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# REAL NUMBERS

ML - 1
1.1

DIVISIBILITY :
A non-zero integer a is said to divide an integer b if there exists an integer c such that
b= ac. The integer b is called dividend, integer a is known as the divisor and integer c is
known as the quotient.
For example, 5 divides 35 because there is an integer 7 such that 35 = 5 7.
If a non-zero integer a divides an integer b, then it is written as a | b and read as a a
divides b, a/b is written to indicate that b is not divisible by a.

1.2

## EUCLIDS DIVISION LEMMA :

Let a and b be any two positive integers. Then, there exists unique integers q and r
such that a = b + r, where 0

Ex.1

r b. If b|a, than r = 0.

Show that any positive odd integer is of the form 6q + 1 or, 6q + 3 or, 6q + 5, where q is

some integer.
Sol.

Let a be any positive integer and b = 6. Then, by Euclids division lemma there exists
integers a and r such that
a = 6q + r, where 0

r < 6.

## a = 6q or, a = 6q + 1 or, a = 6q + 2 or, a = 6a + 3 or, a = 6q + 4 or, a = 6q + 5.

[ 0

r < 6 r = 0, 1,2,3,4,5]

a = 6q + 1 or, a = 6q + 3 or, a = 6q + 5.
[ a is an odd integer, 6q, a

6q + 2, a

6q + 4]

## Hence, any odd integer is of the form 6q + 1 or, 6q + 3 or, 6q + 5.

Ex.2

Use Euclids Division Lemma to show that the cube of any positive integer is of the form 9m,
9m + 1 or 9 m + 8, for some integer q.

Sol,

## Let x be any positive integer. Then, it is of the form 3q or, 3q + 1 or, 3 + 2.

Case - I When x = 3q
x3 = (3q)3 = 27q3 = 9(3q3) = 9m, where m = 9q3
Case - II when x = 3q + 1
x3 = (3q + 1)3
x3 = 2q3 + 27q2 + 9q + 1
x3 = 9q (3q2 + 3q + 1) + 1
x3 = 9m + 1, where m = q (3q2 + 3q + 1).

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## Case -III when x = 3q + 2

x3 = (3q + 2)3
x3 = 27q3 + 54q2 + 36q + 8

x3 = 9q(3q2 + 6q + 4) + 8

x3 = 9m + 8, where m = 3q2 + 6q + 4)
Hence, x3 is either of the form 9m of 9m + 1 or 9m + 8.

Ex.3
Sol.

Prove that the square of any positive integer of the form 5q + 1 is of the same form.
Let x be any positives integer of the form 5q + 1.
When x= 5q + 1
x2 = 25q2 + 10q + 1
x2 = 5(5q + 2) + 1
Let m = q (5q + 2).
x2 = 5m + 1.
Hence, x2 is of the same form i.e. 5m + 1.

1.3

## EUCLIDS DIVISION ALGORITHM :

If a and b are positive integers such that a = bq + r, then every common divisor of a and
b is a common divisor of b and r and vice-versa.

Ex.4
Sol.

Use Euclids division algorithm to find the H.C.F. of 196 and 38318.
Applying Euclids division lemma to 196 and 38318.
38318 = 195 196 + 98
196
= 98 2 + 0
The remainder at the second stage is zero. So, the H.C.F. of 38318 and 196 is 98.

Ex.5
Sol.

If the H.C.F. of 657 and 963 is expressible in the form 657x + 963 (-15), find x.
Applying Euclids division lemma on 657 and 963.
963 = 657 1 + 306
657 = 306 2 + 45
306 = 45 6 + 36
45 = 36 1 + 9
36 = 9 4 + 0
So, the H.C.F. of 657 and 963 is 9.
Given : 657x + 963 (-15) = H.C.F. of 657 and 963.
657 x + 963 (-15) = 9
657 x = 9 + 963 15
657 x = 14454

14454
22.
657

Ex.6

What is the largest number that divides 626, 3127 and 15628 and leaves remainders of 1, 2
and 3 respectively.
Sol. Clearly, the required number is the H.C.F. of the number 626 - 1 = 625, 3127 - 2 3125 and
15628 - 3 = 15625.
15628 - 3 = 15625.
Using Euclids division lemma to find the H.C.F. of 625 and 3125.
3125 = 625 5 + 0
Clearly, H.C.F. of 625 and 3125 is 625.
Now, H.C.F. of 625 and 15625

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15625 = 625 25 + 0
So, the H.C.F. of 625 and 15625 is 625.
Hence, H.C.F. of 625, 3125 and 15625 is 625.
Hence, the required number is 625.
Ex.7

Sol.

1.4

144 cartons of coke cans and 90 cartons of Pepsi cans are to be stacked is a canteen. If each
stack is of same height and is to contains cartons of the same drink, what would be the
greatest number of cartons each stack would have ?
In order to arrange the cartons of the same drink is the same stack, we have to find the
greatest number that divides 144 and 90 exactly. Using Euclids algorithm, to find the H.C.F. of
144 and 90.
144 = 90 1 + 54
90 = 54 1 + 36
54 = 36 1 + 18
36 = 18 2 + 0
So, the H.C.F. of 144 and 90 is 18.
Number of cartons in each stack = 18.

## FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF ARITHMETIC :

Every composite number can be expressed as a product of primes, and this factorisation is
unique, except for the order in which the prime factors occurs.

## SOME IMPORTANT RESULTS :

(i) Let p be a prime number and a be a positive integer. If p divides a2, then p divides
a.
(ii) Let x be a rational number whose decimal expansion terminates. Then, x can be
expressed in the form

p
, where p and q are co-primes, and prime factorisation of q is of the
q

## form 2m 5n, where m, n are non-negative integers.

(iii) Let x

p
be a rational number, such that the prime factorisation of q is not of the form
q

2m 5n where m, n are non - negative integers. Then, x has a decimal expansion which is non
- terminating repeating.

Ex.8
Sol.

## 45470971 = 72 132 172 19.

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Ex.9
Sol.

Check whether 6n can end with the digit 0 for any natural number.
Any positive integer ending with the digit zero is divisible by 5 and so its prime factorisations
must contain the prime 5.
6n = (2 3)n = 2 n 3 n

## 5 does not occur in the prime factorisation of 6n for any n.

6 n does not end with the digit zero for any natural number n.

Ex.10 Find the LCM and HCF of 84, 90 and 120 by applying the prime factorisation method.
Sol. 84 = 22 3 7, 90 = 2 32 and 120 = 23 3 5.
Prime factors
2
3
5
7

Least exponent
1
1
0
0

HCF = 21 31 = 6.
Common prime
factors
2
3
5
7

Greatest exponent
3
2
1
1

= 2 3 33 51 71
=8957
= 2520.

LCM

Ex.11 In a morning walk three persons step off together, their steps measure 80 cm, 85 cm and 90
cm respectively. What is the minimum distance each should walk so that they can cover the
distance in complete steps ?
Sol. Required minimum distance each should walk so, that they can cover the distance in complete
step is the L.C.M. of 80 cm, 85 cm and 90 cm
80 = 24 5
85 = 5 + 17
90 = 2 32 5
LCM = 24 32 51 171
LCM = 16 9 5 17
LCM = 12240 cm, = 122 m 40 cm.
Ex.12 Prove that
Sol.

2 is an irrational number.

## Let assume on the contrary that 2 is a rational number.

Then, there exists positive integer a and b such that

a
where, a and b are co primes i.e. their HCF is 1.
b
a

( 2)2

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a2
b2

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a2 = 2b2

a2 is multiple of 2
a is a multiple of 2

## a = 2c for some integer c.

a2 = 4c2

2b2 = 4c2

b2 = 2c2

....(i)

b2 is a multiple of 2
b is a multiple of 2

....(ii)

From (i) and (ii), a and b have at least 2 as a common factor. But this contradicts the fact that
a and b are co-prime. This means that
Ex.13 Prove that 3
Sol.

2 is an irrational number.

5 is an irrational number.

5 is rational.

3 5

a
b

a
5
b

3b a
5
b

## This contradicts the fact that

Hence, 3

3b a
is a rational number]
b

5 is irrational

5 is an irrational number.

## Ex.14 Without actually performing the long division, state whether

13
has terminating decimal
3125

expansion or not.
Sol.

13
13
0
3125 2 55
This, shows that the prime factorisation of the denominator is of the form 2m 5n.
Hence, it has terminating decimal expansion.

Ex.15 What can you say about the prime factorisations of the denominators of the following rationals
:
(i) 43.123456789
Sol.

## (ii) 43. 123456789

(i) Since, 43.123456789 has terminating decimal, so prime factorisations of the denominator
is of the form 2m 5n, where m, n are non - negative integers.
(ii) Since, 43. 123456789has non-terminating repeating decimal expansion.
denominator has factors other than 2 or 5.

Resonance

So, its

## DAILY PRACTICE ROBLEMS # 1

SUBJECTIVE DPP 1.1
1.

## Use Euclids division algorithm to find the HCF of :

(i) 56 and 814
(ii) 6265 and 76254

2.

Find the HCF and LCM of following using Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic method.
(i) 426 and 576
(ii) 625, 1125 and 2125

3.

Prove that

3 is an irrational number.

4.

Prove that

5 is irrational number.

5.

6.

Prove that

7.

## Can we have any n N , where 7n ends with the digit zero.

8.

Without actually performing the long division, state whether the following rational number will
have a terminating decimal expansion or non - terminating decimal expansion :

[CBSE -

2008]

(i)

[CBSE - 2008]

3 is irrational.

77
210

(ii)

15
1600

9.

An army contingent of 616 members is to march behind and army band of 32 members in a
parade. The two groups are to march in the same number of columns. What is the maximum
number of columns in which they can march?

10.

There is a circular path around a sports field. Sonia takes 18 minutes to drive one round of the
field, while Ravi takes 12 minutes for the same. Suppose they both start at the same point and
at the same time, and go in the same direction. After how many minutes will they meet again
at the starting point ?

11.

## Write a rational number between

2 and

3.

[CBSE -

2008]
12.

Use Euclids Division Lemma to show that the square of any positive integer is either of the
form 3m of 3m + 1 for some integer m.
[CBSE - 2008]

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(Sujective DPP 1.1)
1.

(i) 2

2.

(i) 6,40896

7.

No

8.

(i) Non-terminating

9.

8 columns

10.

36 minutes

11.

(ii) 179
(ii) 125, 95625

(ii) Terminating

3
2

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LINEAR EQUATIONS
IN TWO VARIABLES

ML-2
2.1

## LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES :

An equation of the form Ax + By + C = 0 is called a linear equation.
Where A is called coefficient of x, B is called coefficient of y and C is the constant term (free

R [ belongs, to R

form x & y) A, B, C,

Real No.]

If A

## 0, B = 0 equation will be of the form Ax + C = 0.

[Line || to Y-axis]

If A = 0, B

[Line || to X-axis]

If A

## 0, equation will be of the form By + C = 0.

0, B 0, C = 0 equation will be of the form Ax + By = 0.

If A

origin]
0, B

C, C

## 0 equation will be of the form A x + By + C = 0.

It is called a linear equation in two variable because the two unknown (x & y) occurs only in
the first power, and the product of two unknown equalities does not occur.
Since it involves two variable therefore a single equation will have infinite set of solution i.e.
indeterminate solution. So we require a pair of equation i.e. simultaneous equations.
Standard form of linear equation : (Standard form refers to all positive coefficient)
a1x + b1y + c1 = 0

....(i)

a2x + b2y + c2 = 0

....(ii)

## For solving such equations we have three methods.

(i) Elimination by substitution
(ii) Elimination by equating the coefficients
(iii) Elimination by cross multiplication.
2.1

Elimination By Substitution :

Ex.1

Solve x + 4y = 14 .....(i)
7x - 3y = 5 ....(ii)

Sol.

....(iii)

## Substitute the value of x in equation (ii)

7 (14 - 4y) - 3y = 5

98 - 28y - 3y = 5

98 - 31y = 5

93 = 31y

93
y3
31

Resonance

7x - 3 (3) = 5

7x - 3 (3) = 5

7x = 14

14
2
7

2.1 (b)
Ex.2
Sol.

## Elimination by Equating the Coefficients :

Solve 9x - 4y = 8 .....(i)
13x + 7y = 101 ....(ii)
Multiply equation (i) by 7 and equation (ii) by 4, we get
63x 28y
= 56
52x + 28y
= 404
115x
= 460

460
x 4.
115

9 (4) - 4y = 8

36 - 8 = 4y

28 = 4y

28
7
4

2.1 (c)

## Elimination by Cross Multiplication :

a1x + b1y + c1 = 0
a2x + b2y + c2 = 0

b1
b2

c1
c2

a1
a2

a1 b1

a2 b2

b[Write
1
b2

y
x
1
x
1

## b1c2 b2c1 a2c1 a1c2 a1b2 a2b1

b1c2 b2c1 a1b2 a2b1

Ex.3
Sol.

b1c2 b2c1
a1b2 a2b1

Also,

y
1

## a2c1 a1c2 a1b2 a2b1

a2c1 a1c2
a1b2 a2b1

Solve 3x + 2y + 25 = 0
.....(i)
x + y + 15 = 0
....(ii)
Here, a1 = 3 b1 = 2, c1 = 25
a2 = 1 b2 = 1, c2 = 15

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## Pre-foundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division

10

25
15

3
1

2
1

y
y
x
1
x
1

2 15 25 1 25 1 15 3 3 1 2 1 30 25 25 45 3 2
y
x
1

5 20 1

..(i)

y
x
1
1,

5
20 1
X = 5, y = - 20
So, solution is x = 5 and y = - 20.

2.2

CONDITIONS

FOR

SOLVABILITY

(OR

CONSISTENCY)

OF

SYSTEM

OF

EQUATIONS:
2.2

## (a) Unique Solution :

Two lines a1 + b1y + c1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2 = 0, if the denominator a 1b2 - a2b1

then the given system of equations have unique solution (i.e. only one solution) and solutions
are said to be consistent.

2.2 (b)

a1b2 - a2b1

a1 b1

b2 b 2

No Solution :

Two lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2 = 0, if the denominator a1b2 - a2b1 = 0
then the given system of equations have no solution and solutions are said to be consistent.

a1b2 a2b1 0
2.2

a1 b1

a2 b2

## (c) Many Solution (Infinite Solutions)

Two lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2 = 0, if

a1 b1

a2 b2

then system of

## equations has many solution and solutions are said to be consistent.

Ex.4

Find the value of P for which the given system of equations has only one solution (i.e. unique

solution).

Sol.

Px - y = 2

....(i)

6x - 2y = 3

....(ii)

a1 = P, b1 = -1, c1 = - 2
a2 = 6 b2 = - 2, c2 = -3
Conditions for unique solution is

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a1 b1

a2 b2

11

P 1

6 2

Ex.5

P3

## Find the value of k for which the system of linear equation

kx + 4y = k - 4
16x + ky = k has infinite solution.

Sol.

a1 = k, b1 = 4, c1 = -(k - 4)
a2 = 16, b2 = k, c2 = - k
Here condition is

a1 b1 c1

a2 b2 c2

k
4 (k 4)

16 k
(k )

k
4

16 k

k2 = 64
k=

also

4 k4

k
k

4k = k2 - 4k

k(k-8) = 0

Ex.6

## k = 8 is correct value for infinite solution.

Determine the value of k so that the following linear equations has no solution.
(3x + 1) x + 3y - 2 = 0
(k2 + 1) x + (k - 2) y - 5 = 0

Sol.

Here

a1 = 3k + 1, b1 = 3 and c1 = -2
a2 = k2 + 1, b2 = k - 2 and c2 = - 5

## For no solution, condition is

3k 1
2

k 1

3k 1
2

k 1

Now,

a1 b1 c1

a2 b2 c2

3
2

k2 5

3
3
2

and
k2
k2 5

3k 1
2

k 1

3
k2

(3k + 1) (k - 2) = 3(k2 + 1)
3k2 - 5k - 2 = 3k2 + 3
-5k - 2 = 3
- 5k = 5
k=-1

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12

Clearly,

3
2
for k = - 1.
k2 5

## Hence, the given system of equations will have no solution for k = - 1.

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13

## DAILY PRACTIVE PROVBLEMS # 2

OBJECTIVE DPP - 2.1
1.

## The equations 3x - 5y + 2 = 0, and 6x + 4 = 10 y have :

(A) No solution
(B) A single solution
(C) Two solutions
(D) An infinite number of solution

2.

(A) 3x + 4y = 5
(B) 5x + 4y = 4
(C) 5x + 5y = 4
of these.
3.

(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3

4.

(D) None

(D) 4

(A) ad - bc > 0
(B) ad - bc < 0
(C) ad + bc = 0

bc = 0
5.

(A) 7 & k

3
14

(B) 4 & k

3
14

(C)

6
14
&k
5
3

(D)

6
14
&k
5
3

6.

(A) x = 1, y = 2
(B) x = 2, y = 1
3, y = 2
7.

On solving

(D) x =

(C) x = 6, y = 4

(D) None

25
3
40
2

1,

5 we get :
x y x y
x y x y

(A) x = 8, y = 6
of these
8.

(C) x = 2, y = 3

(B) x = 4, y = 6

(A) k

3
2

(B) k

3
2

(C) k 6

(D) k = 6

9.

## The equation x + 2y = 4 and 2x + y = 5

(A) Are consistent and have a unique solution
(B) Are consistent and have infinitely many
solution
(C) are inconsistent
(B) Are homogeneous linear equations
10.

If

1 1 1

then z will be :
x y z

(A) y - x

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(B) x - y

(C)

yx
xy

(D)

14

xy
yx

## SUBJECTIVE DPP 2.2

Solve each of the following pair of simultaneous equations.
1.

x y 7
x y 6

and

3 12 2
6 8 8

2.

## 0.2 x + 0.3y = 0.11 = 0,

0.7x - 0.5y +

0.08 = 0
3.

