) 6.2 km/hr.
5.
If in a fraction 1 less from two times of numerator & 1 add in denominator then new fraction
will be :
x 1
y 1
(A) 2
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PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
(B)
2(x 1)
y1
(C)
(D)
2x 1
y1
24
The denominator of a fraction is greater than its numerator by 7. If 4 is added to both its
numerator and denominator, then it becomes
1
. Find the fraction.
2
2.
In a certain number is divided by the sum of its two digits, the quotient is 6 and remainder is
3. If the digits are interchanged and the resulting number is divided by the sum of the digits,
then the quotient is 4 and the remainder is 9. Find the number.
3.
2 men and 3 boys together can do a piece of work is 8 days. The same work si done in 6 days
by 3 men and 2 boys together. How long would 1 boy alone or 1 man alone take to complete
the work
4.
5.
In a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, A = (2x + 4)0, B = (y + 3)0, C = (2y + 10)0 and D = (4x 5)0 then find out the angles of quadrilateral.
1
. Find the numbers.
4
6.
Solve graphically and find the pints where the given liens meets the y  axis : 2x + y  11= 0, x
 y  1 = 0.
7.
Use single graph paper & draw the graph of the following equations. Obtain the vertices of the
triangles so obtained : 2y  x = 8, 5y  x = 14 & y  2x = 1.
8.
Draw the graph of x  y + 1 = 10 ; 3x + 2y  12 = 0. Calculate, the area bounded by these
lines and x  axis.
9.
A man sold a chair and a table together for Rs. 1520 thereby making a profit of 25% on chair
and 10% on table. By selling them together for Rs. 1535 he would have made a profit of 10%
on the chair and 25% on the table. Find cost price of each.
10.
A man went to the Reserve Bank of India with a note or Rs. 500. He asked the cashier to give
him Rs. 5 and Rs. 10 notes in return. The cashier gave him 70 notes in all. Find how many
notes of Rs. 5 and Rs. 10 did the man receive.
11.
12.
The sum of the digits of a twodigit number is 12. The number obtained by interchanging the
two digits exceeds the given number by 18. Find the number.
13.
 axis.
14.
A farmer wishes to purchase a number of sheep found the if they cost him Rs 42 a head, he
would not have money enough by Rs 25; But if they cost him Rs 40 a head, he would them
have Rs 40 more than he required; find the number of sheeps, and the money which he had.
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ANSWERS
(Objective DPP 2.1)
Que.
10
Ans.
x = 9, y = 6
3.
x=
6.
a = 5, b = 1
7.
(i) x =  2, y =  3
8.
x =  a, y = b
9.
x=
11.
13.
(a) k = 6
15.
x = a + b, y = 
10 5 7 10
2 15 6 10
y
72
72
q r(p q)
2
p q
,y
2.
x = 0.1, y = 0.3
4.
x = 0.6, y = 1.5
2
2
,y
10.
3
5
r(q p) p
(ii) x =  1, y = 2
x = 3, y =  2 , x = 1
12.
(b) k = 4
14.
(a) k =  4
2ab
a b
16.
x = 1, y = 2
p2 q2
(b) C =  6
Ans.
3/10
2.
3.
One boy can do in 120 days and one man can do in 20 days.
4.
6.
x = 4, y = 3
7.
9.
10.
11.
12.
57
13.
14.
34 sheep, Rs 1400
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PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
5.
75
A = 700, B = 530, C = 1100, D = 1270
26
POLYNOMIALS
ML  4
4.1
POLYNOMIALS :
An algebraic expression f(x) of the form (fx) = a 0 + a1x + a2x2 + ......+ anxn, where a0, a1,
a2.......an are real numbers and all the index of x are nonnegative integers is called
polynomials in x and the highest Index n in called the degree of the polynomial, if an 0 .
4.1 (a)
Any nonzero number is regarded as a polynomial of degree zero or zero degree polynomial.
For example, f(x) = a, where a 0 is a zero degree polynomial, since we can write f(x) = a
as f(x) = ax0.
4.1 (b)
Constant Polynomial :
4.1 (c)
Linear Polynomial :
4.1 (d)
Quadratic Polynomial :
3
and g(y) = 3y2  5 are quadratic polynomials with real
5
coefficients.
IMPORTANT FORMULAE :
(x + a)2 = x2 + 2ax + a2
(x  a)2 = x2  2ax + a2
x2  a2 = (x + a) (x  a)
x3 + a3= (x + a) (x2  ax + a2) = (x + a)3  3xa(x + a)
x3  a3 = (x  a) (x2 + ax + a2) = (x  a)3 + 3xa(x  a)
(a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca
(a + b)3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab(a + b)
(a  b)3 = a3  b3  3ab(a  b)
a3 + b3 + c3  3abc = (a + b + c) (a2 + b2 + c2  ab  bc  ca)
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4.2
GRAPH OF POLYNOMIALS :
In algebraic or in set theoretic language the graph of a polynomial f(x) is the collection (or set)
of all points (x, y), where y = f(x). In geometrical or in graphical language the graph of a
polynomial f(x) is a smooth free hand curve passing through points x1, y1), (x2, y2), (x3,
y3), ..... etc. where y1, y2, y3,.... are the values of the polynomial f(x) at x1, x2, x3,....
respectively.
In order to draw the graph of a polynomial f(x), follow the following algorithm.
ALGORITHM :
Step (i) Find the values y1, y2, ...... yn of polynomial f(x) on different points x1, x2, .......
xn and prepare a table that gives values of y or f(x) for various values of x.
x1
x2
xn
xn+1
.
x:
y = f(x) y1=f(x1) y2=f(x2) .
Yn=f(xn)
yn+1 = f(xn+1) ..
Step (ii) Plot that points (x1, y1), (x2, y2), (x3, y3),.....(xn, yn).... on rectangular coordinate system. In plotting these points use different scales on the X and Y axes.
Step (iii) Draw a free hand smooth curve passing through points plotted in step 2 to get the
graph of the polynomial f(x).
4.2
Ex.1
Sol.
b
,0 .
a
Draw the graph of the polynomial f(x) = 2x  5. Also, find the coordinates of the point where it
crosses Xaxis.
Let y = 2x  5.
The following table list the values of y corresponding to different values of x.
x
1
4
y
3
3
The points A (1,  3) and B (4, 3) are plotted on the graph paper on a suitable scale. A line is
drawn passing through these points to obtain the graphs of the given polynomial.
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4.2 (b)
Let a,b,c be real numbers and a 0 . Then f(x) = ax2 + bx + c is known as a quadratic
polynomial in x. Graph of the quadratic polynomial i.e. he curve whose equation is y = ax 2 +
bx + c, a 0 Graph of a quadratic polynomial is always a parabola.
Let y = ax2 + bx + c, where a 0
4ay = 4a2x2 + 4abx + 4ac
4ay = 4a2x2 + 4abx + b2  b2 + 4ac
4ay = (2ax + b)2  (b2  4ac)
4ay + (b2  4ac) = (2ax + b)2 4ay + (b2  4ac) = 4a2(x + b/2a)2
b2 4ac
b
2
4a y
4a x
4
a
2
a
D
b
a a
4a
2
a
(i)
REMARKS :
b
D
b
(D )
,
, we have X = x 
and Y = y 2a 4a
2
a
4a
....(ii)
b D
,
.
2a 4a
4.3
2
be a real root of ax2 + bx + c = 0. Then a b c 0 Point ( ,0) lies on y = ax2
a 2 b c 0
Thus, the intersection of the parabola y = ax 2 + bx + c with Xaxis gives all the real roots of
ax2 + bx + c = 0. Following conclusions may be drawn :(i) If D>0, the parabola will intersect the xaxis in two distinct points and viceversa.
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b D
b D
and
.
2a
2a
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PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
b2 4ac < 0
b2 4ac < 0
31
Ex.2
Sol.
4
16
3
7
2
0
1
5
0
8
1
9
2
8
3
5
4
0
5
7
6
16
Let us plot the points (4, 16), (3, 7), (2, 0), (1, 5), (0,  8), (1,  9), (2,  8), (3,  5), (4, 0), (5,
7) and (6, 16) on a graphs paper and draw a smooth free hand curve passing through these
points. The curve thus obtained represents the graphs of the polynomial f(x) = x 2  2x  8. This
is called a parabola. The lowest point P, called a minimum points, is the vertex of the
parabola. Vertical line passing through P is called the axis of the parabola. Parabola is
symmetric about the axis. So, it is also called the line of symmetry.
Observations :
Fro the graphs of the polynomial f(x) = x2  2x  8, following observations can be drawn :
(i) The coefficient of x2 in f(x) = x2  2x  8 is 1 (a positive real number) and so the parabola
opens upwards.
(ii) D = b2  4ac = 4 + 32 = 36 > 0. So, the parabola cuts Xaxis at two distinct points.
(iii) On comparing the polynomial x2  2x  8 with ax2 + bx + c, we get a = 1, b =  2 and c = 8.
b D
,
, where D
2a 4a
b2  4ac.
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33
Ex.3
Sol.
5
12
4
5
3
0
2
3
1
4
0
3
1
0
2
5
3
12
4
21
Observations :
Following observations from the graph of the polynomial f(x) = 3  2x  x2 is as follows :
(i) The coefficient of x2 in f(x) = 3  2x  x 2 is  1 i.e. a negative real number and so the
parabola opens downwards.
(ii) D b2  4ax = 4 + 12 = 16 > 0. So, the parabola cuts xaxis two distinct points.
(iii) On comparing the polynomial 3  2x  x 2 with ax2 + bc + c, we have a =  1, b =  2 and c
b D
,
, where D = b2  4ac.
2a 4a
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4.4
Ex.4
Graphs of a cubic polynomial does not have a fixed standard shape. Cubic polynomial graphs
will always cross Xaxis at least once and at most thrice.
Draw the graphs of the polynomial f(x) = x3  4x.
