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Standard
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Copyright 2009 Nortel Networks, All Rights Reserved


Printed in France
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The information contained in this document is the property of Nortel Networks. Except as specifically authorized in
writing by Nortel Networks, the holder of this document shall keep the information contained herein confidential
and shall protect same in whole or in part from disclosure and dissemination to third parties and use same for
evaluation, operation and maintenance purposes only.
The content of this document is provided for information purposes only and is subject to modification. It does not
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This is the Way. This is Nortel, Nortel, the Nortel logo, and the Globemark are trademarks of Nortel Networks. All
other trademarks are the property of their owners.

V18.0 BSS Parameter User Guide (BPUG)

PUBLICATION HISTORY
System release: GSM/BSS V18

January 2009
Issue 18.04/EN
Update for v18 Customer Readiness after review (iPOR Id 422749)

December 2008
Issue 18.03/EN
Update for v18 Channel Readiness
AMR Maximization parameters ( 5.38), Single BCCH Multizone Enhancement ( 5.20)
Enhanced Very Early Assignment ( 5.46).

October 2008
Issue 18.02/EN
Update for v18 Customer Readiness after review (iPOR Id 391287)
AMR Maximization parameters ( 5.38).

September 2008
Issue 18.01/EN
Update for v18 Customer Readiness
2G 3G UTRAN FDD TDD Cell Reselection ( 4.4) Single BCCH Multizone Enhancement
(4.8.2, 4.8.6, 4.10.6); AMR Based on Traffic (4.22.8); AMR Maximization ( 4.22.9);
Queuing HR ( 4.22.10 ); Repeated Downlink FACCH ( 4.22.11); Smart BTS Power
Management (4.28 ); Enhanced Very Early Assignment ( 4.29).

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System release: GSM/BSS V17

May 2008
Issue 17.04/EN
Update for v17 Channel Readiness + 8 Weeks.
Update of 2G-3G Reselection description (4.8.24);

March 2008
Issue 17.03/EN
Update for v17 Channel Readiness.
Update of Enhanced Measurement Reporting Parameters (4.8.24); update of GSM to UMTS
handovers parameters (4.5.8); clarification on msTxPwrMax2ndBand on Power Control
Parameters section ( 5.16)

October 2007
Issue 17.02/EN
Update for v17 Customer Readiness.
Update of GSM to UMTS handover with normal measurement reporting (4.8.24); update of
legacy measurement reporting to include UTRAN neighbours (4.5.8); update of reporting
priority criteria used in EMR (4.6.5); summary of differences between MR and EMR (4.6.8);
new section on eMLPP Preemption (4.12); clarification of types of TDMA priorities (6.19.2);
new recommendation for trafficPCMAllocationPriority; new range for hoMarginBeg;
clarification of bscHopReconfUse; diversity mandatory for ICA (4.18); list of Railway
parameters (3.3); update of handover decision table for AMR TCH (4.8.4); clarification of
Downlink DTX activation (4.11.10).

July 2007
Issue 17.01/EN
Update for v17 Business Readiness + 21 weeks:
Legacy measurement report (4.5); Enhanced Measurement Report (4.6); Downlink FER
(4.6.11); GSM to UMTS Handover (4.8.24, 7.7); Single BCCH Multizone Enhancement
(4.8.2, 4.8.6, 4.10.6); AMR-HR on preempted pDTCH (4.22.6, impact on AboT 4.22.8);
A5/3 Encryption (4.27); Smart BTS Power management (4.28); Novel adaptive receiver
(4.26); BSS CS Paging Coordination (4.13.8); H3 impact on BTS cabinet power setting
(4.16); new recommended values for modeModifyMandatory (5.18); addition of RxQual
criteria for interzone handovers (4.8.6); removal of reference to gsmProtocol in ICA (5.30);
Sysinfo broadcast cycle (4.17.3).

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System release: GSM/BSS V16

March 2007
Issue 16.04/EN
Update for V16 ChR + 8 Weeks: Update of Network Synchronization ( 4.34); Update of TX
Power Offset for signalling Channels parameters ( 5.34); Update of network Synchronization
Impacts ( 6.36); Addition of Network Synchronization Engineering planning ( 6.37) and
Network Synchronization First Trial Results ( 6.38)

November 2006
Issue 16.03/EN
Update for V16 ChR after review: Update of CellAllocation ( 5.21); update PCM error
correction ( 4.17.3); update of AMR based on traffic parameters ( 5.34)

October 2006
Issue 16.02/EN
Update for V16 ChR: Update of TEPMOS for AMR and not EFR calls ( 6.32.2 and 6.32.6)
I Multipaging command message ( 4.10.5); UI Multipaging command message ( 4.10.6);
Tx Power Offset for signalling Channels ( 4.23.9); update coderPoolConfiguration ( 5.34);
update PCM error correction ( 4.17.3); update rescue Handover ( 4.6.1) and PBGT formula
( 4.5.1); PCM priority ( 6.27.5); update Cabinet power description ( 4.13.1)

May 2006
Issue 16.01/EN
Update for V16 CuR: 6.16 Frequency Spacing Between Two TRXs of the Same Area

March 2006
Issue 16.0/EN
Update for V16. CuR: Repeated Downlink FACCH ( 4.23.8); Tx Power Offset for signalling
Channels ( 4.23.9); Directed Retry Handover and queuing ( 4.5.5, 4.23.5 removed from
WPS description); updates on CellAllocation and mobileAllocation description ( 5.21);updates
on AMR mechanism ( 4.23.2, 4.23.4);updates on TCH allocation management ( 4.9.1,
4.9.2); updates on interference cancellation ( 4.15, 6.22); update on lRxQualDLH and
lRxQualULH description ( 5.10);update on dARPPh1Priority description ( 5.36); update
coderPoolConfiguration ( 5.34); update on extended cell description ( 5.12)

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CONTENTS
1.

ABOUT THIS DOCUMENT .........................................................................................................13


1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.

OBJECT ..................................................................................................................................13
SCOPE ...................................................................................................................................13
AUDIENCE FOR THIS DOCUMENT ..............................................................................................13
DISCLAIMER ...........................................................................................................................13
DOCUMENT STRUCTURE ..........................................................................................................14
UPDATES TO PREVIOUS RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................15

1.6.1
1.6.2
2.

RELATED DOCUMENTS ............................................................................................................16


2.1.
2.2.

3.

between V17 and V18...................................................................................................15


between V16 and V17...................................................................................................15

APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS ........................................................................................................16


REFERENCE DOCUMENTS .......................................................................................................16

CLASSIFICATION OF BSS PARAMETERS ..............................................................................19


3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.

PARAMETER LIST ....................................................................................................................19


GSM UNUSED PARAMETERS ....................................................................................................29
RAILWAY-SPECIFIC PARAMETERS (GSM-R)..............................................................................29
PARAMETERS VERSUS BSS FEATURES AND PROCEDURES .......................................................30

3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.4.5
3.4.6
3.4.7
3.4.8
3.4.9
3.4.10
3.4.11
3.4.12
3.4.13
3.4.14
3.4.15
3.4.16
3.4.17
3.4.18
3.4.19
3.4.20
3.4.21
3.4.22
3.4.23
3.4.24
3.4.25
3.4.26
3.4.27
3.4.28
3.4.29

2G Cell Selection and Reselection ...............................................................................30


2G-3G UTRAN FDD & TDD Cell Reselection..............................................................30
Legacy Measurement Reporting ...................................................................................30
Enhanced Measurement Reporting ..............................................................................30
Level averaging.............................................................................................................30
Quality averaging ..........................................................................................................30
Distance averaging .......................................................................................................30
Cell eligibility..................................................................................................................30
Radio Link Failure .........................................................................................................31
Interference management .............................................................................................31
PCH and RACH control parameters .............................................................................31
Concentric Cell ..............................................................................................................31
Extended cell.................................................................................................................31
Queuing and priority management................................................................................31
eMLPP Preemption .......................................................................................................31
SMS-CB ........................................................................................................................31
Frequency Hopping.......................................................................................................32
Dynamic barring of access class ..................................................................................32
DTX ...............................................................................................................................32
Uplink Power control .....................................................................................................32
Downlink Power control.................................................................................................32
Directed retry handover.................................................................................................32
Uplink intracell handover...............................................................................................32
Downlink intracell handover ..........................................................................................32
Intercell handover on bad uplink quality criterion..........................................................32
Intercell handover on bad downlink quality criterion .....................................................33
Intercell handover on bad uplink level criterion.............................................................33
Intercell handover on bad downlink level criterion ........................................................33
Intercell handover on power budget criterion................................................................33
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3.4.30
3.4.31
3.4.32
3.4.33
3.4.34
3.4.35
3.4.36
3.4.37
3.4.38
3.4.39
3.4.40
3.4.41
3.4.42
3.4.43
3.4.44
3.4.45
3.4.46
3.4.47
3.4.48
3.4.49
3.4.50
3.4.51
3.4.52
3.4.53
3.4.54
3.4.55
3.4.56
3.4.57
4.

Microcellular algorithm ..................................................................................................33


Intercell handover on distance criterion ........................................................................33
Handover for traffic reasons..........................................................................................33
Handover decision according to adjacent cell...............................................................33
General protection against HO PingPong.....................................................................33
Call clearing...................................................................................................................33
Frequency Band favouring ............................................................................................34
Minimum Time between Handover ...............................................................................34
Radio resource control at cell level ...............................................................................34
Pre-synchronised Handover..........................................................................................34
Interferer cancellation....................................................................................................34
Early HO decision .........................................................................................................34
Maximum RxLev for PBGT ...........................................................................................34
Cell Tiering ....................................................................................................................34
TTY support on BSC/TCU 3000....................................................................................34
Protection against intracell HO Ping-pong ....................................................................34
Automatic Handover adaptation....................................................................................34
GSM to UMTS Handover ..............................................................................................35
Adaptative Full/Half Rate ..............................................................................................35
Wireless Priority Service ...............................................................................................35
Network Synchronization ..............................................................................................35
Repeated Downlink FACCH..........................................................................................35
Tx Power Offset for Signalling.......................................................................................35
Novel adaptive Receiver ...............................................................................................35
A5/3 Encryption Algorithm.............................................................................................36
BTS Smart Power Management ...................................................................................36
Enhanced Very Early Assignment ................................................................................36
AMR Maximization ........................................................................................................36

ALGORITHMS .............................................................................................................................37
4.1.
4.2.

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................37
CONVENTIONS AND UNITS .......................................................................................................37

4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5
4.2.6
4.3.

2G CELL SELECTION AND RESELECTION ..................................................................................43

4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.4.

Overview .......................................................................................................................43
Selection or reselection between cells of current Location Area ..................................44
Reselection to a cell of a different Location Area..........................................................44
Additional reselection criterion (for phase 2).................................................................45

2G - 3G UTRAN FDD & TDD CELL RESELECTION ..................................................................48

4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.5.

Unit ................................................................................................................................37
Phase 2 BTS and MS maximum transmitting output powers .......................................38
GSM Products sensitivity and power ............................................................................40
Conversion rules ...........................................................................................................41
Accuracy related to measurements ..............................................................................41
Frequency band ............................................................................................................42

UE algorithm in GSM circuit mode................................................................................48


3G neighbouring cell information in SI2quater..............................................................51
Control Information in SI2Quater ..................................................................................52

LEGACY MEASUREMENT REPORTING .......................................................................................53

4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
4.5.5
4.5.6
4.5.7

Principle.........................................................................................................................53
Neighbour cell Monitoring .............................................................................................53
Serving cell monitoring..................................................................................................54
Reporting Period ...........................................................................................................54
Neighbour Cell Lists ......................................................................................................54
Measurement Report Content.......................................................................................55
Multiband reporting .......................................................................................................56
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4.5.8
4.5.9
4.5.10
4.6.

ENHANCED MEASUREMENT REPORTING (EMR) .......................................................................61

4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.6.5
4.6.6
4.6.7
4.6.8
4.6.9
4.6.10
4.6.11
4.7.

General formulas...........................................................................................................75
Direct TCH Allocation....................................................................................................78
Handovers .....................................................................................................................82
Handovers decision priority...........................................................................................85
Directed Retry Handover...............................................................................................87
Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell Handover .....................................................90
Rescue Handover .........................................................................................................96
Power Budget Handover ...............................................................................................98
Handover for traffic reasons..........................................................................................98
Handover decision according to adjacent cell priorities and load .............................. 101
Automatic cell tiering .................................................................................................. 102
Microcellular Handover .............................................................................................. 107
Forced Handover ....................................................................................................... 110
Early HandOver Decision........................................................................................... 111
Maximum RxLev for Power Budget ........................................................................... 112
Pre-synchronized HO................................................................................................. 113
Radio channel allocation ............................................................................................ 113
Define eligible neighbor cells for intercell handover (except directed retry) .............. 114
Handover to 2nd best candidate when return to old channel .................................... 115
Protection against RunHandover=1 ........................................................................... 115
General protection against HO ping-pong ................................................................. 116
Automatic handover adaptation ................................................................................. 118
Protection against Intracell HO Ping-Pong ................................................................ 121
GSM to UMTS handover............................................................................................ 124

HANDOVER ALGORITHMS ON THE MOBILE SIDE ..................................................................... 135


POWER CONTROL ALGORITHMS ........................................................................................... 136

4.10.1
4.10.2
4.10.3
4.10.4
4.10.5
4.10.6
4.11.

Principle.........................................................................................................................70
Averaging process ........................................................................................................71
Rescaling.......................................................................................................................72
Missing downlink measurements ..................................................................................72

DIRECT TCH ALLOCATION AND HANDOVER ALGORITHMS .........................................................75

4.8.1
4.8.2
4.8.3
4.8.4
4.8.5
4.8.6
4.8.7
4.8.8
4.8.9
4.8.10
4.8.11
4.8.12
4.8.13
4.8.14
4.8.15
4.8.16
4.8.17
4.8.18
4.8.19
4.8.20
4.8.21
4.8.22
4.8.23
4.8.24
4.9.
4.10.

Principle.........................................................................................................................61
Reporting period............................................................................................................61
Enhanced Measurement Report content ......................................................................61
Neighbour Cell lists .......................................................................................................62
Order of reporting priority of neighbour cells.................................................................63
Measurement Information message .............................................................................63
MI/SACCH scheduling ..................................................................................................66
Main differences between Normal and Enhanced Measurement Reporting ................66
New BSS parameters....................................................................................................67
Impact of EMR on Interference Matrix ..........................................................................68
Impact of EMR on Radio Measurement Distribution (RMD) .........................................69

UPLINK MEASUREMENT PROCESSING ......................................................................................70

4.7.1
4.7.2
4.7.3
4.7.4
4.8.

UTRAN cell reporting using legacy measurement reports (V17)..................................56


Note on powerControlIndicator parameter....................................................................59
Note on Rxlev Uplink/Downlink difference ....................................................................60

Step by step Power Control ....................................................................................... 136


One shot Power Control............................................................................................. 137
Fast Power Control at TCH assignment .................................................................... 139
Power Control on mobile side .................................................................................... 140
AMR Power Control ................................................................................................... 140
Power Adaptation After An Interzone HO .................................................................. 141

TCH ALLOCATION MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................... 144


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4.11.1
4.11.2
4.11.3
4.11.4
4.11.5
4.11.6
4.11.7
4.11.8
4.11.9
4.11.10
4.12.

EMLPP PREEMPTION

4.12.1
4.12.2
4.12.3
4.12.4
4.12.5
4.12.6
4.12.7
4.12.8
4.13.

Cabinet power description.......................................................................................... 197


Pr computation ........................................................................................................... 198
Ps computation .......................................................................................................... 198
Dual Band Handling ................................................................................................... 200
SI2Quater & SI13 on Extended or Normal BCCH...................................................... 203
Summary of SYSINFO Scheduling ............................................................................ 205

INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION ............................................................................................ 206


EXTENDED CCCH ............................................................................................................... 208

4.19.1
4.19.2
4.20.

BSC3000 Overload Management .............................................................................. 193


Load Balancing .......................................................................................................... 195
Evolution of Load Balancing....................................................................................... 195

SYSTEM INFORMATION MESSAGES RELATED FEATURES ........................................................ 200

4.17.1
4.17.2
4.17.3
4.18.
4.19.

Frequency hopping principles .................................................................................... 186


Main benefits of frequency hopping ........................................................................... 187
Synthesised frequency hopping................................................................................. 189
Baseband frequency Hopping.................................................................................... 190
Ad-Hoc frequency plan............................................................................................... 192

CABINET OUTPUT POWER SETTING ...................................................................................... 197

4.16.1
4.16.2
4.16.3
4.17.

Paging command Process ......................................................................................... 173


Paging command repetition process (run by BTS) .................................................... 175
Request access command process ........................................................................... 177
Request access command repetition process ........................................................... 177
I Multipaging command message .............................................................................. 178
UI Multipaging command message............................................................................ 180
Network Mode of Operation I support in BSS ............................................................ 182
BSS CS Paging Coordination .................................................................................... 184

BSC OVERLOAD MANAGEMENT MECHANISMS....................................................................... 193

4.15.1
4.15.2
4.15.3
4.16.

Principle of eMLPP..................................................................................................... 163


End-to-end perspective .............................................................................................. 164
Preemption attributes ................................................................................................. 166
BSS Radio Resource preemption algorithm .............................................................. 167
Activation parameter .................................................................................................. 170
eMLPP preemption versus PDTCH preemption ........................................................ 170
Interworking................................................................................................................ 171
Restrictions................................................................................................................. 172

FREQUENCY HOPPING ......................................................................................................... 186

4.14.1
4.14.2
4.14.3
4.14.4
4.14.5
4.15.

.......................................................................................................... 163

PCH AND RACH CHANNEL CONTROL ................................................................................... 173

4.13.1
4.13.2
4.13.3
4.13.4
4.13.5
4.13.6
4.13.7
4.13.8
4.14.

TCH Allocation and Priority ........................................................................................ 144


Queuing...................................................................................................................... 148
Barring of access class .............................................................................................. 152
Radio link failure process (run by the MS) ................................................................. 157
Radio link failure process (run by the BTS) ............................................................... 157
Call reestablishment procedure ................................................................................. 158
Call Clearing Process (run by BTS) ........................................................................... 159
Interference Management (BTS and BSC) ................................................................ 159
Uplink DTX ................................................................................................................. 159
Downlink DTX......................................................................................................... 161

Customer/service provider benefits ........................................................................... 208


Feature functional description .................................................................................... 208

CELLULAR TELEPHONE TEXT MODEM (TTY) ......................................................................... 209


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4.20.1
4.20.2
4.21.

SMS-CELL BROADCAST....................................................................................................... 211

4.21.1
4.21.2
4.22.

Definitions................................................................................................................... 272
Principle...................................................................................................................... 272
BTS Behavior Before Feature Introduction ................................................................ 273
Regular Smart Power Management Behavior ........................................................... 274
Enhanced Smart Power Management Behavior........................................................ 276
Hardware dependence............................................................................................... 276
Activation Guidelines.................................................................................................. 276

EVEA: ENHANCED VERY EARLY ASSIGNMENT ...................................................................... 279

4.29.1
4.29.2
4.29.3
5.

Principle...................................................................................................................... 269
Hardware dependence............................................................................................... 269
Ciphering activation rules........................................................................................... 269
Performance impact ................................................................................................... 271

BTS SMART POWER MANAGEMENT ...................................................................................... 272

4.28.1
4.28.2
4.28.3
4.28.4
4.28.5
4.28.6
4.28.7
4.29.

Principle...................................................................................................................... 267
HW/SW dependence.................................................................................................. 267
Activation Guidelines.................................................................................................. 267

A5/3 ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM ............................................................................................. 269

4.27.1
4.27.2
4.27.3
4.27.4
4.28.

Global description ...................................................................................................... 263


Feature activation....................................................................................................... 265
Feature impacts expectations .................................................................................... 266

NOVEL ADAPTIVE RECEIVER................................................................................................. 267

4.26.1
4.26.2
4.26.3
4.27.

Principle...................................................................................................................... 257
WPS Queuing management ................................................................................... 257
WPS Access class barring with class periodic rotation .......................................... 260
WPS Public access bandwith protection................................................................. 260

SATELLITE ABIS INTERFACE .................................................................................................. 262


NETWORK SYNCHRONIZATION .............................................................................................. 263

4.25.1
4.25.2
4.25.3
4.26.

Basics and specific terminology................................................................................. 214


AMR mechanisms ...................................................................................................... 216
Traffic Management mechanisms.............................................................................. 220
AMR L1m ................................................................................................................... 223
Legacy L1M................................................................................................................ 233
pDTCH Preemption by AMR FR or HR calls ............................................................. 233
Engineering rules ....................................................................................................... 235
AMR based on traffic.................................................................................................. 237
AMR Maximization ..................................................................................................... 244
Queuing HR ............................................................................................................ 248
Repeated Downlink FACCH ................................................................................... 249
Tx Power Offset for Signaling Channels ................................................................ 252

WPS - WIRELESS PRIORITY SERVICE ................................................................................... 257

4.23.1
4.23.2
4.23.3
4.23.4
4.24.
4.25.

Principle...................................................................................................................... 211
Performances ............................................................................................................. 212

AMR - ADAPTATIVE MULTI RATE FR/HR .............................................................................. 214

4.22.1
4.22.2
4.22.3
4.22.4
4.22.5
4.22.6
4.22.7
4.22.8
4.22.9
4.22.10
4.22.11
4.22.12
4.23.

TTY principle .............................................................................................................. 209


TTY Impact................................................................................................................. 210

Principle...................................................................................................................... 279
Activation.................................................................................................................... 279
Feature Interworking .................................................................................................. 282

ALGORITHM PARAMETERS .................................................................................................. 283


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5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
5.6.
5.7.
5.8.
5.9.
5.10.
5.11.
5.12.
5.13.
5.14.
5.15.
5.16.
5.17.
5.18.
5.19.
5.20.
5.21.
5.22.
5.23.
5.24.
5.25.
5.26.
5.27.
5.28.
5.29.
5.30.
5.31.
5.32.
5.33.
5.34.
5.35.
5.36.
5.37.
5.38.
5.39.
5.40.
5.41.
5.42.
5.43.
5.44.
5.45.
5.46.
6.

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 283


2G CELL SELECTION AND RESELECTION PARAMETERS .......................................................... 284
2G-3G CELL RESELECTION PARAMETERS ............................................................................. 289
LEGACY MEASUREMENT REPORTING PARAMETERS ............................................................... 292
ENHANCED MEASUREMENT REPORTING PARAMETERS .......................................................... 293
RADIO LINK FAILURE PARAMETERS ....................................................................................... 297
SIGNAL QUALITY AVERAGING PARAMETERS .......................................................................... 300
SIGNAL STRENGTH AVERAGING PARAMETERS....................................................................... 302
NEIGHBOR CELL AVERAGING PARAMETERS .......................................................................... 305
DISTANCE AVERAGING PARAMETERS .................................................................................... 307
HANDOVER (GLOBAL) PARAMETERS ..................................................................................... 309
INTRACELL HANDOVER PARAMETERS.................................................................................... 322
INTERCELL HANDOVER THRESHOLD PARAMETERS ................................................................ 325
HANDOVER FOR MICROCELLULAR NETWORK PARAMETERS ................................................... 328
DISTANCE MANAGEMENT PARAMETERS ................................................................................ 330
POWER CONTROL PARAMETERS........................................................................................... 334
TCH ALLOCATION MANAGEMENT PARAMETERS .................................................................... 342
EMLPP RADIO RESOURCE PREEMPTION PARAMETER ........................................................... 356
DIRECTED RETRY HANDOVER PARAMETERS ......................................................................... 357
CONCENTRIC CELL PARAMETERS ......................................................................................... 361
INTERFERENCE LEVEL PARAMETERS .................................................................................... 371
RADIO RESSOURCES CONTROL AT CELL LEVEL .................................................................... 374
BSS TIMERS ....................................................................................................................... 375
PAGING PARAMETERS .......................................................................................................... 382
FREQUENCY HOPPING PARAMETERS .................................................................................... 387
BSC LOAD MANAGEMENT PARAMETERS ............................................................................... 394
DUALBAND CELL PARAMETERS ............................................................................................ 395
DTX PARAMETERS .............................................................................................................. 402
MISCELLANEOUS ................................................................................................................. 403
INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION PARAMETERS ....................................................................... 406
PCM ERROR CORRECTION PARAMETERS ............................................................................. 408
CELL TIERING PARAMETERS ................................................................................................. 409
ENCODING PARAMETERS ..................................................................................................... 412
SMS-CELL BROADCAST PARAMETERS ................................................................................. 413
PROTECTION AGAINST INTRACELL HO PING-PONG PARAMETERS .......................................... 414
AUTOMATIC HANDOVER ADAPTATION PARAMETERS .............................................................. 415
GSM TO UMTS HANDOVER PARAMETERS............................................................................. 417
AMR - ADAPTATIVE MULTI RATE FR/HR PARAMETERS ......................................................... 425
WPS - WIRELESS PRIORITY SERVICES PARAMETERS ............................................................ 444
NETWORK SYNCHRONIZATION PARAMETERS ......................................................................... 445
NETWORK MODE OF OPERATION PARAMETERS ..................................................................... 447
BSS CS PAGING COORDINATION PARAMETER ...................................................................... 448
NOVEL ADAPTIVE RECEIVER PARAMETER .............................................................................. 448
A5/3 ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM PARAMETERS ........................................................................ 449
BTS SMART POWER MANAGEMENT PARAMETERS................................................................. 451
ENHANCED VERY EARLY ASSIGNMENT PARAMETERS ............................................................ 453

ENGINEERING ISSUES........................................................................................................... 454


6.1.

GSM/GPRS TS SHARING: PRIORITY HANDLING AND QUEUING ............................................. 454

6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.2.

MINIMUM TIME BETWEEN HANDOVER.................................................................................... 457

6.2.1
6.2.2
6.3.

Resources reserved for priority 0 and preemption..................................................... 454


GSM/GPRS TS sharing and queuing: ....................................................................... 455
Resources strategy .................................................................................................... 456
Micro-cellular network ................................................................................................ 457
Non micro-cellular network......................................................................................... 459

DIRECTED RETRY HANDOVER BENEFIT ................................................................................. 460


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6.3.1
6.3.2
6.4.

CONCENTRIC CELLS ............................................................................................................ 464

6.4.1
6.4.2
6.5.
6.6.
6.7.
6.8.
6.9.
6.10.
6.11.

Definition of sensitivity................................................................................................ 494


Static and dynamic sensitivity .................................................................................... 495
Typical / guaranteed sensitivity .................................................................................. 495
Space diversity gains ................................................................................................. 495
Cross-polarization antenna use ................................................................................. 496
Circular polarization and crosspolar antennas........................................................... 497

SDCCH DIMENSIONING AND TDMA PRIORITIES .................................................................... 499

6.19.1
6.19.2
6.20.