3 2x 5 3y

50

2 3x 7 2y 2 5 0

4.

5.

x
y 1.7
3

y
11

10 x 0
and
y
3

x
3

Prove that the positive square root of the reciprocal of the solutions of the equations
3 5
7 4
29 and
5(x 0, y 0) satisfy both the equation 2( 3x 4) 3(4y 5) 5
x y
x y
9x

## 8 5(7y 25) 64.

and 7
3

6.

For what value of a and b, the following system of equations have an infinite no. of solutions.
2x + 3y = 7; (a-b) x + (a +b) + b - 2

7.

Solve :
(i)

7
x

6
y

15;

8
x

9
2y

## (ii) 119x - 381y = 643; 381x - 119y = -143

bx ay
+ a + b = 0; bx - ay + 2ab = 0

a
b

8.

Solve:

9.

Solve :

10.

Solve x - y + z = 6

1
1
1
1
2

1;

1
3x 5y
5x 3y
15

x - 22y - 2z = 5
2x + y - 3z = 1

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15

11.

Solve, px + qy = r and qx = 1 + r

12.

## Find the value of k for which the given system of equations

(A) has a Unique solution.
(i) 3x + 5y = 12
4x - 7y = k

13.

## (B) becomes consistent.

(ii)3x - 7y = 6
21x - 49y = l - 1

Find the value of k for which the following system of linear equation becomes infinitely many
solution. or represent the coincident lines.
(i) 6x + 3y = k - 3
2k x + 6y = 6

14.

(ii) x + 2y + 7 = 0
2x + ky + 14 = 0

Find the value of k or C for which the following systems of equations be in consistent or no

solution.
(i) 2 x ky + k + 2 = 0
kx + 8y + 3k = 0
15.

(ii) Cx + 3y = 3
12x + Cy = 6

## Solve for x and y :

(a - b) x + (a + b) y = a2 - 2ab - b2
(a + b) (x + y) = a2 + b2

[CBSE -

2008]
16.

## Solve for x and y :

37x + 43y = 123
43x + 37y = 117

[CBSE -

2008]

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16

LINEAR EQUATIONS
IN TWO VARIABLES

ML - 3
3.1

## GRAPHICAL SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES :

Graphs of the type (i) ax = b

Ex.1

## Draw the graph of following : (i) x = 2,

(iv) x = 0

(ii) 2x = 1

(iii) x + 4 = 0

Sol.

(i) x = 2

(ii) 2x = 1 x =

1
2

(iii) x + 4 = 0 x = - 4

(iv) x = 0

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17

Ex.2

## Draw the graph of following : (i) y = 0,

(ii) y - 2 = 0, (iii) 2y + 4 = 0

(i) y = 0

(ii) y - 2 = 0

(iii) 2y + 4 = 0 y = - 2

Ex.3
Sol.

## Draw the graph of following : (i) x = y

(i) x y
x
y

1
1

4
4

-3
-3

(ii) x = -y

0
0

(ii) x = - y
x
y

1
-1

-2
2

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0
0

18

Ex.4

## Solve the following system of linear equations graphically : x - y = 1, 2x + y = 8. Shade the

area bounded by these two lines and y-axis. Also, determine this area.

Sol.

(i) x - y = 1
x-y+1
x
y

0
-1

1
0

2
1

(ii)

(ii) 2 x + y = 8
y = 8 - 2x
X
Y

0
8

1
6

2x + y = 8

2
4

Solution is x = 3 and y = 2
Area of is x = 3 and y = 2
Area of ABC =
=

3.2

1
2

1
9 3 = 13.5 Sq. unit.
2

## NATURE OF GRAPHICAL SOLUTION :

Let equations of two lines are a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2 = 0.
(i) Lines are consistent (unique solution) i.e. they meet at one point condition is

a1 b1

a2 b2

(ii) Lines are inconsistent (no solution) i.e. they do not meet at one point condition is

a1 b1 c1

a2 b2 c2

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19

(iii) Lines are coincident (infinite solution) i.e. overlapping lines (or they are on one another)
condition is

a1 b1 c1

a2 b2 c2

3.3

WORD PROBLES :
For solving daily - life problems with the help of simultaneous linear equation in two variables
or equations reducible to them proceed as :(i) Represent the unknown quantities by same variable x and y, which are to be determined.
(ii) Find the conditions given in the problem and translate the verbal conditions into a pair of
simultaneous linear equation.
(iii) Solve these equations & obtain the required quantities with appropriate units.

Type of Problems :
(i) Determining two numbers when the relation between them is given,
(ii) Problems regarding fractions, digits of a number ages of persons.
(iii) Problems regarding current of a river, regarding time & distance.
(iv) Problems regarding menstruation and geometry.
(v) Problems regarding time & work
(vi) Problems regarding mixtures, cots of articles, porting & loss, discount et.
Ex.5
Sol.

Ex.6

Sol.

Find two numbers such that the sum of twice the first and thrice the second is 89 and four
times the first exceeds five times the second by 13.
Let the two numbers be x and y.
Then, equation formed are 2x + 3y = 89 ....(i)
4x - 5y = 13 ...(ii)
On solving eq. (i) & (ii) we get
x = 22
y = 15
Hence required numbers are 22 & 15.
The numerator of a fraction is 4 less than the denominator If the numerator is decreased and
the denominator is increased by 1, then the denominator is eight time the numerator, find the
reaction.
Let the numerator and denominator of a fraction be x and y
Then, equation formed are y - x = 4
....(i)
y + 1 = 8 (x - 2)
....(ii)

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## On solving eq. (i) & (ii) we get

x=3
and
y=7
Hence, fractions is
Ex.7
Sol.

3
.
7

A number consists of two digits, the sum of the digits being 12. If 18 is subtracted from the
number, the digits are reversed. Find the number
Let the two digits number be 1y + x
Then, equations formed are
10y + x - 18 = 10x + y

y-x=2
......(i)
and
x + y = 12
......(ii)
On solving eq. (i) & (ii) we get
x=5
and
y=7
Hence number is 75.

Ex.8
Sol.

Ex.9
Sol.

The sum of a two - digit number and the number obtained by reversing the order of its digits is
165. If the digits differ by 3, find the number
Let unit digit be x tens digit be y no. will be 10y + x.
Acc. to problem (10y + x) + (10x + y) = 165
x + y = 15
...(i)
andx - y = 3
...(ii)
or -(x - y) = 3
....(iii)
On solving eq. (i) and (ii)
we gets = 9 and y = 6
The number will be 69.
Ans.
On solving eq. (i) and (iii)
we gets x = 6 and y = 9
The number will be 96.
Ans.
Six years hence a mens age will be three times the age of his son and three years ago he was
nine times as old as his son. Find their present ages
Let mans present age be x yrs & sons present age be y yrs.
According to problem
x + 6 = 3 (y + 6)
[After 6 yrs]
and
x - 3 = 9 (y - 3)
[Before 3 yrs.]
On solving equation (i) & (ii) we gets x = 30, y = 6.
So, the present age of man = 30 years, present age of son = 6 years.

Ex.10 A boat goes 12 km upstream and 40 km downstream in 8 hrs. It can go 16 km. upstream and
32 km downstream in the same time. Find the speed of the boat it still water and the speed of
the stream.
Sol. Let the speed of the boat in still water be x km/hr and the speed of the stream be y km/hr
then speed of boat in downstream is (x + y) km/hr and the speed of boat upstream is (x - y)
km/hr.
12
Time taken to cover 12 km upstream
hrs.
x y

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40
hrs.
x y

12
40

8
x y x y

.....(i)

16
hrs.
x y

32
hrs.
x y

16
32

8
x y x y

.....(ii)

## Solving equation (i) & (ii) we gets x = 6 and y = 2.

Hence, speed of boat in still water = 6 km/hr and speed of stream = 2 km/hr.
Ex.11 Ramesh travels 760 km to his home partly by train and partly by car. He taken 8 hr, if he
travels 160 km by train and the rest by car. He takes 12 minutes more, if he travels 240 km by
train and the rest by car. Find the speed of train and the car.
Sol.

Acc. to problem

160 600

8
x
y

....(i)

240 520 41

x
y
5

....(ii)

## Solving equation (i) & (ii) we gets x = 80 and y = 100.

Hence , speed ot train = 80 km/hr and speed of car = 100km/hr.
Ex.12 Points A and B are 90 km apart from each other on a highway. A car starts from A and another
from B at the same time. If they go in the same direction, they meet in 9 hrs and if they go in
opposite direction, they meet in
Sol.

9
hrs. Find their speeds.
7

Let the speeds of the cars starting from A and B be x km/hr and y km/hr respectively.
Acc to problem 9 x 90 = 9 y
&

9
9
x y 90
7
7

..(i)
..(ii)

## Solving (i) & (ii) we gets x = 40 & y = 30.

Hence, speed of car starting from point A = 40 km/hr & speed of car starting from point B =
30 km/hr.

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Ex.13 In a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, A = (2x + 11)0, B = (y + 12)0, C = (3y + 6)0 and D = (5x

Sol.

## - 25)0, find the angles of the quadrilateral.

Acc. to problem
(2x + 11)0 + (3y + 6)0 = 1800
(y + 12)0 + (5x - 25)0 = 1800
Solving we get x =

416
429
& y
13
13

x = 32 and y = 33
A = 750, B = 450, C = 1050, D = 1350

Ex.15 A vessel contains mixture of 24 milk and 6 water and a second vessel contains a mixture
of 15 milk & 10 water. How much mixture of milk and water should be taken from the
first and the second vessel separately and kept in a third vessel so that the third vessel may
contain a mixture of 25 milk and 10 water ?
Sol.

Let x of mixture be taken from Ist vessel & y of the mixture be taken from 2nd vessel and
kept in 3rd vessel so that (x + y) of the mixture in third vessel may contain 25 of milk &

10 of water.
A mixture of x from 1st vessel contains
mixture of y from 2nd vessel contains

4
3
x y 25
5
5
x 2
y 10
5 5

24
4
x
x x of milk &
of water and a
30
5
5

3y
2y
of milk &
of water.
5
5

....(i)
....(ii)

## Solving (i) & (ii) x = 20 litres and y = 15 litres.

Ex.15 A lady has 25 p and 50 p coins in her purse. If in all she has 40 coins totaling Rs. 12.50, find
the number of coins of each type she has.
Sol. Let the lady has x coins of 25 p and y coins of 50 p.
Then acc. to problem x + y = 40
.....(i)
and
25 x + 50 y = 1250 ....(ii
Solving for x & y we get x = 30 (25 p coins) & y = 10 (50 P coins).
Ex.16 Students of a class are made to stand in rows. If one student is extra in a row, there would be
2 rows less. If one students is less in row, there would be 3 rows more. Find the total number
of students in the class.
Sol. Let x be the original no. of rows & y be the original no. of student s in each row.

## Total no. of students = xy.

Acc. to problem
(y + 1) (x - 2) = x y ....(i)
and
(y - 1) (x + 3) = xy ....(ii)
Solving (i) & (ii) to get
x = 12 & y = 5

## Total no. of students = 60

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Ex.17 A man started his job with a certain monthly salary and earned a fixed increment every year. If
his salary was Rs. 4500 after 5 years. of service and Rs. 5550 after 12 years of service, what
was his starting salary and what his annual increment.
Sol. Let his initial monthly salary be Rs x and annual increment be Rs y.
Then, Acc. to problem
x + 5y = 4500
......(i)
x + 12 y = 5550
....(ii)
Solving these two equations, we get x= Rs. 3750 y = Rs 150.
Ex.18 A dealer sold A VCR and a TV for Rs. 38560 making a profit of 12% on CVR and 15% on TV. By
selling them for Rs. 38620, he would have realised a profit of 15% on CVR and 12% on TV. Find
the cost price of each.
Sol. Let C.P. of CVR be Rs x & C.P. of T.V. be Rs y.

112
115
x
y 38560
100
100
115
112

y 38620
100
100

Acc. to problem

.....(i)

and

....(ii)

## DAILY PRACTIVE PROBLEMS # 3

OBJECTIVE DPP 3.1
1.

(A) Four points

2
intersects in :
3

## (D) infinite number of

points
2.

The sum of two numbers is 20, their product is 40. The sum of their reciprocal is :
(A)

1
2

(B) 2

(C) 4

(D)

1
10

3.

If Rs. 50 is distributed among 150 children giving 50 p to each boy and 25 p to each girl. Then
the number of boys is :
(A) 25
(B) 40
(C) 36
(D) 50

4.

In covering a distance of 30 km. Amit takes 2 hrs. more than suresh. If Amit doubles his speed,
he would take one hour less than suresh. Amits speed is :
(A) 5 km/hr.
(B) 7.5 km/hr.
(C) 6 km/hr.
(D) 6.2 km/hr.

5.
If in a fraction 1 less from two times of numerator & 1 add in denominator then new fraction
will be :
x 1

y 1

(A) 2

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(B)

2(x 1)
y1

(C)

(D)

2x 1
y1

24

## SUBJECTIVE DPP 3.2

1.

The denominator of a fraction is greater than its numerator by 7. If 4 is added to both its
numerator and denominator, then it becomes

1
. Find the fraction.
2

2.

In a certain number is divided by the sum of its two digits, the quotient is 6 and remainder is
3. If the digits are interchanged and the resulting number is divided by the sum of the digits,
then the quotient is 4 and the remainder is 9. Find the number.

3.

2 men and 3 boys together can do a piece of work is 8 days. The same work si done in 6 days
by 3 men and 2 boys together. How long would 1 boy alone or 1 man alone take to complete
the work

4.

## The um of two no s is 18. the sum of their reciprocal is

5.

In a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, A = (2x + 4)0, B = (y + 3)0, C = (2y + 10)0 and D = (4x 5)0 then find out the angles of quadrilateral.

1
. Find the numbers.
4

6.
Solve graphically and find the pints where the given liens meets the y - axis : 2x + y - 11= 0, x
- y - 1 = 0.
7.

Use single graph paper & draw the graph of the following equations. Obtain the vertices of the
triangles so obtained : 2y - x = 8, 5y - x = 14 & y - 2x = 1.

8.
Draw the graph of x - y + 1 = 10 ; 3x + 2y - 12 = 0. Calculate, the area bounded by these
lines and x - axis.
9.

A man sold a chair and a table together for Rs. 1520 thereby making a profit of 25% on chair
and 10% on table. By selling them together for Rs. 1535 he would have made a profit of 10%
on the chair and 25% on the table. Find cost price of each.

10.

A man went to the Reserve Bank of India with a note or Rs. 500. He asked the cashier to give
him Rs. 5 and Rs. 10 notes in return. The cashier gave him 70 notes in all. Find how many
notes of Rs. 5 and Rs. 10 did the man receive.

11.

## Solve graphically: 5x - 6y + 30 = 0; 5x + 4y - 20 = 0 Also find the vertices of the triangle

formed by the above two lines and x -axis.

12.

The sum of the digits of a two-digit number is 12. The number obtained by interchanging the
two digits exceeds the given number by 18. Find the number.

13.

## Draw the graphs of the following equations and solve graphically:

3x + 2y + 6 = 0 ; 3x + 8y - 12 = 0
Also determine the co-ordinates of the vertices of the triangle formed by these lines and the x

- axis.
14.

A farmer wishes to purchase a number of sheep found the if they cost him Rs 42 a head, he
would not have money enough by Rs 25; But if they cost him Rs 40 a head, he would them
have Rs 40 more than he required; find the number of sheeps, and the money which he had.

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25

(Objective DPP 2.1)
Que.

10

Ans.

## (Subjective DPP 2.2)

1.

x = 9, y = 6

3.

x=

6.

a = 5, b = 1

7.

(i) x = - 2, y = - 3

8.

x = - a, y = b

9.

x=

11.

13.

(a) k = 6

15.

x = a + b, y = -

10 5 7 10
2 15 6 10
y
72
72

q r(p q)
2

p q

,y

2.

x = 0.1, y = 0.3

4.

x = 0.6, y = 1.5

2
2
,y
10.
3
5

r(q p) p

(ii) x = - 1, y = -2

x = 3, y = - 2 , x = 1

12.

(b) k = 4

14.

(a) k = - 4

2ab
a b

16.

x = 1, y = 2

p2 q2

(b) C = - 6

Que.

Ans.

## (Subjective DPP 3.2)

1.

3/10

2.

3.

One boy can do in 120 days and one man can do in 20 days.

4.

6.

x = 4, y = 3

7.

9.

10.

11.

12.

57

13.

## x = - 4, y = 3, Lines meets x-axis at (-2, 0) & (4, 0)

14.

34 sheep, Rs 1400

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5.

75
A = 700, B = 530, C = 1100, D = 1270

8.

## 37.5 Square units.

26

POLYNOMIALS

ML - 4
4.1

POLYNOMIALS :
An algebraic expression f(x) of the form (fx) = a 0 + a1x + a2x2 + ......+ anxn, where a0, a1,
a2.......an are real numbers and all the index of x are non-negative integers is called
polynomials in x and the highest Index n in called the degree of the polynomial, if an 0 .

4.1 (a)

## Zero Degree Polynomial :

Any non-zero number is regarded as a polynomial of degree zero or zero degree polynomial.
For example, f(x) = a, where a 0 is a zero degree polynomial, since we can write f(x) = a
as f(x) = ax0.

4.1 (b)

Constant Polynomial :

## A polynomial of degree zero is called a constant polynomial. For example, f(x) = 7.

4.1 (c)

Linear Polynomial :

## A polynomial of degree 1 is called a linear polynomial.

For example : p(x) = 4x - 3 and f(t) =

4.1 (d)

## A polynomial of degree 2 is called quadratic polynomial.

For example : f(x) = 2x2 + 5x -

3
and g(y) = 3y2 - 5 are quadratic polynomials with real
5

coefficients.