Sol.
3
15
2
0
1
3
0
0
1
3
2
0
3
15
Thus, the curve y = x3  4x passes through the points (3, 15), (2, 0), (1, 3), (0 ,0), (1, 3), (2,
0), (3, 15), (4, 48) etc.
Plotting these points on a graph paper and drawing a free hand smooth curve through these
points, we obtain the graph of the given polynomial as shown figure.
Observations :
For the graphs of the polynomial f(x) = x3  4x, following observations are as follows :(i) The polynomial f(x) = x3  4x = x(x2  4) = x(x  2) (x + 2) is factorizable into three distinct
linear factors. The curve y = f(x) also cuts Xaxis at three distinct points.
(ii) We have, f(x) = x (x  2) (x + 2)
Therefore 0, 2 and 2 are three zeros of f(x). The curve y = f(x) cuts Xaxis at three points O (0,
0), P(2, 0) and Q (2, 0).
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36
4.5
Let
b
c
and
a
a
Coefficien
t of x
Coefficien
t of x
and
Constant term
Coefficien
t of x2
Hence,
Sum of the zeros
Coefficien
t of x
b
a
Coefficien
t of x2
Constant term
c
a Coefficien
t of x2
REMAKRS :
If
and are the zeros of a quadratic polynomial f(x). The , the polynomial f(x) is given by
f(x) = k{x2  ( )x }
Find the zeros of the quadratic polynomial f(x) = x 2  2x  8 and verify and the relationship
between the zeros and their coefficients.
f(x) = x2  2x  8
f(x) = x2  4x + 2x  8
f(x) = (x  4) (x + 2)
Zeros of f(x) are given by f(x) = 0
x2  2x  8 = 0
(x  4) (x + 2) = 0
x = 4 or x =  2
So, = 4 and 2
sum of zeros
=42=2
Also, sum of zeros
Coefficien
t of x
Coefficien
t of x
(2)
2
1
Coefficien
t of x
Coefficien
t of x2
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37
Constant term
Coefficien
t of x
Product of zeros
Constant term
Coefficien
t of x2
8
8
1
Ex.6
Sol.
Given 5
2, 5
2 and 5
f(x) = k{x2  x ( ) }
Here,
and (5
2 5
2)(5
2 10
2)
= 25  2 = 23
Ex.7
Sum of product of zeros of quadratic polynomial are 5 and 17 respectively. Find the
polynomial.
Sol.
4.6
RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN
ZEROS
AND
COEFFICIENTS
OF
CUBIC
POLYNOMIAL :
Let , , be the zeros of a cubic polynomial f(x) = ax 3 + bx2 + cx + d, a 0 Then, by
factor theorem, a , x and x are factors of f(x). Also, f(x) being a cubic polynomial
cannot have more than three linear factors.
2
ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = k x3  k ( )x k( )x k
Comparing the coefficients of x3, x2, x and constant terms on both sides, we get
a = k, b =  k ( ),c ( ) andd k( )
b
a
And,
c
a
d
a
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PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
38
Coefficien
t of x2
b
a
Coefficien
t of x 3
Coefficien
t of x
c
a Coefficien
t of x3
Constant term
d
a
Coefficien
t of x 3
REMARKS :
Cubic polynomial having , and as its zeros is given by
f(x) = k (x )(x )(x )
2
f(x) = k {x3  ( )x ( )x } where k is any nonzero real number.
Ex.8
1
,1 2 are zeros of cubic polynomial 2x3 + x2  5x + 2. Also verify the
2
Verify that
f(x) = 2x3 + x2  5x + 2
1
1
2
2
2
1
5 2
2
1 1 5
2
4 4 2
1
, 1 and 2
2
1
1 2
2
1
(Coefficien
t of x2 )
Coefficien
t of x3
1
2
(Coefficien
t of x2 )
Coefficien
t of x3
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PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
1
1
1 1 (2) (2)
2
2
39
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
5
2
40
Also,
Coefficien
t of x
Coefficien
t of x
5
2
Coefficien
t of x
Coefficien
t of x 3
1
(1)(2) 1
2
Ex.9
Sol.
Constant term
Coefficien
t of x3
2
1
2
Product zeros =
Constant term
Coefficien
t of x3
Find a polynomial with the sum, sum of the product of its zeros taken two at a time, and
product its zeros as 3, 1 and 3 respectively.
Given 3, 1 and 3
So, polynomial f(x) = k {x3  x2 ( ) x( ) }
f(x) = k {x3  3x2  x + 3}, where k is any nonzero real number.
4.7
VALUE OF A POLYNOMIAL :
The value of a polynomial f(x) at x =
is obtained by substituting
in the given
4.8
A real number a is a zero of a polynomial f(x), if f(a) = 0, Here a is called a root of the
equation f(x) = 0.
Ex.10 Show that x = 2 is a root of 2x3 + x2  7x  6
Sol. p(x) = 2x3 + x2  7x  6.
Then, p(2) = 2(2)3 + (2)2  7(2)  6 = 16 + 4  14 = 0
Hence x = 2 is a root of p(x).
Ex.11 If x
Sol.
4
is a root of the polynomial f(x) = 6x3  11x2 + kx  20 then find the value of k.
3
4
4
6
3
3
4
11
3
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PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
4
20 0
3
41
4k
4k
64
16
64
16
6
20 0 6
20 0
11
11
27
9
3
27
9
3
2a + b = 4
.....(i)
b=0
2a = 4 a = 2, b = 0.
4.9
FACTOR THEOREM :
Let p(x) be a polynomial of degree greater than or equal to 1 and a be a real number such
that p(a) = 0. then (x  a) is a factor of p(x). Conversely, if (x  a) is a factor of p(x), then
p(a) = 0.
3
3
And p 2
2
2
3
9
2
3
12
2
27 81 3
27 81 6 48 81 81
12
0
4
4 2
4
4
Ex.14 Find
Sol.
1 3 2 0 2 2
....(i)
 8 + 12 + 4 0 4 4
....(ii)
2 2 4 4
2 2 1
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42
Put
Hence 1, 0
Resonance
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43
Ex.15 What must be added to 3x3 + x2  22x + 9 so that the result is exactly divisible by 3x 2 + 7x 6.
Sol. Let p(x) = 3x3 + x2  22x + 9 and q(x) = 3x2 + 7x  6
We know if p(x) is divided by q(x) which is quadratic polynomial then the remainder be r(x)
and degree of r(x) is less than q(x) or Divisor.
By long division method
Let we added ax + b (linear polynomial) in p(x), so that p(x) + ax + b is exactly divisible by
2
3x + 7x  6.
Hence, p(x) + ax + b = s(x) = 3x3  x2  22x + 9 + ax + b = 3x3 + x2 x(22  a) + (9 + b).
x 2
3 x2 7 x 6 3 x 3 x 2 x( 22 a ) 9 b
3 x3 7 x2 6 x
2
6 x 6 x ( 22 a) x 9 b
6 x 2 x( 16 a ) 9 b
6 x 2 14x 12
x( 2 a ) (b 3 ) 0
Hence, x(a  2) + b  3 = 0. x + 0
a2=0&b3=0
a = 2 and b = 3
Hence if in p(x) we added 2x + 3 then it is exactly divisible by 3x 2 + 7x  6.
Ex.16 What must be subtracted from x 3  6x2  15x + 80 so that the result is exactly divisible by 2 +
x  12.
Sol. Let ax + b be subtracted from p(x) = x3  6x2  15x + 80 so that it is exactly divisible by x 2 +
x  12.
s(x) = x3  6x2  15x + 80  (ax + b)
= x3  6x2  (15 + a)x + (80  b)
Dividend = Divisor quotient + remainder
But remainder will be zero.
Dividend = Divisor quotient
s(x) = (x2 + x  12) quotient
s(x) = x3  6x2  (15 + a)x + (80  b)
x 7
x 2 x 12 x 3 6x2 x(15 a) 80 b
3
2
x x 12 x
7x2 12x (15 a) x 80 b
7x2 (3 a) 80 b
2
84
7 x 7 x
x (4 a) (4 b) 0
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44
Ex.17 Using factor theorem, factorize : p(x) = 2x4  7x3  13x2 + 63x  45.
Sol. 45 1,3,5,9,15,45
If we put x = 1 in p(x)
p(1) = 2(1)4  7(1)3  13(1)2 + 63(1)  45
p(1) = 2  7  13 + 63  45 = 65  65 = 0
x = 1 or x  1 is a factor of p(x).
Similarly if we put x = 3 in p(x)
p(3) = 2(3)4  7(3)3  13(3)2 + 63(3)  45
p(3) = 162  189  117 + 189  45 = 162  162 = 0
Hence, x = 3 or (x  3) = 0 is the factor of p(x).
p(x) = 2x4  7x3  13x2 + 63x  45
p(x) = 2x3 (x  1)  5x2 (x  1)  18x(x  1) + 45(x  1)
p(x) = (x  1) (2x3  5x2  18x + 45)
p(x) = (x  1) (2x3  5x2  18x + 45)
1  2x = 0 2x = 1 x =
1 1
2 2
1
6
2
1
2
1 3
1 12 8 32
35
1
2 4 1 4
8 2
8
8
2
Ex.19 Apply division algorithm to find the quotient q(x) and remainder r(x) on dividing f(x) = 10x 4 +
17x3  62x2 + 30x  3 by b(x) = 2x2  x + 1.
Sol.
5x 2 11x 28
2x2 x 1 10x4 17x3 62x 2 30x 3
4
3 2
10x 5x 5x
22x3 67x2 30x 3
3
2
22x 11x 11x
56x2 19x 3
2
56x 28x 28
9x 25
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45
3
and
2
Sol.
3
.
2
Since
3
and
2
Therefore, x
3
are zeros of f(x).