Introduction................................................................................................................. 489
OMC-R Parameter settings........................................................................................ 489
Timing HO .................................................................................................................. 490

BTS SENSITIVITY ................................................................................................................. 494

6.18.1
6.18.2
6.18.3
6.18.4
6.18.5
6.18.6
6.19.

Description ................................................................................................................. 486


Case A: Mobile moving straight ................................................................................. 487
Case B: Mobile turning at the cross road................................................................... 488

SYNCHRONIZED HO VERSUS NOT SYNCHRONIZED HO .......................................................... 489

6.17.1
6.17.2
6.17.3
6.18.

Frequency super reuse .............................................................................................. 483


Traffic Homogenization .............................................................................................. 483
Radio conditions improvement................................................................................... 483
Microcell Field Experience ......................................................................................... 484

INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION USAGE ................................................................................. 485


STREET CORNER ENVIRONMENT .......................................................................................... 486

6.16.1
6.16.2
6.16.3
6.17.

Broadband noise ........................................................................................................ 481


Blocking...................................................................................................................... 481
How to improve the MCL............................................................................................ 482

MICROCELL BENEFITS .......................................................................................................... 483

6.14.1
6.14.2
6.14.3
6.14.4
6.15.
6.16.

Impact on capacity ..................................................................................................... 480


Impact on call drops ................................................................................................... 480

MINIMUM COUPLING LOSS (MCL)......................................................................................... 481

6.13.1
6.13.2
6.13.3
6.14.

Global statistics .......................................................................................................... 478


Study of reactivity....................................................................................................... 479
Ping pong vs Reactivity.............................................................................................. 479

IMPACT OF CALL RE-ESTABLISHMENT ON THE NETWORK ....................................................... 480

6.12.1
6.12.2
6.13.

Concentric Cell Parameter Definition......................................................................... 465


Concentric Cell Field Experience ............................................................................... 468

IMPACT OF DTX ON AVERAGING ........................................................................................... 472


BEST NEIGHBOUR CELLS STABILITY ..................................................................................... 473
TCH ALLOCATION GENERAL RULES ..................................................................................... 474
GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY RULES ................................................................................... 475
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UPLINK AND DOWNLINK LEVELS ........................................................ 476
EFFECTS OF SMS-CELL BROADCAST USE ON NOOFBLOCKSFORACCESSGRANT................. 477
IMPACT OF THE AVERAGING ON THE HANDOVERS .................................................................. 478

6.11.1
6.11.2
6.11.3
6.12.

Benefit of feature on mono-layer structure................................................................. 460


Benefit of feature on multi-layers structure ................................................................ 461

SDCCH Dimensioning................................................................................................ 499


TDMA priorities .......................................................................................................... 501

ENGINEERING GUIDELINES FOR EXCEPTIONAL EVENTS .......................................................... 503

6.20.1
6.20.2

BSS prerequisite ........................................................................................................ 503


BSS: Suggestions for parameters to be modified for the special event .................... 504
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6.20.3
6.21.

IMPACT OF AUTOMATIC HANDOVER ADAPTATION ACTIVATION ................................................. 508

6.21.1
6.21.2
6.22.

7.

Related parameters.................................................................................................... 508


Deployment Optimization and Monitoring .................................................................. 509

HANDOVER FOR TRAFFIC REASONS ACTIVATION GUIDELINE .................................................. 513

6.22.1
6.22.2
6.23.

NSS level.................................................................................................................... 505

Algorithms and Parameters Definition ....................................................................... 513


Expected effects and recommended parameters ...................................................... 515

DISABLING AMR BASED ON TRAFFIC IN V15.1.1 .................................................................... 519

APPENDIX A: MAIN EXCHANGE PROCEDURES AT BSC LEVEL...................................... 520


7.1.
7.2.
7.3.
7.4.
7.5.
7.6.
7.7.
7.8.
7.9.
7.10.
7.11.

ESTABLISHMENT PROCEDURE .............................................................................................. 520


CHANNEL MODE PROCEDURE .............................................................................................. 521
DEDICATED CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT ...................................................................................... 522
INTRACELL HANDOVER PROCEDURE ..................................................................................... 523
INTRABSS HANDOVER PROCEDURE ..................................................................................... 524
INTERBSS HANDOVER PROCEDURE ..................................................................................... 525
2G-3G HANDOVER PROCEDURE ........................................................................................... 526
RESOURCE RELEASE PROCEDURE (EXAMPLE)...................................................................... 527
SACCH DEACTIVATION PROCEDURE ................................................................................... 528
MOBILE TERMINATING CALL ................................................................................................. 529
MOBILE ORIGINATING CALL .................................................................................................. 530

8.

APPENDIX B: ERLANG TABLE.............................................................................................. 531

9.

ABBREVIATIONS & DEFINITIONS ......................................................................................... 534


9.1.
9.2.

10.

ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................................... 534


DEFINITIONS ........................................................................................................................ 540

INDEX ....................................................................................................................................... 543

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1.

ABOUT THIS DOCUMENT

1.1.

OBJECT
This document describes BSS GSM and Nortel algorithms and parameters from an
engineering point of view.
This document is written by Nortel BSS experts and contains extensive Nortel BSS
parameters setting know-how. Informations coming from experiments, studies, simulations are
also related in the document.
The parameters are called by the name used in the features and algorithms. For their
corresponding name (when different) at the OMC, refer to [R6].
The parameters described in this document are the ones used in the features and algorithms.
Refer to [R2] to have a description of all BSS parameters.

1.2.

SCOPE
This version is issued for the ChR milestone of the V18 BSS GSM release.

1.3.

AUDIENCE FOR THIS DOCUMENT


Draft and preliminary: Nortel R&D, PLM and Eng'
Standard: customers and Nortel R&D, Product Line Management and Engineering teams.'

1.4.

DISCLAIMER
Depending on particular objective, call profile and network characteristics, a parameter setting
can never be judged as being universally optimized.
The recommended setting presented in this document should result in good network
performance; however several iterations and improvements may be required in order to be
optimal according to customer specificities. Every effort is made to incorporate suggestions
and feedback received from customers.

PRELIMINARY VERSION
The recommended setting has been validated with product and system tests in lab. This
document will be updated and adjusted after the first results from VO site or new Product
Test/End-to-end labs if available.

STANDARD VERSION
This is a living document and the contents will be modified based on feedback received from
R&D, Engineering and customers.
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1.5.

DOCUMENT STRUCTURE
In chapter 3 CLASSIFICATION OF BSS PARAMETERS, BSS algorithm parameters are
presented in alphabetic order according to their group. Process and related objects are also
provided.
Chapter 4 ALGORITHMS describes the GSM Nortel BSS algorithms and recommends ways
to use them efficiently.
BSS parameters used in the algorithms are described in chapter 5 ALGORITHM
PARAMETERS. For each parameter, a recommended value and a default value are given.
Engineering rules explain how to select the parameter value.
In chapter 6 ENGINEERING ISSUE, engineering issues resulting from studies on parameter
setting and on products, simulations and experiments are developped.
Chapter 7 APPENDIX A: MAIN EXCHANGE PROCEDURES AT BSC LEVEL gives the main
exchange procedures at BSC level.
In chapter 8 APPENDIX B: ERLANG TABLE, an Erlang table presents the maximum offered
load according to the number of channels and the blocking rate.
In chapter 9 ABBREVIATIONS & DEFINITIONS, the signification of all the abbrevations used
in this document and some key-definitions are explained.

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1.6.

UPDATES TO PREVIOUS RECOMMENDATIONS

1.6.1 BETWEEN V17 AND V18


No modification

1.6.2 BETWEEN V16 AND V17


modeModifyMandatory:
New recommended value set to not used. This parameter is no longer useful but setting to
used may yield undesirable side-effects in particular circumstances.
enhancedTRAUframeIndication :
This parameter is no longer useful in V17 due to the end of support of the PCM Error
Correction feature.
pcmErrorCorrection :
This parameter is no longer useful in V17 duie to the end of support of the PCM Error
Correction feature.
bscHopReconfUse :
New recommended value for BSC that manage only BTS with hybrid coupling.
Old recommendation : false (mandatory for hybrid coupling).
New recommendation : the value (true or false) is indifferent for a BSC that manages only
BTS with hybrid coupling.
trafficPCMAllocationPriority :
New recommended value for BCCH TDMA.
Old recommendation : highest priority (0) for BCCH TDMA.
New recommendation : lowest priority (255) for BCCH TDMA.

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2.

RELATED DOCUMENTS

2.1.

APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS
[A1]

2.2.

PE/DCL/DD/000136

Access (EGPRS) Parameter User Guide

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
[R1]

PE/SYS/DD/000065

Configuration parameters for BSS

[R2]

PE/DCL/DD/000007

BSS Operating Principles

[R3]

PE/DCL/DD/000000

BSS Product Documentation Overview

[R4]

PE/DCL/DD/0124

BSS Parameter Dictionary

[R5]

PE/DCL/DD/0125

Observation Counter Dictionary

[R6]

PE/MD/DD/000008

GDMO Configuration Management

[R7]

PE/DCL/DD/000138

GSM/GPRS/EDGE BSS Engineering Rules

[R8]

PE/BTS/DD/1514

SFS of Layer 1 Management

[R9]

PE/SYS/DD/0272

TF875: Dual band cells management

[R10]

PE/SYS/INF/0225

Concentric cell improvements (CM888/TF889)

[R11]

PE/SYS/DD/6293

FN for stepped coupling

[R12]

PE/SYS/INF/0140

Handover for traffic reasons: TF132

[R13]

PE/SYS/INF/0190

Handover decision according to adjacent cell


priorities and load TF716

[R14]

PE/SYS/DD/279

TF 995: Automatic Cell Tiering

[R15]

PE/BTS/DD/0421

TF809: Early handover decision

[R16]

PE/SYS/DD/0291

TF821: General protection against HO Ping-pong

[R17]

PE/SYS/DD/0330

TF1216: Automatic handover adaptation

[R18]

PE/SYS/DD/0331

TF1217: Protection against intra-cell HO Pingpong

[R19]

PE/SYS/DD/0482

22464: WPS - Access class barring with class


periodic rotation

[R20]

PE/SYS/DD/010888

27318 Configure sending of SI2Quater and SI13


on Ext or Norm BCCH

[R21]

PE/SYS/INF/0242

TF184: Extended CCCH

[R22]

PE/SYS/DD/0356

SV1322: TTY on BSC/TCU e3

[R23]

PE/SYS/DD/0432

AR1526 - SMS-CB Usability improvement

[R24]

UMT/SYS/DD/29

GSM to UMTS mobility


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[R25]

PE/SYS/DD343

SV713 : AMR Full Rate; SV885 AMR Half Rate

[R26]

PE/SYS/DD/486

22463: WPS - Queuing management

[R27]

PE/SYS/DD/487

22465 : WPS - Public access bandwidth


protection

[R28]

PE/SYS/DD/005776

24394 : Directed retry without queuing activation

[R29]

PE/BSS/APP/012435

AMR Engineering Handbook

[R30]

PE/SYS/DD/005321

Advanced Speech Call Items Evolutions

[R31]

PE/SYS/DD/0231

PM990 Satellite ABIS interface

[R32]

PE/IRC/APP/014199

Satellite Abis Interface - Engineering Guideline

[R33]

PE/BSS/APP/0115

Reference Manual for BSC data configuration

[R34]

PE/IRC/APP/021006

Network Synchronisation Handbook

[R35]

PE/SYS/DD/016451

30296 Repeated Downlink FACCH

[R36]

PE/SYS/DD/016458

30293 Tx Offset for Signalling Channels

[R37]

PE/DCL/DD/018141

Lb Interface Engineering Rules

[R38]

PE/SYS/DD/012303

21531 - Enhanced Measurement Report (EMR)

[R39]

PE/SYS/DD/005337

2473 - GSM to UMTS handover

[R40]

PE/SYS/DD/16945

30169 - AMR-HR on preempted PDTCH

[R41]

PE/SYS/DD/16359

27392 - Support of A5/3 Encryption Algorithm

[R42]

PE/SYS/DD/21289

28703 - Multi-zone cell enhancement

[R43]

PE/SYS/DD/11409

Distributions on Radio measurements

[R44]

PE/SYS/DD/021592

34208 - BTS6k/18k Smart Power Management

[R45]

PE/SYS/DD/012171

27288 - Novel Adaptive Receiver

[R46]

PE/SYS/DD/019402

32280 - Joint Diversity

[R47]

PE/DCL/DD/014271

BTS S2000L Engineering Rules

[R48]

PE/DCL/DD/014272

BTS S2000H Engineering Rules

[R49]

PE/DCL/DD/014273

BTS S4000 Outdoor Engineering Rules

[R50]

PE/DCL/DD/014274

BTS S4000 Indoor Engineering Rules

[R51]

PE/DCL/DD/014275

BTS eCell Engineering Rules

[R52]

PE/DCL/DD/014276

BTS S8000-S8003 Indoor & S8000 Outdoor


Engineering Rules

[R53]

PE/DCL/DD/014277

BTS S12000 Indoor & Outdoor Engineering


Rules

[R54]

PE/DCL/DD/014278

BTS 18000 Indoor & Outdoor Engineering Rules

[R55]

PE/DCL/DD/014289

BTS 18000 GSM-UMTS Indoor & Outdoor


Engineering Rules

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[R56]

PE/DCL/DD/018541

BTS 6000 GSM Indoor & Outdoor Engineering


Rules

[R57]

PE/SYS/DD/21412

34160 - BSS Paging Coordination

[R58]

PE/DCL/DD/14283

Radio Interface Engineering Rules

[R59]

PE/SYS/DD/022558

30259-Enhanced Very Early Assignment

[R60]

PE/SYS/DD/021721

AMR Maximization

[R61]

PE/SYS/DD/022865

32218 AMR Wide Band Support

[R62]

PE/SYS/DD/021567

Repeated Downlink FACCH for TCH/H

[R63]

PE/DCL/DD/014280

BSC/TCU 3000 Engineering Rules

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3.

CLASSIFICATION OF BSS PARAMETERS

3.1.

PARAMETER LIST
The following table gives a classification of the main BSS tunable parameters sorted by
alphabetical order, the object they are associated to at the OMC-R (as they are described in
[R1]) and the main features using those parameters.

Parameter name

BSS

Object-

Feature(s) using this parameter

accessClassCongestion

V9

bts

Barring of access class

adaptiveReceiver

V17

transceiver

Novel Adaptive Receiver

adjacent_cell_umbrella_ref

V9

bts

Directed Retry Handover

allocPriorityTable

V7

bts

TCH Allocation and Priority


Queuing
WPS Queuing management

allocPriorityThreshold

V7

bts

allocPriorityTimers

V7

bts

TCH Allocation and Priority


Queuing
Queuing
WPS Queuing management

allocWaitThreshold

V7

bts

Queuing
WPS Queuing management

allOtherCasesPriority

V7

bts

TCH Allocation and Priority

amrUlFrAdaptationSet

V15

bts

AMR Codec mode adaptation

amrUlHrAdaptationSet

V15

bts

AMR Codec mode adaptation

amrDlFrAdaptationSet

V15

bts

AMR Codec mode adaptation

amrUlHrAdaptationSet

V15

bts

AMR Codec mode adaptation

amrDirectAllocIntRxLevDL

V14

bts

AMR Handover mechanisms

Queuing

Direct TCH Allocation


amrDirectAllocIntRxLevUL

V14

bts

AMR Handover mechanisms


Direct TCH Allocation

amrDirectAllocRxLevDL

V14

bts

AMR Handover mechanisms

amrDirectAllocRxLevUL

V14

bts

amrFRIntercellCodecMThresh

V14

handOverControl

AMR Handover mechanisms

Direct TCH Allocation


AMR Handover mechanisms
Direct TCH Allocation
amrFRIntracellCodecMThresh

V14

handOverControl

AMR Handover mechanisms

amrHRIntercellCodecMThresh

V14

handOverControl

AMR Handover mechanisms

amrHRtoFRIntracellCodecMThresh

V14

handOverControl

AMR Handover mechanisms

amriRxLevDLH

V14

handOverControl

AMR Handover mechanisms

amriRxLevULH

V14

handOverControl

AMR Handover mechanisms

amrReserved1

V16

handOverControl

AMR RATSCCH Proceudre

amrReserved2

V14

handOverControl

AMR Legacy L1M

answerPagingPriority

V7

bts

TCH Allocation and Priority


Queuing

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assignRequestPriority

V7

bts

TCH Allocation and Priority


Queuing

averagingPeriod

V7

handOverControl

baseColourCode

V7

bts

bCCHFrequency

V7

adjacentCellHandover

bCCHFrequency

V7

adjacentCellReselecti
on

Radio channel allocation


Interference Management
Network Synchronization

bCCHFrequency

V7

bts

biZonePowerOffset

V12

adjacentCellHandover

General formulas
Direct TCH Allocation
Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell
Handover

biZonePowerOffset

V12

handoverControl

General formulas
Direct TCH Allocation
Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell
Handover

bscHopReconfUse

V8

bsc

Reconfiguration procedure

bscMSAccessClassBarringFunction
bscQueuingOption

V9

bsc

Barring of access class

V7

signallingPoint

Queuing
WPS Queuing management

bsMsmtProcessingMode

V7

bts

Measurement Processing

bsPowerControl

V7

powerControl

Power Control Algorithms

bssMapT1

V7

bsc

bssMapT12

V7

bsc

bssMapT13

V7

bsc

bssMapT19

V8

bsc

bssMapT20

V8

bsc

bssMapT4

V7

bsc

bssMapT7

V7

bsc

bssMapT8

V7

bsc

bssMapTchoke

V7

bsc

bssPagingCoordination

V17

bts

bssSccpConnEst

V7

signallingPoint

bsTxPwrMax

V7

powerControl

btsSMSynchroMode

V15

btsSiteManager

Network Synchronization

bts Time Between HO configuration

V9

bts

Minimum time between Handover

AMR Power Control

BSS CS Paging Coordination


General formulas
Cabinet Output Power Setting

V12

General protection against HO ping-pong

btsHopReconfRestart

V8

bts

Reconfiguration procedure

btsIsHopping

V7

bts

Frequency Hopping

btsMSAccessClassBarringFunction

V9

bts

Barring of access class

btsThresholdHopReconf

V8

bts

Reconfiguration procedure

callClearing

V7

bts

Call Clearing Process

callReestablishment

V7

bts

Radio link failure process,


Call reestablishment procedure

callReestablishmentPriority

V7

bts

TCH Allocation and Priority

capacityTimeRejection

V14

handOverControl

Queuing
Protection against Intracell HO Ping-Pong
AMR Handover mechanisms
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cellAllocation

V7

bts

Frequency Hopping

cellBarQualify

V8

bts

Selection, Reselection Algorithms

cellBarred

V7

bts

Selection, Reselection Algorithms

cellDeletionCount

V7

bts

Measurement Processing
Handovers screening

cellDtxDownLink

V7

bts

DTX

cellReselectHysteresis

V8

bts

Selection, Reselection Algorithms

cellReselectOffset

V7

bts

Selection, Reselection Algorithms

cellReselInd

V8

bts

Selection, Reselection Algorithms

cellType

V7

adjacentCellHandOver

Microcellular Algo

cellType

V7

bts

Microcellular Algo

channelType

V7

channel

cId

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

coderPoolConfiguration

V14

transcoder

AMR Channel allocation


Cellular Telephone Text Modem (TTY)

compressedModeUTRAN

V17

bts

GSM to UMTS handover

concentAlgoExtMsRange

V9

handOverControl

Direct TCH Allocation


Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell
Handover

concentAlgoExtRxLev

V9

handOverControl

Direct TCH Allocation


Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell
Handover

concentAlgoExtRxLevUL

V18

handOverControl

Direct TCH Allocation


Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell
Handover

concentAlgoIntMsRange

V9

handOverControl

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell
Handover

concentAlgoIntRxLev

V9

handOverControl

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell
Handover

concentAlgoIntRxLevUL

V18

handOverControl

Direct TCH Allocation


Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell
Handover

concentric_cell

V9

bts

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell
Handover

btsSiteManager

Cell Group Management

V12
cpueNumber

V12

CPU/BIFP LOAD SHARING


cypherModeReject

V8

signallingPoint

A5/3 Encryption algorithm

dARPPh1Priority

V15

transceiver

Network Synchronization

Data14_4OnNoHoppingTs

V12

bts

PCM Error Correction

data mode 14.4 kbit/s

V11

transcoder board

PCM Error Correction

data non transparent mode

V11

bts

PCM Error Correction

data non transparent mode

V11

signallingPoint

PCM Error Correction

data transparent mode

V11

bts

PCM Error Correction

data transparent mode

V11

signallingPoint

PCM Error Correction

delayBetweenRetrans

V8

bts

Paging command repetition process

directAllocIntFrRxLevDL

V18

handOverControl

Direct TCH Allocation

directAllocIntFrRxLevUL

V18

handOverControl

Direct TCH Allocation

directedRetry

V9

adjacentCellHandOver

Directed Retry Handover

directedRetryModeUsed

V9

bts

Directed Retry Handover

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directedRetryPrio

V12

bts

Directed Retry Handover

distHreqt

V7

handOverControl

Measurement Processing

distWtsList

V7

handOverControl

Measurement Processing

diversity

V7

bts

Interference Cancellation

diversityUTRAN

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

dtxMode

V7

bts

DTX

V14
EATrafficLoadEnd

V18

bts

Enhanced Very Early Assignment

EATrafficLoadStart

V18

bts

Enhanced Very Early Assignment

early classmark sending

V10

bts

Modified SYS INFO 3


Location Services

earlyClassmarkSendingUTRAN

V17

bts

GSM to UMTS handover

emergencyCallPriority

V7

bts

TCH Allocation and Priority


Queuing

enableRepeatedFacchFr

V16

bts

Repeated Downlink FACCH

enableRepeatedFacchHr

V18

bts

Repeated Downlink FACCH

encrypAlgoAssComp

V8

signallingPoint

A5/3 Encryption algorithm

encrypAlgoCiphModComp

V8

signallingPoint

A5/3 Encryption algorithm

encrypAlgoHoPerf

V8

signallingPoint

A5/3 Encryption algorithm

encrypAlgoHoReq

V8

signallingPoint

A5/3 Encryption algorithm

encryptionAlgorSupported

V7

bsc

A5/3 Encryption algorithm

enhancedTRAUFrameIndication

V12

bsc

PCM Error Correction

enhCellTieringConfiguration

V14

handOverControl

Cell Tiering Parameters

estimatedSiteLoad

V15

btsSiteManager

V15.1 Evolution of Load Balancing

extended cell

V9

bts

facchPowerOffset

V16

bts

Tx Power Offset for Signalling

fDDARFCN

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

fDDMultiratReporting

V17

bts

Enhanced Measurement Reporting


GSM to UMTS handover
UTRAN cell reporting using legacy
measurement reports (V17)

fDDreportingThreshold

V17

handOverControl

fDDreportingThreshold2

V17

handOverControl

Enhanced Measurement Reporting


GSM to UMTS handover
Enhanced Measurement Reporting
GSM to UMTS handover
UTRAN cell reporting using legacy
measurement reports (V17)

fhsRef

V7

channel

Frequency Hopping

filteredTrafficCoefficient
fnOffset

V15

bts

AMR based on traffic

V15

btsSiteManager

Network Synchronization

forced handover algo

V9

adjacentCellHandOver

Forced Handover

fullHRCellLoadEnd

V18

bts

AMR Maximization

fullHRCellLoadStart

V18

Bts

AMR Maximization

frAMRPriority

V14

transceiver

AMR Channel allocation

frPowerControlTargetMode

V14

transceiver

AMR Power Control

frPowerControlTargetModeDl

V16

powerControl

AMR Power Control

gprsNetworkModeOperation

V15

bts

Network Mode of Operation I support in BSS

gprsPreemptionForHR

V17

bsc

pDTCH Preemption by AMR HR calls

gsmToUmtsReselection

V14

bts

2G - 3G Cell Reselection

gsmToUMTSServiceHo

V17

bsc

GSM to UMTS handover

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handOver from signalling channel

V7

handOverControl

Direct TCH Allocation and Handover


Algorithms

hoMargin

V7

adjacentCellHandOver

Handovers
Power budget formula
Handover for traffic reasons
Define eligible neighbor cells for intercell
handover
Automatic handover adaptation

hoMarginAMR

V14

adjacentCellHandOver

AMR Handover mechanisms

hoMarginAMRUTRAN

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

hoMarginBeg

V11

bts

Handovers

Handovers

Early HandOver Decision


Automatic handover adaptation
Direct TCH Allocation
hoMarginDist

V8

adjacentCellHandOver

Handover condition for leaving a cell on


distance
Define eligible neighbor cells for intercell
handover

hoMarginDistUTRAN

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

hoMarginRxLev

V8

adjacentCellHandOver

Handovers
Define eligible neighbor cells for intercell
handover

hoMarginRxLevUTRAN

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

hoMarginRxQual

V8

adjacentCellHandOver

Handovers
Define eligible neighbor cells for intercell
handover

hoMarginRxQualUTRAN

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

hoMarginTiering

V14

handOverControl

Automatic cell tiering

hoMarginTrafficOffset

V12

adjacentCellHandOver

Handover for traffic reasons

hoMarginTrafficOffsetUTRAN

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

hoMarginUTRAN

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

V12

adjacentCellHandOver

General protection against HO ping-pong

hoPingpongCombination

V14
hoPingpongCombinationUTRAN

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

hoPingpongTimeRejection

V12

adjacentCellHandOver

General protection against HO ping-pong

hoPingpongTimeRejectionUTRAN

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

hoppingSequenceNumber

V7

frequencyHopSystem

Synthesised frequency hopping

hoRejectionTimeOverloadUTRAN

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

hoSecondBestCellConfiguration

V9

bsc

Handover to 2nd best candidate when return


to old channel

hoTraffic

V12

bsc

Handover for traffic reasons

hoTraffic

V12

bts

Handover for traffic reasons

hrAMRPriority

V14

transceiver

AMR Channel allocation

hrCellLoadEnd

V14

bts

AMR Channel allocation

hrCellLoadStart

V14

bts

AMR Channel allocation

hrPowerControlTargetMode

V14

powerControl

AMR Power Control

hrPowerControlTargetModeDl

V16

powerControl

AMR Power Control

incomingHandOver

V7

handOverControl

Handovers

interBscDirectedRetry

V9

bsc

Directed Retry Handover

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interBscDirectedRetryFromCell