IMPORTANT FORMULAE :
(x + a)2 = x2 + 2ax + a2
(x - a)2 = x2 - 2ax + a2
x2 - a2 = (x + a) (x - a)
x3 + a3= (x + a) (x2 - ax + a2) = (x + a)3 - 3xa(x + a)
x3 - a3 = (x - a) (x2 + ax + a2) = (x - a)3 + 3xa(x - a)
(a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca
(a + b)3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab(a + b)
(a - b)3 = a3 - b3 - 3ab(a - b)
a3 + b3 + c3 - 3abc = (a + b + c) (a2 + b2 + c2 - ab - bc - ca)

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## Special Case : If a + b + c = 0 then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc.

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4.2

GRAPH OF POLYNOMIALS :
In algebraic or in set theoretic language the graph of a polynomial f(x) is the collection (or set)
of all points (x, y), where y = f(x). In geometrical or in graphical language the graph of a
polynomial f(x) is a smooth free hand curve passing through points x1, y1), (x2, y2), (x3,
y3), ..... etc. where y1, y2, y3,.... are the values of the polynomial f(x) at x1, x2, x3,....
respectively.
In order to draw the graph of a polynomial f(x), follow the following algorithm.

ALGORITHM :
Step (i) Find the values y1, y2, ...... yn of polynomial f(x) on different points x1, x2, .......
xn and prepare a table that gives values of y or f(x) for various values of x.
x1
x2
xn
xn+1
.
x:
y = f(x) y1=f(x1) y2=f(x2) .
Yn=f(xn)
yn+1 = f(xn+1) ..
Step (ii) Plot that points (x1, y1), (x2, y2), (x3, y3),.....(xn, yn).... on rectangular coordinate system. In plotting these points use different scales on the X and Y axes.
Step (iii) Draw a free hand smooth curve passing through points plotted in step 2 to get the
graph of the polynomial f(x).

4.2

## (a) Graph of a Linear Polynomial :

Consider a linear polynomial f(x) = ax + b, a 0 Graph of y = ax + b is a straight line. That
in why f(x) = ax + b) is called a linear polynomial. Since two points determine a straight line,
so only two points need to plotted to draw the line y = ax + b. The line represented by y =

## ax + b crosses the X-axis at exactly one point, namely

Ex.1
Sol.

b
,0 .
a

Draw the graph of the polynomial f(x) = 2x - 5. Also, find the coordinates of the point where it
crosses X-axis.
Let y = 2x - 5.
The following table list the values of y corresponding to different values of x.
x
1
4
y
-3
3
The points A (1, - 3) and B (4, 3) are plotted on the graph paper on a suitable scale. A line is
drawn passing through these points to obtain the graphs of the given polynomial.

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4.2 (b)

## Graph of a Quadratic Polynomial :

Let a,b,c be real numbers and a 0 . Then f(x) = ax2 + bx + c is known as a quadratic
polynomial in x. Graph of the quadratic polynomial i.e. he curve whose equation is y = ax 2 +
bx + c, a 0 Graph of a quadratic polynomial is always a parabola.
Let y = ax2 + bx + c, where a 0
4ay = 4a2x2 + 4abx + 4ac
4ay = 4a2x2 + 4abx + b2 - b2 + 4ac
4ay = (2ax + b)2 - (b2 - 4ac)
4ay + (b2 - 4ac) = (2ax + b)2 4ay + (b2 - 4ac) = 4a2(x + b/2a)2

b2 4ac
b
2
4a y

4a x
4
a
2
a

D
b

a a
4a
2
a

(i)

REMARKS :

## Shifting the origin at

b
D
b
(D )

,
, we have X = x -
and Y = y 2a 4a
2
a

4a

Y = aX2

....(ii)

b D
,
.
2a 4a

4.3

## SIGN OF QUADRTIV EXPRESSIONS :

Let

2
be a real root of ax2 + bx + c = 0. Then a b c 0 Point ( ,0) lies on y = ax2

## + bx + c. Thus, every real root of ax 2 + bx + c= 0 represents a point of intersecting of the

parabola with the X-axis.
Conversely, if the parabola y = ax2 + bx + c intersects the X-axis at a point ( ,0) then
( ,0) satisfies the equation y = ax2 + bx + c

a 2 b c 0

## [ is a real root of ax2 + bx + c = 0]

Thus, the intersection of the parabola y = ax 2 + bx + c with X-axis gives all the real roots of
ax2 + bx + c = 0. Following conclusions may be drawn :(i) If D>0, the parabola will intersect the x-axis in two distinct points and vice-versa.

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b D
b D
and
.
2a
2a

## Roots are real & distinct

(ii) If D = 0, the parabola will just touch the x-axis at one point and vice-versa.

## Roots are equal

(iii) If D<0, the parabola will not intersect x-axis at all and vice-versa.

## Roots are imaginary

REMARKS
x R , y 0 only if a > 0 & D
x R , y 0 only if a < 0 & D

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b2 4ac < 0
b2 4ac < 0

31

Ex.2
Sol.

## Draw the graph of the polynomial f(x) = x2 - 2x - 8

Let y = x2 - 2x - 8.
The following table gives the values of y or f(x) for various values of x.
x
y = x2 2x 8

-4
16

-3
7

-2
0

-1
-5

0
-8

1
-9

2
-8

3
-5

4
0

5
7

6
16

Let us plot the points (-4, 16), (-3, 7), (-2, 0), (-1, -5), (0, - 8), (1, - 9), (2, - 8), (3, - 5), (4, 0), (5,
7) and (6, 16) on a graphs paper and draw a smooth free hand curve passing through these
points. The curve thus obtained represents the graphs of the polynomial f(x) = x 2 - 2x - 8. This
is called a parabola. The lowest point P, called a minimum points, is the vertex of the
parabola. Vertical line passing through P is called the axis of the parabola. Parabola is
symmetric about the axis. So, it is also called the line of symmetry.

Observations :
Fro the graphs of the polynomial f(x) = x2 - 2x - 8, following observations can be drawn :
(i) The coefficient of x2 in f(x) = x2 - 2x - 8 is 1 (a positive real number) and so the parabola
opens upwards.
(ii) D = b2 - 4ac = 4 + 32 = 36 > 0. So, the parabola cuts X-axis at two distinct points.
(iii) On comparing the polynomial x2 - 2x - 8 with ax2 + bx + c, we get a = 1, b = - 2 and c = 8.

b D
,
, where D
2a 4a

b2 - 4ac.

## (iv) The polynomial f(x) = x2 - 2x - 8 = (x - 4) (x + 2) is factorizable into two distinct linear

factors (x - 4) and (x + 2). So, the parabola cuts X-axis at two distinct points (4, 0) and (-2, 0).
the x-coordinates of these points are zeros of f(x).

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33

Ex.3
Sol.

## Draw the graphs of the quadratic polynomial f(x) = 3 - 2x - x2.

Let y = f(x) or, y = 3 - 2x - x2.
Let us list a few values of y = 3 - 2x - x2 corresponding to a few values of x as follows :
x
y = 3 2x x2

-5
12

-4
-5

-3
0

-2
3

-1
4

0
3

1
0

2
-5

3
-12

4
-21

## Thus, the following points lie on the graph of the polynomial y = 2 - 2x - x 2:

(-5, -12), (-4, -5), (-3, 0), (-2, 4), (-1, 4), (0, 3), (1, 0), (2, - 5), (3, -12) and (4, - 21).
Let plot these points on a graph paper and draw a smooth free hand curve passing through
these points to obtain the graphs of y = 3 - 2x - x 2. The curve thus obtained represents a
parabola, as shown in figure. The highest point P(-1, 4), is called a maximum points, is the
vertex of the parabola. Vertical line through P is the axis of the parabola. Clearly, parabola is
symmetric about the axis.

Observations :
Following observations from the graph of the polynomial f(x) = 3 - 2x - x2 is as follows :
(i) The coefficient of x2 in f(x) = 3 - 2x - x 2 is - 1 i.e. a negative real number and so the
parabola opens downwards.
(ii) D b2 - 4ax = 4 + 12 = 16 > 0. So, the parabola cuts x-axis two distinct points.
(iii) On comparing the polynomial 3 - 2x - x 2 with ax2 + bc + c, we have a = - 1, b = - 2 and c

b D
,
, where D = b2 - 4ac.
2a 4a

## = 3. The vertex of the parabola is at the point (-1, 4) i.e. at

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## (iv) The polynomial f(x) = 3 - 2x - x2 = (1 - x) (x + 3) is factorizable into two distinct linear

factors (1 - x) and (x + 3). So, the parabola cuts X-axis at two distinct points (1, 0) and (-3, 0).
The co-ordinates of these points are zeros of f(x).

4.4

## GRAPH OF A CUBIC POLYNOMIAL :

Ex.4

Graphs of a cubic polynomial does not have a fixed standard shape. Cubic polynomial graphs
will always cross X-axis at least once and at most thrice.
Draw the graphs of the polynomial f(x) = x3 - 4x.

Sol.

## Let y = f(x) or, y = x2 - 4x.

The values of y for variable value of x are listed in the following table :
x
y = x3 4x

-3
15

-2
0

-1
3

0
0

1
-3

2
0

3
15

Thus, the curve y = x3 - 4x passes through the points (-3, -15), (-2, 0), (-1, 3), (0 ,0), (1, -3), (2,
0), (3, 15), (4, 48) etc.
Plotting these points on a graph paper and drawing a free hand smooth curve through these
points, we obtain the graph of the given polynomial as shown figure.

Observations :
For the graphs of the polynomial f(x) = x3 - 4x, following observations are as follows :(i) The polynomial f(x) = x3 - 4x = x(x2 - 4) = x(x - 2) (x + 2) is factorizable into three distinct
linear factors. The curve y = f(x) also cuts X-axis at three distinct points.
(ii) We have, f(x) = x (x - 2) (x + 2)
Therefore 0, 2 and -2 are three zeros of f(x). The curve y = f(x) cuts X-axis at three points O (0,
0), P(2, 0) and Q (-2, 0).

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4.5

POLYNOMIAL :

## and be the zeros of a quadratic polynomial f(x) = ax 2 + bx + c. By facto r theorem (

x ) and (x ) are the factors of f(x).

Let

## f(x) = k (x )(x ) are the factors of f(x)

ax2 + bx + c = k{x2 - ( )x }
ax2 + bx + c = kx2 - k ( )x k
Comparing the coefficients of x2, x and constant terms on both sides, we get
a = k, b = - k ( ) and k

b
c
and
a
a
Coefficien
t of x
Coefficien
t of x

and

Constant term
Coefficien
t of x2

Hence,
Sum of the zeros

Coefficien
t of x
b

a
Coefficien
t of x2

## Product of the zeros

Constant term
c

a Coefficien
t of x2

REMAKRS :
If

and are the zeros of a quadratic polynomial f(x). The , the polynomial f(x) is given by
f(x) = k{x2 - ( )x }

## or f(x) = k{x2 - (Sum of the zeros) x + Product of the zeros}

Ex.5
Sol.

Find the zeros of the quadratic polynomial f(x) = x 2 - 2x - 8 and verify and the relationship
between the zeros and their coefficients.
f(x) = x2 - 2x - 8
f(x) = x2 - 4x + 2x - 8

f(x) = (x - 4) (x + 2)
Zeros of f(x) are given by f(x) = 0
x2 - 2x - 8 = 0

## f(x) = x(x - 4) + 2(x - 4)]

(x - 4) (x + 2) = 0

x = 4 or x = - 2
So, = 4 and 2
sum of zeros
=4-2=2
Also, sum of zeros

Coefficien
t of x
Coefficien
t of x

(2)
2
1

Coefficien
t of x
Coefficien
t of x2

## Now, product of zeros

=(4) (-2) = - 8

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Constant term
Coefficien
t of x

Product of zeros

Constant term
Coefficien
t of x2

8
8
1

Ex.6

## Find a quadratic polynomial whose zeros are 5 +

Sol.

Given 5

2, 5

2 and 5

f(x) = k{x2 - x ( ) }

Here,

and (5

2 5

2)(5

2 10

2)

= 25 - 2 = 23

Ex.7

## f(x) = k {x2 - 10x + 23}, where, k is any non-zero real number.

Sum of product of zeros of quadratic polynomial are 5 and 17 respectively. Find the

polynomial.
Sol.

## Given : Sum of zeros = 5 and product of zeros = 17

So, quadratic polynomial is given by
f(x) = k {x2 - x(sum of zeros) + product of zeros}
f(x) = k{x2 - 5x + 17}, where, k is any non-zero real number,

4.6

RELATIONSHIP

BETWEEN

ZEROS

AND

COEFFICIENTS

OF

CUBIC

POLYNOMIAL :
Let , , be the zeros of a cubic polynomial f(x) = ax 3 + bx2 + cx + d, a 0 Then, by
factor theorem, a , x and x are factors of f(x). Also, f(x) being a cubic polynomial
cannot have more than three linear factors.

## ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = k (x )(x )(x )

2
ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = k{x3 - ( )x ( )x }

2
ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = k x3 - k ( )x k( )x k

Comparing the coefficients of x3, x2, x and constant terms on both sides, we get
a = k, b = - k ( ),c ( ) andd k( )

b
a

And,

c
a

d
a

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Coefficien
t of x2
b

a
Coefficien
t of x 3

## Sum of the products of the zeros taken two at a time

Product of the zeros

Coefficien
t of x
c

a Coefficien
t of x3

Constant term
d

a
Coefficien
t of x 3

REMARKS :
Cubic polynomial having , and as its zeros is given by
f(x) = k (x )(x )(x )
2
f(x) = k {x3 - ( )x ( )x } where k is any non-zero real number.

Ex.8

1
,1 2 are zeros of cubic polynomial 2x3 + x2 - 5x + 2. Also verify the
2

Verify that

## relationship between, the zeros and their coefficients.

Sol.

f(x) = 2x3 + x2 - 5x + 2

1
1
2
2
2

1
5 2
2

1 1 5
2
4 4 2

## f(1) = 2()3 + (1)2 5(1) + 2 = 2 + 1 - 5 + 2 = 0.

f(-2) = 2(-2)3 + (-2)2 - 5(-2) + 2 = - 16 + 4 + 10 + 2 = 0.
Let

1
, 1 and 2
2

1
1 2
2
1

(Coefficien
t of x2 )
Coefficien
t of x3

1
2

(Coefficien
t of x2 )
Coefficien
t of x3

## Sum of product of zeros taken two at a time

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1
1
1 1 (2) (2)
2
2

39

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5
2

40

Also,

Coefficien
t of x
Coefficien
t of x

5
2

Coefficien
t of x
Coefficien
t of x 3

1
(1)(2) 1
2

## Also, product of zeros =

Ex.9
Sol.

Constant term
Coefficien
t of x3

2
1
2

Product zeros =

Constant term
Coefficien
t of x3

Find a polynomial with the sum, sum of the product of its zeros taken two at a time, and
product its zeros as 3, -1 and -3 respectively.
Given 3, 1 and 3
So, polynomial f(x) = k {x3 - x2 ( ) x( ) }
f(x) = k {x3 - 3x2 - x + 3}, where k is any non-zero real number.

4.7

VALUE OF A POLYNOMIAL :
The value of a polynomial f(x) at x =

is obtained by substituting

in the given

## polynomial and is denoted by f( ) .

For example : If f(x) = 2x3 - 13x2 + 17x + 12 then its value at x = 1 is
f(1) = 2(1)3 - 13(1)2 + 17(1) + 12 = 2 - 13 + 17 + 12 = 18.

4.8

## ZEROS OF ROOTS OF A POLYNOMIAL :

A real number a is a zero of a polynomial f(x), if f(a) = 0, Here a is called a root of the
equation f(x) = 0.
Ex.10 Show that x = 2 is a root of 2x3 + x2 - 7x - 6
Sol. p(x) = 2x3 + x2 - 7x - 6.
Then, p(2) = 2(2)3 + (2)2 - 7(2) - 6 = 16 + 4 - 14 = 0
Hence x = 2 is a root of p(x).
Ex.11 If x
Sol.

4
is a root of the polynomial f(x) = 6x3 - 11x2 + kx - 20 then find the value of k.
3

## f(x) = 6x3 - 11x2 + kx - 20

4
4
6
3
3

4
11
3

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4
20 0
3

41

4k
4k
64
16
64
16
6
20 0 6
20 0
11

11

27
9
3
27
9
3

## 128 - 176 + 12k - 180 = 0

12k + 128 - 356 = 0
12k = 228
k = 19.
Ex.12 If x = 2 & x = 0 are roots of the polynomials (f)x = 2x 3 - 5x2 + ax + b, then find the values of
a and b/
Sol.

## f(2) = 2(2)3 - 5(2)2 + a(2) + b = 0

16 - 20 + 2a + b = 0

2a + b = 4

## f(0) = 2(0)3 - 5(0)2 + a(0) + b = 0

.....(i)
b=0

2a = 4 a = 2, b = 0.

4.9

FACTOR THEOREM :
Let p(x) be a polynomial of degree greater than or equal to 1 and a be a real number such
that p(a) = 0. then (x - a) is a factor of p(x). Conversely, if (x - a) is a factor of p(x), then
p(a) = 0.

Sol.

3
3
And p 2
2
2

3
9
2

3
12
2

27 81 3
27 81 6 48 81 81

12

0
4
4 2
4
4

Ex.14 Find
Sol.