2
3
2
3 2 3
2x2 3
x2 x 2
2x2 3 2x4 2x 3 7x2 3x 6
4
2
2x
3x
2x3 4x2 3x 6
3
2x
3x
4x2 6
4x2 6
2 x
3
2
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3
(x 2)(x 1)
2
3
,
2
3
,2,1
2
46
1.
(A)
57
8
(B)
59
8
(C)
55
8
(D)
55
8
2.
The polynomials ax3 + 3x2  3 and 2x3  5x + a when divided by (x  4) leaves remainders R 1
& R2 respectively then value of a if 2R1  R2 = 0.
(A)
18
127
(B)
18
127
(C)
17
127
(D)
17
127
3.
4.
are
The values of a & b so that the polynomial x 3  ax2  13x + b is divisible by (x  1) & (x + 3)
(A) a = 15, b = 3
3, b =  15
5.
(B) a = 3, b = 15
(C) c =  3, b = 15
(C) parabola
(D) a =
(D) Hyperbola
6.
7.
The graph of polynomial y = x3  x2 + x is always passing through the point (A) (0, 0)
(B) (3, 2)
(C) (1, 2)
(D) all of these
8.
How many time, graph of the polynomial f(x) = x3  1 will intersect Xaxis (A) 0
(B) 1
(C) 2
(D) 4
9.
10.
In the diagram given below shows the graphs of the polynomial f(x) = ax 2 + bx + c, then
(A) a < 0, b < 0 and c > 0
Resonance
47
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48
f(x) = x + 2
f.
2.
Find the zeros of quadratic polynomial p(x) = 4x 2 + 24x + 36 and verify the relationship
between the zeros and their coefficients.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Verify that 5,
5.
1 3
,
are zeros of cubic polynomial 4x 3 + 20x + 2x  3. Also verify the
2 4
8.
1
1
If , are zeros of x2 + 5x + 5, find the value of .
9.
Apply the division algorithm to find the quotient and remainder on dividing p(x) = x 4  3x2 +
4x + 5 by g(x) = x2 + 1  x.
10.
On dividing x3  3x2 + x + 2 by polynomial g(x), the quotient remainder were x 2 and 2x + 4,
respectively. Find g(x).
11.
of c.
, , are zeros of cubic polynomial x3  12x2 + 44x + c. If , , are in A.P., find the value
12.
Obtain all the zeros of 3x4 + 6x3  2x2  10x  5, if two of its zeros are
13.
6?
What must be added to x3  3x2  12x + 19 so that the result is exactly divisible by x 2 + x 
5
and
3
5
.
3
What must be subtracted from x4 + 2x3  13x2  12x + 21 so that the result is exactly
divisible by x2  4x + 3 ?
14.
15.
( )2 2 24.
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
49
16.
Find the quadratic polynomial sum of whose zeros is 8 and their product is 12. Hence find f the
zeros of the polynomial.
[CBSE  2008]
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
50
17.
[CBSE
2008]
18.
Write the number of zeros of the polynomial y = f(x) whose graph is given figure
[CBSE  2008]
19.
[CBSE 
2008]
ANSWERS
(Objective DPP 4.1)
Que.
10
Ans.
3, 3
3.
k{x2  25}
k{x2
4.
2x
5}
5.
k{x2  6x + 4}
7.
8y2 + 20y + 50
Quotient = x2 + x  3, Remainder = 8
10.
x2  x + 1
8.
1
9.
12.
15.
5
5
,1 and 1
,
3
3
2
,1
3
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
11.
13.
2x + 5
14.
16.
51
2x  3
c =  48
17.
Yes
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
18.
No. of zeros = 3
19.
52
3
2
QUADRATIC
EQUATIONS
ML5
5.1
QUADRATIC EQUATION :
If P(x) is quadratic expression in variable x, then P(x) = 0 is known as a quadratic equation.
5.1
5.2
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
or
or
or
b2 4ac
b 4ac
2a
b2 4ac
2a
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
53
b2 4ac
and
2a
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
54
REMARK :
A quadratic equation is satisfied by exactly two values of a which may be real or
imaginary. The equation, ax2 + bx + c = 0 is :
A quadratic equation if a 0
Two roots
A linear equation if a = 0, b 0
One root
A contradiction if
If follows from the above statement that if a quadratic equation is satisfied by more
a = b = 0, c 0
No root
5.3
NATURE OF ROOTS :
Consider the quadratic equation, ax 2 + bx + c = 0 having as its roots and b2  4ac is
called discriminate of roots of quadratic equation. It is denoted by D or .
Roots of the given quadratic equation may be
(i) Real and unequal (ii) Real and equal
and
b b2 4ac
2a
b2 4ac
2a
.....(i)
....(ii)
The nature of roots depends upon the value of expression b2  4ac with in the square root
sign. This is known as discriminate of the given quadratic equation.
Consider the Following Cases :
b b2 4ac
b b2 4ac
and
2a
2a
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
b
.
2a
55
or
(4ac b2 )
2a
and
b (4ac b 2 )
2a
b i 4ac b2
b i 4ac b2
and
2a
2a
1 i
i.e. in this case both the root are imaginary and distinct.
REMARKS :
If a,b,c
Q and b2  4ac is positive (D > 0) but not a perfect square, then the roots
are irrational and they always occur in conjugate pairs like 2 3 and 2
3.
However, if a,b,c are irrational number and b2  4ac is positive but not a perfect
square, then the roots may not occur in conjugate pairs.
If b2  4ac is negative (D > 0), then the roots are complex conjugate of each other. In
fact, complex roots of an equation with real coefficients always occur in conjugate pairs
like 2 + 3i and 2  3i. However, this may not be true in case of equations with complex
coefficients. For example, x2  2ix  1 = 0 has both roots equal to i.
If a and c are of the same sign and b has a sign opposite to that of a as well as c, then
both the roots are positive, the sum as well as the product of roots is positive (D 0) .
If a,b, are of the same sign then both the roots are negative, the sum of the roots is
negative but the product of roots is positive (D 0) .
5.4
5.4
ILLUSTRATIONS :
Ex.1
Sol.
x2  (a  b) x  (a + b) x + (a  b) (a + b) =
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
56
Ex.2
Sol.
{x  (a  b)} {x  (a + b)} = 0
x  (a  b) = 0 or, x  (a + b) = 0
x = a  b or x = a + b
25
25
or
.
8
8
25 25
,
Thus, x
are solutions of the given equations.
8 8
This gives x
Ex.3
Sol.
Ex.4
Sol.
3
, are the required solutions.
2
Ex.5
Sol.
3
.
2
3 3
3
, or simply x
as the required solution.
5 5
5
2x
1
3x 9
0.
x 3 2x 3 (x 3)(2x 3)
Ex.6
Solve :
Sol.
0.
or
2x2 + 5x + 3 = 0
or
(2x + 3) (x + 1) = 0
But 2x + 3 0, so we get x + 1 = 0.
This gives x =  1 as the only solution of the given equation.
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
57
5.4
2
Step(ii) Make the coefficient of x2 unity, if it is not unity. i.e., obtained x
c
b
c
x
on R.H.S. to get x2 +
a
a
a
2a
b
b
x2 2
x
2a
2a
b
c
x 0.
a
a
2a
c
a
Step(v) Write L.H.S. as the perfect square of a binomial expression and simplify R.H.S. to get
2a
b2 4ac
4a2
b
b2 4ac
2a
4a2
Ex.7
Solve : x2 + 3x + 1 = 0
Sol.
We have
b
on RHS.
2a
x2 + 3x + 1 = 0
Add and subtract (
x 2 3x 1
0
2
3
3
x 2 2 x
2
2
1
coefficient of x)2 in L.H.S. and get
2
2
3
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
1 0
5
0
4
5
2
58
3
5
2
2
This gives x
Therefore x
Ex.8
3 5
3 5
or x
2
2
3 5 3 5
are the solutions of the given equation.
,
2
2
By using the method of completing the square, show that the equation 4a 2 + 3x + 5 = 0 has
no real roots.
Sol.
We have, 4x2 + 3x + 5 = 0
3
5
x 0
4
4
x2
5
3
x 2 2 x
4
8
3
3
x 2 2 x
8
8
5
4
71
64
But, x
8
b D b D
,
2a
2a
REMARK :
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
59
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
60
Ex.9
Sol.
7 69 7 69
,
2
2
7 69 7 69
are the required solutions.
,
2
2
Ex.10 For what value of k, (4  k)x2 + (2k + 4)x + (8k + 1) is a perfect square.
Sol. The given equation is a perfect square, if its discriminate is zero i.e. (2k + 4) 2  4(4  k) (8k +
1) = 0
9k (k  3) = 0 k = 0 or k = 3
Hence, the given equation is a perfect square, if k = 0 or k = 3.
2 1 1
.
b a c
Since the roots of the given equations are equal, so discriminant will be equal to zero.
Ex.11 If the roots of the equation a(b  c)x2 + b(c  a)x + c(a  b) = 0 are equal, show that
Sol.
1 1 2
c a b
2 1 1
.
b a c
Hence Proved.
Ex.12 If the roots of the equation (b  c)x 2 + (c  a) x + (a  b) = 0 are equal, then prove that 2b = a
+ c.
Sol. If the roots of the given equation are equal, then discriminant is zero i.e.
(c  a)2  4(b  c) (a  b) = 0 c2 + a2  2ac + 4b2  4ab + 4ac  4bc = 0
(c + a  2b)2 = 0
c + a = 2b
Hence Proved.
Ex.13 If the roots of the equation x 2  8x + a2  6a = 0 are real and distinct, then find all possible
values of a.
Sol. Since the roots of the given equation are real and distinct, we must have D > 0
a2  6a  16 < 0
Resonance
61
(a  8) (a + 2) < 0
2<a<8
Hence, the roots of the given equation are real if a lies between 2 and 8.
5.5
REMARKS :
Ex.14 The sum of the squares of two consecutive positive integers is 545. Find the integers.