V9

bts

Directed Retry Handover

interCellHOExtPriority

V7

bts

TCH Allocation and Priority


Queuing

interCellHOIntPriority

V7

bts

TCH Allocation and Priority


Queuing

interferenceType

V12

adjacentCellHandover

Automatic cell tiering

interferer cancel algo usage

V10

bts

Interference Cancellation

intraBscDirectedRetry

V9

bsc

Directed Retry Handover

intraBscDirectedRetryFromCell

V9

bts

Directed Retry Handover

intraCell

V7

handOverControl

Intracell Handover decision for signal quality


TCH Allocation and Priority

V12
intraCellHOIntPriority

V7

bts

intraCellQueuing

V8

bts

Queuing

intraCellSDCCH

V8

handOverControl

Intracell Handover decision for signal quality

layer3MsgCyphModComp

V8

signallingPoint

A5/3 Encryption algorithm

locationAreaCodeUTRAN

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

lRxLevDLH

V7

handOverControl

Handover condition for leaving a cell on rxlev

Queuing

Define eligible neighbor cells for intercell


handover
lRxLevDLP

V7

powerControl

Power Control Algorithms


AMR Power Control

lRxLevULH

V7

handOverControl

Handover condition for leaving a cell on rxlev

lRxLevULP

V7

powerControl

Power Control Algorithms

lRxQualDLH

V7

handOverControl

Handover condition for leaving a cell on rxqual

lRxQualDLP

V7

powerControl

Power Control Algorithms

lRxQualULH

V7

handOverControl

Handover condition for leaving a cell on rxqual

lRxQualULP

V7

powerControl

Power Control Algorithms

AMR Power Control

AMR Power Control

AMR Power Control


maio

V7

channel

Synthesised frequency hopping

masterBtsSmId

V15

btsSiteManager

Network Synchronization

maxNumberRetransmission

V8

bts

Request access command repetition process

measurementProcAlgorithm

V12

bts

Measurement Processing
Direct TCH Allocation and Handover
Algorithms

microCellCaptureTimer

V8

adjacentCellHandOver

Microcellular Algo

microCellStability

V8

adjacentCellHandOver

Microcellular Algo

minNbOfTDMA

V7

bts

missDistWt

V7

handOverControl

Measurement Processing

missRxLevWt

V7

handOverControl

Measurement Processing

missRxQualWt

V7

handOverControl

Measurement Processing

mobileCountryCodeUTRAN

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

mobileNetworkCodeUTRAN

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

mobileAllocation

V7

frequencyHopSystem

Synthesised frequency hopping


Baseband Frequency Hopping

modeModifyMandatory

V9

bsc

Directed Retry Handover

msBtsDistanceInterCell

V7

handOverControl

Handovers screening

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Handover condition for leaving a cell on
distance
msRangeMax

V7

handOverControl

Handover condition for leaving a cell on


distance

msTxPwrMax

V7

bts

Accuracy related to measurements


General formulas
Forced Handover
Power Control Algorithms

msTxPwrMax2ndBand

V12

bts

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell
Handove

msTxPwrMaxCCH

V7

bts

Selection, Reselection Algorithms

msTxPwrMaxCell

V7

adjacentCellHandOver

General formulas
Handovers screening
Directed Retry Handover: BTS
Forced Handover
Define eligible neighbor cells for intercell
handover
Power Control Algorithms

multi band reporting

V10

bts

Multiband reporting
Enhanced Measurement Reporting
GSM to UMTS handover

nbLargeReuseDataChannels

V14

bts

Automatic cell tiering

nbOfRepeat

V8

bts

Paging command repetition process

nCapacityFRRequestedCodec

V14

handOverControl

AMR Handover mechanisms

neighDisfavorOffset

V14

handOverControl

Automatic handover adaptation

V9

powerControl

Power Control Algorithms

new power control algorithm

V12
nFRRequestedCodec

V14

handOverControl

AMR Handover mechanisms

nHRRequestedCodec

V14

handOverControl

AMR Handover mechanisms

noOfBlocksForAccessGrant

V7

bts

Paging command Process

noOfMultiframesBetweenPaging

V7

bts

Paging command Process

notAllowedAccessClasses

V7

bts

Barring of access class

numberOfPwciSamples

V14

handOverControl

Automatic cell tiering

numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans

V7

bts

Request access command repetition process

numberOfTCHFreeBeforeCongestion

V9

bts

Barring of access class


Handover for traffic reasons

numberOfTCHFreeToEndCongestion

V9

bts

numberOfTCHQueuedBeforeCongestion

V9

bts

numberOfTCHQueuedToEndCongestion

V9

bts

Barring of access class


Handover for traffic reasons
Barring of access class
Handover for traffic reasons
Barring of access class
Handover for traffic reasons

offsetLoad

V12

adjacentCellHandover

Handover decision according to adjacent cell


priorities ans load

offsetPriority

V12

adjacentCellHandover

Handover decision according to adjacent cell


priorities ans load

offsetPriorityUTRAN

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

otherServicesPriority

V7

bts

TCH Allocation and Priority


Queuing

pagingOnCell

V9

bts

PCH and RACH channel control

pcmErrorCorrection

V12

bts

PCM Error Correction

penaltyTime

V8

bts

Selection, Reselection Algorithms

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powerBudgetInterCell

V7

handOverControl

Handovers screening
Power budget formula
Handover for traffic reasons

powerControlIndicator

V7

bts

Power Control Algorithms

powerIncrStepSizeDL

V14

powerControl

Power Control Algorithms

powerIncrStepSizeUL

V14

powerControl

Power Control Algorithms

powerRedStepSizeDL

V14

powerControl

Power Control Algorithms

powerRedStepSizeUL

V14

powerControl

Power Control Algorithms

preemptionAuthor

V15

signallingPoint

eMLPP Preemption

pRequestedCodec

V14

handOverControl

AMR Handover mechanisms

preSynchroTimingAdvance

V10

adjacentCellHandOver

Pre-synchronized HO

priority

V7

transceiver

processorLoadSupConf

V8

bsc

BSC Overload Management Mechanisms

V12
pwciHreqave

V14

handOverControl

Automatic cell tiering

minTimeQualityIntraCellHO

V14

handOverControl

Protection against Intracell HO Ping-Pong

qsearchC

V17

handOverControl

AMR Handover mechanisms


Enhanced Measurement Reporting
GSM to UMTS handover
UTRAN cell reporting using legacy
measurement reports (V17)
radChanSelIntThreshold

V8

handOverControl

Interference Management

radioLinkTimeout

V7

bts

Radio link failure process

radResSupBusyTimer

V8

bsc

radResSupervision

V8

bts

radResSupFreeTimer

V8

bsc

reportTypeMeasurement

V17

bts

retransDuration

V8

bts

rlf1

V8

bts

Radio link failure process

rlf2

V8

bts

Radio link failure process

rlf3

V8

bts

Radio link failure process

rNCId

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

Enhanced Measurement Reporting


GSM to UMTS handover

rndAccTimAdvThreshold

V8

bts

Request access command process

runCallClear

V7

bts

Call Clearing Process

runHandOver

V7

bts

Handovers
Microcellular Algo
Protection against RunHandover=1

runPwrControl

V7

bts

Power Control Algorithms


AMR Power Control

rxLevAccessMin

V7

bts

Selection, Reselection Algorithms

rxLevDLIH

V7

handOverControl

Intracell Handover decision for signal quality

rxLevDLPBGT

V11

adjacentCellHandOver

Handovers screening

rxLevDLPbgtUTRAN

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

rxLevHreqave

V7

handOverControl

Measurement Processing

rxLevHreqaveBeg

V11

handOverControl

Early HandOver Decision

Maximum RxLev for Power Budget

Automatic handover adaptation


Fast power control at TCH assignment
rxLevHreqt

V7

handOverControl

Measurement Processing

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rxLevMinCell

V7

adjacentCellHandOver

General formulas
Handovers screening
Define eligible neighbor cells for intercell
handover

rxLevMinCellUTRAN

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

rxLevNCellHreqaveBeg

V11

handOverControl

Early HandOver Decision


Automatic handover adaptation
Fast power control at TCH assignment

rxLevULIH

V7

handOverControl

Intracell Handover decision for signal quality

rxLevWtsList

V7

handOverControl

Measurement Processing

rxNCellHreqave

V7

handOverControl

Measurement Processing
Early HandOver Decision
Automatic handover adaptation

rxQualAveBeg

V14

handOverControl

Automatic handover adaptation

rxQualDLIH

V7

handOverControl

Intracell Handover decision for signal quality

rxQualHreqave

V7

handOverControl

Measurement Processing

rxQualHreqt

V7

handOverControl

Measurement Processing

rxQualULIH

V12

handOverControl

Intracell Handover decision for signal quality

rxQualWtsList

V12

handOverControl

Measurement Processing

sacchPowerOffset
sacchPowerOffsetSelection

V16

bts

Tx Power Offset for Signalling

V16

bts

Tx Power Offset for Signalling

scramblingCode

V17

adjacentCellUTRAN

GSM to UMTS handover

selfAdaptActivation

V14

bts

Automatic handover adaptation

selfTuningObs

V12

handOverControl

Automatic cell tiering

servingBandReporting

V17

bts

Enhanced Measurement Reporting


GSM to UMTS handover

servingBandReportingOffset

V17

handOverControl

Enhanced Measurement Reporting

servingfactorOffset

V14

handOverControl

Automatic handover adaptation


AMR Maximization , AMR Channel allocation

GSM to UMTS handover


sharedPDTCHratio

V18

bts

siteGsmFctList

V7

btsSiteManager

small to large zone HO priority

V9

handOverControl

smartPowerManagementConfig

V17

PowerControl

BTS Smart Power Management

smartPowerSwitchOffTimer

V17

PowerControl

BTS Smart Power Management

smsCB

V7

bts

SMS-Cell Broadcast

speechMode

V8

bts

AMR - Adaptative Multi Rate FR/HR

signallingPoint

AMR - Adaptative Multi Rate FR/HR

adjacentCellHandover

Dual Band Handling

adjacentCellReselect

Dual Band Handling

TCH Allocation and Priority


Queuing

V14
speechMode

V8
V14

standard indicator AdjC

V10
V12

standard indicator AdjC

V10
V12

standardIndicator

V12

bts

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell
Handover

synchronized

V7

adjacentCellHandOver

Pre-synchronized HO

t3101

V9

bts

t3103

V9

bts

Handover Algorithms on the Mobile Side

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t3107

V9

bts

t3109

V9

bts

t3111

V9

bts

t3121

V17

bts

t3122

V9

bts

temporaryOffset

V8

bts

Selection, Reselection Algorithms

thresholdInterference

V7

handOverControl

Radio channel allocation

timeBetweenHOConfiguration

V9

bsc

timerPeriodicUpdateMS

V7

bts

tnOffset

V15

btsSiteManager

trafficPCMAllocationPriority

V9

transceiver

transceiver equipment class

V9

transceiverEquipment

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell
Handover

transceiver equipment class

V9

transceiverZone

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell
Handover

transceiverZone

V9

transceiver

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell
Handover

3GAccessMinLevel

V14

bts

2G - 3G Cell Reselection

3GReselectionARFCN

V14

bts

2G - 3G Cell Reselection

3GReselectionOffset

V14

bts

2G - 3G Cell Reselection

3GSearchLevel

V14

bts

2G - 3G Cell Reselection

3GTechnology

V18

bts

2G - 3G Cell Reselection

uplinkPowerControl

V8

powerControl

Power Control Algorithms

uRxLevDLP

V7

powerControl

Power Control Algorithms

uRxLevULP

V7

powerControl

Power Control Algorithms

uRxQualDLP

V7

powerControl

Power Control Algorithms

uRxQualULP

V7

powerControl

Power Control Algorithms

VEASDCCHOverflowAllowed

V18

bts

Enhanced Very Early Assignment

wPSManagement

V15

bsc

WPS - Wireless Priority Service

wPSQueueStepRotation

V15

bts

WPS - Wireless Priority Service

zone Tx power max reduction

V9

transceiverZone

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell
Handover

zoneFrequencyHopping

V9

transceiverZone

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell
Handover

zoneFrequencyThreshold

V9

transceiverZone

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell
Handover

GSM to UMTS handover

Interference Management
Power Budget Handover

V12

General protection against HO ping-pong


Network Synchronization

AMR Power Control

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3.2.

GSM UNUSED PARAMETERS


The table presented below summarizes the GSM parameter still reserved for future use.

Parameter name

sigPowerOverboost

BSS

V16

Object-

Feature(s) using this parameter

bts

Tx Power Overboost for Signalling Channels

extendedTimingAdvanceWindow

V16

bts

Extended TA Window (GSM-R only, RM2 only)

highSpeedUplinkDistortionRemoval

V16

bts

High Speed Distorsion removal (GSM-R only,


RM2 only)

3.3.

RAILWAY-SPECIFIC PARAMETERS (GSM-R)


Before V16, the GSM-R specific parameters did not appear on the OMC-R MMI of GSM
customers.
Starting in v16, the MMI is common between GSM and GSM-R. It means that public GSM
customers have visibility on GSM-R specific parameters that are of no use for public GSM.
This list is provided in this section for information only : GSM customers must not change the
default values for these parameters. The definition and use of these parameters is explained
in a separate Railway-specific Parameter User Guide document that is provided to GSM-R
customers only.

Parameter name

BSS

Object-

GSM-R Feature(s) using this parameter

batteryRemoteControllerPresence

V15.1R

btssitemanager

BTS Battery Remote Monitoring

emergencyThreshold

V15.1R

signallingPoint

ASCI Evolutions

eMLPPThreshold

V12.4d

signallingPoint

Enhanced Multilevel Precedence and


Preemption

msPowerClassToggle

V15.1R

bts

Mobile class sensiticity counters

nCHPosition

V12.4d

bts

Advanced Speech Call Items

preemptionAuthor (*)

V12.4d

signallingPoint

Enhanced Multilevel Precedence and


Preemption

timerGCCHNotif

V15.1R

signallingPoint

ASCI Evolutions

uplinkReply

V15.1R

bsc

ASCI Evolutions

uplinkReplyTimer

V15.1R

bts

ASCI Evolutions

voiceBroadcastService

V12.4d

signallingPoint

Advanced Speech Call Items

voiceGroupCallService

V12.4d

signallingPoint

Advanced Speech Call Items

(*) Since v15.1, this parameter is also used in GSM for activation of eMLPP radio resource
preemption in the BSS. Other eMLPP parameters are useful only in GSM-R for group calls
(emergencyThreshold and eMLPPThreshold).

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3.4.

PARAMETERS VERSUS BSS FEATURES AND PROCEDURES


Here is the list of the main BSS tunable parameters sorted by procedure or feature.

3.4.1 2G CELL SELECTION AND RESELECTION


cellBarQualify, cellBarred, rxLevAccessMin, msTxPwrMaxCCH, cellReselInd,
cellReselectHysteresis, cellReselectOffset, temporaryOffset, penaltyTime,
rndAccTimAdvThreshold.

3.4.2 2G-3G UTRAN FDD & TDD CELL RESELECTION


3GAccessMinLevel, 3GReselectionARFCN, 3GReselectionOffset, 3GSearchLevel.
3GTechnology

3.4.3 LEGACY MEASUREMENT REPORTING


multiBandReporting, powerControlIndicator, fDDMultiratReporting, fDDreportingThreshold2,
qsearchC

3.4.4 ENHANCED MEASUREMENT REPORTING


multiBandReporting, reportTypeMeasurement, servingBandReportingOffset,
servingBandReporting, fDDMultiratReporting, fDDreportingThreshold,
fDDreportingThreshold2, qsearchC

3.4.5 LEVEL AVERAGING


rxLevHreqave, rxLevHreqt, rxLevWtsList, missRxLevWt, rxLevHreqaveBeg.

3.4.6 QUALITY AVERAGING


rxQualHreqave, rxQualHreqt, rxQualWtsList, missRxQualWt.

3.4.7 DISTANCE AVERAGING


distHreqt, distWtsList, missDistWt.

3.4.8 CELL ELIGIBILITY


rxLevMinCell, rxNCellHreqave, cellDeletionCount, rxLevHreqave, missRxLevWt,
msTxPwrMaxCell, msTxPwrMax, hoSecondBestCellConfiguration, rxLevNCellHreqaveBeg.

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3.4.9 RADIO LINK FAILURE


radioLinkTimeOut, rlf1, rlf2, rlf3, t3111, t3109.

3.4.10 INTERFERENCE MANAGEMENT


averagingPeriod, thresholdInterference, radChanSelIntThreshold.

3.4.11 PCH AND RACH CONTROL PARAMETERS


delayBetweenRetrans, maxNumberRetransmission, nbOfRepeat, noOfBlocksForAccessGrant,
noOfMultiframesBetweenPaging, numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans, pagingOnCell, retransDuration,
t3122, gprsNetworkModeOperation, bssPagingCoordination.

3.4.12 CONCENTRIC CELL


concentric cell, concentAlgoExtMsRange, concentAlgoExtRxLev, concentAlgoExtRxLevUL,
concentAlgoIntMsRange, concentAlgoIntRxLev, concentAlgoIntRxLevUL,
directAllocIntFrRxLevDL , directAllocIntFrRxLevUL , transceiverEquipmentClass,
transceiverZone, zoneFrequencyHopping, zoneFrequencyThreshold, small to large zone HO
Priority, zone Tx power max reduction, biZonePowerOffset, biZonePowerOffset(n),
rxLevMinCell(n).

3.4.13 EXTENDED CELL


extended cell, rndAccTimAdvThreshold, msRangeMax, callClearing, channelType.

3.4.14 QUEUING AND PRIORITY MANAGEMENT


allocPriorityTable, allocPriorityTimers, allocPriorityThreshold, allocWaitThreshold,
allOtherCasesPriority, answerPagingPriority, assignRequestPriority, bscQueuingOption,
callReestablishmentPriority, emergencyCallPriority, interCellHOExtPriority,
interCellHOIntPriority, intraCellHOIntPriority, otherServicesPriority, small to large zone HO
Priority, directedRetryPrio, intraCellQueuing.

3.4.15 EMLPP PREEMPTION


preemptionAuthor.

3.4.16 SMS-CB
smsCB, noOfBlocksForAccessGrant, channelType.

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3.4.17 FREQUENCY HOPPING


btsIsHopping, hoppingSequenceNumber, maio, siteGsmFctList, cellAllocation,
mobileAllocation, fhsRef, bscHopReconfUse, btsHopReconfRestart, btsThresholdHopReconf,
zoneFrequencyHopping, zoneFrequencyThreshold.

3.4.18 DYNAMIC BARRING OF ACCESS CLASS


bscMsAccessClassBarringFunction, btsMsAccessClassBarringFunction,
accessClassCongestion, numberOfTCHFreeBeforeCongestion,
numberOfTCHFreeToEndCongestion, numberOfTCHQueuedBeforeCongestion,
numberOfTCHQueuedToEndCongestion, notAllowedAccessClasses.

3.4.19 DTX
dtxMode, cellDtxDowlink.

3.4.20 UPLINK POWER CONTROL


uplinkPowerControl, new power control algorithm, runPowerControl, , powerIncrStepSizeUL,
powerRedStepSizeUL, lRxQualULP, uRxQualULP, lRxLevULP, uRxLevULP, msTxPwrMax,
msTxPwrMax2ndBand.

3.4.21 DOWNLINK POWER CONTROL


bsPowerControl, new power control algorithm, runPwrControl, powerIncrStepSizeDL,
powerRedStepSizeDL, lRxQualDLP, uRxQualDLP, lRxLevDLP, uRxLevDLP.

3.4.22 DIRECTED RETRY HANDOVER


interBscDirectedRetry, intraBscDirectedRetry, interBscDirectedRetryFromCell,
intraBscDirectedRetryFromCell, modeModifyMandatory, directedRetryModeUsed,
msTxPwrMaxCell, msTxPwrMax, directedRetry, adjacent cell umbrella ref, directedRetryPrio.

3.4.23 UPLINK INTRACELL HANDOVER


intraCell, intraCellSDCCH, runHandOver, rxLevULIH, lrxQualULH, rxQualULIH.

3.4.24 DOWNLINK INTRACELL HANDOVER


intraCell, intraCellSDCCH, runHandOver, rxLevDLIH, lRxQualDLH, rxQualDLIH.

3.4.25 INTERCELL HANDOVER ON BAD UPLINK QUALITY


CRITERION
handOver from signalling channel, runHandOver, lrxQualULH, hoMarginRxQual.
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3.4.26 INTERCELL HANDOVER ON BAD DOWNLINK QUALITY


CRITERION
handOver from signalling channel, runHandOver, lRxQualDLH, hoMarginRxQual.

3.4.27 INTERCELL HANDOVER ON BAD UPLINK LEVEL CRITERION


handOver from signalling channel, runHandOver, lRxLevULH, hoMarginRxLev.

3.4.28 INTERCELL HANDOVER ON BAD DOWNLINK LEVEL


CRITERION
handOver from signalling channel, runHandOver, lRxLevDLH, hoMarginRxLev.

3.4.29 INTERCELL HANDOVER ON POWER BUDGET CRITERION


handOver from signalling channel, runHandOver, powerBudgetInterCell, hoMargin,
rxLevDLPBGT.

3.4.30 MICROCELLULAR ALGORITHM


handOver from signalling channel, runHandOver, cellType, microCellCaptureTimer,
microCellStability, rxNCellHreqave.

3.4.31 INTERCELL HANDOVER ON DISTANCE CRITERION


msBtsDistanceInterCell, handOver from signalling channel, runHandOver,hoMarginDist.

3.4.32 HANDOVER FOR TRAFFIC REASONS


handOver from signalling channel, runHandOver, hoTraffic, hoMarginTrafficOffset.

3.4.33 HANDOVER DECISION ACCORDING TO ADJACENT CELL


handOver from signalling channel, runHandOver, offsetLoad, offsetPriority.

3.4.34 GENERAL PROTECTION AGAINST HO PINGPONG


hoPingpongCombination, hoPingpongTimeRejection.

3.4.35 CALL CLEARING


callClearing, runCallClear.

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3.4.36 FREQUENCY BAND FAVOURING


early classmark sending, multi band reporting, cellBarred, cellBarQualify, hoMargin,
hoMarginDist, hoMarginRxQual, hoMarginRxLev, offsetPriority.

3.4.37 MINIMUM TIME BETWEEN HANDOVER


timeBetweenHOConfiguration, bts Time Between HO configuration.

3.4.38 RADIO RESOURCE CONTROL AT CELL LEVEL


radResSupervision, radResSupBusyTimer, radResSupFreeTimer.

3.4.39 PRE-SYNCHRONISED HANDOVER


synchronised, preSynchroTimingAdvance.

3.4.40 INTERFERER CANCELLATION


interferer cancel algo usage, diversity

3.4.41 EARLY HO DECISION


hoMarginBeg, rxLevHreqaveBeg, rxLevNCellHreqaveBeg.

3.4.42 MAXIMUM RXLEV FOR PBGT


rxLevDLPBGT.

3.4.43 CELL TIERING


interferenceType, intraCell, measurementProcAlgorithm, nbLargeReuseDataChannels,
hoMarginTiering, pwciHreqave, numberOfPwciSamples, selfTuningObs.

3.4.44 TTY SUPPORT ON BSC/TCU 3000


coderPoolConfiguration.

3.4.45 PROTECTION AGAINST INTRACELL HO PING-PONG


capacityTimeRejection, minTimeQualityIntraCellHO.

3.4.46 AUTOMATIC HANDOVER ADAPTATION


selfAdaptActivation, servingfactorOffset, neighDisvaforOffset, rxQualAveBeg.
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3.4.47 GSM TO UMTS HANDOVER


gsmToUMTSServiceHO, earlyClassmarkSendingUTRAN, compressedModeUTRAN,
mobileCountryCodeUTRAN, mobileNetworkCodeUTRAN, locationAreaCodeUTRAN, rNCId,
cId, fDDARFCN, scramblingCode, diversityUTRAN, t3121, rxLevMinCellUTRAN,
rxLevDLPbgtUTRAN, hoMarginUTRAN, hoMarginAMRUTRAN, hoMarginRxLevUTRAN,
hoMarginRxQualUTRAN, hoMarginDistUTRAN, hoMarginTrafficOffsetUTRAN,
offsetpriorityUTRAN, hoPingpongCombinationUTRAN, hoPingpongTimeRejectionUTRAN,
hoRejectionTimeOverloadUTRAN

3.4.48 ADAPTATIVE FULL/HALF RATE


amrDlFrAdaptationSet, amrDlHrAdaptationSet, amrUlFrAdaptationSet, amrUlHrAdaptationSet,
coderPoolConfiguration, speechMode, HRCellLoadStart, HRCellLoadEnd, frAMRPriority,
hrAMRPriority, hrPowerControlTargetMode, hrPowerControlTargetModeDl,
frPowerControlTargetMode, frPowerControlTargetModeDl, bsPowerControl,
uplinkPowerControl, pRequestedCodec, nHRRequestedCodec, nFRRequestedCodec,
amrFRIntercellCodecMThresh, amrFRIntracellCodecMThresh, amrHRIntercellCodecMThresh,
amrHRtoFRIntracellCodecMThresh, hoMarginAMR, amriRxLevDLH, amriRxLevULH,
nCapacityFRRequestedCodec, amrDirectAllocIntRxLevDL, amrDirectAllocIntRxLevUL,
amrDirectAllocRxLevDL, amrDirectAllocRxLevUL, filteredTrafficCoefficient,
gprsPreemptionForHR.

3.4.49 WIRELESS PRIORITY SERVICE


allocPriorityTable, allocPriorityTimers, allocWaitThreshold, bscQueuingOption,
wPSManagement, wPSQueueStepRotation.

3.4.50 NETWORK SYNCHRONIZATION


btsSMSynchroMode, tnOffset, fnOffset, dARPPh1Priority, masterBtsSmId, baseColourCode

3.4.51 REPEATED DOWNLINK FACCH


enableRepeatedFacchFr, enableRepeatedFacchHr

3.4.52 TX POWER OFFSET FOR SIGNALLING


facchPowerOffset, sacchPowerOffset, sacchPowerOffsetSelection

3.4.53 NOVEL ADAPTIVE RECEIVER


adaptiveReceiver

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3.4.54 A5/3 ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM


cypherModeReject, encrypAlgoAssComp, encrypAlgoCiphModComp, encrypAlgoHoPerf,
encrypAlgoHoReq, encryptionAlgorSupported, layer3MsgCyphModComp

3.4.55 BTS SMART POWER MANAGEMENT


smartPowerManagementConfig, smartPowerSwitchOffTimer

3.4.56 ENHANCED VERY EARLY ASSIGNMENT


EATrafficLoadEnd, EATrafficLoadStart, VEASDCCHOverflowed

3.4.57 AMR MAXIMIZATION


fullHRCellLoadEnd, fullHRCellLoadStart, sharedPDTCHratio

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4.

ALGORITHMS

4.1.

INTRODUCTION
This chapter describes major BSS GSM algorithms using OMC-R algorithm parameters, both
on the BTS and the MS side.

4.2.