## x + 1 and x + 2 are the factor of p(x).

Then, p(-1) = 0 & p(-2) = 0
Therefore, p(-1) = (-1)3 + 3(-1)2 - 2(1) 0

1 3 2 0 2 2

....(i)

## p(2) (2)3 3(2)2 2(2) 0

- 8 + 12 + 4 0 4 4

....(ii)

## From equation (1) and (2)

2 2 4 4

2 2 1

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Put

## = -1 equation (1) = - 2 (-1) - 2 = 2 - 2 = 0.

Hence 1, 0

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Ex.15 What must be added to 3x3 + x2 - 22x + 9 so that the result is exactly divisible by 3x 2 + 7x 6.
Sol. Let p(x) = 3x3 + x2 - 22x + 9 and q(x) = 3x2 + 7x - 6
We know if p(x) is divided by q(x) which is quadratic polynomial then the remainder be r(x)
and degree of r(x) is less than q(x) or Divisor.
By long division method
Let we added ax + b (linear polynomial) in p(x), so that p(x) + ax + b is exactly divisible by
2
3x + 7x - 6.
Hence, p(x) + ax + b = s(x) = 3x3 - x2 - 22x + 9 + ax + b = 3x3 + x2 x(22 - a) + (9 + b).
x 2
3 x2 7 x 6 3 x 3 x 2 x( 22 a ) 9 b
3 x3 7 x2 6 x
2
6 x 6 x ( 22 a) x 9 b
6 x 2 x( 16 a ) 9 b
6 x 2 14x 12

x( 2 a ) (b 3 ) 0

Hence, x(a - 2) + b - 3 = 0. x + 0
a-2=0&b-3=0
a = 2 and b = 3
Hence if in p(x) we added 2x + 3 then it is exactly divisible by 3x 2 + 7x - 6.
Ex.16 What must be subtracted from x 3 - 6x2 - 15x + 80 so that the result is exactly divisible by 2 +
x - 12.
Sol. Let ax + b be subtracted from p(x) = x3 - 6x2 - 15x + 80 so that it is exactly divisible by x 2 +
x - 12.
s(x) = x3 - 6x2 - 15x + 80 - (ax + b)
= x3 - 6x2 - (15 + a)x + (80 - b)
Dividend = Divisor quotient + remainder
But remainder will be zero.
Dividend = Divisor quotient
s(x) = (x2 + x - 12) quotient
s(x) = x3 - 6x2 - (15 + a)x + (80 - b)
x 7
x 2 x 12 x 3 6x2 x(15 a) 80 b
3
2
x x 12 x
7x2 12x (15 a) x 80 b

7x2 (3 a) 80 b
2
84
7 x 7 x
x (4 a) (4 b) 0

## Hence, x(4 - a) + (-4 -b) = 0.x + 0

4 - a = 0 & (-4 - b) = 0
a = 4 and b = - 4
Hence, if in p(x) we subtract 4x - 4 then it is exactly divisible by x 2 + x - 12.

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Ex.17 Using factor theorem, factorize : p(x) = 2x4 - 7x3 - 13x2 + 63x - 45.
Sol. 45 1,3,5,9,15,45
If we put x = 1 in p(x)
p(1) = 2(1)4 - 7(1)3 - 13(1)2 + 63(1) - 45
p(1) = 2 - 7 - 13 + 63 - 45 = 65 - 65 = 0
x = 1 or x - 1 is a factor of p(x).
Similarly if we put x = 3 in p(x)
p(3) = 2(3)4 - 7(3)3 - 13(3)2 + 63(3) - 45
p(3) = 162 - 189 - 117 + 189 - 45 = 162 - 162 = 0
Hence, x = 3 or (x - 3) = 0 is the factor of p(x).
p(x) = 2x4 - 7x3 - 13x2 + 63x - 45
p(x) = 2x3 (x - 1) - 5x2 (x - 1) - 18x(x - 1) + 45(x - 1)
p(x) = (x - 1) (2x3 - 5x2 - 18x + 45)
p(x) = (x - 1) (2x3 - 5x2 - 18x + 45)

## p(x) = (x - 1) [2x2 -(x - 3) + x(x - 3) - 15(x - 3)]

p(x) = (x - 1) (x - 3) (2x2 + x - 15)
p(x) = (x - 1) (x - 3) (2x2 + 6x - 5x -15)
p(x) = (x - 1) (x - 3)[2x(x + 3) - 5(x + 3)]
p(x) = (x - 1) (x - 3) (x + 3) (2x - 5).

## 4.10 REMAINDER THEOREM :

Let p(x) be any polynomial of degree greater than or equal to one and a be any real number.
If p(x) is divided by x - a), then the remainder is equal to p(a).
Let q(x) be the quotient and r(X) be the remainder when p(x) is divided by (x - a), then
Dividend = Divisor Quotient + Remainder
Ex.18 Find the remainder when f(x) = x3 - 6x2 + 2x - 4 is divided by g(x) = 1 - 2x.
Sol.

1 - 2x = 0 2x = 1 x =

1 1

2 2

1
6
2

1
2

1 3
1 12 8 32
35
1
2 4 1 4

8 2
8
8
2

Ex.19 Apply division algorithm to find the quotient q(x) and remainder r(x) on dividing f(x) = 10x 4 +
17x3 - 62x2 + 30x - 3 by b(x) = 2x2 - x + 1.
Sol.

5x 2 11x 28
2x2 x 1 10x4 17x3 62x 2 30x 3
4
3 2
10x 5x 5x
22x3 67x2 30x 3
3
2
22x 11x 11x
56x2 19x 3
2
56x 28x 28
9x 25

## So, quotient q(x) = 5x2 + 11 x -28 and remainder r(x) = -9x + 25 .

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## Now, dividend = Quotient Divisor + Remainder

= (5x2 + 11x - 28) (2x2 - x + 1) + (-9x + 25)
= 10x4 - 5x3 + 5x2 + 22x3 - 11x2 + 11x - 56x2 + 28x - 28 - 9x + 25
= 10x4 + 17x3 - 62x2 + 30x - 3
Hence, the division algorithm is verified.
Ex.20 Find all the zeros of the polynomial f(x) = 2x 4 - 2x3 - 7x2 + 3x + 6, if two of its zeros are

3
and
2

Sol.

3
.
2

Since

3
and
2

Therefore, x

3
are zeros of f(x).
2
3
2

3 2 3
2x2 3

## or 2x2 - 3 is a factor of f(x).

2
2
2

x2 x 2
2x2 3 2x4 2x 3 7x2 3x 6
4
2
2x
3x
2x3 4x2 3x 6
3
2x
3x
4x2 6
4x2 6

## 2x4 - 2x3 - 7x2 + 3x + 6 = (2x2 - 3) (x2 - x - 2)

= (2x2 - 3) (x - 2) (x + 1)

2 x

3
2

## So, the zeros are

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3
(x 2)(x 1)
2

3
,
2

3
,2,1
2

46

## DAILY PRACTICE PROBLESM # 4

OBJECTIVE DPP - 4.1
If 4x4 - 3x3 - 3x2 + x - 7 is divided by 1 - 2x then remainder will be

1.

(A)

57
8

(B)

59
8

(C)

55
8

(D)

55
8

2.

The polynomials ax3 + 3x2 - 3 and 2x3 - 5x + a when divided by (x - 4) leaves remainders R 1
& R2 respectively then value of a if 2R1 - R2 = 0.
(A)

18
127

(B)

18
127

(C)

17
127

(D)

17
127

3.

## A quadratic polynomial is exactly divisible by (x + 1) & (x + 2) and leaves the remainder 4

after division by (x + 3) then that polynomial is
(A) x2 + 6x + 4
(B) 2x2 + 6x + 4
(C) 2x2 + 6x - 4
(D) x2 + 6x - 4

4.
are

The values of a & b so that the polynomial x 3 - ax2 - 13x + b is divisible by (x - 1) & (x + 3)

(A) a = 15, b = 3
3, b = - 15
5.

(B) a = 3, b = 15

## Graph of quadratic equation is always a (A) straight line

(B) circle

(C) c = - 3, b = 15

(C) parabola

(D) a =

(D) Hyperbola

6.

## If the sign of a is positive in a quadratic equation then its graph should be =

(A) parabola open upwards
(B) parabola open downwards
(C) parabola open leftwards
(D) cant be determined

7.

The graph of polynomial y = x3 - x2 + x is always passing through the point (A) (0, 0)
(B) (3, 2)
(C) (1, -2)
(D) all of these

8.

How many time, graph of the polynomial f(x) = x3 - 1 will intersect X-axis (A) 0
(B) 1
(C) 2
(D) 4

9.

## Which of the following curve touches X-axis (A) x2 - 2x + 4

(B) 3x2 - 6x + 1
(D) 25x2 - 20x + 4

10.

## (C) 4x2 - 16x + 9

In the diagram given below shows the graphs of the polynomial f(x) = ax 2 + bx + c, then
(A) a < 0, b < 0 and c > 0

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47

## (B) a < 0, b < 0 and c < 0

(C) a < 0, b > 0 and c > 0
(D) a < 0, b > 0 and c < 0

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1.

## Draw the graph of following polynomials.

a. f(x) = - 3
b.
f(x) = x - 4
c.
d. f(x) = x2 - 9
e.
f(x) = 2x2 - 4x + 5
g. f(x) = x3 - x2
h.
f(x) = x3 + 2x

f(x) = |x + 2|
f.

## f(x) = x(2 - 3x) + 1

2.

Find the zeros of quadratic polynomial p(x) = 4x 2 + 24x + 36 and verify the relationship
between the zeros and their coefficients.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Verify that 5,

## 5 respectively. Find the

5.

1 3
,
are zeros of cubic polynomial 4x 3 + 20x + 2x - 3. Also verify the
2 4

7.

## Divide 64y3 - 1000 by 8y - 20.

8.

1
1
If , are zeros of x2 + 5x + 5, find the value of .

9.

Apply the division algorithm to find the quotient and remainder on dividing p(x) = x 4 - 3x2 +
4x + 5 by g(x) = x2 + 1 - x.

10.

On dividing x3 - 3x2 + x + 2 by polynomial g(x), the quotient remainder were x 2 and -2x + 4,
respectively. Find g(x).

11.
of c.

, , are zeros of cubic polynomial x3 - 12x2 + 44x + c. If , , are in A.P., find the value

12.

Obtain all the zeros of 3x4 + 6x3 - 2x2 - 10x - 5, if two of its zeros are

13.
6?

What must be added to x3 - 3x2 - 12x + 19 so that the result is exactly divisible by x 2 + x -

5
and
3

5
.
3

What must be subtracted from x4 + 2x3 - 13x2 - 12x + 21 so that the result is exactly
divisible by x2 - 4x + 3 ?
14.

15.

## If , are zeros of quadratic polynomial kx 2 + 4x + 4, find the value of k such that

( )2 2 24.

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16.

Find the quadratic polynomial sum of whose zeros is 8 and their product is 12. Hence find f the
zeros of the polynomial.
[CBSE - 2008]

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17.

## Is x = - 4 a solution of the equations 2x2 + 5x - 12 = 0 >

[CBSE

2008]
18.

Write the number of zeros of the polynomial y = f(x) whose graph is given figure
[CBSE - 2008]

19.

## If the product of zeros of the polynomial ax2 - 6x - 6 is 4, find the value of a.

[CBSE -

2008]

(Objective DPP 4.1)
Que.

10

Ans.

## (Subjective DPP 4.2)

2.

-3, -3

3.

k{x2 - 25}

k{x2

4.

2x

5}

5.

k{x2 - 6x + 4}

7.

8y2 + 20y + 50

Quotient = x2 + x - 3, Remainder = 8

10.

x2 - x + 1

8.

1
9.

12.

15.

5
5
,-1 and -1
,
3
3

2
,1
3

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11.

13.

2x + 5

14.

16.

## k{x2 - 8x + 12} and zeros are 6 & 2.

51

2x - 3

c = - 48

17.

Yes

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18.

No. of zeros = 3

19.

52

3
2

EQUATIONS

ML-5
5.1

If P(x) is quadratic expression in variable x, then P(x) = 0 is known as a quadratic equation.

5.1

## (a) General form of a Quadratic Equation :

The general form of quadratic equation is ax2 + bx + c = 0, where a,b,c are real numbers
and a 0 Since a 0 , quadratic equations, in general are of the following types :-

5.2

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

## ROOTS OF A QUADRATIC EQUATION :

The value of x which satisfies the given quadratic equation is known as its root. The roots of
the given equation are known as its solution.
General form of a quadratic equation is :
ax2 + bx + c = 0
or

## 4a2x2 + 4abx + 4ac = - 4ac [Multiplying by 4a]

4a2x2 + 4abx = - 4ac

or
or

## 4a2x2 + 4abc + b2 = b2 - 4ac

(2ax + b)2 = b2 - 4ac

or

2ax + b =
or

b2 4ac

b 4ac
2a

## Hence, roots of the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 are

b

b2 4ac
2a

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b2 4ac
and
2a

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REMARK :
A quadratic equation is satisfied by exactly two values of a which may be real or
imaginary. The equation, ax2 + bx + c = 0 is :

A quadratic equation if a 0

Two roots

A linear equation if a = 0, b 0

One root

## A quadratic equation cannot have more than two roots.

If follows from the above statement that if a quadratic equation is satisfied by more

a = b = 0, c 0

No root

## than two values of x, then it is satisfied by every value of x and so it is an identity.

5.3

NATURE OF ROOTS :
Consider the quadratic equation, ax 2 + bx + c = 0 having as its roots and b2 - 4ac is
called discriminate of roots of quadratic equation. It is denoted by D or .
Roots of the given quadratic equation may be
(i) Real and unequal (ii) Real and equal

## Let the roots of the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 (where a 0, b, c R ) be and

then

and

b b2 4ac
2a

b2 4ac
2a

.....(i)
....(ii)

The nature of roots depends upon the value of expression b2 - 4ac with in the square root
sign. This is known as discriminate of the given quadratic equation.
Consider the Following Cases :

## Case-1 When b2 - 4ac > 0, (D > 0)

In this case roots of the given equation are real and distinct and are as follows

b b2 4ac
b b2 4ac
and
2a
2a

## (i) When a( 0), b, c Q and b2 - 4ac is a perfect square

In this case both the roots are rational and distinct.
(ii) When a( 0), b, c Q and b2 - 4ac is not a perfect square
In this case both the roots are irrational and distinct.

## Case-2 When b2 - 4ac = 0, (D = 0)

In this case both the roots are real and equal to

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b
.
2a

55

## Case-3 When b2 - 4ac < 0, (D < 0)

In this case b2 - 4ac < 0, then 4ac - b2 > 0

or

(4ac b2 )
2a

and

b (4ac b 2 )
2a

b i 4ac b2
b i 4ac b2
and
2a
2a

1 i

i.e. in this case both the root are imaginary and distinct.

REMARKS :

If a,b,c

Q and b2 - 4ac is positive (D > 0) but not a perfect square, then the roots

are irrational and they always occur in conjugate pairs like 2 3 and 2

3.

However, if a,b,c are irrational number and b2 - 4ac is positive but not a perfect
square, then the roots may not occur in conjugate pairs.
If b2 - 4ac is negative (D > 0), then the roots are complex conjugate of each other. In
fact, complex roots of an equation with real coefficients always occur in conjugate pairs
like 2 + 3i and 2 - 3i. However, this may not be true in case of equations with complex
coefficients. For example, x2 - 2ix - 1 = 0 has both roots equal to i.
If a and c are of the same sign and b has a sign opposite to that of a as well as c, then
both the roots are positive, the sum as well as the product of roots is positive (D 0) .

If a,b, are of the same sign then both the roots are negative, the sum of the roots is
negative but the product of roots is positive (D 0) .

5.4
5.4

## METHODS OF SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATION :

(a) By Factorisation :
ALGORITHM :
Step (i) Factorise the constant term of the given quadratic equation.
Step (ii) Express the coefficient of middle term as the sum or difference of the factors
obtained in step 1. Clearly, the product of these two factors will be equal to the product of the
coefficient of x2 and constant term.
Step (iii) Split the middle term in two parts obtained in step 2.
Step (iv) Factorise the quadratic equation obtained in step 3.

ILLUSTRATIONS :
Ex.1
Sol.

## Solve the following quadratic equation by factorisation method: x 2 - 2ax + a2 - b2 = 0.

Here, Factors of constant term (a2 - b2) are (a - b) and (a + b).
Also,

## Coefficient of the middle term = - 2a = - [(a - b) + (a + b)]

x2 - 2ax + a2 - b2 = 0

## x2 - {(a - b) + (a + b)}x + (a - b)(a + b) = 0

x2 - (a - b) x - (a + b) x + (a - b) (a + b) =

## x{x - (a - b)}- (a + b) {x - (a - b)} = 0

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Ex.2
Sol.

{x - (a - b)} {x - (a + b)} = 0
x - (a - b) = 0 or, x - (a + b) = 0
x = a - b or x = a + b

## Solve 64x2 - 625 = 0

We have 64x2 - 625 = 0
or
(8x)2 - (25)2 = 0
or
i.e.

## (8x + 25) (8x - 25) = 0

8x + 25 = 0 o 8x - 25 = 0.

25
25
or
.
8
8
25 25
,
Thus, x
are solutions of the given equations.
8 8
This gives x

Ex.3
Sol.

## Solve the quadratic equation 16x2 - 24x = 0.

The given equation may be written as 8x(2x - 3) = 0
This gives x = 0 or x =
x= 0,

Ex.4
Sol.

3
, are the required solutions.
2

## Solve :- 25x2 - 30x + 9 = 0

25x2 - 30x + 9 = 0 is equivalent to (5x)2 - 2(5x) 3 + (3)2 = 0
or (5x - 3)2 =
This gives x

Ex.5
Sol.

3
.
2

3 3
3
, or simply x
as the required solution.
5 5
5

## Find the solutions of the quadratic equation x2 + 6x + 5 = 0.

The quadratic polynomial x2 + 6x + 5 can be facorised as follows :x2 + 6x + 5 = x2 + 5x + x + 5
= x(x + 5) + 1 (x + 5)
= (x + 5) (x + 1)
Therefore the given quadratic equation becomes (x + 5) (x + 1) =
This gives x = - 5 or = - 1
Therefore, x = - 1 are the required solutions of the given equation.

2x
1
3x 9

0.
x 3 2x 3 (x 3)(2x 3)

Ex.6

Solve :

Sol.