Sol. Let x be one of the positive integers. Then the other integer is x + 1, x Z
Since the sum of the squares of the integers is 545, we get
x2 + (x + 1)2 = 545
or
or
2x2 + 2x  544 = 0
x2 + x  272 = 0
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
62
Sol.
7
times the square root of the total number are playing on the shore
2
of a tank. The two remaining ones are playing, in deep water. What is the total number of
swans ?
Let us denote the number of swans by x.
Then, the number of swans playing on the shore of the tank
7
x.
2
7
x2
2
7
x
2
or
x 2
or
(x 2)2
or
or
4(x2  4x + 4) = 49x
4x2  65x + 16 = 0
or
or
or
4x2  64x  x + 16 = 0
4x(x  16)  1(x  16) = 0
(x  16) (4x  1) = 0
This gives x = 16 or x
We reject x
1
4
1
and take x = 16.
4
x2 + x2 + 10x + 25 = 625
2x2 + 10x  600 = 0
or
x2 + 5x  300 = 0
or
(x + 20) (x  15) = 0
This gives x = 15 or x =  20
We reject x =  20 and take x = 15.
Thus, length of shorter side = 15 cm.
Length of longer side = (15 + 5) cm, i.e., 20 cm.
Ex.18 Swati can row her boat at a speed of 5 km/h in still water. If it takes her 1 hour more to row the
boat 5.25 km upstream than to return downstream, find the speed of the stream.
Sol. Let the speed of the stream be x km/h
Speed of the boat in upstream = (5  x)km/h
R e sSpeed
o n aof
nthe
c eboat in downstream = (5 + x)km/h
63
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
5.25
5 x
5.25
5 x
Obviously t1 > t2
Therefore, according to the given condition of the problem,
t 1 = t2 + 1
i.e.,
5.25 5.25
1
5 x 5 x
or
21 1
1
1
4 5 x 5 x
or
5 x 5 x
21
4
25 x 2
or
or
or
or
25
.
2
144 12
n(n 1)
. Find n, if the sum is
2
We have
S
or
n(n 1)
276
2
n2 + n  552 = 0
This gives
Resonance
1 1 2208 1 1 2208
,
2
2
64
or
1 2209 1 2209
,
2
2
or
1 47 1 47
,
2
2
or
n = 23, 24
We reject n =  24, since 24 is not a natural number.
Therefore, n = 23.
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
65
2.
(B) 5
(B) Rational
(D) 6
(C) Irrational
The difference between two numbers is 5 different in their squares is 65. The larger number is
(A) 9
4.
1
6
3.
(C)
(B) 10
(C) 11
(D) 12
The sum of ages of a father and son is 45 years. Five years ago, the product of their ages was
4 times the age of the father at that time. The present age of the father is
(A) 30 yrs
5.
(B) 31 yrs
(C) 36 yrs
(D) 41 yrs
If one of the roots of the quadratic equation is 2 3 then find the quadratic equation.
(A) x2  (2 +
3 ) x+ 1 =
(B) x2 + (2 +
(C) x2  4x + 1 = 0
3)x+1=0
(D) x2 + 4x  1 = 0
1.
If x =  and x
2.
Find the value of k for which quadratic equation (k  2)x 2 + 2(2k  3)x + 5k  6 = 0 has equal
roots.
3.
The sum of the squares of two consecutive positive integers is 545. Find the integers.
4.
A man is five times as old as his son and the sum of the squares of their ages is 2106. Find
their ages.
5.
The sides (in cm) of a right triangle containing the right angles are 5x and 3x  1. If the area of
the triangle is 60 cm2. Find its perimeter.
6.
The lengths of the sides of right triangle are 5x + 2, 5x and 3x  1. If x > 0 find the length of
each sides.
7.
A two digit number is four times the sum and three times the product of its digits, find the
number
[CBSE 2000]
8.
The number of a fraction is 1 less than its denominator. If 3 is added to each of the numerator
and denominator, the fraction is increased by
3
. Find the fraction
28
[CBSE  2007]
9.
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
x 1 x 2 x 5 x 6
x 2 x 3 x 6 x 7
66
10.
An aeroplane left 30 minutes later then its scheduled time and in order to reach its destination
1500 km away in time. it has to increase its speed by 250 km/h from its usual speed.
Determine its usual speed.
[CBSE2005]
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
67
11.
A motor boat whose speed is 18 km/h in still water takes 1 hours more to go 24 km upstream
than to return downstream to the same spot. Find the speed of the stream.
[CBSE2008]
12.
3
hours. The tap of larger diameter takes 10
8
hours less that the smaller one to fill the tank separately. Find the time in which each tap can
separately fill the tank.
[CBSE2008]
ANSWERS
(Objective DPP # 5.1)
Que.
Ans.
k = 9 = 2
4.
7.
24
8.
10.
75 km/h
11.
12.
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
2.
k = 3 or 1
5.
3.
40 cm
3
4
16, 17
6.
9.
17, 15, 8
9
2
6 km/hr
68
ARITHMATIC
PROGRESSIONS
ML6
6.1
PROGRESSIONS :
Those sequence whose terms follow certain patterns are called progression. Generally there
are three types of progression.
(i) Arithmetic Progression (A.P.)
(ii) Geometric Progression (G.P.) (iii)
Harmonic
Progression (H.P.)
6.2
ARTHMETIC PROGRESSION :
A sequence is called an A.P., if the difference of a term and the previous term is always same.
i.e. d = tn+1 tn = Constant for all n N . The constant difference, generally denoted by d
is called the common difference.
Ex.1
Sol.
6.3
Ex.2
Sol.
6.4
= a + 1.d
= a + 2.d
.
.
.
.
.
.
th
n term (an)
= a + (n  1) d
an = a + (n  1) d is called the nth term.
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
69
Ex.3
Sol.
Determine the A.P. whose their term is 16 and the difference of 5th term from 7th term is 12.
Given :a3 = a + (3  1) d = a + 2d = 16
.....(i)
a7  a5 = 12
(a + 6d)  (a + 4d) = 12
a + 6d  a  4d = 12
2d = 12
d=6
Put d = 6 in equation (i)
a = 16  12
a=4
A.P. is 4, 10, 16, 22, 28, ......
....(ii)
Ex.4
Sol.
40 = 72 + (n  1) (2)
40  72 =  2n + 2
32 =  2n + 2
34 =  2n
n = 17
Ex.5
Sol.
184 = 3 + (n  1) 4
181 = 4n  4
185 = 4n
185
4
1
2
1
2
3
is the 1st negative term.
4
1
3
Here 1st term (a) = 20, common difference (d) = 19 20
4
4
Which term of the sequence 20, 19 ,18 ,17
Let nth term of the given A.P. be 1st negative term an < 0
i.e. a + (n  1) d < 0
3
83 3n
0
0
4
4
4
83
2
n 27
3n > 83 n >
3
3
20 + (n  1)
2
.
3
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
70
Ex.7 If pth, qth and rth term of an A.P. are a,b,c respectively, then show than a(q  r) + b(  p) + c(p q) = 0.
Sol. ap = a
A + (p  1) D = a ......(1)
aq = b
A + (q  1) D = b .....(2)
ar = c
Now, L.H.S.
A + (r + 1) D = c ......(3)
= a (q  r) + b(r  p) +c (p  q)
= {A + (p  1)D} (q  r) + {A + (q  1)D} (r  p) + {A + (r  1)D} (p  q)
= 0.
R.H.S
Ex.8 If m times the mth term of an A.P. is equal to n times its n th term. Show that the (m + n) th term
of the A.P.
Sol. Let A the 1st term and D be the common difference of the given A.P.
Then, mam = nan
Ex.9
Sol.
A + (m + n  1)D = 0
am+n = 0
If the pth term of an A.P. is q and the qth term is p, prove that its nth term is (p + q  n).
ap = q A + (p  1) D = q
......(i)
&
aq = p A + (q  1) D = p
Solve (i) & (ii) to get D =  1 & A = p + q  1
an = A + (n  1) D
an = (p + q  1) + (n  1) (1)
an = p + q  n.
1
1
and nth term be
then show that its (mn) term is 1.
n
m
1
1
am A (m 1)D
.....(i)
n
n
1
1
am
A (n 1)D
....(ii)
m
m
1
1
&A
By solving (i) & (ii) D =
mn
mn
6.5
amn = A + (mn  1) D = 1.
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
71
6.6
of Terms
3 terms
4 terms
5 terms
6 terms
Terms
a d, a, a + d
a 3d, a d, a + d, a + 3d
a 2d, a d, a, a + d, a + 2d
a 5d, a 3d, a d, a + d, a + 3d, a +
Common Difference
d
2d
d
2d
5d
Ex.12 The sum of three number in A.P. is 3 and their product is 8. Find the numbers.
Sol.
ad+a+a+d=3
3a =  3 a = 1
&
(a  d) a (a + d) = 8
a(a2  d2) = 8
(1) (1  d2) = 8
1  d2 =  8
d2 = 9
d=
6.7
Then, Sn = a + (a + d)
also,
..... + {a + (n  2) d} + {a + (n  1) d}
.....(i)
.....(ii)
2Sn = n [2a + (n  1) d]
Sn
n
[2a (n 1)d]
2
Sn
n
n
[a a (n 1)d] [a ]
2
2
Sn
n
[a ] where is the last term.
2
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
72
a = 1, d = 3
Sn
n
[2a (n 1)d]
2
S20
20
[2(1) (20 1)3]
2
Ex.14 Find the sum of all three digit natural numbers. Which are divisible by 7.
Sol.
6.8
n = 128
Sum,
S128
128
[105 994]
2
PROPERTIES OF A.P. :
(A)
For any real numbers a and b, the sequence whose n th term is an = an + b is always an
A.P. with common difference a (i.e. coefficient of term containing n)
(B)
If any nth term of sequence is a linear expression in n then the given sequence is an
(C)
If a constant term is added to or subtracted from each term of an A.P. then the
A.P.
resulting sequence is also an A.P. with the same common difference.