CONVENTIONS AND UNITS


In this chapter, the following abbreviations are used:

RXQUAL_DL: weighted average for DL signal quality (MS measurements)


RXQUAL_UL: weighted average for UL signal quality (BTS measurements)
RXLEV_DL: weighted average for DL signal strength (MS measurements)
RXLEV_UL: weighted average for UL signal strength (BTS measurements)
MS_BS_Dist: weighted average of MS distance from BTS (MS timing
advance)
RXLEV_NCELL(n): arithmetic average for signal strength on neighbor cell
(reported by the MS)

4.2.1 UNIT
Thresholds on signal quality are given in RXQUAL values. Samples measurements are also
reported in RXQUAL values. When internal calculations are performed, RXQUAL values are
converted into bit error rates (BER) using mean values and compared to thresholds which are
also converted into bit error rate. From the V9 BSS release, the comparison is done with the
upper or the lower limit of the BER range.
RxQual value

BER range value

Mean BER value

BER < 0.2%

0.14%

0.2% < BER < 0.4%

0.28%

0.4% < BER < 0.8%

0.57%

0.8% < BER < 1.6%

1.13%

1.6% < BER < 3.2%

2.26%

3.2% < BER < 6.4%

4.53%

6.4% < BER < 12.8%

9.05%

12.8% < BER

18.10%

Signal strength thresholds are given in dBm (from -110 dBm to -47 dBm).
Signal strength measurements reported by the mobiles and the BTS are given in the rxlev
format (from 0 to 63).
The average signal strength measurement values, which are compared to the rxlev
thresholds, are the integer part of the average result.

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4.2.2 PHASE 2 BTS AND MS MAXIMUM TRANSMITTING OUTPUT POWERS


MOBILE PHASE 2 MAXIMUM TRANSMITTING OUTPUT POWER
Power
Class

GSM 850 / GSM 900

DCS 1800

PCS 1900

Nominal Maximum
Output Power

Nominal Maximum
Output Power

Nominal Maximum
Output Power

Tolerance for
condition
Normal

Extreme

restricted MS Phase 1

1W (30 dBm)

1W (30 dBm)

+/- 2 dB

+/- 2,5 dB

8W (39 dBm)

0,25W (24 dBm)

0,25W (24 dBm)

+/- 2 dB

+/- 2,5 dB

5W (37 dBm)

4W (36 dBm)

2W (33 dBm)

+/- 2 dB

+/- 2,5 dB

2W (33 dBm)

+/- 2 dB

+/- 2,5 dB

0,8W (29 dBm)

+/- 2 dB

+/- 2,5 dB

ASSOCIATED POWER CONTROL LEVELS

GSM 850 / GSM 900


Power
control
level

Nominal
Output
power
(dBm)

Tolerance
(dB) for
conditions
N

DCS 1800
Power
control
level

Nominal
Output
power
(dBm)

PCS 1900

Tolerance
(dB) for
conditions
N

Power
control
level

Nominal
Output
power
(dBm)

Tolerance
(dB) for
conditions
N

0-2

39

2,5

29

36

2,5

22-29

Reserved

37

30

34

30

33

35

31

32

31

32

33

30

30

31

28

28

29

26

26

27

24

24

25

22

22

10

23

20

20

11

21

18

18

12

19

16

16

13

17

14

14

14

15

12

12

15

13

10

10

10

10

16

11

11

11

17

12

12

18

13

13

19-31

14

14

15-28

15

16-21

Reserved

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BASE STATION PHASE 2 MAXIMUM TRANSMITTING OUTPUT POWERS


GSM 850 / GSM 900

GSM 1800 / GSM 1900

Tolerance for condition

CLASS 1: [320 - 640[ W [55 - 58[ dBm

CLASS 1: [20 - 40[ W [43 - 46[ dBm

+/- 2 dB

+/- 2,5 dB

CLASS 2: [160 - 320[ W [55 - 58[ dBm

CLASS 2: [10 - 20[ W [40 - 43[ dBm

+/- 2 dB

+/- 2,5 dB

CLASS 3: [80 -160[ W [49 - 52[ dBm

CLASS 3: [5 - 10[ W [37 - 40[ dBm

+/- 2 dB

+/- 2,5 dB

CLASS 4: [40 - 80[W [46 - 49[ dBm

CLASS 4: [2.5 - 5[ W [34 - 37[ dBm

Normal

Extreme

+/- 2 dB

+/- 2,5 dB

CLASS 5: [20 - 40[ W [43 - 46[dBm

+/- 2 dB

+/- 2,5 dB

CLASS 6: [10 - 20[ W [40 - 43[ dBm

+/- 2 dB

+/- 2,5 dB

CLASS 7: [5 - 10[ W [37 - 40[ dBm

+/- 2 dB

+/- 2,5 dB

CLASS 8: [2.5 - 5[ W [34 - 37[ dBm

+/- 2 dB

+/- 2,5 dB

Settings will be provided to allow output power to be reduced from its maximum level to at
least six steps of nominally 2 dB with an accuracy of 1 dB to allow a fine adjustment of the
coverage by the network operator. In addition, the actual absolute output power at each static
RF power step (N) shall be 2*N dB below the absolute output power at static RF power step 0
with a tolerance of 3 dB under normal conditions and 4dB under extreme conditions. The
static RF power step 0 will be the actual output power according to the TRX power class.

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4.2.3 GSM PRODUCTS SENSITIVITY AND POWER


Please refer to the following documents for information on main RF characteristics of the
Nortel BTS portfolio :
BTS S2000L Engineering Rules : [R47]
BTS S2000H Engineering Rules : [R48]
BTS S4000 Outdoor Engineering Rules : [R49]
BTS S4000 Indoor Engineering Rules : [R50]
BTS eCell Engineering Rules : [R51]
BTS S8000-S8003 Indoor & S8000 Outdoor Engineering Rules : [R52]
BTS S12000 Indoor & Outdoor Engineering Rules : [R53]
BTS 18000 Indoor & Outdoor Engineering Rules : [R54]
BTS 18000 GSM-UMTS Indoor & Outdoor Engineering Rules : [R55]
BTS 6000 GSM Indoor & Outdoor Engineering Rules : [R56]

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4.2.4 CONVERSION RULES


POWER CONVERSION
The main power conversion rules are provided below.
P (dB) = P (dBW) = 10 log (PW)
P (dBm) = P (dBmW) = 10 log (PmW)
P (dB) = P (dBm) - 30
E (dBV / m) = P (dBm) + 20 log FHz + 77,2

DISTANCE - TIMING ADVANCE CONVERSION


The table below gives the conversion rules of the timing advance versus the distance.
One bit corresponds to 554 m and the accuracy is 0.25 bit (i.e 138.5 m)
Timing Advance

Distance (m)

Recommendation accuracy

[0..554[

25 %

[554..1108[

12.5 %

[1108..1662[

6.1 %

[1662..

3.1 %

[34 902..35456[

0.4 %

63

Due to multipath and to MS synchronization accuracy, the gap of timing advances between
two different MS for a given distance can reach 3 bits (i.e. 1,6 km).
The value of the timing advance has an impact on decision taking for handover and call
clearing. The timing advance is calculated by taking into account all the rays coming from a
same signal.
The timing advance must be used carefully as a handover and call clearing criteria, especially
in a microcellular configuration.

4.2.5 ACCURACY RELATED TO MEASUREMENTS


The GSM recommendation specifies the absolute and relative accuracy of the MS and BTS
measurements (Rec. GSM 05.08 8.1.2). The table below provides the GSM absolute
accuracy recommendation.
MS and BTS absolute measurement accuracy
from - 110 dBm to - 70 dBm under normal conditions

+/- 4 dB

from - 110 dBm to - 48 dBm under normal conditions

+/- 6 dB

from - 110 dBm to - 48 dBm under extreme conditions

+/- 6 dB

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The overlap between the different ranges (see above normal condition cases) are specified in
the recommendation.
This recommendation is not restrictive and most of the BTS and MS may provide better
results. However, these figures show that the threshold accuracy handover and power
control field strength may be off by a few dB.
The relative accuracy depends on the gap between measurement levels and sensivity levels.
The table below provides the GSM relative accuracy recommendation of a difference between
two measurements lower than 20 dB.
MS and BTS absolute measurement accuracy
lower measured level > sensitivity + 14 dB

+ 2 / - 2 dB

sensitivity + 14 dB> lower measured level > sensitivity + 1 dB

+ 2 / - 3 dB

sensitivity + 1 dB > lower measured level

+ 2 / - 4 dB

For example, the level difference between two field strengths, which are higher than the
sensivity + 14 dBm, must be within the range of [-2 dB to +2 dB].
Output power tolerance must also be considered in the parameters setting because the
parameters bsTxPwrMax and msTxPwrMax are used in the algorithms.

4.2.6 FREQUENCY BAND


Frequency band
P-GSM 900

Fl(n) [lower band]

n range

Fu(n) [upper band]

Fl(n) = 890 + 0,2 * n

1 n 124

Fl(n) = 890 + 0,2 * n

0 n 124

Fl(n) = 890 + 0,2 * (n - 1024)

975 n 1023

Fl(n) = 890 + 0,2 * n

0 n 124

Fl(n) = 890 + 0,2 * (n - 1024)

955 n 1023

DCS 1800

Fl(n) = 1710,2 + 0,2 * (n - 512)

512 n 885

Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 95

PCS 1900

Fl(n) = 1850,2 + 0,2 * (n - 512)

512 n 810

Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 80

GSM 450

Fl(n) = 450,6 + 0,2 * (n - 259)

259 n 293

Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 10

GSM 480

Fl(n) = 479 + 0,2 * (n - 306)

306 n 340

Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 10

GSM 850

Fl(n) = 824,2 + 0,2 * (n - 128)

128 n 251

Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45

GSM 750

Fl(n) = 747,2 + 0,2 * (n - 438)

438 n 511

Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 30

E-GSM 900
R-GSM 900

Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45
Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45
Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45

Frequencies are in MHz.

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4.3.

2G CELL SELECTION AND RESELECTION

4.3.1 OVERVIEW
NETWORK SELECTION
At switch-on, the mobile is required to select, among a set of PLMNs that is further defined
below, the highest priority PLMN that is both :

"available"

and "allowable"

An available PLMN is a PLMN on which a cell has been found that is not barred and where
Rxlev > rxLevAccessMin
An allowable PLMN is a PLMN which is not in the list of "forbidden PLMNs" in the MS.
The set of possible PLMNs and their decreasing order of priority is :

the last PLMN on which the MS performed a successful registration (Location area
update);

the Home PLMN (this is the PLMN where the MCC and MNC of the PLMN identity
match the MCC and MNC of the IMSI);

other PLMNs, in the order explicitely defined in the SIM.

This order of priority is valid, whether the MS is a roamer or not.

CELL SELECTION PROCEDURE:

The selection process begins with a signal strength measurement averaging on the
whole frequency band lasting approximately three seconds in order to sort channels
according to their strength.

Then, for the most powerful channel, the MS tries to detect the FCH channel, then
decodes the SCH channel, and if the MNC and MCC are not forbidden, it listens to
SYSTEM INFORMATION 1 to 4 to get full information on that cell and possibly select
it depending on the selection criterion.

If one of the steps fails, the next powerful channel is tried and so on.

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CELL RESELECTION PROCEDURE:

Reselection criteria are calculated every 5 to 60 seconds period (depending on the


number of cells for which BCCH is in BCCH Allocation and number of multiframes
between paging) because MS must perform at least 5 measurements on every cell
listed in the BCCH Allocation before averaging is allowed. For phase 1 MS, C1 path
loss criterion is used whereas for phase 2 MS, the C2 criterion is used.

Then, for the most powerful channel, the MS attempts to detect the FCH channel, then
decodes the SCH channel, and if the NCC and BCC are not forbidden, it will listen to
SYSTEM INFORMATION 1 to 4 to get full information on that cell and possibly select
it depending on the selection criterion.

4.3.2 SELECTION OR RESELECTION BETWEEN CELLS OF


CURRENT LOCATION AREA
In Phase 1, MS checks that cellBarred flag is not set to barred before sorting eligible cells.
In Phase 2, MS checks cellBarred and cellBarQualify flags in order to define the cells access
(normal,low,barred).
C1 is the path loss criterion for unbarred cells of allowed PLMN.
To be selected, a cell must have a positive C1:
C1 = RXLEV - rxLevAccessMin - Max (B,0) >0
with B = msTxPwrMaxCCH - P
P = maximum RF output power of the MS

Received levels must be higher than rxlevAccessMin and if a mobile state has a classmark
lower than msTxPwrMaxCCH, it must get closer to the cell to have access to it.

4.3.3 RESELECTION TO A CELL OF A DIFFERENT LOCATION AREA


This is an additionnal criteria for reselection towards a y cell having a different Location Area
from the current one. A choice must be made between C1 values for cell having a different
Location Area:
C1(x) < C1(y) - cellReselectHysteresis

The value used for the parameter cellReselectHysteresis is the-one set in the current serving
cell.

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4.3.4 ADDITIONAL RESELECTION CRITERION (FOR PHASE 2)


In Phase 2, MS checks cellBarred and cellBarQualify flags in order to define the cells access
(normal, low, barred).
To activate this feature, the cellReselInd parameter will be set to true.
The C1 criterion did not provide a way of preventing a fast moving mobile station from
reselecting a fugitive cell nor avoiding ping-pong reselection. The idea is to give a cell a
tunable access for reselection and to prevent mobiles from reselecting a cell if that cell is new
to the mobile or if it was recently the serving cell:
C2 = C1 + cellReselectOffset - temporaryOffset * H (penaltyTime - t)
for penaltyTime 640
C2 = C1 - cellReselectOffset
for penaltyTime = 640

where t is a timer started as soon as a cell enters the mobile best cell list:
t = penaltyTime if the new cell in the list is the previous serving
cell
t = 0 otherwise
and H(x) is a function:
H(penaltyTime - t) = 0 if t penaltyTime
H(penaltyTime - t) = 1 if t < penaltyTime
temporaryOffset is a negative offset.
By adding an offset (cellReselectOffset) it is possible to give different priorities, for example, to
different types of cells in case of a multilayer network or to different bands when multiband
operation is used.
The timer penaltyTime ensures that the mobile will reselect a cell which has been received
with a sufficient level for a sufficient time. Some microcellular handover algorithms are based
on this C2 reselection principle.

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Priority of access: cellBarred and cellBarQualify parameters.


The parameters are used to give each cell the authorization to be selected or reselected, and
for all of them a priority of access is given.
The selection procedure is mainly concerned by this priority introduction.

SELECTION
For the server cell and the neighboring cells, the C1 algorithm is computed. The C2 algorithm
is computed only if cell reselection is used (cellReselInd = true).
A priority is affected to each eligible cell and is only applied to Phase II MS.
IF cellBarQualify = TRUE THEN the cell priority is low, whatever the cellBarred value is.
IF cellBarQualify = FALSE AND IF the cell is barred (cellBarred set to barred) THEN the cell
priority is null (the cell can not be reselected in idle mode).
IF cellBarQualify = FALSE AND IF the cell is not barred THEN the priority is normal.
For a mobile Phase II: if no cell with NORMAL priority is eligible (cell contained in the eligible
list constituted using the C1 algorithm), then the cells with LOW priority are scanned. So even
if a cell is barred, a phase II mobile is able to select this cell, but it will not be able to perform a
call on it.
For a mobile Phase I: it is not possible to reselect a cell that is barred.
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cellBarred

cellBarQualify

Priority

barred

false

no selection possible

barred

true

low

not barred

false

normal

not barred

true

low

Note: To forbid the access of a cell to a MS, the cellBarred set to not barred and
incomingHandover set to disabled, is not sufficient. Care must be taken with the
cellBarQualify that gives the priority.

RESELECTION
There is only one kind of priority which is NORMAL.
IF the cell is barred
AND IF cellBarQualify is false
THEN the reselection is not authorized.

cellBarred

cellBarQualify

Priority

barred

false

no selection possible

barred

true

normal

not barred

false

normal

not barred

true

normal

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4.4.

2G - 3G UTRAN FDD & TDD CELL RESELECTION


As 3G is deployed, if GSM access network does not provide "GSM to UMTS mobility" for
mobiles in idle mode, all the dual-mode mobiles (e.g. mobile supporting both GSM and
UTRAN/FDD radio access technologies) will be stuck on GSM cells:

when leaving UMTS coverage the mobile will reselect a GSM cell

when on a GSM cell a dual-mode mobile will only reselect a GSM cell

switching off-on the mobile will not make the mobile reselect UMTS, since
the mobile is first looking for its last "Registered technology" at power on

using a different PLMN for UMTS (being the mutimode subscriber HPLMN)
and GSM layers can help, but this will not work for the operators not taking
this option

The cell reselection GSM to 3G technology (FDD or TDD) does not require any specific
algorithm in the GSM-BSS. The intersystem reselection only requires pieces of information to
be broadcast on the BCCH by the GSM-BSS:

intersystem cell reselection control parameters (as described later in the


document)

neighboring 3G cell list

The broadcast of this information is ensured using the "System Information 2quater" message
Since 3G technology based on FDD or TDD are very closed from a BSS point of view, in V18
a new O&M parameter is available in order to select the 3G technology (FDD or TDD which
are of course exclusive) and configure up to 4 UTRAN ARFCN (TDD or FDD) with appropriate
intersystem cell reselection control parameters. Then the BSC is able to build the SI 2quater
message accordingly.

4.4.1 UE ALGORITHM IN GSM CIRCUIT MODE


Instead of the C2 criterion used in GSM only network, the multimode cell reselection uses a
criteria based on RLA_C (Received Level Averages for Circuit services), which is an
unweighted average of the received signal levels measured in dBm.
The UE starts measuring 3G cells when RLA_C in serving cell is below or above Qsearch_I
(depending on the value of Qsearch_I), the MS starts measuring 3G cells (FDD or TDD).
Main reason is to save mobile battery.

UTRAN/FDD NEIGHBORING CELL RESELECTION


The UTRAN/FDD neighbouring cell n is reselected by the UE if the 2 following conditions are
met for a period of 5s:
1. (CPICH_RSCP(n) > RLA_Cserving + FDD_Qoffset)

2. (CPICH Ec/No)(n) FDD_Qmin FDD_Qmin_Offset


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3. (CPICH_RSCP(n) FDD_RSCP_threshold)
Where FDD_RSCP_threshold = FDD_RSCPmin min (Pmax -21 dBm)
P_Max is the maximum RF output power of the MS (dBm) in UTRAN FDD mode

CPICH_RSCP(n): is the Received Signal Code Power on one code measured


on the Primary CPICH

(CPICH Ec/No)(n): is the received energy per chip on the Primary CPICH
divided by the power density in the band

The 1st and 3rd conditions ensure a minimum signal level is available from cell n.
The 2nd condition ensures the quality (level of interference) of cell n is acceptable.
The FDD_Qmin_Offset parameter is only supported by multi-RAT mobile rel5 or
above. For multi-RAT MS rel4, rel99 or if the threshold is not provided by the
network, only FDD_Qmin parameter is used for the second condition.
The FDD_RSCPmin parameter is only supported by multi-RAT mobile rel5 or above.
For multi-RAT MS rel4, rel99 or if the threshold is not provided by the network, the
mobile calculates the FDD_RSCP_threshold as follow:

Either with 3G neighbor cell information if available, then:

FDD_RSCP_threshold = Qrxlevmin + Pcompensation + 10 dB


(Where: Pcompensation is max (UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH P_MAX, 0) (dB),
and UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH is the maximum TX power level an MS may use
when accessing the UTRAN FDD cell on RACH (dBm)).

Or, with the default value of FDD_RSCPmin specified in 3Gpp standard.

The introduction of the FDD_Qmin_Offset and FDD_RSCP_threshold in the 3Gpp rel5


standard brings the following enhancements in FDD cell reselection mechanism:

Avoid 2G-3G ping pong for inter RAT cell reselection.

Avoid for the MS to read Qrxlevmin broadcast by a 3G cell in order to check if


the 3G cell is eligible.

De-correlate parameters for 2G-3G cell reselection from parameters for 3G


cell selection

Note: FDD_Qmin_Offset and FDD_RSCPmin are not supported in this version. Thus, as these
parameters will not be provided by the network, the mobile will have the default behavior
specified in 3Gpp Standard
The parameters used by the mobile to perform intersystem FDD cell reselection are the
following.
Nortel Parameter Name

3GPP Parameter Name

3GSearchLevel

Qsearch_I

Search for 3G cells if signal level is bellow

Description

3GReselectionOffset

FDD_Qoffset

Applies an offset to C2 to cell re-selection to


access technology FDD UMTS access min level

3GAccessMinLevel

FDD_Qmin

A minimum threshold for Ec/No for UTRAN FDD


cell re-selection

3GReselectionARFCN

FDD_ARFCN

Neighbouring UMTS cell ARFCN


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These parameters are controlled by O&M and broadcasted on BCCH in the System
Information 2quater message.

UTRAN/TDD NEIGHBORING CELL RESELECTION


The UTRAN/FDD neighbouring cell n is reselected by the UE if the 2 following conditions are
met for a period of 5s:
1. (CPICH_RSCP(n) > RLA_Cserving + FDD_Qoffset)
This condition ensures a minimum signal level is available from cell n.
The parameters used by the mobile to perform intersystem TDD cell reselection are the
following.
Nortel Parameter Name

3GPP Parameter Name

Description

3GSearchLevel

Qsearch_I

Search for 3G cells if signal level is bellow

3GReselectionOffset

TDD_Qoffset

Applies an offset to C2 to cell re-selection to


access technology FDD UMTS access min level

3GReselectionARFCN

TDD_ARFCN

Neighbouring UMTS cell ARFCN

LCAUTION!
In order to enable the broadcasting of the SI2Quater on the BCCH the parameter
uMTSReselectionARFCN must be set to a non-null value.
uMTSReselectionARFCN 0 is allowed and other uMTSReselectionARFCN allowed must be
part of the DL ARFCN range defined in the GSM specification
Operating Band

DL ARFCN

UMTS 2000

10562 to 10838

II

UMTS 1900

9662 to 9938, 412, 437, 462,


487, 512, 537,
562, 587, 612,
637, 662, 687

III

UMTS 1800

1162 to 1513

IV

UMTS 1700/2100

1537 to 1738, 1887, 1912, 1937,


1962, 1987, 2012, 2037, 2062,
2087

UMTS 850

4357 to 4458, 1007, 1012, 1032,

VI

UMTS 800

4387 to 4413, 1037, 1062

VII

UMTS 2600

2237 to 2563, 2587, 2612, 2637,


2662, 2687, 2712, 2737, 2762,
2787, 2812, 2837, 2862, 2887,
2912

VIII

UMTS 900

2937 to 3088

IX

UMTS 1700

9237 to 9387

1037, 1062, 1087

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PROCESS IN THE BSS


The intersystem reselection requires new information to be broadcast on the BCCH
via "System Information 2quater" message:

new intersystem cell reselection control parameters (as described above)

neighboring 3G cell list

The broadcast of this new information is ensured using the "System Information 2quater"
message.
When the information is updated (following a change at the OMC-R), the CHANGE MARK bit
is set to a new value.
The System Information 2quater is scheduled either on Normal or Extended BCCH (see
chapter SI2Quater & SI13 on Extended or Normal BCCH):

If sent on Normal BCCH:


it shall be sent when TC = 5 if neither of 2bis and 2ter are used
otherwise it shall be sent at least once within any of 4 consecutive
occurrences of TC = 4

If sent on BCCH Ext, it is sent at least once within any of 4 consecutive


occurrences of TC = 5

As a consequence, System Information 3 message has been updated in order to indicate to


the mobile:

whether or not SI2quater is broadcast

if broadcast is done on Normal or Extended BCCH

4.4.2 3G NEIGHBOURING CELL INFORMATION IN SI2QUATER


The GSM standard offers different possibilities to broadcast 3G neighbouring cell information
using SI2quater:

1) The BSS broadcast FDD_ARFCN or TDD_ARFCN and primary scrambling


code for each of the UMTS FDD neighbouring cells.

2) for each ARFCN, a list of scrambling codes

In this version, neighboring cell scrambling codes are not broadcast, and FDD / TDD
technologies are exclusive (either TDD or FDD ARFCN are broadcast).
Therefore, 3G neighboring cells will be described by up to 4 FDD or TDD AFRCN following 3G
technology selected.
This limitation of 4 ARFCN (TDD or FDD) is due to the fact that the System Information
2quater message segmentation is not supported in this version by the BSS.

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As it will take "some" additional time with that solution (the mobile have to decode the UTRAN
FDD neighbouring cells scrambling codes) 2 additional informations are provided and used by
the network and the mobile when the mobile reports measurement in connected mode:

a one bit 3G-BA_IND field used to correlate the measurements with a


neighbouring cell list

a Absolute_Index_Start_EMR used for building the neighbouring cell list in the


mobile. The value of this parameter is dynamic, and depends on the number
of 2G neighbouring cells (this allows shorter Meas. Report messages from the
UE).

4.4.3 CONTROL INFORMATION IN SI2QUATER


The following Control information is broadcast by SI2quater message :

FDD_Qoffset or TDD_Qoffset (3GReselectionOffset)

FDD_Qmin (FDD only) (3GAccessMinLevel)

Qsearch_I applicable for FDD and TDD (3GSearchLevel)

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4.5.

LEGACY MEASUREMENT REPORTING

4.5.1 PRINCIPLE
Legacy measurement reporting consists in a mobile in dedicated mode - on a TCH or an
SDCCH - sending downlink signal measurements to the network, at regular intervals.
The BSS then uses these measurements in the uplink power control and handover
procedures.

4.5.2 NEIGHBOUR CELL MONITORING


DOWNLINK SIGNAL STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS
In this entire section, the mobile is assumed to be in dedicated mode.
While in dedicated mode, the mobile performs signal strength monitoring on all declared
neighbouring BCCH carriers. Signal strength measurements are done in every TDMA frame
on at least one of the BCCH carriers indicated in the BCCH allocation (BA), one after another.
As an exception, a dual-mode MS may omit GSM measurements during up to 9 TDMA frames
per SACCH multiframe and use these periods for measurements on UMTS.
Furthermore, an MS on SDCCH is allowed to schedule the measurements freely within the
multiframe as long as the total number of measurement samples is maintained and the
samples on each carrier are evenly spaced.

BSIC DECODING
It is essential for the MS to identify precisely which surrounding BTS is being measured in
order to ensure reliable handover. Because of frequency re-use with small cluster sizes, the
BCCH carrier frequency may not be sufficient to uniquely identify a neighbouring cell, i.e. the
cell in which the MS is situated may have more than one surrounding cell using the same
BCCH frequency. Thus it is necessary for the MS to synchronize to and identify the base
station identification code (BSIC). The 6-bit BSIC shall be transmitted by the network on the
SCH channel of each cell.
The MS shall use at least 4 spare frames per SACCH block period for the purpose of decoding
the BSICs (e.g. in the case of TCH, the four idle frames per SACCH block period). These
frames are termed "search" frames.
The MS shall attempt to demodulate the SCH on the BCCH carrier of as many neighbouring
cells as possible, and decode the BSIC as often as possible, and as a minimum at least once
every 10 seconds.

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4.5.3 SERVING CELL MONITORING


DOWNLINK SIGNAL STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS
For each channel, the measured downlink RXLEV shall be the average of the received
downlink signal level measurement samples in dBm taken on the TCH or SDCCH channel
within the reporting period of length one SACCH multiframe.
Signal strength measurement samples shall be taken on all bursts of the physical channel that
carries the TCH or the SDCCH, including those of the SACCH.