## Obviously, the given equation is valid if x - 3 0 and 2x + 3

Multiplying throughout by (x - 3) (2x - 3), we get
2x(2x + 3) + 1(x - 3) + 3x + 9 = 0
or
4x2 + 10 + 6 = 0

0.

or
2x2 + 5x + 3 = 0
or
(2x + 3) (x + 1) = 0
But 2x + 3 0, so we get x + 1 = 0.
This gives x = - 1 as the only solution of the given equation.

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5.4

## (b) By the Method of Completion of Square :

ALGORITHM :
Step-(i) Obtain the quadratic equation. Let the quadratic equation be ax 2 + bx + c = 0, a 0.

2
Step-(ii) Make the coefficient of x2 unity, if it is not unity. i.e., obtained x

c
b
c
x
on R.H.S. to get x2 +
a
a
a

2a

b
b
x2 2
x

2a
2a

b
c
x 0.
a
a

2a

## on both sides to obtain

c
a

Step-(v) Write L.H.S. as the perfect square of a binomial expression and simplify R.H.S. to get

2a

b2 4ac
4a2

b
b2 4ac

2a
4a2

## Step (vii) Obtain the values of x by shifting the constant term

Ex.7

Solve :- x2 + 3x + 1 = 0

Sol.

We have

b
on RHS.
2a

x2 + 3x + 1 = 0
Add and subtract (

x 2 3x 1

0
2

3
3
x 2 2 x
2
2

1
coefficient of x)2 in L.H.S. and get
2

2
3

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1 0

5
0
4

5
2

58

3
5

2
2

This gives x

Therefore x

Ex.8

3 5
3 5
or x
2
2
3 5 3 5
are the solutions of the given equation.
,
2
2

By using the method of completing the square, show that the equation 4a 2 + 3x + 5 = 0 has

no real roots.
Sol.

We have, 4x2 + 3x + 5 = 0

3
5
x 0
4
4

x2

5
3
x 2 2 x
4
8

3
3
x 2 2 x
8
8

5
4

71
64

But, x
8

5.4

## (c) By Using Quadratic Formula :

Solve the quadratic equation in general form viz. ax 2 + bx + c = 0.
We have, ax2 + bx + c = 0
Step (i) By comparison with general quadratic equation, find the value of a,b and c.
Step (ii) Find the discriminate of the quadratic equation.
D = b2 - 4ac
Step (iii) Now find the roots of the equation by given equation

b D b D
,
2a
2a

REMARK :

## does not have any real roots.

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Ex.9
Sol.

## Solve the quadratic equation x2 - 7x - 5 =0.

Comparing the given equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we find that a = 1, b = - 7 and c = -5.
Therefore, D = (-7)2 - 4 1 (-5) = 49 + 20 = 69 > 0
Since D is positive, the equation has two roots given by

7 69 7 69
,
2
2

7 69 7 69
are the required solutions.
,
2
2

Ex.10 For what value of k, (4 - k)x2 + (2k + 4)x + (8k + 1) is a perfect square.
Sol. The given equation is a perfect square, if its discriminate is zero i.e. (2k + 4) 2 - 4(4 - k) (8k +
1) = 0

## [(k2 + 4k + 4) - (-8k2 + 31k + 4)] = 0 9k2 - 27k = 0

9k (k - 3) = 0 k = 0 or k = 3
Hence, the given equation is a perfect square, if k = 0 or k = 3.

2 1 1
.
b a c
Since the roots of the given equations are equal, so discriminant will be equal to zero.

## b2(c2 + a2 - 2ac) - 4ac(ba - ca - b2 + bc) = 0,

Ex.11 If the roots of the equation a(b - c)x2 + b(c - a)x + c(a - b) = 0 are equal, show that
Sol.

## a2b2 + b2c2 + 4a2c2 + 2b2ac - 4ac2bc - 4abc2 = 0 (ab + bc - 2ac)2 = 0

ab + bc - 2ac = 0
ab + bc = 2ac

1 1 2

c a b
2 1 1
.
b a c

Hence Proved.

Ex.12 If the roots of the equation (b - c)x 2 + (c - a) x + (a - b) = 0 are equal, then prove that 2b = a
+ c.
Sol. If the roots of the given equation are equal, then discriminant is zero i.e.
(c - a)2 - 4(b - c) (a - b) = 0 c2 + a2 - 2ac + 4b2 - 4ab + 4ac - 4bc = 0

## c2 + a2 + 4b2 + 2ac - 4ab - 4bc = 0

(c + a - 2b)2 = 0
c + a = 2b

Hence Proved.

Ex.13 If the roots of the equation x 2 - 8x + a2 - 6a = 0 are real and distinct, then find all possible
values of a.
Sol. Since the roots of the given equation are real and distinct, we must have D > 0

## 4[16 - a2 + 6a] > 0

-4(a2 - 6a - 16) > 0

a2 - 6a - 16 < 0

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(a - 8) (a + 2) < 0

-2<a<8
Hence, the roots of the given equation are real if a lies between -2 and 8.

5.5

## APPLICATIONS OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS :

ALGORITHM :
The method of problem solving consist of the following three steps :
Step (i) Translating the word problem into symbolic language (mathematical statement)
which means identifying relationship existing in the problem and then forming the quadratic
equation.
Step (ii) Solving the quadratic equation thus formed.
Step (iii) Interpreting the solution of the equation, which means translating the result of
mathematical statement into verbal language.

REMARKS :

## Two consecutive odd natural numbers be 2x - 1, 2x + 1 where x N

Two consecutive even natural numbers be 2x, 2x + 2 where x N

## Two consecutive even positive integers be 2x, 2x + 2 where x Z

Consecutive multiples of 5 be 5x, 5x + 5, 5x + 10 .....

Ex.14 The sum of the squares of two consecutive positive integers is 545. Find the integers.
Sol. Let x be one of the positive integers. Then the other integer is x + 1, x Z
Since the sum of the squares of the integers is 545, we get
x2 + (x + 1)2 = 545
or
or

2x2 + 2x - 544 = 0
x2 + x - 272 = 0

## x2 + 17x - 16x - 272 = 0

or
x(x + 17) - 16(x + 17) = 0
or
(x - 16) (x + 17) = 0
Here, x = 16 or x = -17 But, x is a positive integer. Therefore, reject x = - 17 and take x = 16.
Hence, two consecutive positive integers are 16 and (16 + 1), i.e., 16 and 17.
Ex.15 The length of a hall is 5 m more than its breath. If the area of the floor of the hall is 84 m 2,
what are the length and the breadth of the hall ?
Sol. Let the breadth of the hall be x metres.
Then the length of the ball is (x + 5) metres.
The area of the floor = x(x + 5) m2
Therefore, x(x + 5) = 84
or
x2 + 5x - 84 = 0
or
(x + 12) (x - 7) = 0
This given x = 7 or x = - 12.
Since, the breadth of the hall cannot be negative, we reject x = - 12 and take x = - only.
Thus, breadth of the hall = 7 metres, and length of the hall = (7 + 5), i.e., 12 metres.

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## Ex.16 Out of group of swans

Sol.

7
times the square root of the total number are playing on the shore
2

of a tank. The two remaining ones are playing, in deep water. What is the total number of
swans ?
Let us denote the number of swans by x.
Then, the number of swans playing on the shore of the tank

7
x.
2

## There are two remaining swans.

Therefore,

7
x2
2

7
x
2

or

x 2

or

(x 2)2

or
or

4(x2 - 4x + 4) = 49x
4x2 - 65x + 16 = 0

or
or
or

4x2 - 64x - x + 16 = 0
4x(x - 16) - 1(x - 16) = 0
(x - 16) (4x - 1) = 0

This gives x = 16 or x
We reject x

1
4

1
and take x = 16.
4

## Hence, the total number of swans is 16.

Ex.17 The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 25 cm. The difference between the lengths of the other
two sides of the triangle is 5 cm. Find the lengths of these sides.
Sol. Let the length of the shorter side b x cm. Then, the length of the longer side = (x + 5) cm.
Since the triangle is right-angled, the sum of the squares of the sides must be equal to the
square of the hypotenuse (Pythagoras Theorem).
x2 + (x + 5)2 = 2352
or
or

x2 + x2 + 10x + 25 = 625
2x2 + 10x - 600 = 0

or
x2 + 5x - 300 = 0
or
(x + 20) (x - 15) = 0
This gives x = 15 or x = - 20
We reject x = - 20 and take x = 15.
Thus, length of shorter side = 15 cm.
Length of longer side = (15 + 5) cm, i.e., 20 cm.
Ex.18 Swati can row her boat at a speed of 5 km/h in still water. If it takes her 1 hour more to row the
boat 5.25 km upstream than to return downstream, find the speed of the stream.
Sol. Let the speed of the stream be x km/h
Speed of the boat in upstream = (5 - x)km/h
R e sSpeed
o n aof
nthe
c eboat in downstream = (5 + x)km/h
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5.25
5 x

## Time, say t2 (in hours), for returning 5.25 km downstream

5.25
5 x

Obviously t1 > t2
Therefore, according to the given condition of the problem,
t 1 = t2 + 1
i.e.,

5.25 5.25

1
5 x 5 x

or

21 1
1

1
4 5 x 5 x

or

5 x 5 x
21
4
25 x 2

or
or
or
or

## 42x = 100 - 4x2

4x2 + 42x - 100 = 0
2x2 + 21x - 50 = 0
(2x + 25) (x - 2) = 0

25
.
2

## Thus, the speed of the stream is 2 km/h.

Ex.19 The sum of the square of two positive integers is 208. If the square of the larger number is 18
times the smaller number, find the numbers.
[CBSE - 2007]
Sol
Let x be the smaller number.
Then, square of the larger number will be 18x.
Therefore,
x2 + 18x = 208
or
x2 + 18x - 208 =0
or
(x - 8) (x + 26) = 0
This gives x = 8 or x = - 26
Since the numbers are positive integers, we reject x = - 26 and take x = 8.
Therefore, square of larger number = 18 8 = 144.
So, larger number =

144 12

## Hence, the larger number is 12 and the smaller is 8.

Ex.20 The sum S of first n natural number is given by the relation S
276.
Sol.

n(n 1)
. Find n, if the sum is
2

We have

S
or

n(n 1)
276
2
n2 + n - 552 = 0

This gives

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1 1 2208 1 1 2208
,
2
2

64

or

1 2209 1 2209
,
2
2

or

1 47 1 47
,
2
2

or
n = 23, -24
We reject n = - 24, since -24 is not a natural number.
Therefore, n = 23.

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## DAILY PRACTIVE PROBLEMS # 5

OBJECTIVE DPP - 5.1
1.

(A) 0

2.

(B) 5

(B) Rational

(D) 6

(C) Irrational

## (D) None of these

The difference between two numbers is 5 different in their squares is 65. The larger number is
(A) 9

4.

1
6

## The roots of the equation x2 - x - 3 = 0 are

(A) Imaginary

3.

(C)

(B) 10

(C) 11

(D) 12

The sum of ages of a father and son is 45 years. Five years ago, the product of their ages was
4 times the age of the father at that time. The present age of the father is
(A) 30 yrs

5.

(B) 31 yrs

(C) 36 yrs

(D) 41 yrs

If one of the roots of the quadratic equation is 2 3 then find the quadratic equation.
(A) x2 - (2 +

3 ) x+ 1 =

(B) x2 + (2 +

(C) x2 - 4x + 1 = 0

3)x+1=0

(D) x2 + 4x - 1 = 0

## SUBJECTIVE DPP - 5.2

1
are solutions of the equations x2 + kx + = 0. Find the value of k and .
5

1.

If x = - and x

2.

Find the value of k for which quadratic equation (k - 2)x 2 + 2(2k - 3)x + 5k - 6 = 0 has equal

roots.
3.

The sum of the squares of two consecutive positive integers is 545. Find the integers.

4.

A man is five times as old as his son and the sum of the squares of their ages is 2106. Find

their ages.
5.

The sides (in cm) of a right triangle containing the right angles are 5x and 3x - 1. If the area of
the triangle is 60 cm2. Find its perimeter.

6.

The lengths of the sides of right triangle are 5x + 2, 5x and 3x - 1. If x > 0 find the length of

each sides.
7.

A two digit number is four times the sum and three times the product of its digits, find the

number
[CBSE 2000]
8.

The number of a fraction is 1 less than its denominator. If 3 is added to each of the numerator
and denominator, the fraction is increased by

3
. Find the fraction
28

[CBSE - 2007]
9.

## Solve the quadratic equation

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x 1 x 2 x 5 x 6

x 2 x 3 x 6 x 7

66

10.

An aeroplane left 30 minutes later then its scheduled time and in order to reach its destination
1500 km away in time. it has to increase its speed by 250 km/h from its usual speed.
Determine its usual speed.
[CBSE-2005]

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11.

A motor boat whose speed is 18 km/h in still water takes 1 hours more to go 24 km upstream
than to return downstream to the same spot. Find the speed of the stream.
[CBSE-2008]

12.

## Two water taps together can fill a tank in 9

3
hours. The tap of larger diameter takes 10
8

hours less that the smaller one to fill the tank separately. Find the time in which each tap can
separately fill the tank.
[CBSE-2008]

(Objective DPP # 5.1)

Que.

Ans.

1.

k = 9 = -2

4.

7.

24

8.

10.

75 km/h

11.

12.

## Smaller tap = hr, Larger tap = 15 hr

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2.

k = 3 or 1
5.

3.

40 cm

3
4

16, 17
6.

9.

17, 15, 8

9
2

6 km/hr

68

ARITHMATIC
PROGRESSIONS

ML-6
6.1

PROGRESSIONS :

Those sequence whose terms follow certain patterns are called progression. Generally there
are three types of progression.
(i) Arithmetic Progression (A.P.)
(ii) Geometric Progression (G.P.) (iii)
Harmonic
Progression (H.P.)

6.2

ARTHMETIC PROGRESSION :
A sequence is called an A.P., if the difference of a term and the previous term is always same.
i.e. d = tn+1 tn = Constant for all n N . The constant difference, generally denoted by d
is called the common difference.

Ex.1
Sol.

## Find the common difference of the following A.P. : 1,4,7,10,13,16 ......

4 - 1 = 7 - 4 = 10 - 7 = 13 - 10 = 16 - 13 = 3 (constant).
Common difference (d) = 3.

6.3

## GENERAL FORM OF AN A.P. :

If we denote the starting number i.e. the 1 st number by a and a fixed number to the added is
d then a, a + d, a + 2d, a + 3d, a + 4d, ...... forms an A.P.

Ex.2
Sol.

## Find the A.P. whose 1st term is 10 & common difference is 5.

Given : First term (a) = 10 & Common difference (d) = 5.
A.P. is 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, .....

6.4

## nth TERM OF AN A.P. :

Let A.P. be a, a + d, a + 2d, a + 3d, .....
Then, First term (a1)
= a + 0.d
Second term (a2)
Third term (a3)

= a + 1.d
= a + 2.d

.
.
.
.
.
.
th
n term (an)
= a + (n - 1) d
an = a + (n - 1) d is called the nth term.

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Ex.3
Sol.

Determine the A.P. whose their term is 16 and the difference of 5th term from 7th term is 12.
Given :a3 = a + (3 - 1) d = a + 2d = 16
.....(i)

a7 - a5 = 12
(a + 6d) - (a + 4d) = 12
a + 6d - a - 4d = 12
2d = 12
d=6
Put d = 6 in equation (i)
a = 16 - 12
a=4
A.P. is 4, 10, 16, 22, 28, ......

....(ii)

Ex.4
Sol.

## Which term of the sequence 72, 70, 68, 66, ..... is 40 ?

Here 1st term x = 72 and common difference d = 70 - 72 = - 2

## For finding the value of n

an = a + (n - 1)d

40 = 72 + (n - 1) (-2)

40 - 72 = - 2n + 2

-32 = - 2n + 2

-34 = - 2n

n = 17

Ex.5
Sol.

## Is 184, a term of the sequence 3,7,11,..... ?

Here 1st term (a) = 3 and common difference (d) = 7 - 3 = 4
nth term (an) = a + (n - 1) d

184 = 3 + (n - 1) 4

181 = 4n - 4

185 = 4n

185
4

## 184 is not a term of the given sequence.

Ex.6
Sol.

1
2

1
2

3
is the 1st negative term.
4
1
3
Here 1st term (a) = 20, common difference (d) = 19 20
4
4
Which term of the sequence 20, 19 ,18 ,17

Let nth term of the given A.P. be 1st negative term an < 0
i.e. a + (n - 1) d < 0

3
83 3n

0
0
4
4
4
83
2
n 27
3n > 83 n >
3
3

20 + (n - 1)

2
.
3

## 1st negative term is 28th.

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Ex.7 If pth, qth and rth term of an A.P. are a,b,c respectively, then show than a(q - r) + b( - p) + c(p q) = 0.
Sol. ap = a
A + (p - 1) D = a ......(1)
aq = b

A + (q - 1) D = b .....(2)

ar = c
Now, L.H.S.

A + (r + 1) D = c ......(3)
= a (q - r) + b(r - p) +c (p - q)
= {A + (p - 1)D} (q - r) + {A + (q - 1)D} (r - p) + {A + (r - 1)D} (p - q)
= 0.
R.H.S

Ex.8 If m times the mth term of an A.P. is equal to n times its n th term. Show that the (m + n) th term
of the A.P.
Sol. Let A the 1st term and D be the common difference of the given A.P.
Then, mam = nan

Ex.9
Sol.

## A(m - 1) + D[m + n (m - n) - (m - n)] = 0

A + (m + n - 1)D = 0

am+n = 0

If the pth term of an A.P. is q and the qth term is p, prove that its nth term is (p + q - n).
ap = q A + (p - 1) D = q
......(i)
&
aq = p A + (q - 1) D = p
Solve (i) & (ii) to get D = - 1 & A = p + q - 1

an = A + (n - 1) D
an = (p + q - 1) + (n - 1) (-1)
an = p + q - n.