(D)
If each term of a given A.P. is multiplied or divided by a nonzero constant K, then the
resulting sequence is also an A.P. with common difference Kd or
respectively.
In a finite A.P. the sum of the terms equidistant from the beginning and end is always
same and is equal to the sum of 1st and last term.
(F)
an = 2n2 + 1
= 2 (n + 1)2 + 1
Then
an+1
an+1  an
= 2(n2 + 2n + 1) + 1  2n2  1
= 2n2 + 4n + 2 + 1  2n2  1
= 4n + 2, which is not constant
Resonance
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73
(A) 3
2.
1
2
3
3 3 ..... will be
n
n
n
n
p
(B) 3
(C) 3
p
n
p
n
(D) 3
(B) 5 2
(C) 10 2
(D) 10 2
3.
If 9th term of an A.P. be zero then the ratio of its 29th and 19th term is
(A) 1 : 2
(B) 2 : 1
(C) 1 : 3
(D) 3 : 1
4.
(C) 102 th
5.
n
p
(D)
f(n)
1
b
a n
n
(D) 101 th
,nN
6.
If the nth term of an A.P. be (2n  1) then the sum of its firs n terms will be
(A) n2  1
(B) (2n  1)2
(C) n2
(D) n2 + 1
7.
The interior angles of polygon are in A.P. if the smallest angles be 120 0 and the common
difference be 5, then the number of sides is
(A) 8
(B) 10
(C) 9
(D) 6
8.
In the first, second and last terms of an A.P. be a,b, 2a respectively, then its sum will
ab
3ab
3ab
ab
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
2(b a)
2(b a)
4(b a)
a b
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
74
2.
Find the common difference of an A.P. whose first term is 100 and the sum of whose first six
terms is five times the sum of the next six terms.
3.
Find three number in A.P. whose sum is 21 and their product is 336.
4.
A student purchased a pen for Rs. 100. At the end of 8 years, it was valued at Rs. 20.
Assuming the yearly depreciation is constant amount, find the annual depreciation./
5.
The fourth term of an A.P. is equal to three times the first term and the seventh term exceeds
twice the third by one. Find the first term and the common difference.
1
2
3
,15 ,14 ......is the first negative term.
5
5
5
6.
7.
8.
Find the sum of all the three digit numbers which leave remainder 2 when divided by 5.
9.
10.
Find the 10th term from end of the A.P. 4,9,14,....., 254.
11.
200 logs are stacked in the following manner: 20 logs in the bottom row, 19 in the next row,
18 in the row next to it and so on. In how many rows the 200 logs are placed and how many
logs are in the top row ?
12.
The sum of the first n term of an A.P. is given by S n = 3n2 4n. Determine the A.P. and its 12th
term.
[CBSE  2004]
13.
th
Find the sum of the first 25 terms of an A.P. whose n term is given by tn = 2 3n
[CBSE  2004]
14.
Find the number of terms of A.P. 54, 54, 48..... so that their sum is 513.
[CBSE  2005]
15.
3n 2 5n
Find its 25th term.
2
2
[CBSE  2006]
16.
Which term of the arithmetic progression 8, 14 20, 26, ........ will be 72 more than its 41 st
term ?
[CBSE  2006]
17.
The first term, common difference and last term of an A.P. are 12, 6 and 252 respectively. Find
the sum of all terms of this A.P.
[CBSE  2007]
18.
8, 18,
32, ............
[CBSE  2008]
19.
th
and 8
th
th
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
75
ANSWERS
(Objects DPP # 6.1)
Que.
Ans.
No
2.
10
3.
6,7,8
4.
10
5.
3,2
6.
23rd
8.
98910
9.
2475
10.
209
11.
16 rows, 5 logs
13.
925
14.
18, 19
15.
76
17.
5412
18.
50
19.
13, 8, 3
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
12.
76
53rd
COORDINATE
GEOMETRY
ML7
7.1
RECTANGULAR COORDINATES :
Take two perpendicular lines XOX and YOY intersecting at the point O. XOX and YOY are
called the coordinate axes. XOx is called the Xaxis, YOY is called the Yaxis and O is
called the origin. Lines XOX and YOY are sometimes also called rectangular axes.
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
77
The two liens XOX and YOY divide the plane into four parts called quadrants. XOY, YOX
XOY and YOX are, respectively, called the first, second third and fourth quadrants. The
following table shows the signs of the coordinates of pins situated in different quadrants :
Quadrant
First quadrant
Second quadrant
Third quadrant
Fourth quadrant
Xcoodrinate
+
+
Ycoordinate
+
+

Point
(+, +)
(, +)
(, )
(+, )
REMAKS
(i)
Abscissa is the perpendicular distance of a point from yaxis (i.e., positive to the right
of yaxis and negative to the left of y  axis)
7.2
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
78
Draw lines PC and QD perpendicular to Yaxis, which meet the Yaxis in C and D, respectively.
Produce CP to meet BQ in R. Now
OA = abscissa of P = x1
Similarly, OB = x2, OC = y1 and OD = y2
Therefore, we have
PR = AB = OB  OA = x2  x1
Similarly, QR = QB  RB = QB  PA = y 2  y1
Now, using Pythagoras Theorem, in right angled triangle PRQ, we have
PQ2 = Pr2 + RQ2
PQ2 = (x2  x1)2 + (y2  y1)2
or
Since the distance or length of the linesegment PQ is always nonnegative, on taking the
positive square root, we get the distance as
PQ
(x 2 x1 )2 (y 2 y 1 )2
x12 y 12
For an isosceles triangle  We have to prove that at least two sides are equal.
(ii)
For an equilateral triangle  We have to prove that three sides are equal.
(iii)
For a right angled triangle  We have to prove that the sum of the squares of two
sides is equal to the square of the third side.
(iv)
for a square  We have to prove that the four sides are equal, two diagonals are equal.
(v)
For a rhombus  We have to prove that four sides are equal (and there is no need to
establish that two diagonals are unequal as the square is also a rhombus).
(vi)
For a rectangle  We have to prove that the opposite sides are equal and two
For a Parallelogram  We have to prove that the opposite sides are equal (and there is
no need to establish that two diagonals are unequal sat the rectangle is also a
parallelogram).
2. for three points to be collinear  We have to prove that the sum of the distances between
two pairs of points is equal to the third pair of points.
Ex.1
Find the distance between the points (8 , 2) and (3, 6).
Sol.
Let the points (8, 2) and (3, 6) be denoted by P and Q, respectively.
Then, by distance formula, we obtain the distance PQ as
PQ
(3 8)2 (6 2)2
(5) 2 (4) 2
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
41 unit
79
Ex.2
Sol.
1
PQ
2
QR 1
2
PR
1
2
1 1
, and (1, 2) be denoted by P, Q and R, respectively. Now
2 2
2
2
1 1
,
2 2
18 3
2
4
2
18 3
2
4
2
(1 1)2 (2 1)2
93
Using distance formula, show that the points (3, 2), (1, 2) and (9, 10) are collinear.
Let the given points (3, 2), (1, 2) and (9, 10) be denoted by A, B and C, respectively. Points
A, B and C will be collinear, if the sum of the lengths of two linesegments is equal to the third.
Now,
AB
BC =
64 64 8 2
AC =
144 144 12 2
(1 3)2 (2 2)2
16 16 4 2
(2 2)2 (3 0)2 5
BC =
(1 2)2 (3 3)2
and AC =
37
(1 2)2 (0 0)2 3 2
Clearly, AB BC AC.
Therefore, ABC is a scalene triangle.
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
80
Ex.6
The length of a linesegments is 10. If one end is at (2, 3) and the abscissa of the second end
is 10, show that its ordinate is either 3 or 9.
Sol. Let (2, 3) be the point A. let the ordinate of the second end B be y. Then its coordinates will
be (10, y).
or
or
AB
64 + 9 + y2 + 6y = 100
y2 + 6y + 73  100 = 0
or
y2 + 6y  27 = 0
or
(y + 9) (y  3) = 0
Therefore,
y = 9 or
Ex.7
Sol.
y = 3.
Show that the points (2, 5), (3, 4) and (7, 10) are the vertices of a right triangle.
Let the three points be A(2, 5), B(3,  4) and C(7, 10).
Then AB2 = (3 + 2)2 + (4  5)2 = 106
BC2 = (7  3)2 + (10 + 4)2 = 212
AC2 = (7 + 2)2 + (10  5)2 = 106
We see that
BC2 = AB21 + AC2
212 = 106 + 106
212 = 212
A = 900
Thus, ABC is a right triangle, right angled at A.
Ex.8
Sol.
If the distance of P (x, y) from A (5, 1) and B(1, 5) are equal, prove that 3x = 2y.
P(x, y), A (5, 1) and B (1, 5) are the given points.
AP = BP
(Given)
2
AP = BP2
or
or
or
or
or
AP2  BP2 = 0
{(x  5)2 + (y  1)}2  {(x + 1)2 + (y  5)2} = 0
x2 + 25  10x + y2 + 1 2y x2  1 2x  y2  25 + 10y = 0
12x + 8y = 0
3xx = 2y.
7.3
SECTION FORMULAE :
7.3
my2 my1
mx2 nx1
,y
m n
m n
Proof :
Let O be the origin and let OX and OY be the Xaxis and Yaxis respectively. Let A(x1, y1) and
B(x2, y2) bet the given points. Let (x, y) be the coordinates of the point p which divides AB
internally in the ratio m : n Draw AL OX, BM OX, PN Ox. Also, draw AH and PK
perpendicular from A and P on PN and BM respectively. Then
OL = x1, ON = x, OM = x2, AL = y1, PN = y and BM = y2.
AH = LN = ON  OL = x  x1, PH = PH  HN
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
81
= PN  AL = y  y1, PK = NM = OM  ON = x2  x
and
BK = BM  MK = BM  PN = y2  y.
Clearly, AHP and PKB are similar.