DOWNLINK SIGNAL QUALITY MEASUREMENTS


The received downlink signal quality shall be measured by the mobile in a manner that can be
related to the average BER before channel decoding, assessed over all received bursts in the
multiframe, except bursts carrying a portion of a SACCH frame.

4.5.4 REPORTING PERIOD


A measurement report contains values averaged over samples collected over 104 TDMA
frames for a TCH (480 ms = duration of 4 TCH multiframes) and 102 TDMA frames for an
SDCCH (471 ms = duration of 2 SDCCH multiframes).
The mobile sends 1 measurement report every 480 ms for a TCH, and every 471 ms for an
SDCCH. Measurements performed during that measurement period are reported on the next
SACCH block occurrence.
The transmission of a single measurement report message is done on four consecutive bursts
of the SACCH channel :

For a TCH, there is one SACCH burst available every 120 ms.

For an SDCCH, the 4 SACCH bursts occur in 4 TDMA frames in immediate


succession, but these 4 TDMAs in succession occur once every 471 ms.

Note : The BTS also performs uplink signal strength and uplink signal quality measurements .
However, the BTS delays the processing of these uplink measurements by 480 ms or 471 ms
to ensure that they are synchronised with the downlink measurements from the mobile (i.e.
they relate to the same reporting period as the downlink measurements, which the BTS
receives with a 480 ms or 471 ms delay).

4.5.5 NEIGHBOUR CELL LISTS


Reporting with the MEASUREMENT REPORT message is usually performed on the BCCH
allocation list (i.e. GSM cells only), but could also use cells from the 3G neighbour list in the
case of 2G/3G mobiles.

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The BCCH Allocation list is provided by the network to the mobile through SI5 messages on
SACCH. The number of neighbour cell BCCH carriers in the BCCH allocation cannot exceed
32.

The UTRAN neighbour list is provided to the 2G/3G mobile through Measurement Information
messages sent on SACCH.

4.5.6 MEASUREMENT REPORT CONTENT


2G MEASUREMENT REPORT
Each measurement report contains the following data :

(neighbour cells) RXLEV_NCELL : RXLEV computed from samples taken on the


BCCH frequency of the 6 cells with the highest signal level. For each of the 6 cells, the
number of samples that is used to compute the RXLEV of that cell depends on the
total number of neighbours to be monitored (this number is the size of the BCCH
Allocation list).

(serving cell) RXLEV_FULL : RXLEV computed from 100 (resp. 12) measurement
samples of the mobiles TCH (resp. SDCCH). The samples are measured in each of
the 100 (resp. 12) TDMA frames that transmit either the TCH burst (resp. SDCCH) or
the SACCH burst, over the measurement period.

(serving cell) RXQUAL_FULL : RXQUAL computed from 100 (resp. 12) measurement
samples of the mobiles TCH (resp. SDCCH)

(serving cell) RXLEV_SUB : For a TCH, RXLEV computed from 12 samples taken
from the 4 SACCH bursts and in case of speech only - the 8 Silence Descriptor
(SID) frames. Not applicable for SDCCH because DTX is not allowed on SDCCH : in
that case, RXLEV_SUB = RXLEV_FULL.

(serving cell) RXQUAL_SUB : For a TCH, RXQUAL computed from the same 12
samples as RXLEV_SUB. Not applicable for SDCCH and in that case, RXQUAL_SUB
= RXQUAL_FULL.

The mobile reports every 480 ms for a TCH and every 471 ms for an SDCCH.

3G MEASUREMENT REPORT
The measurement report is the same as for 2G, except for the RXLEV_NCELL of neighbour
UTRAN cells. The RXLEV_NCELL neighbour cell measurement is replaced by the appropriate
measurement for UTRAN. The measurement quantity reported by mobiles could be either
CPICH RSCP or CPICH Ec/N0. In Nortel implementation, mobiles are told by the network
to report only RSCP measurements on CPICH channels. However, the mobile selects the
UTRAN cells to report, based on internal measurements of the CPICH Ec/N0.

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4.5.7 MULTIBAND REPORTING


For a multi band MS the number of cells, for each frequency band supported, which must be
included in the measurement report is indicated by the value of the parameter
MULTIBAND_REPORTING, broadcast by the network in SI2ter on BCCH and SI5ter on
SACCH.
The value of this parameter is set by the BSS parameter multiBandReporting (class 3, bts
object) :

Value 0 : reporting of the six strongest cells, irrespective of the band used. No band is
favoured.

Value 1, 2 or 3 : reporting of the 1, 2 or 3 strongest neighbour cell(s) in the nonserving band. The remaining positions in the measurement report shall be used for
reporting of cells in the band of the serving cell. If there are still remaining positions,
these shall be used to report the next strongest identified cells in the other bands
irrespective of the band used.

4.5.8 UTRAN CELL REPORTING USING LEGACY MEASUREMENT


REPORTS (V17)
If GSM to UMTS Handover feature is enabled (see 4.8.24), the network may request the
2G/3G mobiles to report on UTRAN cells as well as on GSM cells, using either :

Legacy measurement reports : this option is covered in this subsection.

Enhanced measurement reports : this option is covered in 4.6

Note that 2G only mobiles never report UTRAN cells. UTRAN cells reporting only concerns
2G-3G mobiles and is performed by these mobiles using normal measurement reports only
when HO 2G-3G is enabled (parameter gsmToUMTSServiceHo not equal to
gsmtoUMTSDisabled) and EMR is disabled. In that case, the network informs the 2G/3G
mobiles of the type of measurement report to be used by sending a parameter called
REPORT_TYPE (3GPP name) / reportTypeMeasurement (Nortel BSS parameter name)
which can take only 2 values : enhanced measurement report or normal measurement
report. It is sent on SACCH inside a message called MEASUREMENT INFORMATION.

BSS PARAMETERS
The choice criteria of 2G and 3G cells that the 2G/3G mobile must include in the Measurement
Report in the list of the 6 cells are driven by 4 network parameters, the use of which is detailed
further on in this subsection :

fDDMultiratReporting (v17, bts object)

fDDreportingThreshold2 (v17, handoverControl object)

qsearchC (v17, handoverControl object)

multiBandReporting (v10, bts object)

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PARAMETER FDDMULTIRATREPORTING (V17)


A 2G/3G mobile must report the number of best valid UTRAN cells belonging to the neighbour
cell list, according to the value of the parameter fDDMultiratReporting. fDDMultiratReporting
indicates the number of UTRAN cells that the 2G/3G mobile must include in the measurement
report.
The fDDMultiratReporting parameter is sent by the network to the 2G/3G mobile inside a
Measurement Information message on SACCH.

PARAMETER FDDREPORTINGTHRESHOLD2 (V17)


Only UTRAN cells with a CPICH Ec/No value equal or higher than fDDreportingThreshold2
shall be reported. If that criterion is met, the reported quantity is the CPICH RSCP.
Valid UTRAN cells are identified cells where the primary CPICH has been received when
using the scrambling code provided for that frequency in the neighbour cell list.
The fDDreportingThreshold2 parameter is sent by the network to the 2G/3G mobile inside a
Measurement Information message on SACCH.

PARAMETER MULTIBANDREPORTING (V10)


The remaining positions in the measurement report shall be used for reporting of GSM cells as
defined by multiBandReporting parameter. If there are still remaining positions, these shall be
used to report the next best valid UTRAN cells.

PARAMETER QSEARCHC (V17)


The qsearchC parameter is sent by the network to the 2G/3G mobile inside a Measurement
Information message on SACCH.
For a 2G/3G mobile, qsearchC defines a power level threshold (in dBm) and also indicates
whether these tasks shall be performed when RXLEV of the BCCH of the serving cell is
below or above the threshold :

search for UTRAN cells if RXLEV of the BCCH of the serving cell is below
threshold (values 0 to 7): - 98, - 94, , - 74 dBm, (always)

or search for UTRAN cells if RXLEV of the BCCH of the serving cell iis above
threshold (values 8 to 15): - 78, - 74, , - 54 dBm, (never)

If the serving cell is not included in the GSM neighbour list defined for handover purposes (this
is always the case according to Nortel Engineeering best practice), and if the dedicated
channel is not on the BCCH frequency, and if qsearchC is not equal to 15, then the mobile
must ignore the qsearchC parameter value and must always search for UTRAN cells.
If qsearchC is equal to 15, the MS must never search for UTRAN cells.

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If the dedicated channel (TCH or SDCCH) uses the BCCH frequency, then qsearchC is
meaningful. However, in that case, the recommended Nortel value is 7 (always search for
UTRAN cells regardless of the downlink power level of the serving cell BCCH carrier).
Conclusion : with Nortels recommended value qsearchC = 7, the 2G/3G mobile is required to
always search for and measure UTRAN cells, regardless of the downlink power level of the
serving cell BCCH carrier

CELL CHOICE ALGORITHM


The MS fills the normal measurement report with measurements from 6 neighbour cells
chosen in the following order :

Strongest valid UTRAN FDD cells :


o

a valid UTRAN cell is an identified cell where the primary CPICH has been
received by the mobile when using the scrambling code provided for that
frequency in the neighbour cell list.

to be eligible, a valid
fDDReportingThreshold2.

these valid and eligible cells are ranked according to the CPICH RSCP value
and the strongest are included first. The number of such reported cells is
defined by the fDDMultiratReporting parameter.

cells

Ec/N0

must

also

be

greater

than

Strongest GSM cells (including GSM cells of unknown BSIC) in each of the nonserving frequency bands in the neighbour list. The number of such reported cells is
defined by the multiBandreporting parameter.

Strongest GSM cells (including unknown BSIC) in the frequency band of the serving
cell. There is no limitation on the number of such reported cells.

Remaining strongest GSM cells in each of the non-serving frequency bands in the BA
list.

Remaining strongest UTRAN FDD cells.

Comments:

Unlike EMR (4.6), this algorithm does not discriminate between GSM cells with
known BSIC and GSM cells with unknown BSIC.

Unlike EMR (4.6), the RxLev of serving band GSM cells are not required to exceed a
reporting threshold.

Unlike EMR (4.6), the RSCP of UTRAN cells is not required to exceed a reporting
threshold.

Unlike EMR (4.6), UTRAN cells are included before GSM cells.

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ENGINEERING RECOMMENDATION
Unlike EMR, a normal measurement report contains 6 cells. Therefore, it is necessary to
exercise caution when setting the parameters fDDMultiRatReporting and multiBandReporting.
These parameters define the number of UTRAN cells and non-serving band GSM cells,
repsectively, that must be included by the mobile in the list of strongest cells in the
measurement report. Therefore it leaves (6 - fDDMultiRatReporting - multiBandReporting)
spaces for the serving band cells.
Therefore, if EMR is disabled, it is recommended not to exceed fDDMultiRatReporting = 2 and
multiBandReporting = 2.

4.5.9 NOTE ON POWERCONTROLINDICATOR PARAMETER


powerControlIndicator is a BSS parameter that sets the value of the flag "PWRC". "PWRC" is
a field that is broadcast on BCCH channel inside SYSTEM INFORMATION n3 messages.
PWRC = 1 is equivalent to powerControlIndicator = "do not include BCCH measurements"
PWRC = 0 is equivalent to powerControlIndicator = "include BCCH measurements"

The mobiles are required to interpret this flag as follows :

if frequency hopping is not used : MS ignores the PWRC flag

if frequency hopping is used and the BCCH frequency is not part of the Mobile
Allocation frequency list : MS ignores the PWRC flag

if frequency hopping is used and the BCCH frequency is part of the Mobile Allocation
frequency list :
o

if PWRC = 1 : in the RXLEV averaging process, the MS shall discard the


samples measured on the TCH channel's Downlink bursts that have been
transmitted by the BTS on the BCCH frequency

if PWRC = 0 : in the RXLEV averaging process, the MS shall use the samples
measured on the TCH channel's Downlink bursts that have been transmitted
by the BTS on the BCCH frequency

In practice, in our networks :

In case of Synthesized Frequency Hopping, there is one TRX which is dedicated to


transmitting the BCCH frequency all 8 Timeslots of the TDMA. If the BCCH frequency
was part of the hopping list of a TCH (on another TRX, of course), then there would be
systematic collisions. Therefore, in case of SFH, BCCH frequency cannot be part of
the hopping frequency list. Therefore, in case of SFH, the setting of
powerControlIndicator is irrelevant.

In case of Baseband Frequency Hopping (BB FH is the only hopping scheme possible
with Cavity coupling), it is theoretically possible - but not recommended by Nortel - to
include the BCCH frequency in the hopping frequency list. If, in spite of our
recommendation, the BCCH frequency is part of the hopping frequency, then :
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o

if downlink power control is activated, then the TCH channel's Downlink bursts
transmitted on the BCCH frequency should not be used in the Rxlev
averaging process because, unlike the samples from other frequencies, they
are transmitted at full power : so, PWRC must be = 1 and
powerControlIndicator = "do not include BCCH measurements".

if downlink power control is not activated, then the TCH channel's Downlink
bursts transmitted on the BCCH frequency may be used in the Rxlev
averaging process : PWRC = 0 and powerControlIndicator = "include BCCH
measurements"

4.5.10 NOTE ON RXLEV UPLINK/DOWNLINK DIFFERENCE


On the mobile side, every downlink sample is made up of measurements performed on
several bursts in dBm. On the BTS side, uplink measurements are performed in Watts. So, the
uplink RxLEv average is first computed in Watts before it is converted into dBm.
These two different ways of calculating the RxLev average yield results that are artificially
approximately 2,5 dB higher for the uplink than for the downlink (see chapter Difference
Between Uplink and Downlink Levels.

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4.6.

ENHANCED MEASUREMENT REPORTING (EMR)

4.6.1 PRINCIPLE
Compared to Legacy Measurement Reporting, Enhanced Measurement Reporting allows the
mobile to:

Report more GSM neighbouring cells and, if required, 3G cells

Enhance the information reported about the quality of the signal received by the
mobile (MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP, downlink FER).

Enhanced Measurement Reporting by the mobile may be used in the context of 2G-3G
handover but is not a mandatory prerequisite.

4.6.2 REPORTING PERIOD


Same as Measurement Reporting.

4.6.3 ENHANCED MEASUREMENT REPORT CONTENT


The Enhanced Measurement Report contains the following information :

(GSM neighbour cells) RXLEV computed from samples taken on the BCCH frequency
of GSM neighbour cells with the highest signal level. The number of neighbour cells to
be reported belonging to the serving GSM band on the one hand, and to the nonserving GSM band on the other hand, depends on the values of parameters sent by
the network multibandReporting (v10 parameter), servingBandReporting (v17.0
parameter), and servingBandReportingOffset (v17.0 parameter)

(3G neighbour cells) The reported value for 3G neighbour cells is the CPICH RSCP.
The CPICH Ec/N0 is not reported in Nortels current implementation. The number of
neighbour cells to be reported belonging to the 3G technology depends on the values
of parameters sent by the network
fDDMultiratReporting (v17.0 parameter),
fDDreportingThreshold (v17.0 parameter) and fDDreportingThreshold2 (v17.0
parameter)

(GSM serving cell) : The reported values for the GSM serving cell are :
o

RXLEV_VAL : The average over the reporting period of RXLEV measured on


bursts whose associated FACCH, SID, or traffic frame has been the last time
slots of each fully received and correctly decoded data block and on all
SACCH frames. For speech traffic channels, blocks that have not been
erased, shall be considered as correctly decoded. For non-transparent data,
blocks are considered as correctly decoded according the CRC received. For
transparent data, all blocks are considered as correctly decoded.

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MEAN_BEP : The average over the reporting period of the Mean Bit Error
Probability, computed from each fully received and correctly decoded data
block and from all SACCH frames.

CV_BEP : The average over the reporting period of the Coefficient of


Variation of the Mean Bit Error Probability, computed from each fully received
and correctly decoded data block.

RXQUAL_FULL : RXQUAL computed over the reporting period from 100


measurement samples of the mobiles dedicated traffic channel TCH

NBR_RCVD_BLOCKS : the number of correctly decoded TCH blocks that


were completed during the measurement report period.

4.6.4 NEIGHBOUR CELL LISTS


EMR reporting is performed on the Neighbour Cell List.
The Neighbour Cell List is the concatenation of 2 lists

The GSM neighbour cell list

The 3G neighbour cell list (if any)

GSM NEIGHBOUR CELL LIST


The GSM neighbour cell list is the combination of the BCCH Allocation list received in
SI5/SI5bis/SI5ter with the BSIC list received in one or more instance of the MEASUREMENT
INFORMATION message.

3G NEIGHBOUR CELL LIST


This applies only to a 2G-3G mobile. One or more instances of the Measurement Information
message may provide UTRAN Neighbour Cell Description information. This is used to build
the 3G Neighbour Cell list.

MAXIMUM LIST SIZE


In Nortels v17 implementation, the maximum number of cells of the lists in the Measurement
Information message is :

maximum 32 UMTS cells

If the 3G list is void, maximum 32 GSM cells

If the 3G list is non-void, maximum 31 GSM cells

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4.6.5 ORDER OF REPORTING PRIORITY OF NEIGHBOUR CELLS


The Mobile includes measurement results of neighbour cells using the following priority order:

Highest priority : the number of strongest GSM cells with known and valid BSIC in the
frequency band of the serving cell, according to the value of servingBandReporting;

2nd highest priority : the number of strongest GSM cells with known and valid BSIC in
each of the frequency bands in the BCCH Allocation list, excluding the frequency band
of the serving cell, according to the value of multiBandReporting;

3rd highest priority : the number of best valid UTRAN cells with a reported value equal
or greater than fDDReportingThreshold in the 3G neighbour cell list, according to the
value of fDDmultiRatReporting. Additionally the CPICH Ec/No shall be equal or
greater than fDDReportingThreshold2. A valid cell is an identified cell where the
primary CPICH has been received when using the scrambling code provided for that
frequency in the neighbour cell list.

4th highest priority : the remaining GSM cells with known and valid BSIC or, if allowed
by the flag INVALID_BSIC_REPORTING, with known and allowed NCC part of the
BSIC in any frequency band.

Last priority : remaining valid UTRAN cells

For each of the priority levels above, the mobile shall apply the following rules :

if the number of valid cells is less than indicated, the unused positions in the report
shall be left for cells of lower priority;

if there is not enough space in the report for all valid cells of a given priority, cells shall
be ranked according to :
o

for GSM cells belonging to the serving band : RxLev +


servingBandReportingOffset. Note that this ranking criterion shall not affect
the value that is effectively included in the report, which remains RxLev.

for GSM cells belonging to the non-serving band : RxLev. (reporting offset =
0)

for UTRAN cells : RSCP. (reporting offset = 0)

4.6.6 MEASUREMENT INFORMATION MESSAGE


PURPOSE OF MI MESSAGE
The activation of EMR in the network requires the network to inform the relevant mobiles that
EMR reports are expected from them.

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To do this, the network sends a new information message to the mobiles, called Measurement
Information. The Measurement Information message is regularly sent by the network to the
mobiles in dedicated mode on the SACCH, in addition to System information messages 5,
5bis, 5ter, and 6.
The following mobiles receive MI messages :

2G-3G mobiles that are at least Release 99

2G-only mobiles that are at least Release 4

CONTENT
In the version of EMR reporting currently implemented, the MI message contains essentially
the following information :

EMR activation flag. The value of this flag is set by the reportTypeMeasurement
parameter.

Information enabling the mobile to derive the full list of GSM neighbour cells, i.e.
(BCCH frequency, BSIC) pairs, that may be reported in EMR reports.

INVALID_BSIC_REPORTING : 0 for disabled, 1 for enabled. When set to 1, report on


cells with invalid BSIC and allowed NCC part of BSIC is allowed. The value 1 is
mandatory if feature switch interference matrix is activated.

Number of GSM neighbour cells of the serving band that the Mobile shall include in
the list of strongest cells in the EMR report (up to 3). The value of this number is set
by the servingBandReporting parameter.

Threshold power level above which serving band cells may be reported among the
servingBandReporting number of reported cells. In v17 implementation, this threshold
is -110 dBm, meaning that all serving band cells may be reported regardless of their
power level.

(applicable to multi-band mobiles only) Number of GSM neighbour cells of the other
band that the Mobile shall include in the list of strongest cells in the EMR report (up to
3). The value of this number is set by the multiBandReporting parameter (v10
parameter).

(applicable to multi-band mobiles only) Offset to apply to the reported value when
prioritizing the cells for reporting for GSM serving frequency band. The value of this
offset is set by the servingBandReportingOffset parameter

(applicable to 2G-3G mobiles only) UTRAN neighbour cell list : list of FDD (ARFCN,
scrambling code, diversity) triplets, identifying each 3G neighbour cell. The values of
these triplets are set by the following AdjacentCellUTRAN object parameters :
o

fDDARFCN,

scramblingCode,

diversityUTRAN
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(applicable to 2G-3G mobiles only) UTRAN cells measurement parameters :


o

Number of FDD cells to be reported in the list of strongest cells in the EMR
message. This number is set by the O&M network parameter
fDDMultiRatReporting.

CPICH RSCP level above which the mobile will apply a higher priority to
UTRAN cells in the EMR message. The value of this level is set by the O&M
network parameter fDDReportingThreshold.

CPICH Ec/N0 level above which the mobile will report UTRAN cells in the
EMR message. The value of this level is set by the O&M network parameter
fDDReportingThreshold2.

Serving cell BCCH frequency power threshold above which, or below which,
the mobile may search for UTRAN cells. The value of this level is set by the
O&M network parameter qsearchC.

Type of reporting quantity (value always equal to RSCP in v17


implementation)

RELATION WITH 2G-3G HANDOVER


Note that 2 different versions of the Measurement Information message may be sent by the
network depending on the mobiles radio access capability (2G or 2G-3G) :

If EMR reporting is activated but not 2G-3G handover (i.e. the gsmToUMTSServiceHo
parameter is set to "gsmToUMTSDisabled") :
o

the BSC only sends 2G Measurement Information to the BTS. However, the
BSC does send the whole L1M configuration to the BTS. The BTS is therefroe
aware of the UTRAN neighbouring cells.

The BTS only sends 2G Measurement Information messages to 2G-3G


Release 99 mobiles and Release 4 2G mobiles. Thus UMTS cells are hidden
from the mobiles so that mobiles do not report 3G measurement results in
vain, which could adversely affect their performance.

If both EMR reporting and 2G-3G handover are activated


gsmToUMTSServiceHo parameter is not set to "gsmToUMTSDisabled") :

(i.e.

the

the BSC sends to the BTS both the 2G Measurement Information and the
2G/3G Measurement Information messages.

The BTS sends the 2G/3G Measurement Information to 2G-3G Release 99


mobiles and the 2G Measurement Information to the Release 4 2G mobiles.

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4.6.7 MI/SACCH SCHEDULING


The scheduling of Mesaurement Information and System Information messages in the SACCH
channel is :
SI 5
SI5bis
SI 5ter
SI 6
MI
SI 5
... etc.

4.6.8 MAIN DIFFERENCES BETWEEN NORMAL AND ENHANCED


MEASUREMENT REPORTING
This section attempts at summarising the main differences between normal measurement
reporting (4.5) and enhanced measurement reporting (4.6).

MR

EMR

A normal measurement report contains up to 6 neighbour cells

An enhanced measurement report contains up to 32


neighbour cells

No reporting offset is applied to rank cells. Competing cells are


ranked based only on the strongest RxLev (GSM) and RSCP
(UTRAN) values

servingBandReportingOffset is applied to the RxLev of serving


band GSM cells for ranking purposes. No offset is applied for
non-serving band GSM cells and UTRAN cells

One (1) reporting threshold is used to define eligible UTRAN


cells : fDDReportingThreshold2 for Ec/No (non-reported
quantity). No threshold for RSCP.

2 reporting thresholds are used to define eligible UTRAN cells


: fDDReportingThreshold for RSCP (reported quantity) and
fDDReportingThreshold2 for Ec/No (non-reported quantity)

A parameter (fDDMultiRatReporting) defines the number of


UTRAN cells to be included in the report as a matter of priority

A parameter (fDDMultiRatReporting) defines the number of


UTRAN cells to be included in the report as a matter of priority

A parameter (MultiBandReporting) defines the number of nonserving band GSM cells to be included in the report as a
matter of priority

A parameter (MultiBandReporting) defines the num ber of nonserving band GSM cells to be included in the report as a
matter of priority

There is no required minimum number of serving band GSM


cells in the report

A parameter (servingBandReporting) defines the number of


serving band GSM cells to be included in the report as a
matter of priority

GSM cells with known BSIC and GSM cells with unknown
BSIC are treated the same

GSM cells with known and valid BSIC have higher priority

UTRAN cells have top priority in the report

Sering and GSM cells have top priority in the report

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4.6.9 NEW BSS PARAMETERS


The following parameters are created in v17.0 and are needed to support Enhanced
Measurement Reporting :

Parameter name

Definition

Equivalent in GSM specification

fDDMultiratReporting

Number of FDD UTRAN cells to be reported in the list


of strongest cells in the EMR message

FDD_MULTIRAT_REPORTING

fDDReportingThreshold

defines the CPICH RSCP level above which the MS will


apply a higher priority to UTRAN cells in the enhanced
measurement report message

FDD_REPORTINGTHRESHOLD

fDDReportingThreshold2

defines the CPICH Ec/N0 level above which the MS will


report UTRAN cells in the enhanced measurement
report message

FDD_REPORTINGTHRESHOLD2

search for UTRAN cells if signal level on BCCH of


serving cell :
is below threshold (0-7):
-98, -94, , -74 dBm, (always)
or is above threshold (8-15):
qsearchC

Qsearch_C

-78, -74, , -54 dBm, (never)


If the serving BCCH frequency is not part of the
BA(SACCH) list, the dedicated channel is not on the
BCCH carrier, and qsearchC is not equal to 15, the MS
shall ignore the qsearchC parameter value and always
search for UTRAN cells. If qsearchC is equal to 15, the
MS shall never search for cells on 3G.

reportTypeMeasurement

type of measurement report to be reported on this cell :


enhanced measurement report or legacy measurement
report

REPORT_TYPE

servingBandReporting

defines the number of cells from the GSM serving


frequency band that shall be included in the list of
strongest cells in the measurement report.

SERVING_BAND_REPORTING

servingBandReportingOffset

If there is not enough space in the report for all valid


cells, the cells shall be reported that have the highest
sum of the reported value (RXLEV) and the parameter
servingBandReportingOffset
(XXX_REPORTING_OFFSET) for the serving GSM
band. Note that this parameter shall not affect the value
itself of the reported measurement.

XXX_REPORTING_OFFSET
(XXX=900,1800,400,850,1900)

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4.6.10 IMPACT OF EMR ON INTERFERENCE MATRIX


IMPROVED ACCURACY
There are more GSM neighbours reported with EMR than with legacy measurement reporting
:

With EMR, up to 32 GSM neighbours if no UTRAN cells are defined in the Neighbour
Cell List

With standard MR, 6 neighbour cells.