1
1
and nth term be
then show that its (mn) term is 1.
n
m
1
1
am A (m 1)D
.....(i)
n
n
1
1
am
A (n 1)D
....(ii)
m
m
1
1
&A
By solving (i) & (ii) D =
mn
mn

## Ex.10 If the mth term of an A.P.

Sol.
&

6.5

amn = A + (mn - 1) D = 1.

## mth TERM OF AN A.P. FROM THE END :

Let a be the 1st term and d be the common difference of an A.P. having n terms. Then mth
term from the end is (n - m + 1)th term from beginning or {n - (m - )}th term from beginning.

## Ex.11 Find 20 th term from the end of an A.P. 3,7,11..... 407.

Sol. 407 = 3 + (n - 1)4 n = 102
th term from end m = 20
a102-(20-1) = a102-19 = a83 from the beginning.
a83 = 3 + (83 + 1)4 = 331.

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6.6

## SELECTION OF TERMS IN AN A.P. :

Sometimes we require certain number of terms in A.P. The following ways of selecting terms
are generally very convenient.
No.
For
For
For
For

of Terms
3 terms
4 terms
5 terms
6 terms

Terms
a d, a, a + d
a 3d, a d, a + d, a + 3d
a 2d, a d, a, a + d, a + 2d
a 5d, a 3d, a d, a + d, a + 3d, a +

Common Difference
d
2d
d
2d

5d

Ex.12 The sum of three number in A.P. is -3 and their product is 8. Find the numbers.
Sol.

## Three no. s in A.P. be a - d, a, a + d

a-d+a+a+d=-3
3a = - 3 a = -1

&

(a - d) a (a + d) = 8
a(a2 - d2) = 8
(-1) (1 - d2) = 8
1 - d2 = - 8

d2 = 9

d=

## If a = 8 & d = 3 numbers are -4, -1, 2.

If a = 8 & d = - numbers are 2, -1, -4.

6.7

Let A.P. be

## a, a + d, a + 1d, a + 3d,...... a + (n - 1)d

Then, Sn = a + (a + d)
also,

..... + {a + (n - 2) d} + {a + (n - 1) d}

.....(i)

.....(ii)

## 2Sn = 2a + (n - 1)d + 2a + (n - 1)d + ............. + 2a + (n - 1)d

2Sn = n [2a + (n - 1) d]

Sn

n
[2a (n 1)d]
2

Sn

n
n
[a a (n 1)d] [a ]
2
2

Sn

n
[a ] where is the last term.
2

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## Ex.13 Find the sum of 20 terms of the A.P. 1,4,7,10.....

Sol.

a = 1, d = 3

Sn

n
[2a (n 1)d]
2

S20

20
[2(1) (20 1)3]
2

Ex.14 Find the sum of all three digit natural numbers. Which are divisible by 7.
Sol.

## 1st no. is 105 and last no. is 994.

Find n
994 = 105 + (n + 1)7

6.8

n = 128

Sum,

S128

128
[105 994]
2

PROPERTIES OF A.P. :
(A)

For any real numbers a and b, the sequence whose n th term is an = an + b is always an
A.P. with common difference a (i.e. coefficient of term containing n)

(B)

If any nth term of sequence is a linear expression in n then the given sequence is an

(C)

If a constant term is added to or subtracted from each term of an A.P. then the

A.P.
resulting sequence is also an A.P. with the same common difference.
(D)

If each term of a given A.P. is multiplied or divided by a non-zero constant K, then the
resulting sequence is also an A.P. with common difference Kd or

respectively.

## Where d is the common difference of the given A.P.

(E)

In a finite A.P. the sum of the terms equidistant from the beginning and end is always
same and is equal to the sum of 1st and last term.

(F)

## Ex.15 Check whether an = 2n2 + 1 is an A.p. or not.

Sol.

an = 2n2 + 1
= 2 (n + 1)2 + 1

Then

an+1

an+1 - an

= 2(n2 + 2n + 1) + 1 - 2n2 - 1

= 2n2 + 4n + 2 + 1 - 2n2 - 1
= 4n + 2, which is not constant

## The above sequence is not an A.P.

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## DAILY PRACTIVE PTOBLEMS # 6

OBJECTIVE DPP - 6.1
1.

(A) 3

2.

1
2
3
3 3 ..... will be
n
n
n

n
p
(B) 3
(C) 3
p
n

p
n

(D) 3

## 8th term of the series 2 2 2 0 ..... will be

(A) 5 2

(B) 5 2

(C) 10 2

(D) 10 2

3.

If 9th term of an A.P. be zero then the ratio of its 29th and 19th term is
(A) 1 : 2
(B) 2 : 1
(C) 1 : 3
(D) 3 : 1

4.

(A) 95th
(B) 100 th

(C) 102 th

## Which of the following sequence is an A.P.

(A) f(n) = ab + b n N

5.

n
p

## (C) f(n) = (an + b)kr , n N

n

(D)

f(n)

1
b

a n
n

(D) 101 th

,nN

6.

If the nth term of an A.P. be (2n - 1) then the sum of its firs n terms will be
(A) n2 - 1
(B) (2n - 1)2
(C) n2
(D) n2 + 1

7.

The interior angles of polygon are in A.P. if the smallest angles be 120 0 and the common
difference be 5, then the number of sides is
(A) 8
(B) 10
(C) 9
(D) 6

8.

In the first, second and last terms of an A.P. be a,b, 2a respectively, then its sum will
ab
3ab
3ab
ab
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
2(b a)
2(b a)
4(b a)
a b

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1.

## Is 51 a term of the A.P. 5, 8, 11, 14, ....... ?

2.

Find the common difference of an A.P. whose first term is 100 and the sum of whose first six
terms is five times the sum of the next six terms.

3.

Find three number in A.P. whose sum is 21 and their product is 336.

4.

A student purchased a pen for Rs. 100. At the end of 8 years, it was valued at Rs. 20.
Assuming the yearly depreciation is constant amount, find the annual depreciation./

5.

The fourth term of an A.P. is equal to three times the first term and the seventh term exceeds
twice the third by one. Find the first term and the common difference.

1
2
3
,15 ,14 ......is the first negative term.
5
5
5

6.

7.

## If Sn = n2p and Sm = m2p (m n) in an A.P. Prove that Sp = p3.

8.

Find the sum of all the three digit numbers which leave remainder 2 when divided by 5.

9.

## Find the sum of all two digit odd positive numbers

10.

Find the 10th term from end of the A.P. 4,9,14,....., 254.

11.

200 logs are stacked in the following manner: 20 logs in the bottom row, 19 in the next row,
18 in the row next to it and so on. In how many rows the 200 logs are placed and how many
logs are in the top row ?

12.

The sum of the first n term of an A.P. is given by S n = 3n2 4n. Determine the A.P. and its 12th

term.
[CBSE - 2004]
13.

th

Find the sum of the first 25 terms of an A.P. whose n term is given by tn = 2 -3n
[CBSE - 2004]

14.

Find the number of terms of A.P. 54, 54, 48..... so that their sum is 513.
[CBSE - 2005]

15.

## In an A.P., the sum of first n terms is

3n 2 5n
Find its 25th term.

2
2
[CBSE - 2006]

16.

Which term of the arithmetic progression 8, 14 20, 26, ........ will be 72 more than its 41 st

term ?
[CBSE - 2006]
17.

The first term, common difference and last term of an A.P. are 12, 6 and 252 respectively. Find
the sum of all terms of this A.P.
[CBSE - 2007]

18.

8, 18,

32, ............

[CBSE - 2008]
19.

th

and 8

th

th

## Find the first three terms of the A.P.

[CBSE - 2008]

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(Objects DPP # 6.1)
Que.

Ans.

## (Subjective DPP # 6.2)

1.

No

2.

-10

3.

6,7,8

4.

10

5.

3,2

6.

23rd

8.

98910

9.

2475

10.

209

11.

16 rows, 5 logs

13.

-925

14.

18, 19

15.

76

17.

5412

18.

50

19.

-13, -8, -3

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## -1,5,11,..... & a12 = 65

16.

76

53rd

CO-ORDINATE
GEOMETRY

ML-7
7.1

RECTANGULAR CO-ORDINATES :
Take two perpendicular lines XOX and YOY intersecting at the point O. XOX and YOY are
called the co-ordinate axes. XOx is called the X-axis, YOY is called the Y-axis and O is
called the origin. Lines XOX and YOY are sometimes also called rectangular axes.

## 7.1 (a) Co-ordinates of a Point :

Let P be any point as shown in figure. Draw PL and PM perpendiculars on Y-axis and X-axis,
respectively. The length LP (or OM) is called the x - coordinate of the abscissa of point P
and MP i called the y - coordinate or the ordinate of point P. A point whose abscissa is x
and ordinate is y named as the point (x,y) or P(x,y).

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The two liens XOX and YOY divide the plane into four parts called quadrants. XOY, YOX
XOY and YOX are, respectively, called the first, second third and fourth quadrants. The
following table shows the signs of the coordinates of pins situated in different quadrants :

X-coodrinate
+
+

Y-coordinate
+
+
-

Point
(+, +)
(-, +)
(-, -)
(+, -)

REMAKS
(i)

Abscissa is the perpendicular distance of a point from y-axis (i.e., positive to the right
of y-axis and negative to the left of y - axis)

7.2

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

## DISTACE BETWEEN TWO POINTS :

Let two points be P (x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2)
Take two mutually perpendicular lines as the coordinate axis with O as origin. Mark the points
P(x1, y1) and Q (x2, y2). Draw lines PA, QB perpendicular to X-axis from the points P and
Q, which meet the X-axis in points A and B, respectively.

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Draw lines PC and QD perpendicular to Y-axis, which meet the Y-axis in C and D, respectively.
Produce CP to meet BQ in R. Now
OA = abscissa of P = x1
Similarly, OB = x2, OC = y1 and OD = y2
Therefore, we have
PR = AB = OB - OA = x2 - x1
Similarly, QR = QB - RB = QB - PA = y 2 - y1
Now, using Pythagoras Theorem, in right angled triangle PRQ, we have
PQ2 = Pr2 + RQ2
PQ2 = (x2 - x1)2 + (y2 - y1)2

or

Since the distance or length of the line-segment PQ is always non-negative, on taking the
positive square root, we get the distance as
PQ

(x 2 x1 )2 (y 2 y 1 )2

## This result is known as distance formula.

Corollary : The distance of a point P(x1, y1) from the origin (0,0) is given by
OP

x12 y 12

## Some useful points :

1.In questions relating to geometrical figures, take the given vertices in the given order and
proceed as indicated.
(i)

For an isosceles triangle - We have to prove that at least two sides are equal.

(ii)

For an equilateral triangle - We have to prove that three sides are equal.

(iii)

For a right -angled triangle - We have to prove that the sum of the squares of two
sides is equal to the square of the third side.

(iv)

for a square - We have to prove that the four sides are equal, two diagonals are equal.

(v)

For a rhombus - We have to prove that four sides are equal (and there is no need to
establish that two diagonals are unequal as the square is also a rhombus).

(vi)

For a rectangle - We have to prove that the opposite sides are equal and two

## diagonals are equal.

(vii)

For a Parallelogram - We have to prove that the opposite sides are equal (and there is
no need to establish that two diagonals are unequal sat the rectangle is also a
parallelogram).

2. for three points to be collinear - We have to prove that the sum of the distances between
two pairs of points is equal to the third pair of points.
Ex.1

Find the distance between the points (8 , -2) and (3, -6).

Sol.

Let the points (8, -2) and (3, -6) be denoted by P and Q, respectively.
Then, by distance formula, we obtain the distance PQ as
PQ

(3 8)2 (6 2)2

(5) 2 (4) 2

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Ex.2

Sol.

1
PQ
2

QR 1
2

PR

1
2

## and (1, 2) are the vertices of an isosceles triangle.

1 1
, and (1, 2) be denoted by P, Q and R, respectively. Now
2 2

2
2

1 1
,
2 2

18 3

2
4
2

18 3

2
4
2

(1 1)2 (2 1)2

93

## The triangle is isosceles.

Ex.3
Sol.

Using distance formula, show that the points (-3, 2), (1, -2) and (9, -10) are collinear.
Let the given points (-3, 2), (1, -2) and (9, -10) be denoted by A, B and C, respectively. Points
A, B and C will be collinear, if the sum of the lengths of two line-segments is equal to the third.
Now,

AB

BC =

64 64 8 2

AC =

144 144 12 2

(1 3)2 (2 2)2

16 16 4 2

## Since, AB + BC = 4 2 8 2 12 2 AC , the, points A, B and C are collinear.

Ex.4 Find a point on the X-axis which is equidistant from the points (5, 4) and (-2, 3).
Sol. Since the required point (say P) is on the X-axis, its ordinate will be zero. Let the abscissa of
the point be x.
Therefore, coordinates of the point P are (x, 0).
Let A and B denote the points (5, 4) and (-2, 3), respectively.
Since we are given that AP = BP, we have
AP2 = BP2
i.e., (x - 5)2 + (0 - 4)2 = (x + 2)2 + (0 - 3)2
or
x2 + 25 - 10x + 16 = x2 + 4 + 4x + 9
or
-14x = - 28
or
x=2
Thus, the required point is (2, 0).
Ex.5 The vertices of a triangle are (-2, 0) , (2, 3) and (1, -3). Is the triangle equilateral, isosceles or
scalene?
Sol. Let the points (-2, 0), (2, 3) and (1, -3) be denoted by A, B and C respectively. Then,
AB =

(2 2)2 (3 0)2 5

BC =

(1 2)2 (3 3)2

and AC =

37

(1 2)2 (0 0)2 3 2

Clearly, AB BC AC.
Therefore, ABC is a scalene triangle.

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Ex.6

The length of a line-segments is 10. If one end is at (2, -3) and the abscissa of the second end
is 10, show that its ordinate is either 3 or -9.
Sol. Let (2, -3) be the point A. let the ordinate of the second end B be y. Then its coordinates will
be (10, y).

or
or

AB

## (10 2)2 (y 3)2 10 (Given)

64 + 9 + y2 + 6y = 100
y2 + 6y + 73 - 100 = 0

or
y2 + 6y - 27 = 0
or
(y + 9) (y - 3) = 0
Therefore,
y = 9 or
Ex.7
Sol.

y = 3.

Show that the points (-2, 5), (3, -4) and (7, 10) are the vertices of a right triangle.
Let the three points be A(-2, 5), B(3, - 4) and C(7, 10).
Then AB2 = (3 + 2)2 + (-4 - 5)2 = 106
BC2 = (7 - 3)2 + (10 + 4)2 = 212
AC2 = (7 + 2)2 + (10 - 5)2 = 106
We see that
BC2 = AB21 + AC2
212 = 106 + 106
212 = 212

A = 900
Thus, ABC is a right triangle, right angled at A.

Ex.8
Sol.

If the distance of P (x, y) from A (5, 1) and B(-1, 5) are equal, prove that 3x = 2y.
P(x, y), A (5, 1) and B (-1, 5) are the given points.
AP = BP
(Given)
2

AP = BP2
or
or
or
or
or

AP2 - BP2 = 0
{(x - 5)2 + (y - 1)}2 - {(x + 1)2 + (y - 5)2} = 0
x2 + 25 - 10x + y2 + 1 -2y -x2 - 1 -2x - y2 - 25 + 10y = 0
-12x + 8y = 0
3xx = 2y.

7.3

SECTION FORMULAE :

7.3

## (a) Formula for Internal Division :

The coordinates of the pint which divided the line segment joining the pints (x 1, y1) and x2,
y2) internally in the ratio m : n are given by x

my2 my1
mx2 nx1
,y
m n
m n

Proof :
Let O be the origin and let OX and OY be the X-axis and Y-axis respectively. Let A(x1, y1) and
B(x2, y2) bet the given points. Let (x, y) be the coordinates of the point p which divides AB
internally in the ratio m : n Draw AL OX, BM OX, PN Ox. Also, draw AH and PK
perpendicular from A and P on PN and BM respectively. Then
OL = x1, ON = x, OM = x2, AL = y1, PN = y and BM = y2.

AH = LN = ON - OL = x - x1, PH = PH - HN

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= PN - AL = y - y1, PK = NM = OM - ON = x2 - x
and
BK = BM - MK = BM - PN = y2 - y.
Clearly, AHP and PKB are similar.

AP AH PH

BP PK
BK
m x x1 y y 1

n x2 x y 2 y

Now,

m x x1

n x2 x

mx2 - mx = nx - nx1

and

mx + nx = mx2 + nx1

my + ny = my2 + ny1

mx2 nx1
m n
m y y1

n y2 y

my2 - my = ny - ny1

my2 ny1
m n
mx2 nx1 my2 ny1
,

m n
m n

## Thus, the coordinates of P are

REMARKS
If P is the mid-point of AB, then it divides AB in the ratio 1 : 1, so its coordinates are

x1 x2 y 1 y 2
,

2
2

## 7.3 (b) Formula for External Division :

The coordinates of the points which divides the line segment joining the points (x1, y1) and
(x2, y2) externally in the ratio m : n are given by

x
Ex.9
Sol.

my2 ny1
mx2 nx1
,y
m n
m n

Find the coordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining the points (6, 3) and (4, 5) in the ratio 3 : 2 (i) internally (ii) externally.
Let P(x, y) be the required point.
(i) For internal division, we have

3x 4 2 6
3 2
3 5 2 3
y
and
3 2
21

x = 0 and y =
5
So the coordinates of P are (0, 21/5)
(ii) For external division, we have
3x 4 2 6
x
3 2
x

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3 5 2 3
3 2

x = - 24
and y = 9
So the coordinates of P are (-24, 9).
any

Ex.10 In which ratio does the point (-1, -1) divides the line segment joining the pints (4, 4) and (7,
7) ?
Sol.