AP AH PH
BP PK
BK
m x x1 y y 1
n x2 x y 2 y
Now,
m x x1
n x2 x
mx2  mx = nx  nx1
and
mx + nx = mx2 + nx1
my + ny = my2 + ny1
mx2 nx1
m n
m y y1
n y2 y
my2  my = ny  ny1
my2 ny1
m n
mx2 nx1 my2 ny1
,
m n
m n
REMARKS
If P is the midpoint of AB, then it divides AB in the ratio 1 : 1, so its coordinates are
x1 x2 y 1 y 2
,
2
2
x
Ex.9
Sol.
my2 ny1
mx2 nx1
,y
m n
m n
Find the coordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining the points (6, 3) and (4, 5) in the ratio 3 : 2 (i) internally (ii) externally.
Let P(x, y) be the required point.
(i) For internal division, we have
3x 4 2 6
3 2
3 5 2 3
y
and
3 2
21
x = 0 and y =
5
So the coordinates of P are (0, 21/5)
(ii) For external division, we have
3x 4 2 6
x
3 2
x
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
82
3 5 2 3
3 2
x =  24
and y = 9
So the coordinates of P are (24, 9).
any
Ex.10 In which ratio does the point (1, 1) divides the line segment joining the pints (4, 4) and (7,
7) ?
Sol.
Suppose the point C(1, 1) divides the line joining the points A(4, 4) and B(7, 7) in the ratio k :
7k 4 7k 4
,
k1 k1
But, we are given that the coordinates of the points C are (1, 1).
7k 4
5
1 k
k1
8
Let the required ratio be k : 1. Then the coordinates of the point of division are
5 2 6 3
,
6 3
0
k1
1
2
1
: 1 or 1 : 2.
2
Ex.12 A (1, 1) and B(2, 3) are two points and D is a point on AB produced such that AD = 3 AB. Find
the coordinates of D.
Sol.
3 2 2 1 3x 3 2 1
,
3 2
3 2
(4, 11).
A(1, 1)
B(2,3)
Ex.13 Determine the ratio in which the line 3x + y  9 = 0 divides the segment joining the pints (1, 3)
and (2, 7).
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
83
Sol.
Suppose the line 3x + y  9 = 0 divides the line segment joining A(1, 3) and B(2, 7) in the ratio
2k 1 7k 3
,
k1 k1
But, C lies on 3x + y  9 = 0,
therefore
2k 1 7k 3
3
9 0
k1
k1
6k + 3 + 7k + 3  9k  9 = 0
3
4
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
84
7.4
CENTROID OF A TRIANGLE :
Prove that the coordinates of the triangle whose vertices are (x 1, y1), (x2, y2) and (y3, y3) are
x1 x 2 x 3 y 1 y 2 y 3
,
Proof :
Let A(x1, y1, B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) be the vertices of ABC whose medians are AD, BE
and CF respectively. So. D,E and F are respectively the midpoints of BC, CA and AB.
x2 x 3 y 2 y 3
,
. Coordinates of a point dividing AD in the ratio 2 : 1
2
2
Coordinates of D are
are
( x1 , y1 )
x1 x 2 y 1 y 2
,
2
2
x1 x3 y 1 y 3
,
2
2
(x 2x,2 y2x)3 y 2 y 3
,
2
2
x x3
y2 y3
1.x1 2 2
1.y 1
2
2
1 2
1 2
(x 3 , y 3 )
x1 x 2 x 3 y 1 y 2 y 3
,
3
3
x1 x3 y 1 y 3
,
. The coordinates of a point dividing BE in the ratio
2
2
1.x 2
2 : 1 are
2(y 1 y 3 )
2(x 1 x 3 )
1.y 2
2
2
x 1 x 2 x 3 , y 1 y 2 y 3
,
1 2
1 2
3
3
x1 x 2 x 3 y 1 y 2 y 3
,
3
3
x1 x 2 x 3 y 1 y 2 y 3
,
is common to AD, BE and CF and
3
3
Hence, medians of a triangle are concurrent and the coordinates of the centroid are
x1 x 2 x 3 y 1 y 2 y 3
,
.
3
3
Resonance
85
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
86
7.5
AREA OF A TRIANGLE :
Let ABC be any triangle whose vertices are A(x1, y1) B(x2, y3). Draw BL, AM and CN
perpendicular from B,A and C respectively, to the Xaxis. ABLM, AMNC and BLNC are all
trapeziums.
Area of ABC = Area of trapezium ABLM + Area of trapezium AMNC  Area of trapezium BLNC
We know that, Area of trapezium
1
(Sum of parallel sides) (distance b/w them)
2
Therefore
Area of ABC
1
1
1
(BL + AM) (LM) +
(AM + CN) MN(BL + CN) (LN)
2
2
2
Area of ABC
1
1
1
(y2 + y1) x1  x2) +
(y1 + y3) (x3  x1) (y + y3) (x3  x2)
2
2
2 2
Area of ABC
7.5
1
[x1 (y 2 y 3 ) x 2 (y 3 y ) x 3 (y 1 y 2 )]
2
7.6
AREA OF QUADRILATERAL :
Let the vertices of Quadrilateral ABCD are A(x1,y1), B(x2,y2, C(x3,y3) and D(x4, y4)
So, Area of quadrilateral ABCD = Area of ABC + Area of ACD
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
87
Ex.14 The vertices of ABC are (2, 1), (5, 4) and (2, 3) respectively. Find the area of triangle.
Sol.
1
x1(y 2 y 3 ) x2 (y 3 y 1 ) x3(y 1 y 2 )
2
1
(2)(4 3) (5)(3 1) 2(1 4)
2
1
14 (20) (6)
2
1
40
2
= 20 Sq. unit.
Ex.15 The area of a triangle is 5. Two of its vertices area (2, 1) and (3, 2). The third vertex lies on y
= x + 3. Find the third vertex.
Sol.
1
x1(y 2 y 3 ) x2 (y 3 y 1 ) x3(y 1 y 2 )
2
As
x1 = 2 y1 = 1 ; x2 = 3, y2 =  2 ;
10 = 3x3 + y3  7
3x3 + y3  7 =
1
2(2 y 3 ) 3(y 3 1) x 3 (1 2)
2
10
3x + y3 = 17
.....(i)
3x3 + y3  7 =  10
3x + y3 =  3
.....(ii)
x + y3 = 3
....(iii)
x3
7
,
2
y3
13
2
y3
3
2
x3
3
,
2
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
88
7 13
3 3
, or
,
2
2
2 2
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
89
Ex.16 Find the area of quadrilateral whose vertices, taken in order, are (3, 2), B(5, 4), (7, 6) and D(5, 4).
Sol.
So,
1
(3)(4 6) 5(6 2) 7(2 4)
2
1
30 40 14
2
1
84 42Sq. units
2
Area of ACD
So,
1
3(6 4) 7(4 2) (5)(2 6)
2
1
1
6 42 40 76 38Sq. units
2
2
2.
The points (a, b), (0, 0), (a, b) and (a2, ab) are
(A) Collinear
If the points (5, 1), (1, p) & (4, 2) are collinear then the value of p will be
(A) 1
3.
(C) 2
(D) 2
Length of the median from B on AC where A(1, 3), B(1, 1), (5, 1) is
(A)
4.
(B) 5
18
(B)
10
(C) 2 3
(D) 4
The points (0, 1), (2, 3), (6, 7) and (8, 3) are (A) Collinear
rectangle
(C) Verticals of a rectangle, which is not a square (D) None of these
5.
If (3, 4) and (6, 5) are the extremities of the diagonal of a parallelogram and (2, 1) is third
vertex, then its fourth vertex is (A) (1, 0)
6.
(C) (1, 1)
The area of a triangle whose vertices are (a, c + a), (a, c) and (a, c  a) are
(A) a2
7.
(C) c2
(D) a2 + c2
The are of the quadrilaterals the coordinates of whose verticals are (1, 2,) (6, 2), (5, 3) and
(3, 4) are
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
90
(A)
9
2
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
(B) 5
(C)
11
2
(D) 11
91
2.
ay.
If the point (x, y) is equidistant from the points (a + b, b  a) and (a  b, a + b), prove that bx =
3.
Find the value of x, if the distance between the points (x, 1) and (3, 2) is 5.
4.
Show that the points (a, a), (a, a) and 3a, 3a ) are the vertices of an equilateral triangle.
5.
Show that the points (1, 1), (2, 7) and (3, 3) are collinear.
6.
Prove that (2, 2), (2, 1) and (5, 2) are the vertices of a right angled triangle. Find the area of
the triangle and the length of the hypotenuse.
7.
If A(1, 3), B(1, 1) and C(5, 1) are the vertices of a triangle ABC, find the length of the median
passing through the vertex A.
8.
Show that the points A(1,2), B(5, 4), C(3, 8) and D(1, 6) are the vertices of a square.
9.
The abscissa of a point is twice its ordinate and the sum of the abscissa and the ordinate is
6. What are the coordinates of the point ?
10.
If two vertices of triangle are (3, 7) an (1, 5) and its centroid is (1, 3), find the coordinates of
the third vertex.
11.
If the mid point of the linesegment joining the points (7, 14) and (K, 4) is (a, b), where 2a +
3b = 5, find the value of K.
12.
Prove hat the points (a, 0), (0, b) and (1, 1) are collinear if
13.
The coordinates of two points A & B are (3, 4) and (5, 2) respectively. Find the coordinate of
point P if PA = PB, the area of APB = 10.
14.
Four points A(6, 3), B(3, 5) C(4, 2) and D(x, 3x) are given in such a way that
1 1
1.
a b
Area (DBC) 1
find x.
Area (ABC ) 2
15.
Show that the points A(2, 2), B(14, 10), C(11, 13) and D(1, 1) are the vertices of a rectangle.
[CBSE2004]
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
92
16.
Determine the ratio in which the point (6, a) divides the join of A(3, 1) and B(8, 9). Also find
the value
of a.