This means that the statistical processing induces less systematic bias error in the case of
EMR.

GREATER NUMBER OF CYCLES


If no 3G cells are declared as neigbours, the number of cycles depends only on the number of
declared real neighbours and the number of fake neighbours, so it is not impacted by EMR.
However, if 3G cells are declared as neighbours, the maximum number of GSM neighbours
(real + fake) is 31 instead of 32. Therefore, more cycles may be required if 3G cells are
present in the Neighbouring Cell List.

CHANGE OF TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION


If, during the Interference Matrix campaign in a dual band network, the reporting of serving
band neighbours is deliberately favoured by using the servingBandReportingOffset, then, as a
side-effect, the traffic distribution may be modified. This undesirable side-effect may in turn
modify the results of the IM measurements, whjich therefore may no longer reflect the real
situation in the field once the IM has ceased.
Therefore it is recommended to ensure that the chosen value of servingBandReportingOffset
does not cause unacceptable changes in the traffic distribution.

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4.6.11 IMPACT OF EMR ON RADIO MEASUREMENT DISTRIBUTION


(RMD)
Thanks to enhanced measurement reports, the downlink FER indicator is available to the
network. Specific distributions are added for the different codec types.
Also, a distribution of estimated downlink voice quality is added. This indicator is based on the
same principle as MOS for uplink, but is a marginally less accurate because the mobile does
not provide the distribution of codecs used during the measurement period.
The post processing tool WQA is modified accordingly.

DOWNLINK FRAME ERASURE RATE


In the EMR message, the mobile provides the number of received traffic frames :
NBR_RCVD_BLOCKS. The BTS knows the number of times each codec have been used
during the measurement period so it is now possible to get a rough estimate of the probable
number of frames, per codec, that have not been decoded by the mobile and a rough
estimate, per codec, of the probable downlink FEP (Frame Erasure Probability). Note that
each sum of estimated number of bad frames is rounded to the nearest integer value at the
end of the connection.
Thanks to RMD feature, downlink FER distributions at the OMC-R level are made available
for the following types of circuit calls:

EFR and FR speech calls,

AMR FR speech calls,

AMR HR speech calls.

DOWNLINK VOICE QUALITY INDICATOR


With EMR, it is possible to estimate the downlink voice quality (DVQI) in the same way as
TEPMOS estimates the uplink voice quality.
Distinction is done for the different codec types (EFR (and FR), AMR FR and AMR HR).
As the downlink FER per codec is an estimated one, the downlink voice quality indicator will
be less precise than TEPMOS, but the formula used to calculate DVQI is similar to the
TEPMOS one.

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4.7.

UPLINK MEASUREMENT PROCESSING

4.7.1 PRINCIPLE
Each sample on the uplink side used by the Layer 1 Management in the average computation
is composed of measurements performed in Watts on several bursts. So the uplink samples
are first computed in Watts before being translated into dBm.
The general idea is to perform arithmetic averages. These averages are stored, and each time
a decision has to be taken, an other average (weighted-average) is computed. This weightedaverage is based on a defined number (Hreqt) of arithmetic averages, which are weighted in
order to favor the latest results.
In the new version of the Layer 1 Management (L1mV2), the process of averaging is based on
fully sliding windows.
Examples for Hreqave = 8, Hreqt = 1, run xx = 4

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4.7.2 AVERAGING PROCESS

For quality and level:

rxLevHreqave, rxQualHreqave: number of measurement results to compute an arithmetic


average.
rxLevHreqt, rxQualHreqt: number of arithmetic averages necessary to compute a weighted
average, each one being associated to rxLevWtsList and rxQualWtsList (highest weight for the
most recent data).
missRxLevWt, missRxQualWt: weight applied to latest arithmetic average if existing or latest
received value to replace a missing downlink measurement. In case there have been no
previous measurements, a default value is used.

For distance, weighted average applies directly to distHreqt raw figures.

for neighbor cells, only the arithmetic average is computed. Furthermore, for L1mV2, when 10
SACCH blocks are missing, that cell is no longer considered and corresponding data is
deleted.
Note: cellDeletionCount is used as an eligibility criterion.
Arithmetic averaging is performed with xx_Hreqave period whereas weighted averaging is
done before algorithm processing, thus, weighted average is executed if run_xx is not a
multiple of xx_Hreqave.
Example for Hreqave = 3, Hreqt = 2, run xx = 4

Notes: In L1mV2, the weighted average is done with the latest not overlapped arithmetic
averages.
Reactivity of the L1mV2 has been improved. The measurements done by the MS and the BTS
during the first SACCH block period is proceeded by the BTS during the second SACCH block
period instead of the third SACCH block period.

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4.7.3 RESCALING
Measurements are stored along with the MS and BS power level (meas_txpwr) reported in
MEAS RESULT, latest power control (MS or BS) is also stored (ref_txpwr).
From the L1mV2, rescaling is done at maximum transmission power (txPwrMax). It means that
the values or averages are adjusted as follows
newLev = oldLev + ((txPwrMax meas_txPwr) * Pwr_to_dbm)

In this way BTS attenuation is already included in RxLevDL and handovers are better
anticipated.

4.7.4 MISSING DOWNLINK MEASUREMENTS


In case of Air interface problems, its possible to loose some SACCH blocks. Four rules of
substitution are applied to compensate for the missing measurements.

RULE 1
If averaged values are available, missing measurements are replaced by the latest averaged
value multiplied by a weighting factor (missDistWt, missRxLevWt, missRxQualWt).

r1

r2

r3

r4

r5

r6

m1

r7

r8

m5
m2

time
m3
m4

Example: If r8 is missing, then r8 = m4 X weighting factor.

RULE 2
If no average value is available, missing measurements are replaced by the latest
measurement value multiplied by a weighting factor (missDistWt, missRxLevWt,
missRxQualWt).

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r1

r2

r3

r4

r5

r6

m1

r7

r8

m5
m2

time
m3
m4

Example: If r3 is missing, then r3 = r2 X weighting factor.

RULE 3
If no measurement value is available, the missing measurement is replaced by a default value.

r1

r2

r3

r4

r5

r6

m1

r7

r8

m5
m2

time
m3
m4

Example: If r1 is missing, then r1 = default value.

RULE 4:
In the following, the substitution of a missing value is only done when 6 neighbouring cells are
reported during the considered period.
From L1mV2 missing measurements for neighboring cells are replaced as follows; for both
cases, inputs are:

Ncell1 no longer belongs to the list of 6 preferred cells at T+1 period,


T, T+1 correspond to measurement periods.

First case:
IF RxLevNCell1(T) min(RxLevNCell(T+1) of the 6 reported cells)
THEN RxLevNCell1(T+1) = RxLevNCell1(T)

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Second case:
IF RxLevNCell1(T) > min(RxLevNCell(T+1) of the 6 reported cells)
THEN RxLevNCell1(T+1) = min(RxLevNCell(T+1)) - missOffsetdB

missOffset has a fixed value of 3 dB.

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4.8.

DIRECT TCH ALLOCATION AND HANDOVER ALGORITHMS


Since V14, a new version of the Layer 1 Management (L1mV2) is applicable (see chapter
Measurement Processing)
LCAUTION!
It is understood in all the following formulas that RxLev_XX is computed with L1mV2.

4.8.1 GENERAL FORMULAS


PBGT
The general PBGT formula is computed in the band0 because HO_MARGIN is always specific
to the band0:
PBGT(n) = Min [msTxPwrCapability(Band0), msTxPwrMax]
- Min [msTxPwrCapabilityCell(n), msTxPwrMaxCell(n)]
+ (RxLevNCell(n)ave - RxLevDLave))

msTxPwrCapability: maximum transmission power capability of the MS according


to the BCCH frequency (Band0) and its power class ( 4.2.2).
msTxPwrMax: maximum transmission power level the MS is allowed to use on a
traffic channel in the current cell.
msTxPwrMaxCapabilityCell(n): maximum transmission power capability of the MS
(in the BCCH frequency band) of an adjacent cell (n), according to:
o the BCCH frequency band of the adjacent cell (n)
o the power class of the mobile in this band ( 4.2.2)
msTxPwrMaxCell(n): maximum transmission power level the MS is allowed to use
on a traffic channel of neighbour cell n (or the band0 of the neighbour dual band cell n)
RxLevNCell(n) ave: averaged downlink signal strength of the neighbour cell n
RxLevDLave: averaged downlink signal strength of the serving cell
However, if the MS is in band1 the PBGT formula is changed.
Indeed, RxLevNCell(n)ave should be replaced by RxLevNCell(n)ave + biZonePowerOffset in
order to simulate what the field strength would be like in band0.

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EXP1
The expression named EXP1 used for defining eligible cells:
EXP1(n) = RxLevNCell(n) ave - [ rxLevMinCell(n) + Max(0, msTxPwrMaxCell(n) msTxPwrCapability(n) ) ]

It is also used in the following process:


EXP1Capture(n) = RxLevNCell(n) ave - rxLevMinCell(n)

EXP1DirectedRetry(n) = RxLevNCell(n) ave - [directedRetry(n) + Max(0,


msTxPwrMaxCell(n) - msTxPwrCapability(n)]

EXP1Forced HO (n) = RxLevNCell(n) ave - [forced handover algo(n) + Max(0,


msTxPwrMaxCell(n) - msTxPwrCapability(n)]

RxLevNCell(n) ave: averaged downlink signal strength of the neighbour cell n


rxLevMinCell(n): minimum RXLEV value required for a MS to handover towards
cell n
msTxPwrMaxCell(n): maximum transmission power level the MS is allowed to use
on a traffic channel of neighbour cell n / in the band0 of the neighbour dual band cell
msTxPwrCapability(n): maximum transmission power capability of the MS
according to the power class of the mobile and the BCCH frequency (the band0) of the
neighbour cell n
directedRetry(n): minimum signal strength level received by the MS to process
directed retry handovers in BTS mode
forced handover algo(n): minimum signal strength level received by the mobiles to
be granted access to a neighbor cell in case of forced handover.
Note: If HO decision is made toward the inner zone of a multizone cell, then related
EXP1XX(n) is computed with biZonePowerOffset(n).

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EXP2
The expression named EXP2 used for defining suitable cells:

EXP2PBGT(n) = Pbgt(n) - AdaptedHoMargin(n)

EXP2Traffic(n) = Pbgt(n) - [hoMargin(n) - hoMarginTrafficOffset(n)]

EXP2Quality(n) = Pbgt(n) - hoMarginRxQual(n)

EXP2Strength(n) = Pbgt(n) - hoMarginRxLev(n)

EXP2Distance(n) = Pbgt(n) - hoMarginDist(n)

EXP2AMR(n) = Pbgt(n) - hoMarginAMR(n)

EXP2bis(n) = rxLevDLPBGT(n) - RxLevDL ave

AdaptedHoMargin(n): margin computed when AHA feature is enabled. It takes into


account neighDisfavorOffset and servingfactorOffset parameters (see chapter
Automatic handover adaptation)
hoMargin(n): margin to be used for power budget HO
hoMarginTrafficOffset(n): offset to be applied to hoMargin(n) for traffic HO decision
(when current cell is overloaded)
hoMarginRxQual(n): margin to be used for quality HO
hoMarginRxLev(n): margin to be used for signal strength HO
hoMarginDist(n): margin to be used for distance HO
hoMarginAMR(n): margin to be used for quality intercell HO defined for AMR TCH
channels
rxLevDLPBGT(n): maximum downlink RxLev received from serving cell to allow a
power budget or traffic HO towards this NCell
Note: If HO decision is made in the inner zone of a multizone cell, then related EXP2XX(n) is
computed with (hoMarginXX(n) + biZonePowerOffset).

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4.8.2 DIRECT TCH ALLOCATION


This chapter describes the Direct TCH Allocation feature which applies to the dualband cell,
the concentric cell and the dualcoupling cell features. Direct TCH Allocation has been
enhanced in v17.0.

PRINCIPLE
The principle of Direct TCH Allocation is manifold. It consists in the following aspects :

At call setup, to allocate a FR TCH directly into the inner-zone of a multizone cell

At call setup, to allocate an HR TCH directly into the outer-zone of a multizone cell

At call setup, to allocate an HR TCH directly into the inner-zone of a multizone cell

On intercell handover, to allocate a TCH directly into the inner-zone of the target
multizone cell.

At call setup, while the mobile is still on SDCCH (SDCCH is always allocated in the large zone
of a multi-zone cell), the BSC asks the BTS if the call (FR or HR) may be directed to the
appropriate zone by sending the BTS an Abis Connection state request message. The
acknowledgement of this request by the BTS provides the BSC with the information allowing
the BSC to decide to perform the requested TCH allocation.
The BTS uses several criteria to decide which zone is eligible. These criteria have been
altered in v17.0 as explained in the next section.

V17.0 ENHANCEMENT PRINCIPLE


CALL SETUP
In initial phase of call establishment, the time spent on SDCCH is usually too short for the BTS
to compute a weighted average on downlink Rxlev measurement before the BST receives the
Abis connection state request from the BSC. Therefore, the allocation criteria for direct TCH
allocation use, by decreasing order of priority:

a weighted average computed with RxLevHreqAve*RxLevHreqT latest measurements


(unlikely to happen on SDCCH).

an arithmetic average computed with RxLevHreqAve latest measurements (unlikely to


happen on SDCCH)

a short and fully reliable average (RxLevHreqAveBeg measurements) in the sense of


the Automatic handover Adaptation feature if this feature is enabled and if the MS is
fast enough or hopping on enough frequencies to filter the Raleigh fading.

a short, not fully reliable average (from RxLevHreqAveBeg up to RxLevHreqAve-1


measurements) in all other cases.

In the last case, the v17 enhancement consists in the L1M compensating for the lower
reliability of the short average by adding the hoMarginBeg margin to the various allocation
thresholds. For all other cases, there is no change in v17.0.
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Note : If hoMarginBeg parameter is set to 63, the Direct TCH allocation procedure only uses
normal averages.

INTERCELL HANDOVER
Some handover decisions (Early Power budget or Directed Retry) may be taken using less
than RxLevNcellHreqAve measurements on the neighbouring cell. So, the allocation
information for direct TCH allocation uses by decreasing order of priority:

an arithmetic average computed with RxLevNcellHreqAve latest measurements.

a short and fully reliable average (RxLevNcellHreqAveBeg measurements) in the


sense of the Automatic Handover Adaptation feature if this feature is enabled and if
the MS is going fast enough to filter the Raleigh fading

a short not fully reliable average (from RxLevNcellHreqAveBeg


RxLevNcellHreqAve -1 measurements) in all other cases.

up

to

In the last case, the L1M now compensates for the lower RxlevNcell average reliability by
adding the hoMarginBeg margin to the BizonePowerOffset(n) parameter in order to ensure the
same grade of service.
Note : If hoMarginBeg parameter is set to 63, inter-cell handover Direct TCH allocation
procedure only uses normal averages.

DIRECT FR TCH ALLOCATION IN INNER-ZONE, AT CALL SETUP


From V18, if using a not fully reliable short average, hoMarginBeg is added to the following
thresholds :

DirectAllocIntFrRxlevUL

DirectAllocIntFrRxLevDL

CONCENTRIC CELLS
The criteria for a successful direct TCH allocation in the inner-zone are:
RxLevDL > DirectAllocIntFrRxLevDL
And
RxLevUL>DirectAllocIntFrRxLevUL
and
MS_BS_Dist < concentAlgoExtMsRange (timing advance criterion)

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DUALBAND OR DUALCOUPLING CELLS


The timing advance criterion is disabled for a dualcoupling or dualband cell since the algorithm
only needs to check that the BS Tx power in the innerzone is sufficient to maintain the
communication.
For dualband cells, obviously, a test is also performed on the capability of the mobile to
support the band1.
The criterion for a successful direct TCH allocation in the inner-zone is :
RxLevDL > DirectAllocIntFrRxLevDL
And
RxLevUL>DirectAllocIntFrRxLevUL

DIRECT HR TCH ALLOCATION IN OUTER-ZONE, AT CALL SETUP


In v17, if using a not fully reliable short average, hoMarginBeg is added to the following
thresholds :

amrDirectAllocRxLevDL

amrDirectAllocRxLevUL

CONCENTRIC CELLS
The criteria for a successful direct HR TCH allocation in the outer-zone are :

RxLevDL > amrDirectAllocRxLevDL


and
RxLevUL > amrDirectAllocRxLevUL

DUALBAND OR DUALCOUPLING CELLS


The criteria for a successful direct HR TCH allocation in the outer-zone are :

RxLevDL > amrDirectAllocRxLevDL


and
RxLevUL > amrDirectAllocRxLevUL

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DIRECT HR TCH ALLOCATION IN INNER-ZONE, AT CALL SETUP


In v17, if using a not fully reliable short average, hoMarginBeg is added to the following
thresholds :

amrDirectAllocIntRxLevDL

amrDirectAllocIntRxLevUL

CONCENTRIC CELLS
The criteria for a successful direct HR TCH allocation in the inner-zone are :

RxLevDL > amrDirectAllocIntRxLevDL


and
RxLevUL > amrDirectAllocIntRxLevUL
and
MS_BS_Dist < concentAlgoExtMsRange (timing advance criterion)

DUALBAND OR DUALCOUPLING CELLS


The criteria for a successful direct HR TCH allocation in the inner-zone are :

RxLevDL > amrDirectAllocIntRxLevDL


and
RxLevUL > amrDirectAllocIntRxLevUL

DIRECT TCH ALLOCATION ON INTER-CELL HANDOVER


In v17, if using a not fully reliable short average, hoMarginBeg is added to bizonePowerOffset.

If the target cell for handover is a multi-zone cell, the BTS is in charge of indicating to the BSC
if a TCH can be allocated in the inner zone of the target cell. This information is provided in the
"additional cells information IEI within Abis Handover indication or Connection state ack
messages :
This capability (to handover directly in the innerzone/band1 of the adjacent cell) is inhibited
when biZonePowerOffset(n) is set to 63.

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CONCENTRIC OR DUALCOUPLING CELLS


The criterion for the inner-zone of the neighbour cell to be eligible is :
RxLevNCell(n)ave > rxLevMinCell (n) + bizonePowerOffset (n) + Max(0, msTxPwrMaxCell(n) msTxPwrCapabilityCell(n) )

DUALBAND CELLS
The criteria for the inner-zone (band 1) of the neighbour dualband cell to be eligible are :
MS supports band 1 of NCell
and
RxLevNCell(n)ave > rxLevMinCell (n) + bizonePowerOffset (n) + Max(0, msTxPwrMaxCell(n) msTxPwrCapabilityCell(n) )

REMARK ON OUTER TO INNER ZONE INTRA CELL HANDOVER


It should be noted that the BTS provides the same allocation information to the BSC on an
intra-cell handover initiated from a TCH belonging to the Large zone. However, no
hoMarginBeg margin applies to allocation thresholds because a Weighted average is always
available.

4.8.3 HANDOVERS
Each runHandOver, after L1M initialisation process for handover, the BTS performs handover
decision process based on regular uplink and downlink measurements on the current cell
(level and quality) and neighbouring cells (level only); the main steps of this process are:

Triggering: the BTS detects that a handover is needed by comparison with


thresholds: lRxLevXLH for alarm on level; lRxQualXLH for alarm on Quality;
msRangeMax for alarm on distance, there is no triggering for handover on
PBGT
Screening: the BTS determines what are the 6 best suitable cells For the
handover (preferred cells list) and sends them to the BSC in the Handover
Indication message; to be in the preferred cells list, a cell must first be eligible
(eligibility checking) then sorted (Ncells list sorting); the preferred cells list is
an ordered list of sorted cells.
Selecting: the BSC determines THE target cell according to the resource
found after reducing the preferred cells list to a maximum of three elements
Executing: allocation, activation, assignment of the new channel, switching
onto this channel

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HANDOVERS TRIGGERING
Intercell handover normally occurs for two main reasons:

Rescue handovers: when the MS gets too far from the BS (Distance) and/or
radio link measurements show low received signal strength (DL/UL signal
Strength) and/or signal quality on the current serving cell (DL/UL signal
Quality)
Network Optimization Handovers: a better signal strength is available on an
adjacent cell (Power Budget), the serving cell gets overloaded (Traffic) or in
the particular case of a multilayer network (Capture)

Note: new intercell handover decisions have been introduced for AMR channels
Intracell handovers normally occur for the following reasons:

Interference handover: radio measurements show a low received signal


quality but a high received signal strength on the serving cell.
inter-zone handover from a "zone" of a multizone cell to another "zone".
frequency tiering handover
specific intracell handover for AMR TCH channels,

HANDOVERS SCREENING
To a given handover is associated (hard coded) a set of expressions used both to check
eligibility of a neighbour cell (a cell from the list of Ncells reported by the MS is eligible if all
expressions attached to this HO cause and neighbour cell are strictly positive) and to sort
target cells list.
See the chapter General formulas to get the detail of each expression.

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According to the handover cause, the candidate cells expressions must then fulfil the
following formulas to be declared eligible
HO cause / connection state request type

Eligibility criteria

powerBudgetInterCell(n) = true
EXP1(n) > 0
Power Budget

EXP2PBGT(n) > 0
EXP2bis(n) > 0
deleteCounter(n) < cellDeletionCount(n)
trafficInterCell(n) = true
EXP1(n) > 0

Traffic

EXP2Traffic(n) > 0
EXP2bis(n) > 0
ul/dlQualityInterCell(n) = true

UL / DL signal quality

EXP1(n) > 0
EXP2Quality(n) > 0
ul/dlSignalStrengthInterCell(n) = true

UL / DL signal strength

EXP1(n) > 0
EXP2Strength(n) > 0
msBtsDistanceInterCell(n) = true

Distance

EXP1(n) > 0
EXP2Distance(n) > 0
captureInterCell(n) = true

Capture

EXP1Capture(n) > 0
interBtsForcedHO(n) = true

Forced HO

EXP1ForcedHO(n) > 0
interBsDirectedRetry(n) = true

Directed Retry

EXP1Directedretry(n) > 0
ul/dlAMRQualityInterCell(n) = true

Quality intercell HO on UL / DL mode for AMR


TCH channels

EXP1(n) > 0
EXP2AMR(n) > 0
EXP2bis(n) > 0

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4.8.4 HANDOVERS DECISION PRIORITY


HANDOVER DECISION FUNCTIONS FOR SDCCH & TCH/F CHANNELS
The whole set of HO decision functions currently implemented for non AMR channels, with
their priority, is defined in the table below (handover functions are executed in increasing order
of priority as shown below):
HO decision function

early HO

intercell HO

priority

comment

Capture

false

intercell

UL signal quality

false

intercell

DL signal quality

false

intercell

UL signal strength

false

intercell

DL signal strength

false

intercell

Distance

false

intercell

Power Budget

true

intercell

Traffic

false

intercell

Intracell on UL signal strength & quality

false

intracell

(a) (c)

Intracell on DL signal strength & quality

false

intracell

10

(a) (c)

Interband HO (dualband cells)

false

intracell

11

(b) (c)

Interband HO (concentric cells)

false

intracell

11

(b) (c)

Interband HO (dualcoupling cells)

false

intracell

11

(b) (c)

Frequency tiering

false

intracell

12

(a) (c)

Directed Retry

false

intercell

(d)

(a) intracell and tiering handover functions are exclusive from each other
(b) these handover functions are exclusive from each other (a given cell may be of only one
type among concentric, dual-coupling & dual-band) and do not apply to SDCCH channels.
(c) these intracell handover functions are ihnibited when in directed retry mode.
(d) only for a monozone cell or in the large zone of a multizone cell.
Note: The so-called "Directed Retry" handover is a "pseudo" handover indication message
sent upon request from the BSC. This specific case is mainly intended to provide BSC with a
target cells list for intercell HO and is discussed in chapter Directed Retry Handover.

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HANDOVER DECISION FUNCTIONS FOR AMR TCH CHANNELS


HO decision function

early HO

intercell HO

priority

comment

Capture

false

intercell

quality intercell HO on UL codec mode

false

intercell

quality intercell HO on DL codec mode

false

intercell

UL signal strength

false

intercell

DL signal strength

false

intercell

Distance

false

intercell

Power Budget

false

intercell

Traffic

false

intercell

capacity intracell HO on UL / DL codec modes

false

intracell

(b) (c)

quality intracell HO on UL codec mode

false

intracell

10

(b)

quality intracell HO on DL codec mode

false

intracell

11

(b)

Interband HO (dualband cells)

false

intracell

12

(a) (b)

Interband HO (concentric cells)

false

intracell

12

(a) (b)

Interband HO (dualcoupling cells)

false

intracell

12

(a) (b)

Frequency tiering

false

intracell

13

(b)

Directed Retry

false

intercell

(d)

(a) these handover functions are exclusive from each other (a given cell may be of only one
type among concentric, dual-coupling & dual-band).
(b) these intracell handover functions are ihnibited when in directed retry mode or in dual
tranfer mode.
(c) this intracell handover function applies to TCH/AFS (Full Rate) channels only.
(d) only for a monozone cell or in the large zone of a multizone cell.
Note: The so-called "Directed Retry" handover is a "pseudo" handover indication message
sent upon request from the BSC. This specific case is mainly intended to provide BSC with a
target cells list for intercell HO and is discussed in chapter Directed Retry Handover.

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4.8.5 DIRECTED RETRY HANDOVER


After the initial establishment procedure, if the MS is attached to a SDCCH and if there is no
TCH resource available, a directed retry handover is required.
The following parameters enable this feature:

intraBscDirectedRetry (bsc)
interBscDirectedRetry (bsc)
intraBscDirectedRetryFromCell (bts)
interBscDirectedRetryFromCell (bts)

Note: Directed Retry can be activated indepently from Queuing

DIRECTED RETRY HANDOVER: BSC (OR LOCAL) MODE


This mode is enabled by the bts object parameter directedRetryModeUsed set to bsc.
One of the adjacent cells is predefined as the one used for directed retry. The
adjacentCellUmbrellaRef parameter gives the position of this cell in the neighbor list.
LCAUTION!
In this mode, there is no check of the RF conditions on the predefined target cell before the
directed retry HO occurs: the predefined cell must cover the whole area of the current cell.
To ensure that the MS is pre-synchronised with the predefined target cell (MS has decoded
GSM time and the BSIC), the neighbor cell BCCH must be put in the adjacentCellReselection
parameter bCCHFrequency.

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DIRECTED RETRY HANDOVER: BTS (OR DISTANT) MODE


This mode is enabled by the bts object parameter directedRetryModeUsed set to bts. It is
used, for example in the case of a high traffic cell covered by several neighbors.
When the BSC receives the Assign Request message from the MSC, the BSC requests the
BTS through a Connection State Request message to return a list of eligible neighbor cells
generated by the following criteria. This list is immediately sent through a Connection State
Acknowledgement message to the BSC. If the list is empty, the BTS tries to regenerate it later.
As soon as handover conditions are fulfilled for at least one neighbouring cell, the BTS sends
the BSC a spontaneous Handover Indication message with the specific cause Directed
Retry.