Suppose the point C(-1, -1) divides the line joining the points A(4, 4) and B(7, 7) in the ratio k :

7k 4 7k 4
,

k1 k1

## 1 Then, the coordinates of C are

But, we are given that the coordinates of the points C are (-1, -1).

7k 4
5
1 k
k1
8

## Thus, C divides AB externally in the ratio 5 : 8.

Ex.11 In what ratio does the X-axis divide the line segment joining the points (2, -3) and (5, 6) ?
Sol.

Let the required ratio be k : 1. Then the coordinates of the point of division are

5 2 6 3
,

k1 k1

6 3
0
k1

1
2

## Thus, the required ratio is

1
: 1 or 1 : 2.
2

Ex.12 A (1, 1) and B(2, -3) are two points and D is a point on AB produced such that AD = 3 AB. Find
the coordinates of D.
Sol.

## We have, AD = 3AB. Therefore, BD = 2AB. Thus D divides AB externally in the ratio AD : BD =

3 : 2 Hence, the coordinates of D are

3 2 2 1 3x 3 2 1
,

3 2
3 2

(4, -11).

A(1, 1)

B(2,-3)

Ex.13 Determine the ratio in which the line 3x + y - 9 = 0 divides the segment joining the pints (1, 3)
and (2, 7).

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Sol.

Suppose the line 3x + y - 9 = 0 divides the line segment joining A(1, 3) and B(2, 7) in the ratio

2k 1 7k 3
,

k1 k1

## k : 1 at point C. The, the coordinates of C are

But, C lies on 3x + y - 9 = 0,

therefore

2k 1 7k 3
3
9 0

k1
k1

6k + 3 + 7k + 3 - 9k - 9 = 0

3
4

## So, the required ratio is 3 : 4 internally.

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7.4

CENTROID OF A TRIANGLE :
Prove that the coordinates of the triangle whose vertices are (x 1, y1), (x2, y2) and (y3, y3) are

x1 x 2 x 3 y 1 y 2 y 3
,

## . Also, deduce that the medians of a triangle are concurrent.

3
3

Proof :
Let A(x1, y1, B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) be the vertices of ABC whose medians are AD, BE
and CF respectively. So. D,E and F are respectively the mid-points of BC, CA and AB.

x2 x 3 y 2 y 3
,
. Coordinates of a point dividing AD in the ratio 2 : 1
2
2

Coordinates of D are
are

( x1 , y1 )

x1 x 2 y 1 y 2
,

2
2

x1 x3 y 1 y 3
,

2
2

(x 2x,2 y2x)3 y 2 y 3
,

2
2

x x3
y2 y3
1.x1 2 2

1.y 1
2
2

1 2
1 2

(x 3 , y 3 )

x1 x 2 x 3 y 1 y 2 y 3
,

3
3

x1 x3 y 1 y 3
,
. The coordinates of a point dividing BE in the ratio
2
2

## The coordinates of E are

1.x 2

2 : 1 are

2(y 1 y 3 )
2(x 1 x 3 )
1.y 2

2
2
x 1 x 2 x 3 , y 1 y 2 y 3
,

1 2
1 2
3
3

x1 x 2 x 3 y 1 y 2 y 3
,

3
3

## Similarly the coordinates of a point dividing CF in the ratio 2 : 1 are

x1 x 2 x 3 y 1 y 2 y 3
,
is common to AD, BE and CF and
3
3

## Thus, the point having coordinates

divides them in the ratio 1 : 2.

Hence, medians of a triangle are concurrent and the coordinates of the centroid are

x1 x 2 x 3 y 1 y 2 y 3
,

.
3
3

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7.5

AREA OF A TRIANGLE :
Let ABC be any triangle whose vertices are A(x1, y1) B(x2, y3). Draw BL, AM and CN
perpendicular from B,A and C respectively, to the X-axis. ABLM, AMNC and BLNC are all
trapeziums.

Area of ABC = Area of trapezium ABLM + Area of trapezium AMNC - Area of trapezium BLNC
We know that, Area of trapezium

1
(Sum of parallel sides) (distance b/w them)
2

Therefore
Area of ABC

1
1
1
(BL + AM) (LM) +
(AM + CN) MN(BL + CN) (LN)
2
2
2

Area of ABC

1
1
1
(y2 + y1) x1 - x2) +
(y1 + y3) (x3 - x1) (y + y3) (x3 - x2)
2
2
2 2

Area of ABC

7.5

1
[x1 (y 2 y 3 ) x 2 (y 3 y ) x 3 (y 1 y 2 )]
2

## (a) Condition for collinearity :

Three points A (x1, y1) B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) are collinear if Area of ABC = 0.

7.6

AREA OF QUADRILATERAL :
Let the vertices of Quadrilateral ABCD are A(x1,y1), B(x2,y2, C(x3,y3) and D(x4, y4)
So, Area of quadrilateral ABCD = Area of ABC + Area of ACD

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Ex.14 The vertices of ABC are (-2, 1), (5, 4) and (2, -3) respectively. Find the area of triangle.
Sol.

## A(-2, 1), B(-2, 1) and C(2, -3) be the vertices of triangle.

So, x1 = - 2, y1 = 1 ; x2 = 5, y2 = 4; x3 = 2 y3 = -3
Area of ABC

1
x1(y 2 y 3 ) x2 (y 3 y 1 ) x3(y 1 y 2 )
2

1
(2)(4 3) (5)(3 1) 2(1 4)
2

1
14 (20) (6)
2

1
40
2

= 20 Sq. unit.

Ex.15 The area of a triangle is 5. Two of its vertices area (2, 1) and (3, -2). The third vertex lies on y
= x + 3. Find the third vertex.
Sol.

## Let the third vertex be (x3, y3) area of triangle

1
x1(y 2 y 3 ) x2 (y 3 y 1 ) x3(y 1 y 2 )
2

As

x1 = 2 y1 = 1 ; x2 = 3, y2 = - 2 ;

10 = |3x3 + y3 - 7|

3x3 + y3 - 7 =

## Area of = 5 sq. unit

1
2(2 y 3 ) 3(y 3 1) x 3 (1 2)
2

10

## Taking positive sign

3x3 + y3 - 7 = 10

3x + y3 = 17

.....(i)

## Taking negative sing

3x3 + y3 - 7 = - 10

3x + y3 = - 3

.....(ii)

So,

-x + y3 = 3

....(iii)

x3

7
,
2

y3

13
2

y3

3
2

## Solving eq. (ii) & (iii)

x3

3
,
2

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7 13
3 3
, or
,
2
2

2 2

## So the third vertex are

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Ex.16 Find the area of quadrilateral whose vertices, taken in order, are (-3, 2), B(5, 4), (7, -6) and D(5, -4).
Sol.

## Area of quadrilateral = Area of ABC + Area of ACD

Area of ABC

So,

1
(3)(4 6) 5(6 2) 7(2 4)
2

1
30 40 14
2

1
84 42Sq. units
2

Area of ACD

So,

1
3(6 4) 7(4 2) (5)(2 6)
2

1
1
6 42 40 76 38Sq. units
2
2

## DAILY PRACTIVELY PROBLEMS # 7

OBJECTIVE DPP - 7.1
1.

2.

The points (-a, -b), (0, 0), (a, b) and (a2, ab) are
(A) Collinear

## (D) None of these

If the points (5, 1), (1, p) & (4, 2) are collinear then the value of p will be
(A) 1

3.

(C) 2

(D) -2

Length of the median from B on AC where A(-1, 3), B(1, -1), (5, 1) is
(A)

4.

(B) 5

18

(B)

10

(C) 2 3

(D) 4

The points (0, -1), (-2, 3), (6, 7) and (8, 3) are (A) Collinear

## (B) Vertices of a parallelogram which is not a

rectangle
(C) Verticals of a rectangle, which is not a square (D) None of these
5.

If (3, -4) and (-6, 5) are the extremities of the diagonal of a parallelogram and (-2, 1) is third
vertex, then its fourth vertex is (A) (-1, 0)

6.

(C) (-1, 1)

## (D) None of these

The area of a triangle whose vertices are (a, c + a), (a, c) and (-a, c - a) are
(A) a2

7.

## (B) (0, -1)

(B) b2

(C) c2

(D) a2 + c2

The are of the quadrilaterals the coordinates of whose verticals are (1, -2,) (6, 2), (5, 3) and

(3, 4) are

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(A)

9
2

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(B) 5

(C)

11
2

(D) 11

91

1.

## Find the distance between the points :

(i) P (-6, 7) and Q(-1, -5).
(ii) A(at12, 2at1) and B(at22, 2at2).

2.
ay.

If the point (x, y) is equidistant from the points (a + b, b - a) and (a - b, a + b), prove that bx =

3.

Find the value of x, if the distance between the points (x, -1) and (3, 2) is 5.

4.

Show that the points (a, a), (-a, -a) and 3a, 3a ) are the vertices of an equilateral triangle.

5.

Show that the points (1, 1), (-2, 7) and (3, -3) are collinear.

6.

Prove that (2, -2), (-2, 1) and (5, 2) are the vertices of a right angled triangle. Find the area of
the triangle and the length of the hypotenuse.

7.

If A(-1, 3), B(1, -1) and C(5, 1) are the vertices of a triangle ABC, find the length of the median
passing through the vertex A.

8.

Show that the points A(1,2), B(5, 4), C(3, 8) and D(-1, 6) are the vertices of a square.

9.

The abscissa of a point is twice its ordinate and the sum of the abscissa and the ordinate is
-6. What are the coordinates of the point ?

10.
If two vertices of triangle are (3, 7) an (-1, 5) and its centroid is (1, 3), find the coordinates of
the third vertex.
11.

If the mid point of the line-segment joining the points (-7, 14) and (K, 4) is (a, b), where 2a +
3b = 5, find the value of K.

12.

Prove hat the points (a, 0), (0, b) and (1, 1) are collinear if

13.

The co-ordinates of two points A & B are (3, 4) and (5, -2) respectively. Find the co-ordinate of
point P if PA = PB, the area of APB = 10.

14.

Four points A(6, 3), B(-3, 5) C(4, -2) and D(x, 3x) are given in such a way that

1 1
1.
a b

Area (DBC) 1

find x.
Area (ABC ) 2
15.

Show that the points A(2, -2), B(14, 10), C(11, 13) and D(-1, 1) are the vertices of a rectangle.
[CBSE-2004]

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16.

Determine the ratio in which the point (-6, a) divides the join of A(-3, -1) and B(-8, 9). Also find

the value
of a.
[CBSE 2004]
17.

Find a pint on X-axis which is equidistant from the points (7, 6) and (-3, 4).
[CBSE - 2005]

18.

The line segment joining the points (3, -4) and (1, 2) is trisected at the pints P and Q. if the
coordinates of P and Q are (p, -2) and (5/3, ) respectively. Finds the value of p and q.
[CBSE 2005]

19.

If A(-2, -1), B(a, 0), C(4, b) and D(1, 2) are the verities of a parallelogram, find the values of a

and b.
[CBSE -2006]
20.

The coordinates of one end point of a diameter of a circle are (4, -1) and the coordinates of the
centre of the circle are (1, -3). Find the coordinates of the other end of the diameter.
[CBSE-2007]

21.

The pint R divides the line segment AB, where A(-4, 0) and B(0, 6) are such that AR =

3
AB.
4

## Find the co-ordinates or R.

(CBSE - 2008)
22.

For what value of k are the pints (1, 1), (3, k) and (-1, 4) collinear ?
[CBSE - 2008]

23.

Find the area of the ABC with vertices A(-5, 7), B (-4, -5) and C(4, 5).
[CBSE - 2008]

24.

If the point P(x,y) is equidistant from the points A(3,6) and B(-3,4) prove that 3x + y - 5 = 0.
[CBSE - 2008]

25.

If A(4 -8), B(3,6) and C(5,- 4) are the vertices of a ABC, D is the mid-point of BC and is P is
point on AD joined such that

AP
2 find the coordinates of P.
PD
[CBSE - 2008]

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(Objective DPP # 7.1)
Que.

Ans.

## (Subjective DPP # 7.2)

1.

(i) 13

(ii) a(t 2 t 1 ) (t 2 t 1 )2 4

3.

x = 7 or - 1

6.

9.

10.

(1, -3)

11.

25
sq. units, 5 2
2
7.

5 units

13.

## (7, 2) or (1, 0) 14.

18.

p = 7/3, q = 0 19.

a = 1, b = 3

20.

(-2, -5)

22.

k=-2

53 sq. units

25.

(4, -2)

23.

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Pre-foundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division

(-4, -2)

11 3
,
8
8

16.

3 : 2, a = 5
21.

94

K = -15
17.

(1,

(3, 0)

9
)
2

TRIANGLES

ML - 8
8.1

## CONGRUENT AND SIMILAR FIGURES:

Two geometric figures having the same shape and size are known as congruent figures.
Geometric figures having the same shape but different sizes are known as similar figures.

8.2

SIMILAR TRIANGLES:
Two triangles ABC and DEF are said to be similar if their
(i)

## Corresponding angles are equal.

i.e. A = D, B = E, C = F
And,

(ii)

AB BC AC

DE EF DF

## 8.2 (a) Characteristic Properties of Similar Triangles :

(i) (AAA Similarity) If two triangles are equiangular, then they are similar.
(ii) (SSS Similarity) If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, then they
are similar.
(iii) (SAS Similarity) If in two triangles one pair of corresponding sides are proportional and
the included angles are equal then the two triangles are similar.

## 8.2 (b) Results Based Upon Characteristic Properties of Similar Triangles :

(i) If two triangles are equiangular, then the ratio of the corresponding sides is the same as
the ratio of the corresponding medians.
(ii) If two triangles are equiangular, then the ratio of the corresponding sides is same at the
ratio of the corresponding angle bisector segments.
(iii) if two triangles are equiangular then the ratio of the corresponding sides is same at the
ratio of the corresponding altitudes.
(vi) If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of another triangle and the bisectors of
these equal angles divide the opposite side in the same ratio, then the triangles are similar.
(v) If two sides and a median bisecting one of these sides of a triangle are respectively
proportional to the two sides and the corresponding median of another triangle, then the
triangles are similar.
(vi) If two sides and a median bisecting the third side of a triangle are respectively
proportional to the corresponding sides and the median another triangle, then two triangles
are similar.

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8.3

## THALES THEOREM (BASIC PROPROTIONALITY THEOREM) :

Statement : If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect the other sides in distinct
points, then the other two sides are divided in the same ratio.
Given:

## A triangle ABC in which a line parallel to side

BC intersects other two sides AB and AC at D and
E respectively.

To Prove :

AE

DB EC

Construction :

Proof :

Area of ADE (=

1
1
base height) =
2
2

## Area of ADE is denoted as are (ADE)

So,
And

1
DB EN
2
1
ar(BDE) =
DB EN ,
2

Therefore,

Similarly,

And

1

ar(BDE) 1
DB
DB EN
2

.(i)

1
1
AE DM and ar(DEC =
EC DM.
2
2

1
AE DM
AE

ar(DEC ) 1
EC
EC DM
2

......(ii)

Note that BDE and DEC are on the same base DE and between the two parallel lines BC
and DE.
So,

ar(BDE) = ar(DEC)

.....(iii)

## Therefore, from (i), (ii) and (iii), we have :

AE

DB EC

Hence Proved.

Corollary :
If in a ABC, a line DE || BC, intersects AB in D and AC in E, then

DB EC

AB AC

(iv)
DB EC
(i)

(ii)

AB AC

DB EC

(v)
AB AC

(ii)

AE

AB AC

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## Pre-foundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division

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If a line divides any two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, then the line must be parallel to
the third side.

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8.3 (b)

## Some Important Results and Theorems :

(i) The internal bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side internally in the ratio
of the sides containing the angle.
(ii) In a triangle ABC, if D is a point on BC such that D divides BC in the ratio AB : AC, then
AD is the bisector of A.
(iii) The external bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite sides externally in the
ratio of the sides containing the angle.
(iv) The line drawn from the mid-point of one side of a triangle parallel to another side bisects
the third side.
(v) The line joining the mid-points of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side.
(vi) The diagonals of a trapezium divide each other proportionally.
(vii) If the diagonals of a quadrilateral divide each other proportionally, then it is a trapezium.
(viii) Any line parallel to the parallel sides of a trapezium divides the non-parallel sides
proportionally.
(ix) If three or more parallel lines are intersected by two transversal, then the intercepts made
by them on the transversal are proportional.

ILLUSTRATIONS :
Ex.1

In a ABC, D and E are points on the sides AB and AC respectively such that DE || BC. If AD =
4x - 3, AE = 8x - 7, BD = 3x - 1 and CE = 5x - 3, find the value of x.
[CBSE - 2006]

Sol.

In ABC, we have
DE||BC

AE

DB EC

4x 3 8x 7

3x 1 5x 3

## 20x2 - 27x + 9 = 24x2 - 29x + 7

4x2 - 2x - 2 = 0

2x2 - x - 1 = 0

(2x + 1) (x - 1) = 0

x = 1 or x = -

1
2

## So, the required value of x is 1.

[x = -

1
is neglected as length can not be negative].
2

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Ex.2

D and E are respectively the points on the sides AB and AC of a ABC such that AB = 12 cm,

AD = 8 cm,
AE = 12 cm and AC = 18 cm, show that DE || BC.
Sol.

We have,
AB = 12 cm, AC = 18 m, AD = 8 cm and AE = 12 cm.

BD = AB - AD = (12 - 8) cm = 4 cm

CE = AC - AE = (18 12) cm = 6 cm
Now,

BC 4 1

And,

AE 12 2

CE
6
1

AE

BD CE

Thus, DE divides sides AB and AC of ABC in the same ratio. Therefore, by the conserve of
basic proportionality theorem we have DE||BC.
Ex.3

## In a trapezium ABCD AB||DC and DC = 2AB. EF drawn parallel to AB cuts AD in F and BC in E

such that

Sol.