[CBSE 2004]
17.
Find a pint on Xaxis which is equidistant from the points (7, 6) and (3, 4).
[CBSE  2005]
18.
The line segment joining the points (3, 4) and (1, 2) is trisected at the pints P and Q. if the
coordinates of P and Q are (p, 2) and (5/3, ) respectively. Finds the value of p and q.
[CBSE 2005]
19.
If A(2, 1), B(a, 0), C(4, b) and D(1, 2) are the verities of a parallelogram, find the values of a
and b.
[CBSE 2006]
20.
The coordinates of one end point of a diameter of a circle are (4, 1) and the coordinates of the
centre of the circle are (1, 3). Find the coordinates of the other end of the diameter.
[CBSE2007]
21.
The pint R divides the line segment AB, where A(4, 0) and B(0, 6) are such that AR =
3
AB.
4
For what value of k are the pints (1, 1), (3, k) and (1, 4) collinear ?
[CBSE  2008]
23.
Find the area of the ABC with vertices A(5, 7), B (4, 5) and C(4, 5).
[CBSE  2008]
24.
If the point P(x,y) is equidistant from the points A(3,6) and B(3,4) prove that 3x + y  5 = 0.
[CBSE  2008]
25.
If A(4 8), B(3,6) and C(5, 4) are the vertices of a ABC, D is the midpoint of BC and is P is
point on AD joined such that
AP
2 find the coordinates of P.
PD
[CBSE  2008]
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
93
ANSWERS
(Objective DPP # 7.1)
Que.
Ans.
(i) 13
(ii) a(t 2 t 1 ) (t 2 t 1 )2 4
3.
x = 7 or  1
6.
9.
10.
(1, 3)
11.
25
sq. units, 5 2
2
7.
5 units
13.
18.
p = 7/3, q = 0 19.
a = 1, b = 3
20.
(2, 5)
22.
k=2
53 sq. units
25.
(4, 2)
23.
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
(4, 2)
11 3
,
8
8
16.
3 : 2, a = 5
21.
94
K = 15
17.
(1,
(3, 0)
9
)
2
TRIANGLES
ML  8
8.1
8.2
SIMILAR TRIANGLES:
Two triangles ABC and DEF are said to be similar if their
(i)
(ii)
AB BC AC
DE EF DF
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
95
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
96
8.3
Statement : If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect the other sides in distinct
points, then the other two sides are divided in the same ratio.
Given:
To Prove :
AD
AE
DB EC
Construction :
Proof :
Area of ADE (=
1
1
base height) =
AD EN.
2
2
1
DB EN
2
1
ar(BDE) =
DB EN ,
2
ar(ADE) =
Therefore,
Similarly,
And
1
AD EN
ar(ADE ) 2
AD
ar(BDE) 1
DB
DB EN
2
ar(ADE =
.(i)
1
1
AE DM and ar(DEC =
EC DM.
2
2
1
AE DM
ar(ADE ) 2
AE
ar(DEC ) 1
EC
EC DM
2
......(ii)
Note that BDE and DEC are on the same base DE and between the two parallel lines BC
and DE.
So,
ar(BDE) = ar(DEC)
.....(iii)
AD
AE
DB EC
Hence Proved.
Corollary :
If in a ABC, a line DE  BC, intersects AB in D and AC in E, then
DB EC
AD AE
AB AC
(iv)
DB EC
(i)
(ii)
AB AC
AD AE
DB EC
(v)
AB AC
(ii)
AD
AE
AB AC
Resonance
97
If a line divides any two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, then the line must be parallel to
the third side.
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
98
8.3 (b)
(i) The internal bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side internally in the ratio
of the sides containing the angle.
(ii) In a triangle ABC, if D is a point on BC such that D divides BC in the ratio AB : AC, then
AD is the bisector of A.
(iii) The external bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite sides externally in the
ratio of the sides containing the angle.
(iv) The line drawn from the midpoint of one side of a triangle parallel to another side bisects
the third side.
(v) The line joining the midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side.
(vi) The diagonals of a trapezium divide each other proportionally.
(vii) If the diagonals of a quadrilateral divide each other proportionally, then it is a trapezium.
(viii) Any line parallel to the parallel sides of a trapezium divides the nonparallel sides
proportionally.
(ix) If three or more parallel lines are intersected by two transversal, then the intercepts made
by them on the transversal are proportional.
ILLUSTRATIONS :
Ex.1
In a ABC, D and E are points on the sides AB and AC respectively such that DE  BC. If AD =
4x  3, AE = 8x  7, BD = 3x  1 and CE = 5x  3, find the value of x.
[CBSE  2006]
Sol.
In ABC, we have
DEBC
AD
AE
DB EC
4x 3 8x 7
3x 1 5x 3
4x2  2x  2 = 0
2x2  x  1 = 0
(2x + 1) (x  1) = 0
x = 1 or x = 
1
2
1
is neglected as length can not be negative].
2
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
99
Ex.2
D and E are respectively the points on the sides AB and AC of a ABC such that AB = 12 cm,
AD = 8 cm,
AE = 12 cm and AC = 18 cm, show that DE  BC.
Sol.
We have,
AB = 12 cm, AC = 18 m, AD = 8 cm and AE = 12 cm.
BD = AB  AD = (12  8) cm = 4 cm
CE = AC  AE = (18 12) cm = 6 cm
Now,
AD 8 2
BC 4 1
And,
AE 12 2
CE
6
1
AD
AE
BD CE
Thus, DE divides sides AB and AC of ABC in the same ratio. Therefore, by the conserve of
basic proportionality theorem we have DEBC.
Ex.3
Sol.
BE 3
. Diagonal DB intersects EF at G. Prove that 7FE = 10AB.
EC 4
[Corresponding s AB  FG]
DF FG
DA AB
.....(i)
BE
AF
DF
EC
AF
3
DF 4
AF
3
1 1
DF
4
AF DF 7
DF
4
AD 7
DF
4
DF
4
AD 7
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
BE 3
EC 4 (given)
.(ii)
100
FG 4
AB 7
i.e. FG =
4
AB
7
......(iii)
BEG = BCD
GBE = DBC
[Common]
BEG ~ BCD
BE EG
BC CD
3 EG
7 CD
EG
3
3
CD (2AB ) CD 2AB (given)
7
7
EG
6
AB
7
BE 3
EC 4
EC BE 4 3
BC 7
EG 7 i.e.. BE 3
BE
3
BE 3
.....(iv)
FG EG
EF
4
6
10
AB AB
AB
7
7
7
10
AB i.e., 7EF 10AB.
7
Ex.4
Sol.
AB
BD
AC
DC
Hence proved.
Area (ABD ) AB
Area (ACD ) AC
From A draw AL BC
1
BD.AL
BD AB
2
Area (ACD ) 1
DC AC
DC.AL
2
Area (ABD )
[From (i)]
Hence Proved.
Ex.5
BAC = 900, AD is its bisector. IF DE AC, prove that DE (AB + AB) = AB AC.
Sol.
AB
BD
AC
DC
AB
BD
1
1
AC
DC
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
101
AB AC BD DC
AC
DC
AB AC
BC
AC
DC
....(i)
[Common]
DEC = BAC
CD DE
CB BA
AB
BC
DE DC
....(ii)
AB AC AB
AC
DE
Ex.6
In the given figure, PA, QB and RC are each perpendicular to AC. Prove that
Sol.
BQ CB
AP
CA
y
x
1 1 1
x z y
[ CBQ ~ CAP]
CB
CA
(i)
BQ AB
CR AC
y
z
[ ABQ ~ ACR]
AB
AC
(ii)
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
z
y
z
y
z
CB AB
AC AC
AB BC
AC
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
y
x
y
z
AC
AC
1 1 1
x z y
Hence Proved.
102
Ex.7
Sol.
8.4
AO
BO
OC OD
3x 19 x 4
x 3
4
12x  76 = x2  4x  3x + 12
x2  19x + 88 = 0
x2  11x  8x + 88 = 0
(x  8) (x  11) = 0
x = 8 or x = 11.
Statement : The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the square of the ratio of their
corresponding sides.
Two triangles ABC and PQR such that ABC ~ PQR
Given :
To Prove :
ar(ABC ) AB
ar(PQR ) PQ
BC
QR
CA
RP
Construction :
Proof :
ar(ABC) =
1
BC AM
2
ar(PQT) =
1
QR PN
2
And
So,
1
BC AM
ar(ABC ) 2
BC AM
1
ar(PQR )
QR PN
QR PN
2
....(i)
B = Q
[900 each]
M = N
So,
ABM ~ PQN
Therefore,
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
AM
AB
PN
PQ
103
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
104
Also,
ABC ~ PQR
[Given]
So,
AB BC CA
PQ QR RP
.....(iii)
Therefore,
ar(ABC ) BC AB
ar(PQR ) QR PQ
AB AB
PQ PQ
AB
PQ
[From (iii)]
ar(PQR ) PQ
BC
QR
CA
RP
Prove that the area of the equilateral triangle described on the side of a square is half the area
of the equilateral triangle described on this diagonals.
Sol.
[CBSE  2001]
Given : A square ABCD. Equilateral triangles BCE and ACF have been described on side BC
and diagonals AC respectively.
To prove : Area (BCE) =
1
. Area (ACF)
2
Proof : Since BCE and ACF are equilateral. Therefore, they are equiangular (each angle
being equal
to 600) and hence BCE ~ ACF.
Area(BCE) BC 2
Area(ACF ) AC 2
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
105
BC 2
Area(BCE)
Area(ACF )
Area(BCE)
1
Area(ACF ) 2
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
2BC
1
2
ABCD is asquare
Diagonal 2(side)
AC 2BC
Hence Proved.
106
8.5
PYTHAGOREOUS THEOREM :
Statement : In a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the square of
the other two sides.
Given :
A right triangle ABC, right angled at B.