If RxLevNcell(n) > directedRetry(n) + Max[0, (msTxPwrMaxCell(n) - P)]


where P = maximum RF output power of the MS
then cell n is candidate for Directed Retry Handover

If RxLevNcell(m) = Max(RxLevNcell(n))
then Cell m is chosen by the BSC as the target cell for the Directed Retry HO

LCAUTION!
The Directed Retry criterion is based on only one measurement of RxLevNcell(n) and not on
NCellHreqave measurements.
In a microcell network, a directed retry HO may handover a call from a macro cell to a micro
cell even if the stability criteria is not fulfilled (microcellular handover type A). In this
environment, to avoid a ping-pong HO, one may put a high value to the adjacentCellHandOver
parameter directedRetryAlgo.

DIRECTED RETRY AND QUEUING


As soon as the directed retry is enabled in the BSS, whatever is the queuing activation, the
directed retry is processed. In that case,

if queuing is activated, it is the same behavior as before V15.0. The only


change is that if the request could not be queued, the directed retry (if
allowed) is processed independently from the queuing.
If queuing is desactivated, (or if the request could not be queued), then the
procedure is as follow: when the BSC receives from the MSC an Assignment
Request and there is no TCH available in the cell, then the directed retry
procedure is started and the BSC sends to the MSC a Queuing Indication
message to inform the MSC of a delay in the TCH allocation, and the MS
remains on SDCCH channel.

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If there is a resource in the target cell, the directed retry procedure is
successful and the communication is established.
If there is no resource available in the target cell, the directed retry
procedure fails and the BSS sends an Assignment failure (cause no radio
resource available) message to the MSC.
If there is no neighbouring cells indicated by the BTS in the connection state
ack message, it means that neighbouring cells information are not available
in the BTS (it depends also on the MS performances) or handover conditions
are
not
met.
Then
the
BSC
starts
an
internal
timer
directedRetryWithNoQueuingTimer (5 seconds, non configurable) in order to
wait for a handover indication message (cause directed retry) the BTS
sends if the handover conditions are fulfilled. The BSC processes this
handover indication message as described here above. In case the timer
directedRetryWithNoQueuingTimer expires, the BSC sends an Assignment
failure message (cause no radio resource available) to the MSC.

Note: during a directed retry procedure, if there is no TCH available in the target cell, the
procedure can neither be queued, nor execute another directed retry from the target cell.

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4.8.6 CONCENTRIC/DUALCOUPLING/DUALBAND CELL HANDOVER


CONCENTRIC CELL PRINCIPLES
The concept of concentric cell is enlarged and concentric cell parameter may have 4 possible
values: monozone, concentric, dualband or dualcoupling.

CONCENTRIC CELL
Definition: a cell is defined as concentric if it exists two transceiverzones configured to transmit
at different power resulting in two different coverage areas. For the two different
transceiverzones, the same antenna is used.

Innerzone

Outerzone
BCCH and
signalling
channels

traffic
channels

The principle of the concentric cells is to share the ressources in both zones assuming that the
TRXs are transmitting at different power. The BCCH and the signalling channels use the high
power TRXs (outer zone) thus the BTS needs to check if the link budget MS-BTS is sufficient
to allocate a ressource of the inner zone. Furthermore, to avoid a subsequent intracell
handover, the BSC is checking this condition with the BTS each time a first TCH has to be
allocated at the end of the call setup, i.e an Assign Request has been sent by the MSC. The
same checking is done by the curent BTS when an intercell handover is required.
The smaller range of the frequencies in the internal zone, due to low maximum available
power for transmission, means that these internal zone frequencies can be reused a short
distance away. With this greater re-utilization of frequencies an operator can achieve the same
coverage using less bandwidth.
Concentric cell functionalities have been deployed allowing an easier frequency planning in
case of frequency hopping (fractional reuse techniques), and a major enhancement with the
TCH allocation directly in the relevant zone in case of calll setup and handover.
Note: a configuration with HePA on the outer zone and ePA on the inner zone is a kind of
concentric cell and not a kind of dualcoupling cell, eventhough the biZonePowerOffset
parameter has to be set accordingly to that particular case.
Please refer to the associated Functional Note [R10] Concentric cell improvements
(CM888/TF889). See also chapter Concentric Cells.

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DUALBAND CELL
Definition: a cell is defined as dualband if GSM900 TRXs and DCS1800 TRXs coexist and
share the same BCCH. The propagation loss being different, it results in two different
coverage areas.

Outerzone
Innerzone / band1 band0

GSM (or DCS)

DCS (or GSM)

BCCH and
signalling
channels

traffic channels

Main benefits of dualband cell functionality are:

The number of cells to configure and monitor is roughly divided by two


No BCCH pattern has to be defined in the second band
Frequency Hopping, Power Control, Downlink DTX are available on all second
band DRXs (instead of all but one with conventional management)
Slight increase in capacity: one TS saving + DCS and GSM DRXs in one
pool, which provides more network control of the traffic distribution
Intra cells Handover between DCS and GSM DRXs of a same cell instead of
synchronous inter cell handovers reduce the muting time

Please refer to the associated Functional Note [R9] Dual band cells management:TF875. See
also chapter Concentric Cells.

DUALCOUPLING CELL
Definition: a cell is defined as dualcoupling if the TRXs are not combined with the same type of
combiner and thus have not the same coupling loss resulting in two different coverage areas.

Innerzone
H4D

Outerzone
H2D
BCCH and
signalling
channels

traffic
channels

In a dualcoupling cell, as the TRXs are not combined with the same type of combiner the most
powerful TRXs define the large zone. Such cells are managed with the concentric cell principle
and dualcoupling cell feature take advantage of it using different coupling modules rather than
a mono type coupling module in a sector.
Please refer to the associated Functional Note [R11] FN for stepped coupling. See also
chapter Concentric Cells.
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INTERZONE HANDOVERS FOR CONCENTRIC CELL / DUALCOUPLING


CELL
LARGE ZONE TO SMALL ZONE
The MS is permitted to migrate from the large zone to the small zone if:

the MS is close to the BTS (Timing Advance used to estimate the MS to BTS
distance, only for concentric cells))
and if RF conditions are good enough (RxLev downlink).

Note: The transceiverZone object parameter zone Tx power max reduction value is always set
to 0 for the large zone, and in the range of [1 to 55]dB for the small zone.
Since V18, a new criterion on uplink RxLev prevents MS from an assignment failure when the
uplink signal strength is not good enough to perform a handover toward the inner zone
The Concentric/Dualcoupling Cell Handover from Large to Small zone is triggered if:
RxLev_DL > concentAlgoExtRxLev
AND
RxLev_UL>ConcentAlgoExtRxLevUL
AND (only for concentric cells)
MS_BS_Dist < concentAlgoExtMsRange

SMALL ZONE TO LARGE ZONE


The MS is handed over from the small zone to the large one if:

the MS is far from the BTS (Timing Advance, used to estimate the MS to BTS
distance, only for concentric cells)
or if RF conditions are too bad (RxLev downlink, RxQual uplink and downlink).

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For a non-AMR channel, or an AMR channel with legacy L1M, the Concentric/Dualcoupling
cell handover from small to large zone is triggered if:
RxLev_DL < concentAlgoIntRxLev
OR
RxLev_UL<concentAlgoIntRxLevUL
OR
RxQual_DL > lRxQualDLH
OR
RxQual_UL > lRxQualULH
OR
(only for concentric cells)
MS_BS_Dist > concentAlgoIntMsRange
For an AMR channel with AMR L1M, the Concentric/Dualcoupling cell handover from small to
large zone is triggered if:
RxLev_DL < concentAlgoIntRxLev
OR
RxLev_UL<concentAlgoIntRxLevUL
OR
(only for concentric cells)
MS_BS_Dist > concentAlgoIntMsRange
OR
Quality intercell HO on UL codec mode criterion is satisfied
OR
Quality intercell HO on DL codec mode criterion is satisfied

Please note that an external priority [0...17] can be given to the Concentric Cell Handover from
a Small to Large zone, because of the small to large Zone HO priority parameter.

INTERZONE HANDOVERS FOR DUALBAND CELLS


Convention:

if BCCH gsm, then band 0 = gsm, band 1 = dcs and standardIndicator =


gsmdcs
If BCCH dcs, then band 0 = dcs, band 1 = gsm and standardIndicator =
dcsgsm

The algorithms created for concentric cell are the same for dualband cells, except the timing
advance criterion is not used and the dualband capability of the mobile is checked.
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SUMMARY OF CONCENTRIC/DUALCOUPLING/DUALBAND CELL HO


Interzone HO: band1 to band 0

Non AMR :
rxLevDL < concentAlgoIntRxLev
OR rxLevUL<concentAlgoIntRxLevUL
OR RxQual_DL > lRxQualDLH
OR RxQual_UL > lRxQualULH
OR (only for concentric cells) MS_BS_Dist>concentAlgoIntMsRange
AND (only for dual-band cells)
MS_Band_supported(standardIndicatorBand0) is true
AMR :
rxLevDL < concentAlgoIntRxLev
OR rxLevUL<concentAlgoIntRxLevUL
OR Quality intercell HO on UL codec mode criterion is satisfied
OR Quality intercell HO on DL codec mode criterion is satisfied
OR (only for concentric cells) MS_BS_Dist>concentAlgoIntMsRange
AND (only for dual-band cells)
MS_Band_supported(standardIndicatorBand0) is true
Interzone HO: band0 to band 1

1) rxLevDL > concentAlgoExtRxLev


And rxLevUL> concentAlgoExtRxLEvUL
2) (only for dual-band cells)
MS_Band_supported(standardIndicatorBand1) is true
3) (only for concentric cells) MS_BS_Dist<concentAlgoExtMsRange
Intracell intraband HO: band0 --> band0 or band1--> band1

normal intracell HO

Intercell intraband HO: band0 --> band0:

normal intercell inter or intra BSS

Intercell interband HO: band0 --> band1

1) EXP1(n) + biZonePowerOffset(n) > 0


2) EXP2PBGT(n) > 0
3) MS_Band_supported(standardIndicatorBand1) is true
Note : in v17, if only short not fully unreliable averages are available,
hoMarginbeg is added to bizonePowerOffset
Intercell intraband HO: band1 --> band1

1) EXP1(n) + biZonePowerOffset(n) > 0


2) EXP2PBGT(n) + biZonePowerOffset > 0
where PBGT uses msTxPwrMax2ndBand
3) MS_Band_supported(standardIndicatorBand1) is true
Note : in v17, if only short not fully unreliable averages are available,
hoMarginbeg is added to bizonePowerOffset

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Intercell interband HO: band1 --> band0

1) EXP1(n) > 0
2) EXP2PBGT(n) + biZonePowerOffset > 0
where PBGT uses msTxPwrMax2ndBand

POWER ADAPTATION AFTER INTERZONE HO


In V17.0, the system implements a mechansim to compensate for the power gap between the
old and new channel channels in the inner (or outer) and outer (or inner) zones immediately
after a handover.
Please refer to the section Power adaptation after an interzone ho (V17).

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4.8.7 RESCUE HANDOVER


INTRACELL HANDOVER DECISION FOR SIGNAL QUALITY
The interferences are generally related to a specific TDMA. When signal quality is bad but
signal strength is sufficient, the BSC allocates another channel in the current cell.
Condition to be fulfilled is:
(((RXLEV_UL > rxLevULIH) AND (RXQUAL_UL > rxQualULIH))
OR
((RXLEV_DL > rxlevDLIH) AND (RXQUAL_DL > rxQualDLIH))

Thresholds should be set in order to ensure good subjective voice quality (rxqualXLIH 5 with
frequency hopping or rxqualXLIH 4 without hopping).
This feature is enabled by intraCell or intraCellSDCCH flags.
LCAUTION!
In order to avoid the choice of a more interfered channel, channels are allocated in the 2 low
interference pools (hopping and not hopping); if no free channel is detected among these 2
pools and although queuing is allowed, the intracell HO must not be done; if queuing is
allowed, the request is queued then satisfied only after reception of suitable interference level
on idle channels (RF_RESOURCE_INDICATION message); when TDMA removals leads to
intracell HO, the first free resource is taken whatever its interference level.
Note: RF_RESOURCE_INDICATION message is received from BTS and induces the
interference level of channels of a particular TDMA. Therefore a channel has 3 states for the
BTS:

Busy

Free with interference measure level available

Free without interference measure level available (for example the channel has just
been release and the measure are not yet done)

No interference level management is performed on PDTCH channels. The level status of


PDTCH resource is always high (bad level). So intracell HO is not performed on PDTCH

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HANDOVER CONDITION FOR LEAVING A CELL ON RXQUAL


There is no parameter to disable this feature but this can be done by assigning thresholds
rxqual maximum value (7). Thresholds should be set in order to ensure good subjective quality
(rxqual 5 with frequency hopping or rxqual 4 without hopping).
This handover is triggered when quality exceeds signal quality thresholds:
(RXQUAL_DL > lRxQualDLH)
OR
(RXQUAL_UL > lRxQualULH)

HANDOVER CONDITION FOR LEAVING A CELL ON RXLEV


There is no parameter to disable this feature but this can be done by assigning threshold
RxLev minimum value (-110 dBm).
This handover is triggered when the signal strength falls below the following thresholds:
(RXLEV_DL< lRxLevDLH)
OR
(RXLEV_UL < lRxLevULH)

HANDOVER CONDITION FOR LEAVING A CELL ON DISTANCE


This feature is enabled by the msBtsdistanceIntercell parameter.
MS_BS_Dist > MsRangeMax

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4.8.8 POWER BUDGET HANDOVER


POWER BUDGET FORMULA
If powerBudgetInterCell parameter is set to enabled (handover on Power Budget is allowed),
the following formula is used to determine handover condition for power budget reason. This
handover is preventive and ensures best allocation of a serving cell for a given
communication. The formula used to determine handover condition for power budget reason
is:
EXP2PBGT(n) = Pbgt(n) - AdaptedHoMargin(n)

AdaptedHoMargin(n) is the margin computed when AHA feature is enabled. It takes into
account neighDisfavorOffset and servingfactorOffset parameters (see chapter Automatic
handover adaptation)

MINIMUM TIME BETWEEN HANDOVER


Minimun Time between handover feature is replaced by the General protection against HO
ping-pong feature.
However, in order for the new feature to be enabled the timeBetweenHOConfiguration
parameter must be set to used, and the bts Time Between HO configuration parameter must
be set to 1.

4.8.9 HANDOVER FOR TRAFFIC REASONS


This feature aims at improving the network behaviour when one or several cells are
overloaded by attempting to redirect the most appropriate calls in progress to neighbour cells
with a PBGT handover procedure.
Please refer to the associated Functional Note [R12] Handover for traffic reasons: TF132. See
also chapter Handover for Traffic Reasons Activation Guideline.
This feature is enabled by the new BSC object parameter hoTraffic and by the new BTS object
parameter hoTraffic. For each neighboring cell of the cell (adjacentCellHandover object), a
parameter is defined: hoMarginTrafficOffset is the offset to (negatively) apply to the hoMargin
parameter linked to the power budget when the cell status becomes overloaded (if 0, the
handover for traffic reason is not allowed for this adjacent cell).
This features relies on the definition of the overload condition ; a cell overload condition can
only be determined by the radio resource allocator when the detection mechanism is
activated; it is activated as soon as the handover for traffic reasons feature or the Barring of
access class feature is authorized.

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This overload detection mechanism is based on the number of free TCH or the number of
queued TCH requests in the cell ; TCH resources reserved for maximum priority requests are
not taken into account ; in a concentric cell, TCH resources of the small zone are not taken
into account (no queuing procedure in the small zone) ; in a dualband cell, TCH resources of
the band1 are not taken into account (no queuing procedure in the band1) ; no more operator
warning is sent at the beginning and the end of the overload phase.
The overload begins when:
the number of free TCH <= numberOfTCHFreeBeforeCongestion
OR
the number of queued TCH requests >= numberOfTCHQueuedBeforeCongestion

The overload ends when:


the number of free TCH >= numberOfTCHFreeToEndCongestion
OR
the number of queued TCH requests <= numberOfTCHQueuedToEndCongestion

When the cell status becomes overloaded, a request is done to the L1M to consider a new
ho_margin (hoMargin-hoMarginTrafficOffset) ; this request is sent only to the TRXs which
belong to the large zone/band0 (for concentric/dualband cells).
In case of intra BSS handover (for traffic reasons), the BSC checks the target cell status
during the handover selection phase and if overload condition is set, the BSC will try on the
following cell of the list (a handover between the band0 of a serving cell and the band1 of a
target cell is possible if the eligibility of band1 is indicated in the handover indication
message).
In case of inter BSS handover (for traffic reasons), the target cell overload status is not known
until the HO procedure is launched (HO request). Also, a handover between the band0 of a
serving cell and the band1 of a target cell is not possible (due to the present A interface).
It is advised to set the General protection against HO ping-pong feature with this feature in
order to overcome the associated risk of ping-pong.
LCAUTION!
This feature is not applicable for S4000/S2000E-DCU2 or S4000/S2000E-DCU2/DCU4.
This feature is applicable for all cases where PBGT handover is possible; so, handover for
traffic reasons is not possible between microcell and macrocell.
This feature is applicable to concentric/dualband cells but is restricted to the large zone/band0
since the thresholds used to define the overload conditions concern the large zone/band0 ; if a
handover indication is received by the BSC with a cause set to traffic reasons and concerns a
communication established in the small zone/band1 of the cell, the message is discarded.
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This feature is not applicable to a network which sets all the TCH request priorities to the
maximum priority since the cell is always overloaded whatever are the cell overload
thresholds.
Since the handover for traffic reasons feature uses the PBGT handover procedure, the
powerBudgetInterCell parameter shall be set to true (the BSC does not control this flag to
modify the hoMarginTrafficOffset). The BTS never transmits the Handover for traffic reasons if
this flag is not set.
There is no standby chain updating for the cell overload status ; thus, in case of switch-over,
the L1M value for hoMarginTrafficOffset is set to 0 and the cell is no longer overloaded.
About hoMarginTrafficOffset setting:
Typically, when hoMargin is reduced by 1dB (which implies that hoMarginTrafficOffset=1 dB),
this affects around 13% of the mobiles, assuming that cell overlapping is larger than the
hoMargin; roughly:

1dB of power reduction decreases the cell radius by 6.8% thus the cell
coverage by 13%
2dB of power reduction decreases the cell radius by 14%
3dB of power reduction decreases the cell radius by 21.9%

If hoMarginTrafficOffset is set to 0 dB, the HO traffic is somehow disabled since PBGT will be
done before the traffic has a chance to be done (higher priority).

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4.8.10 HANDOVER DECISION ACCORDING TO ADJACENT CELL


PRIORITIES AND LOAD
The objective of this feature is to optimize the traffic distribution both between layers according
to cell priorities and cells of the same layer according to their overload conditions.
In the selection phase, the BSC places the cells in descending order according to their priority
and if cells have the same priority, the order given in the handover indication message is
maintained. Then, for those cells, the BSC calculates the following expression:
EXP4(n) = EXPi(n) [offsetLoad(n) * stateLoad(n)]

where EXPi(n) = EXP1(n) for the handover causes capture or directed retry in distant mode
or EXPi(n) = EXP2(n) for other causes
EXP1 or EXP2 are added in the handover indication message,; offsetLoad(n) is a neighbour
cell parameter in dB and stateLoad is an overload status parameter.
stateLoad=1 for an intra BSS neighbor cell which is overloaded and 0 otherwise, including an
inter BSS neighbor cell overloaded ; the BSC sorts the cells that have the same priority by
decreasing values of EXP4 before reducing the preferred cells list from six to three.
offsetLoad(n) corresponds to the new offsetLoad parameter, offsetPriority defines the range of
the priority from 1 to 5 (1 is the highest level).
The overload detection relies on the same principle as that described in the Handover for
traffic reasons feature. If the overload detection is not activated, obviously, the priority is the
only criterion which is taken into account.
With such an algorithm, it can be noticed that the priority parameter is an important criterion in
a multi-layer network and that the overload situation is an important criterion in a network
where the cells have the same priority.
For multi-layer networks, a problem may occur when the higher priority cell (which captures
traffic) becomes consequently overloaded and then induces HOs for traffic in the other
adjacent cells ; this can be awkward when the overlapping area between the higher priority
cell and its adjacent cells is wide ; in such a case, too much traffic is captured and this
prevents from doing new calls in this cell.
In a network where the cells have the same priority, another problem could be noticed: the
overload condition of adjacent cells is not managed in a uniform way if the adjacent cells do
not belong to the same BSC ; the overload condition for cells belonging to another BSC is not
considered and may induce longer handover procedure if this one is overloaded. Indeed , the
overload state will only be known when the HO is triggered. Then, if the cell is overloaded, the
request will be refused and the BSC will try the next cell on the list of preferred cells.

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4.8.11 AUTOMATIC CELL TIERING


PREREQUISITE
It requires the implementation of L1mV2 and is exclusively applicable to fractional reuse
pattern networks (see chapter Frequency Hopping).

GOAL
The frequency tiering technique aims at decreasing the global interference level in a fractional
reuse pattern network and offers efficient traffic management at a TRX level through the selftuning system at the BTS

EXPECTED GAINS
The main benefits expected are:

A large capacity increase: The cell tiering increases the fractional load
capabilities, therefore, permits bigger BTS configurations with the same
amount of available frequencies.). In a 1x1 network, the fractional load can go
up to 33.3% and up to 100% in 1x3.
A better network quality (worst communications, typically at the cell boundary,
do no longer corrupt other communications). The reduction of the global level
of interference may also significantly decrease the global number of dropped
calls and other faults in particularly loaded networks.
A better uplink/downlink balancing (the uplink interference cancellation gain is
balanced by a significant downlink cell tiering improvement)

PRINCIPLES
The mechanism relies on simple dynamic resources allocation strategies that are intended to
allocate the worst communications, in terms of downlink Carrier on Interference ratio (CIR), to
the non-hopping frequencies (like BCCH), taking advantage of their larger reuse pattern and
consequently of their better resistance to interference, while the best communications are
driven to the hopping frequencies.
Evaluation of the calls is based on a ratio (in Watts) of the RxLevDL measured for the serving
cell over the sum of RxLevNCell measured for the BCCH of each neighbour, weighted
according to the type of interference brought (adjacent or co-channel).
This evaluation, called Potential Worst C/I (PWCI), potential because it does not include the
frequency hopping gain, is meant to simulate what the interference on the small pattern would
be like.

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The PWCI is computed by the BTS for all the calls in progress in the cell and arranged into an
averaged PWCI distribution that provides 2 handover decision parameters: lCirDLH (low) and
uCirDLH (high):

lCirDLH is the abscissa corresponding to an ordinate of P% (percentage of


TCH resources in the large pattern) on the averaged PWCI distribution curve.
uCirDLH is determined from: uCirDLH = lCirDLH + hoMarginTiering

In V12 P% is calculated as follow:

P%=

Number of non hopping TCH - nbLargeReuseDataChannel


Total number of TCH in the cell - nbLargeReuseDataChannel

In V14, with AMR introduction P% is now calculated as follow:

P%=

(Number of non hopping TCH nbLargeReuseDataChannel) * (1 + Non_FH_HR%)


(Total number of TCH in the cell nbLargeReuseDataChannel) * (1 + HR%)

FH_HR% is the percent of HR calls managed by the hopping pattern in the


cell,
HR% is the percent of HR calls managed in the cell.

The tiering handover decision can be summarised as:

If PWCI > uCirDLH => HO is performed from large to small pattern


If PWCI < lCirDLH => HO is performed from small to large pattern

The number of values required to trace the PWCI distribution curve may be modified via MMI
with the numberOfPwciSamples parameter (whereas cell tiering HO thresholds cannot be
tuned via MMI).
The lCirDLH is defined from the available traffic channels (i.e. TCH & PDTCH) in the non
hopping layer (because these one will be allocated to communications with worst PWCI). In
order to manage speech and data interworking, the averaged number of TCHs reserved for
data is defined with the nbLargeReuseDataChannels parameter.
To avoid the introduction of new configuration parameters or thresholds required by such a
function, the associated selfTuningObs functionality enables to set tiering working parameters
at their most relevant values, fitting with cell real radio profile and dynamically adapted to O&M
events or radio environment modifications ensuring that the gains of the tiering strategy are
always optimum.

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Formula of PWCI in Watts:

PWCI=

RxLevDL Watts
SUM [RXLevNCell (i)] Watts SUM [RXLevNCell (j) - ADC] Watts

With

RXLEV(0) the DL signal strength in Watts received from the serving cell, rescaled at maximum power (RxLev_DL + BS_Att)
RXLEV (i) is the level in Watts measured on the BCCH of a neighbor cell
using the same TCH frequencies set as the current cell. These neighbors
generate co-channel interferences.
RXLEV (j) is the level in Watts measured on the BCCH of a neighbor cell
using a TCH frequencies set different from that of the current cell. These
neighbors generate adjacent channel interferences.
ADC corresponds to the first adjacent channel protection factor which is fixed
in the BTS software typically to 18dB

The PWCI value is the same whatever the effective load.

COMPATIBILITY WITH MULTIZONE CELLS


With concentric/dualband/dualcoupling cells, ACT is only applicable within the large zone.
Indeed, the tiering handover decision relies on the following algorithm:

IF the TDMA bearing the considered channel belongs to the small pattern
AND does not belong to the small zone of a multizone cell:
IF pwCi < lCirDLH
THEN the channel will be put on the large pattern

IF the TDMA bearing the considered channel belongs to the large pattern
(which implies that it belongs to the large zone):
IF pwCi > uCirDLH
THEN the channel will be put on the small pattern

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In this case, P is computed by considering exclusively the resources in the large zone
(hopping as well as non hopping). In order to perform a tiering handover, the communication
must be in the large zone and there must be fractional reuse in it. The large pattern will only
be the BCCH frequency (the other TRXs in the large zone must hop) and the communication
will stay in the Large zone.

CELL TIERING MONITORING


The PWCI statistics and uCirDLH/lCirDLH may be transmitted on the Abis interface according
to the selfTuningObs parameter; these statistics are available independently of the activation
of the feature.
The hoRequiredTch counter C1138 has 2 new screenings (tiering handover from large to
small pattern and tiering handover from small to large pattern) ; two new counters are added:
C1802 (hoSuccessTieringTch) and C1801 (hoFailureTieringTchNorr) with 2 screenings each
(0: large pattern to small pattern & 1: small pattern to large pattern).
The table below gives indicative values for the time required to gather nbPwCISamples
measurements for different cell configurations, assuming the average TCH occupancy rate is
75% and that one TCH provides 1 PwCI measurement every 480 ms which is roughly 2 PwCI
measurements per second:

Cell configuration

20000 nbPwCISamples

60000 nbPwCISamples

O2 (14 TCH)

# 16 min

# 48 min

O4 (29 TCH)

# 8 min

# 24 min

O8 (59 TCH)

# 4 min

# 12 min

O16 (121 TCH)

# 2 min

# 6 min

The time required to reach a sufficient statistics as well as the time between two consecutive
tiering threshold updates depends on the number of samples required, and the capacity
(number of TCH) and load of the cell.
So a way to decrease the period between 2 consecutive threshold updates is about the half of
the time required to reach a first reliable statistics.