BE 3
. Diagonal DB intersects EF at G. Prove that 7FE = 10AB.
EC 4

## In DFG and DAB,

1 = 2

[Corresponding s AB || FG]

DF FG

DA AB

.....(i)

## Again in trapezium ABCD

EF||AB||DC

BE
AF

DF
EC

AF
3

DF 4

AF
3
1 1
DF
4

AF DF 7

DF
4

DF
4

DF
4

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BE 3

EC 4 (given)

.(ii)

100

FG 4

AB 7

i.e. FG =

4
AB
7

......(iii)

BEG = BCD

GBE = DBC

[Common]

BEG ~ BCD

## [By AA rule of similarity]

BE EG

BC CD

3 EG

7 CD

EG

3
3
CD (2AB ) CD 2AB (given)
7
7

EG

6
AB
7

BE 3
EC 4
EC BE 4 3
BC 7

EG 7 i.e.. BE 3

BE
3
BE 3

.....(iv)

## Adding (iii) and (iv), we get

FG EG

EF

4
6
10
AB AB
AB
7
7
7

10
AB i.e., 7EF 10AB.
7

Ex.4

Sol.

AB
BD

AC
DC

Hence proved.

Area (ABD ) AB

Area (ACD ) AC

## ....(i) [By internal bisector theorem]

From A draw AL BC

1
BD.AL
BD AB
2

Area (ACD ) 1
DC AC
DC.AL
2
Area (ABD )

[From (i)]

Hence Proved.

Ex.5

BAC = 900, AD is its bisector. IF DE AC, prove that DE (AB + AB) = AB AC.

Sol.

## It is given that AD is the bisector of A of ABC.

AB
BD

AC
DC

AB
BD
1
1
AC
DC

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101

AB AC BD DC

AC
DC

AB AC
BC

AC
DC

....(i)

DCE = BCA

[Common]

DEC = BAC

CDE ~ CBA

CD DE

CB BA

AB
BC

DE DC

....(ii)

AB AC AB

AC
DE

## DE (AB + AC) = AB AC.

Ex.6

In the given figure, PA, QB and RC are each perpendicular to AC. Prove that

Sol.

BQ CB

AP
CA
y
x

1 1 1

x z y

[ CBQ ~ CAP]

CB
CA

(i)

BQ AB

CR AC
y
z

[ ABQ ~ ACR]

AB
AC

(ii)

## Adding (i) and (ii), we get

y
x

y
x
y
x

y
z
y
z
y
z

CB AB

AC AC

AB BC
AC

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Pre-foundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division

y
x

y
z

AC
AC

1 1 1

x z y

Hence Proved.

102

Ex.7

Sol.

## Since the diagonals of a trapezium divide each other proportionally.

8.4

AO
BO

OC OD

3x 19 x 4

x 3
4

12x - 76 = x2 - 4x - 3x + 12

x2 - 19x + 88 = 0

x2 - 11x - 8x + 88 = 0

(x - 8) (x - 11) = 0

x = 8 or x = 11.

## AREAS OF SIMILAR TRIANGLS :

Statement : The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the square of the ratio of their
corresponding sides.
Two triangles ABC and PQR such that ABC ~ PQR

Given :

To Prove :

ar(ABC ) AB

ar(PQR ) PQ

BC

QR

CA

RP

Construction :

Proof :

ar(ABC) =

1
BC AM
2

ar(PQT) =

1
QR PN
2

And

So,

1
BC AM
ar(ABC ) 2
BC AM

1
ar(PQR )
QR PN
QR PN
2

....(i)

## Now, in ABM and PQN,

And

B = Q

[900 each]

M = N
So,

ABM ~ PQN

Therefore,

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Pre-foundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division

AM
AB

PN
PQ

## [AA similarity criterion]

....(ii)

103

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104

Also,

ABC ~ PQR

[Given]

So,

AB BC CA

PQ QR RP

.....(iii)

Therefore,

ar(ABC ) BC AB

ar(PQR ) QR PQ

AB AB

PQ PQ

AB

PQ

[From (iii)]

ar(ABC ) AB

ar(PQR ) PQ

BC

QR

CA

RP

## 8.4 (a) Properties of Areas of Similar Triangles :

(i) The areas of two similar triangles are in the ratio of the squares of corresponding altitudes.
(ii) The areas of two similar triangles are in the ratio of the squares of the corresponding
medians.
(iii) The area of two similar triangles are in the ratio of the squares of the corresponding angle
bisector segments.
Ex.8

Prove that the area of the equilateral triangle described on the side of a square is half the area
of the equilateral triangle described on this diagonals.

Sol.

[CBSE - 2001]

Given : A square ABCD. Equilateral triangles BCE and ACF have been described on side BC
and diagonals AC respectively.
To prove : Area (BCE) =

1
. Area (ACF)
2

Proof : Since BCE and ACF are equilateral. Therefore, they are equiangular (each angle
being equal
to 600) and hence BCE ~ ACF.

Area(BCE) BC 2

Area(ACF ) AC 2

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105

BC 2

Area(BCE)

Area(ACF )

Area(BCE)
1

Area(ACF ) 2

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2BC

1
2

ABCD is asquare
Diagonal 2(side)

AC 2BC
Hence Proved.

106

8.5

PYTHAGOREOUS THEOREM :

Statement : In a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the square of
the other two sides.
Given :
A right triangle ABC, right angled at B.
To prove :
AC2 = AB2 + BC2
Construction :

BD AC

Proof :

DAB = CAB

[Common]
[900 each]

BDA = CBA
So,

AB

AB AC
or,

## [Sides are proportional]

AD . AC = AB2

Similarly
So,

[By AA similarity]

.....(i)

BDC ~ ABC

CD BC

BC AC

or
CD . AC = BC2
Adding (i) and (ii),

or,

.....(ii)

AD . AC + CD . AC = AB2 + BC2
AC (AD + CD) = AB2 + BC2
AC.AC = AB2 + BC2
AC2 = AB2 + BC2

or
or,

Hence Proved.

## 8.5 (a) Converse of Pythagoreans Theorem :

Statement : In a triangle, if the square of one side is equal to
the sum of the squares of the other two sides,
then the angle opposite to the first side is a right
angle.
Given :
A triangle ABC such that AC2 = AB2 + BC2
Construct a triangle DEF such that DE = AB, EF = BC and E = 900
In order to prove that B = 90.0, it is sufficient to show ABC ~ DEF. For this we
proceed as follows Since DEF is a right - angled triangle with right angle at E.
Therefore, by Pythagoras theorem, we have
DF2 = DE2 + EF2

Construction :
Proof :

DF23 = AC2

## [ DE = AB and EF = BC (By construction)]

[ AB2 + BC2 = AC2 (Given)]

DF = AC
.....(i)
Thus, in ABC and DEF, we have
AB = DE, BC = EF
[By construction]
And
AC = DF
[From equation (i)]

ABC DEF
[By SSS criteria of congruency]
0

B = E = 90

R e s o n a Hence,
n c e ABC is a right triangle, right angled at B.
Pre-foundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division

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8.5 (b)

## Some Results Deduced From Pythagoreans Theorem :

(i) In the given figure ABC is an obtuse triangle, obtuse angled at B. If AD CD,
then AC2 = AB2 + BC2 + 2BC . BC

(ii) In the given figure, if B of ABC is an acute angle and AD BC, then AC2 = AB2 + BC2
- 2BC . BD

(iii) In any triangle, the sum of the squares of any two sides is equal to twice the square of
half of the third side together with twice the square of the median which bisects the third side.
(iv) Three times the sum of the squares of the sides of a triangle is equal to four times the
sum of the squares o the medians of the triangle.
Ex.9

[CBSE - 2002]
Sol.

(i)

AD = a 3

(i)

3 a2

## Clearly, ABC is an equilateral triangle.

Thus, in ABD and ACD

[Common]
[900 each]

And

AB = AC

BD = DC = a

Now,

AD = AB 2 BD 2

ABD ACD

(ii)

4a2 a2

Area (ABC) =

3a

or a 3

1
2

Resonance

## [Using Pythagoreans Theorem]

1
2a a 3
2

108

a2 3

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Ex.10 BL and Cm are medians of ABC right angled at A. Prove that 4(BL2 + CM2) = 5 BC2
[CBSE-2006]
Sol. In BAL
BL2 = AL2 + AB2
....(i)
[Using Pythagoreans theorem]
and In CAM
CM2 = AM2 + AC2 .....(ii)
[Using Pythagoreans theorem]
Adding (1) and (2) and then multiplying by 4, we get
4(BL2 + CM2) =4(AL2 + AB2 + AM2 + AC2)
=
=
=

## 4{AL2 + AM2 + (AB2 + AC2)}

4(AL2 + AM2 + BC2)
4(ML2 + BC2)
4ML2 + 4 BC2

## [ LAM is a right triangle]

=
[A line joining mid-points of two sides is parallel to third side and is equal to half of it, ML =
BC/2]
=

## BC2 + 4BC2 = 5BC2

Hence proved.

Ex.11 In the given figure, BC AB, AE AB and DE AC. Prove that DE.BC = AD.AB.
Sol. In ABC and EDA,
We have
[Each equal to 900]

By AA Similarity
ABC ~ EDA

AB DE

[Alternate angles]

Hence Proved.

Ex.12 O is any point inside a rectangle ABCD (shown in the figure). Prove that OB 2 + OD2 = OA2 +
OC2
Sol. Through O, draw PQ||BC so that P lies on A and Q lies on DC.
[CBSE - 2006]
Now,
PQ||BC
Therefore,
PQ AB and PQ DC
[B = 900 and C = 900]
So,
BPQ = 900 and CQP = 900
Therefore, BPQC and APQD are both rectangles.
Now, from OPB,
OB2 = BP2 + OP2
Similarly, from ODQ,

## OD2 = OQ2 + DQ2

From OQC, we have
OC2 = OQ2 + CQ2

....(i)
....(ii)

...(iii)
And form OAP, we have
OA2 = AP2 + OP2
....(iv)
Adding (i) and (ii)
OB2 + OD2 = BP2 + OP2 + OQ2 + DQ2
= CQ2 + OP2 + OQ2 + AP2

## [As BP = CQ and DQ = AP]

2
2
= CQ + OQ + OP2 + AP2

Resonance
Pre-foundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division

110

Proved.

Resonance
Pre-foundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division

## = OC2 + OA2 [From (iii) and (iv)]

Hence

111

Ex.13 ABC is a right triangle, right-angled at C. Let BC = a, CA b, AB = c and let p be the length of
perpendicular
form C on AB, prove that
1
1
1
2 2
(i)
cp = ab
(ii)
2
p
a
b
Sol.

## Let CD AB. Then CD = p

=
Also,

1
(Base height)
2
1
1
(AB CD) =
cp
2
2

Area of ABC =

1
1
(BC AC) =
ab
2
2
1
1
cp =
ab
2
2

Area of ABC =

(ii)

CP = AB.
Since ABC is a right triangle, right angled at C.
AB2 = BC2 + AC2

c2 = a.. + b2

ab

a b

p2
1

p2
1

p2

= a2 + b2

cp ab c

ab

= a2 + b2
1
2

b
1

a2

1
a2
1
b2

Ex.14 In an equilateral triangle ABC, the side B is trisected at D. Prove that 9 AD 2 = 7AB2.
Sol. ABC be can equilateral triangle and D be point on BC such that
[CBSE - 2005]

1
BC (Given)
3
Draw AE BC, Join AD.
BE = EC (Altitude drown from any vertex of an equilateral triangle bisects the opposite side)
BC
So,
BE = EC =
2
In
ABC
AB2 = AE2 + EB2
.....(i)
2
2
2
AD = AE + ED
....(ii)
From (i) and (ii)
AB2 = AD2 - ED2 + EB2
BC
BC
BC
BC
BC 2 BC 2
2
2

DE
DE

AB = AD ( BD + DE =
)
2
3
2
6
36
4
BC
BC 2 BC 2
(EB
)
AB 2

36
4
2
AB 2 AB 2
(AB BC)
AB 2

36
4
BC =

Resonance

## Pre-foundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division

112

36AB 2 AB 2 9AB 2
36
7AB 2 9AD 2

28AB 2
36

## DAILY PRACTIVE PROBLEMS # 8

OBJECTIVE DPP - 8.1
1.

The perimeters of two similar triangles are 25 cm and 15 cm respectively. If one side of first
triangle is 9 cm, then the corresponding side of the other triangle is
(A) 6.2 cm

2.

3.

(C) 5.4 cm

(D) 8.4 cm

In the following figure, AE BC, D is the mid point of BC, hen x is equal to
(A)

1 2
a2
2
b d

a
4

(B)

hd
3

(C)

c d h
2

(D)

a2 b 2 d 2 c 2
4

## Two triangles ABC and PQR are similar, if BC : CA : AB = 1 : 2 : 3 , then

(A)

4.

(B) 3.4 cm

2
3

(B)

1
2

(C)

QR
is
PR

(D)

2
3

In a triangle ABC, if angle B = 900 and D is the point in BC such that BD = 2 DC, then
(A) AC2 = AD2 + 3 CD2

## C) AC2 = AD2 + 7 CD2

(D) AC2

= AB2 + 5 BD2
5.

P and Q are the mid points of the sides AB and BC respectively of the triangle ABC, right-

angled at B, then
(A) AQ2 + CP2 = AC2
(C) AQ2 + CP2 =

6.

5
AC 2
4

4
AC 2
5

3
AC 3
5

## In a ABC, AD is the bisector of A, meeting side BC at D.

If AB = 10 cm, AC = 6 cm, BC = 12 cm, find BD.

7.

(A) 3.3

(B) 18

(C) 7.5

(D) 1.33

## In a triangle ABC, a straight line parallel to BC intersects AB and AC at point D and E

respectively. If the area of ADE is one-fifth of the area of ABC and BC = 10 cm, then DE equals
(A) 2 cm

Resonance
Pre-foundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division

(B) 2 5 cm

(C) 4 cm

(D) 4 5 cm

113

8.

ABC is a right-angle triangle, right angled at A . A circle is inscribed in it. The lengths of the
two sides containing the right angle are 6 cm and 8 cm, then radius of the circle is
(A) 3 cm

Resonance
Pre-foundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division

(B) 2 cm

(C) 4 cm

(D) 8 cm

114

1.

## Find the lengths of segments DG and DE.

2.
In the given figure, DE is parallel to the base BC of triangle ABC and AD : DB = 5 : 3. Find the
ratio : (i)

AB

[CBSE - 2000]
(ii)

Area of DEF
Area of CFB

3.

In Figure, ABC is a right-angled triangle, where ACB = 900. The external bisector BD of
ABC meets AC produced at D. If AB = 17 cm and BC = 8 cm, find the AC and BD.

4.

In figure, QPS = RPT and PST = PQR. Prove that PST ~ PQR and hence find the ratio
ST : PT, if PR : R = 4 : 5.

5.

## In the figure, PQRS is a parallelogram with PQ = 16 cm and QR = 10 cm. L is a point on PR

such that RL : LP = 2 : 3. QL produced meets RS at M and PS produced at N.

## Find the lengths of PN and RM.

Resonance
Pre-foundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division

115

6.

In ABC, D and E are points on AB and AC respectively such that DE||BC. If AD = 2.4 cm, AE =
3.2 cm, DE = 2 cm and BC = 5 cm, find BD and CE.

7.

In a triangle PQR, L an DM are two points on the base QR, such that :PQ = QRP and RPM =
RQP. Prove that :
(i)
PQL ~ RPM
(ii)
QL RM = PL PM
(iii)
PQ2 = QR QL

8.

9.

## In figure, ACB = 900, CD AB prove that CD2 = BD.AD.

10.

In a right triangle, prove that the square on the hypotenuse is equal to sum of the squares on
the other two sides.
Using the above result, prove the following:
In figure PQR is a right triangle, right angled at Q. If QS = SR, show that PR2 = 4PS2 - 3PQ2.

11.

In ABC, ABC = 1350. Prove that AC2 = AB2 + BC2 + 4ar ( ABC).

12.

In figure, ABC and DBC are two right triangles with the common hypotenuse BC and with their
sides AC and DB intersecting at P. Prove that AP PC = DP PB.
[CBSE - 2000]

Resonance
Pre-foundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division

116

13.

Any point O, inside ABC, in joined to its vertices. From a point D on AO, DE is drawn so that
DE||AB and EF||BC as shown in figure. Prove that DF||AC.
[CBSE-2002]

14.
In figure, D and E trisect BC. Prove that 8AE2 = 3AC2 + 5AD2
- 2006]

[CBSE

15.

The perpendicular AD on the base BC of a ABC meets BC at D so that 2DB = 3CD. Prove that
5AB2 = 5AC2 + BC2.
[CBSE 2007]

16.
their

Prove that the ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares on

corresponding sides.
Using the above, do the following :
The diagonals of a trapezium ABCD, with AB ||DC, intersect each other point O. If AB = 2 CD,
find the ratio of the area of to the area of COD
[CBSE - 2008]
17.
D, E and F are the mid-points of the sides AB, BC and CA respectively of ABC. Find
ar(DEF)
.
ar(ABC )
[CBSE - 2008]
18.
D and E are points on the sides CA and CB respectively of ABC right-angled at C. Prove that
AE2 + BD2 = AB2 + DE2.
19.

## In figure, DB BC, DE AB and AC BC. Prove that

BE AC

DE BC

[CBSE - 2008]

Resonance
Pre-foundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division

117

(Objective DPP # 8.1)
Que.

Ans.

1.

3.

15 cm.,

4.

5:4

5.

6.

## DB = 3.6 cm, CE = 4.8 cm

5
8

2.

(i)

16.

4:1

(ii)

25
64

8 34
cm.
3

Resonance
Pre-foundationCareer CareProgrammes (PCCP) Division

17.

1:4

118