To prove :
AC2 = AB2 + BC2
Construction :
BD AC
Proof :
[Common]
[900 each]
BDA = CBA
So,
ADB ~ ABC
AD
AB
AB AC
or,
AD . AC = AB2
Similarly
So,
[By AA similarity]
.....(i)
BDC ~ ABC
CD BC
BC AC
or
CD . AC = BC2
Adding (i) and (ii),
or,
.....(ii)
AD . AC + CD . AC = AB2 + BC2
AC (AD + CD) = AB2 + BC2
AC.AC = AB2 + BC2
AC2 = AB2 + BC2
or
or,
Hence Proved.
Construction :
Proof :
DF = AC
.....(i)
Thus, in ABC and DEF, we have
AB = DE, BC = EF
[By construction]
And
AC = DF
[From equation (i)]
ABC DEF
[By SSS criteria of congruency]
0
B = E = 90
R e s o n a Hence,
n c e ABC is a right triangle, right angled at B.
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
107
8.5 (b)
(i) In the given figure ABC is an obtuse triangle, obtuse angled at B. If AD CD,
then AC2 = AB2 + BC2 + 2BC . BC
(ii) In the given figure, if B of ABC is an acute angle and AD BC, then AC2 = AB2 + BC2
 2BC . BD
(iii) In any triangle, the sum of the squares of any two sides is equal to twice the square of
half of the third side together with twice the square of the median which bisects the third side.
(iv) Three times the sum of the squares of the sides of a triangle is equal to four times the
sum of the squares o the medians of the triangle.
Ex.9
[CBSE  2002]
Sol.
(i)
AD = a 3
(i)
Here, AD BC.
3 a2
[Common]
[900 each]
ADB = ADC
And
AB = AC
BD = DC = a
Now,
AD = AB 2 BD 2
ABD ACD
AD =
(ii)
4a2 a2
Area (ABC) =
3a
or a 3
1
BC AD
2
Resonance
1
2a a 3
2
108
a2 3
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
109
Ex.10 BL and Cm are medians of ABC right angled at A. Prove that 4(BL2 + CM2) = 5 BC2
[CBSE2006]
Sol. In BAL
BL2 = AL2 + AB2
....(i)
[Using Pythagoreans theorem]
and In CAM
CM2 = AM2 + AC2 .....(ii)
[Using Pythagoreans theorem]
Adding (1) and (2) and then multiplying by 4, we get
4(BL2 + CM2) =4(AL2 + AB2 + AM2 + AC2)
=
=
=
=
[A line joining midpoints of two sides is parallel to third side and is equal to half of it, ML =
BC/2]
=
Hence proved.
Ex.11 In the given figure, BC AB, AE AB and DE AC. Prove that DE.BC = AD.AB.
Sol. In ABC and EDA,
We have
ABC = ADE
[Each equal to 900]
ACB = EAD
By AA Similarity
ABC ~ EDA
BC AD
AB DE
[Alternate angles]
DE.BC = AD.AB.
Hence Proved.
Ex.12 O is any point inside a rectangle ABCD (shown in the figure). Prove that OB 2 + OD2 = OA2 +
OC2
Sol. Through O, draw PQBC so that P lies on A and Q lies on DC.
[CBSE  2006]
Now,
PQBC
Therefore,
PQ AB and PQ DC
[B = 900 and C = 900]
So,
BPQ = 900 and CQP = 900
Therefore, BPQC and APQD are both rectangles.
Now, from OPB,
OB2 = BP2 + OP2
Similarly, from ODQ,
....(i)
....(ii)
...(iii)
And form OAP, we have
OA2 = AP2 + OP2
....(iv)
Adding (i) and (ii)
OB2 + OD2 = BP2 + OP2 + OQ2 + DQ2
= CQ2 + OP2 + OQ2 + AP2
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
110
Proved.
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
Hence
111
Ex.13 ABC is a right triangle, rightangled at C. Let BC = a, CA b, AB = c and let p be the length of
perpendicular
form C on AB, prove that
1
1
1
2 2
(i)
cp = ab
(ii)
2
p
a
b
Sol.
=
Also,
1
(Base height)
2
1
1
(AB CD) =
cp
2
2
Area of ABC =
1
1
(BC AC) =
ab
2
2
1
1
cp =
ab
2
2
Area of ABC =
(ii)
CP = AB.
Since ABC is a right triangle, right angled at C.
AB2 = BC2 + AC2
c2 = a.. + b2
ab
a b
p2
1
p2
1
p2
= a2 + b2
cp ab c
ab
= a2 + b2
1
2
b
1
a2
1
a2
1
b2
Ex.14 In an equilateral triangle ABC, the side B is trisected at D. Prove that 9 AD 2 = 7AB2.
Sol. ABC be can equilateral triangle and D be point on BC such that
[CBSE  2005]
1
BC (Given)
3
Draw AE BC, Join AD.
BE = EC (Altitude drown from any vertex of an equilateral triangle bisects the opposite side)
BC
So,
BE = EC =
2
In
ABC
AB2 = AE2 + EB2
.....(i)
2
2
2
AD = AE + ED
....(ii)
From (i) and (ii)
AB2 = AD2  ED2 + EB2
BC
BC
BC
BC
BC 2 BC 2
2
2
DE
DE
AB = AD ( BD + DE =
)
2
3
2
6
36
4
BC
BC 2 BC 2
(EB
)
AB 2
AD 2
36
4
2
AB 2 AB 2
(AB BC)
AB 2
AD 2
36
4
BC =
Resonance
112
36AB 2 AB 2 9AB 2
AD 2
36
7AB 2 9AD 2
28AB 2
AD 2
36
The perimeters of two similar triangles are 25 cm and 15 cm respectively. If one side of first
triangle is 9 cm, then the corresponding side of the other triangle is
(A) 6.2 cm
2.
3.
(C) 5.4 cm
(D) 8.4 cm
In the following figure, AE BC, D is the mid point of BC, hen x is equal to
(A)
1 2
a2
2
b d
a
4
(B)
hd
3
(C)
c d h
2
(D)
a2 b 2 d 2 c 2
4
4.
(B) 3.4 cm
2
3
(B)
1
2
(C)
QR
is
PR
(D)
2
3
In a triangle ABC, if angle B = 900 and D is the point in BC such that BD = 2 DC, then
(A) AC2 = AD2 + 3 CD2
(D) AC2
= AB2 + 5 BD2
5.
P and Q are the mid points of the sides AB and BC respectively of the triangle ABC, right
angled at B, then
(A) AQ2 + CP2 = AC2
(C) AQ2 + CP2 =
6.
5
AC 2
4
4
AC 2
5
3
AC 3
5
7.
(A) 3.3
(B) 18
(C) 7.5
(D) 1.33
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
(B) 2 5 cm
(C) 4 cm
(D) 4 5 cm
113
8.
ABC is a rightangle triangle, right angled at A . A circle is inscribed in it. The lengths of the
two sides containing the right angle are 6 cm and 8 cm, then radius of the circle is
(A) 3 cm
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
(B) 2 cm
(C) 4 cm
(D) 8 cm
114
AD
AB
[CBSE  2000]
(ii)
Area of DEF
Area of CFB
3.
In Figure, ABC is a rightangled triangle, where ACB = 900. The external bisector BD of
ABC meets AC produced at D. If AB = 17 cm and BC = 8 cm, find the AC and BD.
4.
In figure, QPS = RPT and PST = PQR. Prove that PST ~ PQR and hence find the ratio
ST : PT, if PR : R = 4 : 5.
5.
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
115
6.
In ABC, D and E are points on AB and AC respectively such that DEBC. If AD = 2.4 cm, AE =
3.2 cm, DE = 2 cm and BC = 5 cm, find BD and CE.
7.
In a triangle PQR, L an DM are two points on the base QR, such that :PQ = QRP and RPM =
RQP. Prove that :
(i)
PQL ~ RPM
(ii)
QL RM = PL PM
(iii)
PQ2 = QR QL
8.
9.
10.
In a right triangle, prove that the square on the hypotenuse is equal to sum of the squares on
the other two sides.
Using the above result, prove the following:
In figure PQR is a right triangle, right angled at Q. If QS = SR, show that PR2 = 4PS2  3PQ2.
11.
In ABC, ABC = 1350. Prove that AC2 = AB2 + BC2 + 4ar ( ABC).
12.
In figure, ABC and DBC are two right triangles with the common hypotenuse BC and with their
sides AC and DB intersecting at P. Prove that AP PC = DP PB.
[CBSE  2000]
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
116
13.
Any point O, inside ABC, in joined to its vertices. From a point D on AO, DE is drawn so that
DEAB and EFBC as shown in figure. Prove that DFAC.
[CBSE2002]
14.
In figure, D and E trisect BC. Prove that 8AE2 = 3AC2 + 5AD2
 2006]
[CBSE
15.
The perpendicular AD on the base BC of a ABC meets BC at D so that 2DB = 3CD. Prove that
5AB2 = 5AC2 + BC2.
[CBSE 2007]
16.
their
Prove that the ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares on
corresponding sides.
Using the above, do the following :
The diagonals of a trapezium ABCD, with AB DC, intersect each other point O. If AB = 2 CD,
find the ratio of the area of to the area of COD
[CBSE  2008]
17.
D, E and F are the midpoints of the sides AB, BC and CA respectively of ABC. Find
ar(DEF)
.
ar(ABC )
[CBSE  2008]
18.
D and E are points on the sides CA and CB respectively of ABC rightangled at C. Prove that
AE2 + BD2 = AB2 + DE2.
19.
BE AC
DE BC
[CBSE  2008]
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
117
ANSWERS
(Objective DPP # 8.1)
Que.
Ans.
1.
3.
15 cm.,
4.
5:4
5.
6.
5
8
2.
(i)
16.
4:1
(ii)
25
64
8 34
cm.
3
Resonance
PrefoundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division
17.
1:4
118