CAUTIONS
Because it takes advantage of BTS O&M centralization, this feature applies also to 2G
products (equipped exclusively with DRXs).
The activation of this feature implies a previous activation of the L1mV2.
The statistics (for PWCI) are not kept during upgrade and must be gathered again after the
site reconfiguration.
Intracell handover for quality and intracell tiering handover are exclusive (choice managed with
the intracell parameter of the handOverControl object). For mobiles at cells boundaries, if for
PBGT reasons, a handover is decided towards a new cell on a hopping TCH, a subsequent
handover for tiering reasons will be possible towards a non hopping TCH and so on, so

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inducing a risk of ping-pong handovers ; this drawback will be avoided with the well tuning of
hoMarginTiering parameter.
No tiering handover decision is possible if the TDMA bearing the current TCH belongs to the
small zone/band1 of a multizone/dualband cell.
If tiering is activated, no tiering decision is undertaken by the BTS as long as a reliable
statistics has not been gathered (minimum nbPwCISamples for PWCI measurements); field
experiments have shown that at least 20000 PWCI samples are needed.
In V12, statistics are not maintained on the BCF passive chain.
The cell tiering configuration relies on a correct definition of interferes for each cell (through
interfererType). This feature is based on values of PWCI that depend on the overlap, the
available spectrum and the sites' density but neither on the traffic nor the fractional load.
However, when the traffic is low, there are fewer samples than at the busy hour and the PWCI
distribution is therefore a touch less relevant.

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4.8.12 MICROCELLULAR HANDOVER


HANDOVER PECULIARITIES IN MICROCELL ENVIRONMENT
Microcellular algorithms were initially defined to avoid issues due to fast moving mobiles
connected to microcells. People thought that fast moving mobiles would not have enough time
to receive handover information coming from the network or would jump some microcells. To
avoid communication failures, specific handover algorithms were defined to send fast moving
mobiles to the macro layer.
However, experiments performed on several microcellular networks demonstrated that fast
moving mobiles linked to outdoor microcells do not present any issues. Microcellular
algorithms are used mainly to split traffic loads on the two layers, regardless of mobile speed.
Most microcellular algorithms are based on a capture threshold. Mobiles linked to a
macrocell perform a handover towards the micro layer as soon as the field strength received
from a microcell is sufficiently high (whatever the field strength received from the macrocell)
for a sufficient duration.
The microcellular handover algorithm type A is also based on the stability of the signal. Before
V12, with L1mV1, the stability was checked on the best neighbouring microcell, now L1mV2
launches in parallel the confirmation process for the 6 best microcells.

L1mV2: Selection of the 6 best microcells


MS stability check on these 6 microcells
Selection of the 6 new best microcells
(transmitted to BSC)
Handover execution

MICROCELLULAR ALGO TYPE A


The following table describes permitted handover causes according to the type of the serving
cell and the neighbor cell.
Note: the traffic handover is only possible from a large zone (or monozone).
The capture handover algorithm can only be defined from a macrocell to a microcell. However
the type of a cell is defined relative to the type of the neighboring one. It means that the type of
a cell A can be a macrocell from the cell B point of view but can be a microcell from the cell C
point of view. This way, it is possible to use the capture handover algorithm on both sides,
macrocell to microcell and microcell to macrocell.

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Neighbour cell cellType [adjacentCellHandover]


normalType

signal quality
signal strength
distance
normalType

power budget
traffic
directedRetry (BTS
mode)

Serving cell cellType [bts]

forced handover
signal quality
signal strength
distance
umbrellaType

power budget
traffic
directedRetry (BTS
mode)
forced handover

umbrellaType

microType

signal quality

signal quality

signal strength

signal strength

distance

distance

power budget

power budget

traffic

traffic

directedRetry (BTS mode)

directedRetry (BTS mode)

forced handover

forced handover

signal quality
signal strength
distance

capture

power budget

directedRetry (BTS mode)

traffic

forced handover

directedRetry (BTS mode)


forced handover

signal quality

microType

signal strength

signal quality

distance

signal strength

power budget

distance

traffic

directedRetry

directedRetry (BTS
mode)

(BTS mode)
forced handover

forced handover

signal quality
signal strength
distance
power budget
traffic
directedRetry (BTS mode)
forced handover

However the Type A handover algorithm has not been specifically defined to perform
handovers from microcells to the macrocell layer.
A timer linked to that algorithm is tunable via the microCellCaptureTimer parameter. That timer
prevents the BSC from doing a handover on capture reason during a fixed period.
See also General formulas for the capture expression:
EXP1Capture(n) = RxLevNCell(n) ave - rxLevMinCell(n)

Furthermore a strength level stability Criterion (microCellStability) has to be respected before


triggering a handover toward the microcell.
While microCellCaptureTimer(n) goes on, if a normal handover decision is verified, a handover
towards a cell of the same type or a normal cell is allowed.
While a handover is decided, the list of eligible cells is provided at each runHandover
(microCellCaptureTimer (n) is not reinitialised).
The threshold microCellStability(n) must be put previously to 63 dB. This value ensures that a
handover is performed as long as the field strength received from the neighbor cell is higher
than the capture threshold. The value can then be reduced case by case.

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LCAUTION!
The microcellular feature is an OMC-R option (must be activated at OMC-R installation).
Thanks to the Advanced Speech Call Items Evolution functionality (refer to [R30]) the range of
the microCellCaptureTimer has been modified.
Initially that modification was designed for GSM-R applications: microcellCaptureTimer at 500s
is to avoid to be captured by a railway station cell for a communication established in the train
and thus to avoid that an on going communication from a train arriving in a railway station with
no stop, is captured by the railway station cells and when leaving the railway station, leads to
a new handover to the railways track cells.
Before V15.1 microCellCaptureTimer, on adjacentCellHandover object, has a range [0 255]
which means a maximum of about 255 * runHandOver (runHandOver is expressed in
multiples of 480 ms for SACCH frames and multiples of 470 ms for SDCCH frames) for a
communication, before being captured by a neighbouring cell which has a minimum and a
stable rxlev during this period.
The request consists in increasing the range of this parameter, so as it is kept as it is, but the
meaning of specific values are changed to give them greater values (conversion to a value
greater than 255).
microCellCaptureTimer
value received by the BTS

microCellCapture value used by the BTS for the computation


(number of reporting period x*480ms)

0 to 249

0 to 249

250

512

245 s

251

1024

491 s

252

2048

983 s

253

4096

1966 s

254

8192

3932 s

255

16384

7864 s

This table is applicable for a runHandOver = 1. If runHandOver = 2, then 491 seconds are
obtained with MicrocellCapture value set to 250.
Note: if the Handover on SDCCH feature is activated, the timer must be computed by
multiplying the BTS used value by 470 ms.

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4.8.13 FORCED HANDOVER


This feature is used to force a handover towards neighboring cells. If a cell is to be shut down,
forcing handovers avoids dropped calls.
It has to be used in addition to the soft blocking feature (barring of incoming Handover, barring
of new calls).
Through a Connection State Request message, the BSC requests that the BTS sends it a list
of eligible neighbor cells. This list, immediately sent through a Connection State
Acknowledgement message to the BSC, is generated by the following criteria:
EXP1Forced HO =(n) RxLevNCell(n) ave - [forced handover algo(n) + Max(0,
msTxPwrMaxCell(n) - msTxPwrCapability(n)]

By putting a low value to forced handover algo(n) , the HO becomes easier: the cell is
released more rapidly.
LCAUTION!
A forced HO is possible after a certain communication duration:
duration = Max( rxQualHreqave * rxQualHreqt, rxLevHreqave * rxLevHreqt,
rxNCellHreqave).

Therefore, when integrating this feature in the soft blocking procedure, the operating mode is
the following:

soft blocking,
wait a certain time (20 seconds),
trigger the forced HO.

There is only one attempt per cell.


Another reason to use a Forced HO with soft blocking is that a Forced HO may interrupt a
Directed Retry HO (if the Connection State Request message of the Forced HO arrives before
the Handover Indication cause Directed Retry message). One must wait a period of time after
the soft blocking so that all calls have time to move from SDCCH channels to TCH channels.

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4.8.14 EARLY HANDOVER DECISION


PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
The time for a mobile to reselect a cell in idle mode is quite long. So, a mobile can start a
communication while camping in another cell, leading to a call drop in the worst case.

cell A actually selected


cell B

cell A
Beginning
of new call

End
of last call

If the reselection algorithm execution occurs close to the border of cell A the mobile can setup
a call a short moment after in the cell B while the cell A is still selected. Unfortunately, the MS
has to wait a certain period of time before being able to make an handover. The system has to
perform some measurements before taking some handovers decisions.
This period of time is quite critical, there are some risks of call drop because of the low level of
the signal.
Another issue is concerned by this feature ; that is the problem of a mobile turning at a street
corner, when the RxLev suddenly decreases in the serving cell and increases for a neighbour
cell.

FEATURE DESCRIPTION
The principle is not to speed the selection process but to allow a handover on PBGT quicker.

Cell A
1
1 sel/reselection
algo execution
2 call setup in cell A
3 HO toward cell B

Risk
of
call
drop
2

Cell B

Time

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Two shorter averages are defined for the level of the serving cell (rxLevHReqaveBeg) and for
the level of the neighbouring cells (rxLevNCellHReqaveBeg).
The L1M will use this new shorter averages at the beginning of the call until Max
(rxLevHreqave*rxLevHreqt, rxQualHreqave*rxQualHreqt) is reached and after loss and
recovery of BSIC.
The L1M must only wait:

shorter level arithmetic average of serving cell (rxLevHReqaveBeg)

shorter level average of the neighbouring cell (rxLevNCellHReqaveBeg)

Therefore, the handover can be performed more quickly and with less measurements.
The principle is not to speed the selection process but to allow a handover on PBGT quicker.
It allows to reduce the zone which represents the critical period of time. The first impact of this
feature is to reduce the probability of establishment failure and the call drop ratio.
A third parameter has been created (HOMarginBeg) in order to compensate the lack of
measurements by increasing the HOMargin.
The parameter rxLevNCellHReqaveBeg is used each time a new cell is detected by the
mobile. Therefore, it increases the system reactivity.
EXP2PBGT(n) early = Pbgt(n) - [hoMargin(n) + hoMarginBeg(n)]
UNTIL
Max(rxLevHreqave * rxLevHreqt, rxQualHreqave * rxQualHreqt) is reached

4.8.15 MAXIMUM RXLEV FOR POWER BUDGET


One of the issues to solve, in a microcellular network, is street corner (cross road)
environment:
In case of mobile moving straight the cross road (two orthogonal cells A and B), a handover
for Power Budget may be processed from cell B to cell A. Once the cross is passed, the
mobile is handed again over the cell B.
This ping-pong handover shall be avoided as useless handover leads to voice quality
degradation and signalling increase.
Another advantage of this feature is the possibility to reduce unnecessary handovers at border
of Location Area, interBSC or interMSC HO. In this case the need to perform Power Budget
handovers is diminished against the extra load on NSS and the voice quality.
The feature provides a solution by preventing handover for power budget from the serving cell
if the RXLEV downlink serving cell level exceed a specific threshold
To prevent handovers for power budget from the serving cell if the RXLEV downlink serving
cell level exceed a specific threshold (rxLevDLPBGT), the following expression used in
combination with existing cell selection criteria is actually:
RXLEV_DL < rxLevDLPBGT
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4.8.16 PRE-SYNCHRONIZED HO
During an asynchronous handover, the MS repeats the HO access bursts until it receives the
physical information message containing the timing advance of the new cell. So the speech
cut duration may last as long as the MS receives the new TA (Timing Advance) applied in the
new cell.
The pre-synchronized handover feature allows a Phase 2 MS to make a synchronized
handover between two (2) cells not belonging to the same site but managed by the same
BSC. The procedure is the same as for an intra-site synchronized handover, excepted that the
TA is set in advance and is transmitted to the MS at the beginning of the HO procedure.
LCAUTION!
Only intra BSC synchronized handover are possible.
There are two possibilities to set the timing advance in case of pre-synchronized HO:
Presynchro with default value or with a determined Timing Advance.
Two parameters are impacted in the adjacentCellHandOver object to enable this feature:

synchronized is set to the value pre sync HO, with timing advance or pre sync
HO,default timing advance.

preSynchroTimingAdvance indicates the value of the TA.

By comparing not synchronized handovers with synchronized handover, a phonetic gain from
20ms to 40 ms is expected. This is due to the Physical_Info message suppression, which is
not necessary because on pre-synchronized handover, the timing advance value is carried by
the Handover_Command message. Moreover, only four Handover_Access messages are
used on pre-synchronized handover instead of more than four in case of not synchronized
handover.

4.8.17 RADIO CHANNEL ALLOCATION


The radio channel allocation is based on the interference levels computed on the BTS free
channels (SDCCH and TCH).
Every averagingPeriod the BTS sends RF RESOURCE INDICATION messages to the BSC.
These messages are related to one TRX and contain the level of interference of the free
channels. These interference levels are classified into one from the five possible interference
bands (thresholdInterference parameter). In each of the five bands, the resources are sorted
from the least to the most recently used.
At the BSC level the free channels are divided into two new groups depending on whether
their interference level is above or below the RadChanSellIntThreshold value. Each group is
itself divided into two sub-groups, depending on whether the resource supports the Frequency
Hopping.

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LCAUTION!
If, during three (3) successive RF RESOURCE INDICATION messages, an
incoherency is noticed at the BSC level concerning the avaibility of a radio
channel, the channel is released and is returned free to the allocator.
When a resource is released upon a call termination, it always returns to the
pool of worst interference level, whatever its level before the allocation. The
next measurement received from the BTS for this resource will be used to
update the level and, consequently, to find the appropriate pool.
The inner zone of a concentric cell does not support SDCCH channels. Till
V11, although they belong to the same cell, TCH pools for the inner zone are
separated from the same pools of the outer zone, and there are no possible
channel exchanges between the two zones.
When a SDCCH is requested and no SDCCH is available, the external
priorities are considered as a TCH can be allocated instead of a SDCCH,
following the TCH allocation principles.
If a TCH is requested and the priority threshold is reached, only priority 0
requests will be served. Other priorities will generate negative responses from
the allocator.

4.8.18 DEFINE ELIGIBLE NEIGHBOR CELLS FOR INTERCELL


HANDOVER (EXCEPT DIRECTED RETRY)
When an intercell handover is required, the BTS sends a list of at most 6 best suitable cells
according to EXP1 and EXP2 formulas.
The following diagram shows an example of cell interlapping produced by different values of
lRxLevDLH (threshold out of Cell A) and rxLevMinCell (threshold in Cell B, assuming it is a 2W
mobile and msTXPwrMaxcell is set to 33dB). If values are too restrictive, then Cell B will not
be considered as an eligible cell for handover and the call might be dropped. This might be the
case especially in rural areas where cells have little overlap.
Putting a high value for rxLevMinCell(n) or a high value for msTXPwrMaxCell(n) results in
restricting access to that cell (see following diagram).

Cell A

Cell B

lRxLevDLH
-100 dBm

rxLevMinCell (B)
-95 dBm
HO 1
-98 dBm

HO 2
-92 dBm

There is a different margin for each handover cause:


hoMarginDist, hoMarginRxLev, hoMarginRxQual (can be negative), hoMargin (for power
budget), thus compliance to that formula becomes mandatory i.e a handover can only be
performed towards a neigbourCell for which the (PBGT(n) - hoMargin(dist, rxqual, rxlev)) is
positive.
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4.8.19 HANDOVER TO 2ND BEST CANDIDATE WHEN RETURN TO


OLD CHANNEL
This feature is triggered by a handover failure during the execution phase.
If hoSecondBestCellConfiguration = 1
then no HO attempt to 2nd best candidate cell

If hoSecondBestCellConfiguration = 2
then HO attempt to 2nd best candidate cell

If hoSecondBestCellConfiguration = 3
then HO attempt to 2nd best candidate cell and to 3rd best candidate cell
(if the HO attempt to 2nd best candidate cell fails)
When the HO attempt towards the last candidate fails, the bssMapTchoke starts at the BSC.
At the expiry of the timer, the BSC asks the BTS to provide a new list of eligible cells.

4.8.20 PROTECTION AGAINST RUNHANDOVER=1


The objective is to get a more responsive handover detection mechanism. To reach this goal,
the HO algorithm shall be run every 480 milliseconds (i.e runHandover =1 SACCH period).
This feature is useful for call drop rate improvement.
With this configuration (runHandover=1), a protection shall be implemented to avoid BSC
overload.
In case of saturated network (no free TCH) the request for handover (HO-Indication message)
will be repeated every 480 ms by the BTS, even if the target cell list has not changed.
This could cause SICD overload problems at the BSC. Although the BSC is protected against
this, such a situation should be avoided as much as possible in order not to disturb cells not
concerned by the congestion situation that could also be supported by the overloaded SICD.
As a consequence, the HO_Indication shall be repeated every 2 SACCH periods (1 second) in
case of run HO = 1.
If the content of the preferred cell list IE is modified (i.e. the content or the order of the cell
list), the HO_IND message shall be repeated every runHandover (even if runHandover=1).
In addition to that, the HO_IND message has also to be sent if the reason for handover has
changed, for the reason that there is no preferred cell list IE in case of intracell handover for
example.
The value of 1 second is justified by the fact that existing operational networks are currently
working with the value of runHandover=2, and therefore no strongest protection is needed.

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4.8.21 GENERAL PROTECTION AGAINST HO PING-PONG


This feature allows to easily solve some ping-pong handover problems (like ping-pong after
directed retry or ping-pong microcell -> macrocell -> microcell or ping-pongs already managed
by the previous feature Minimum time between Handover).
It is enabled by the BSC object parameter timeBetweenHOConfiguration and by the BTS
object parameter bts Time Between HO configuration (0 means not used and value greater
than 0 means used).
For each neighboring cell of a cell (adjacentCellHandover object), two new parameters are
defined: hoPingpongCombination defines up to four combinations (incoming cause, outgoing
cause) used in order to define forbidden handovers during hoPingpongTimeRejection seconds
for all combinations.
When the BSC receives from the BTS a Handover Indication, it calculates the time spent in
the cell since the last handover (named connection_time) and removes from the preferred
cells list the eligible cells for which the connection_time is lower than the corresponding
timeRejection and for which the combination (incoming cause, outgoing cause) corresponds to
a combination defined in HOPingpongCombination.
The incoming causes may be: RXLEV (indifferently for uplink and downlink), RXQUAL
(indifferently for uplink and downlink), DISTANCE, PBGT, CAPTURE, DIRECTED_RETRY,
O&M (for forced handovers), TRAFFIC, AMRQUALITY, ALL (if the incoming cause matches
all the preceding causes), ALLCAPTURE, ALLPBGT.
The outgoing causes may be:

RXLEV (indifferently for uplink and downlink)


RXQUAL (indifferently for uplink and downlink)
DISTANCE
PBGT
CAPTURE
O&M (for forced handovers)
TRAFFIC
AMR QUALITY
ALL (if the incoming cause matches all the preceding causes)
ALLCAPTURE (if the outgoing cause matches the CAPTURE cause for all the
microcells belonging to the current macrocell)
ALLPBGT (if the outgoing cause matches the PBGT cause for all the
neighboring cells of the current cell ; this cause can be used to restore the
Minimum time between handovers feature

AMR QUALITY cause has been introduced for AMR purpose. See also chapter General
protection against HO Ping Pong in the feature interworking part of AMR chapter.

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LCAUTION!
The parameters hoPingpongCombination and hoPingpongTimeRejection must be defined at
the entering cell (relatively to the first HO of the combination) level, for the neighbouring cell
(adjacentCellHandover object) corresponding to the left cell (still relatively to the first HO of
the combination). Thus, these parameters are known by the new BSC whatever the type of
HO is (intra or interBSC).
For interBSS handovers, if the Cause element is not included in the HANDOVER_REQUEST
message sent from the MSC to the target BSC, then this feature is not applied except when
the incoming_cause in hoPingpongCombination parameter is set to ALL.
During upgrades, if bts Time Between HO configuration is greater than 0, then bts Time
Between HO configuration is set to 1, hoPingpongTimeRejection is set to the previous value of
bts Time Between HO configuration and hoPingpongCombination is set to (all, allPBGT) and if
bts Time Between HO configuration is equal to 0, then it keeps the same value,
hoPingpongTimeRejection is set to 0 and hoPingpongCombination is set to empty.
The C1166 counter related to the Minimum time between handover feature is removed and
replaced by the C1782 counter incremented when a cell is removed of the preferred cells list
(so, for one handover indication message, it can be incremented several times).
This feature gives no protection against intracell or interzone ping-pong handovers and gives
no protection against ping-pong handovers between more than 2 cells except for allCapture or
allPBGT outgoing causes.

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4.8.22 AUTOMATIC HANDOVER ADAPTATION


This feature adapts handover parameters to radio environment of each call, taking into
account mobile speed and frequency hopping. The objective is to minimize call drops and bad
quality transients.

PRINCIPLE
In order to eliminate the fading in the measurement processing, some averaging mechanisms
are implemented. But the frequency hopping and the mobile speed introduce frequency and
space diversity and average the attenuation of the received signal:

As shown on the diagram above, the faster the mobile moves the less the fading is impacting
(space diversity).
Mobiles can also be sensitive to the frequency diversity as shown on the diagram below. The
more hopping frequencies are used the less fading is impacting.

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The principle of this feature is to use these averages introduced by the frequency hopping and
the MS speed, in order to decrease the number of measurements take into account or the
handover margin.

DECISIONS FACTORS
FREQUENCY HOPPING
In order to have a sufficient averaging of the Rayleigh fading, the number of frequencies in the
hopping law has to be greater or equal than 4. If the number of frequencies in the hopping law
is less than 4, mobiles are considered as non-hopping, and all processing defined for non
hopping mobiles are applied.
This criterion and all associated mechanisms are applied to the following channels:

TCH full rate whatever the channel coding (data circuit, EFR, FR, AMR),
TCH half rate,
SDCCH.

MS SPEED EVALUATOR
From internal studies and simulation, a mobile can be considered as a fast mobile, if the
standard deviation in dB of the Rxlev during one period of measurement (i.e. 104 bursts, thus
480ms) is less than 1.4dB.
This standard deviation represents approximately:

20 km/h in GSM900,
10km/h in GSM1800 and GSM1900,

and is sufficient to have a good averaging of the Rayleigh fading.

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HALF RATE AND SDCCH CHANNELS


For half rate channels, the number of bursts during one period is sufficient to evaluate with a
correct accuracy the standard deviation criteria, then all treatments associated to this criteria
are relevant for this kind of channels.

UPLINK DTX
In case of uplink DTX activation during the period, the number of bursts received is decreased,
thus the accuracy of the calculated standard deviation is decreased. In this case, the standard
deviation is not evaluated and the last calculated standard deviation is taken.

UPLINK POWER CONTROL


In case of uplink power control, the BTS is not able to distinguish between a variation due to
Rayleigh fading and one due to a power control attenuation. Thus if the power control required
a variation of more than 8 dB during the period, then the standard deviation is not evaluated
and the last calculated standard deviation is taken.

AUTO ADAPTATION MECHANISMS


This feature is activated if the selfAdaptActivation parameter is set to enabled.

PBGT HANDOVER ADAPTATION


For this mechanism, two new parameters are added: servingfactorOffset, neighDisfavorOffset
and the previous factor hoMarginBeg is reused.
Following tables show for each case, the AdaptedHoMargin value and the averaging windows
taken into account in the PBGT handover mechanism according to

the MS type: fast or slow mobile or managed by a hopping TCH,


the number of measurement of the serving cell compared with the normal
averaging window,
the number of measurement of the neighbouring cell compared with the
normal averaging window.

See chapter EXP2 to understand how AdaptedHoMargin is used.


For each cases of measurement, the tables below give the HO Margin result.
Example:
IF
number of available measurements for the cell < normal window
AND IF
number of available measurements for the neighbour cell < normal window
THEN
AdaptedHoMargin = hoMargin+ neighDisfavorOffset

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Mobile Type: SFH MS
cell measurement

neighbour cell measurement

AdaptedHoMargin

< rxLevHreqaveBeg

< rxLevNCellHreqaveBeg

hoMargin + neighDisfavorOffset

< rxLevHreqaveBeg

rxNCellHreqave

hoMargin

rxLevHreqave

< rxLevNCellHreqaveBeg

hoMargin + neighDisfavorOffset - servingfactorOffset

rxLevHreqave

rxNCellHreqave

hoMargin - servingfactorOffset

Mobile Type: Slow non SFH MS


cell measurement

neighbour cell measurement

AdaptedHoMargin

< rxLevHreqaveBeg

< rxLevNCellHreqaveBeg

hoMargin + hoMarginBeg

< rxLevHreqaveBeg

rxNCellHreqave

hoMargin + hoMarginBeg

rxLevHreqave

< rxLevNCellHreqaveBeg

hoMargin + neighDisfavorOffset

rxLevHreqave

rxNCellHreqave

hoMargin

Mobile Type: Fast non SFH MS


cell measurement average

rxLevHreqaveBeg

neighbour cell average

rxLevNCellHreqaveBeg

AdaptedHoMargin

hoMargin

POWER CONTROL ADAPTATION


For this mechanism, a new parameter is added: rxQualAveBeg.
The following table shows for each case, the averaging taken into account in the power control
mechanism.
Mobile type

RxLev average

RxQual average

SFH MS

rxLevHreqaveBeg

rxQualAveBeg

Fast non SFH MS

rxLevHreqaveBeg

rxQualAveBeg

Slow non SFH MS

no modification

In case of short averaging, due to the measurement quality, no specific value of K (refer to
chapter One shot power control (Pc_2) for more details on this value) is taken into account.
For slow mobile, Fast power control at TCH assignment (Pc_3) is still available in order to
reduce the power control activation time, but the first decision of power control is now taken
with Max[rxLevHreqAveBeg, rxQualAveBeg] measurements, instead of rxLevHreqAveBeg.

4.8.23 PROTECTION AGAINST INTRACELL HO PING-PONG


This feature controls the overall handover process, to avoid oscillations or so called "pingpong" handovers, to deal with the complexity introduced by all various situations with
BSC3000

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There are various reasons where intracell handovers needs to be triggered, for instance:

RxQual degradation with high RxLev,


transition from inner zone to outer zone in a multi-zone cell

transition from AMR-FR to AMR-HR,


transition from outer zone to inner zone in a multi-zone cell.

but also

The first two cases are required to maintain call quality, whereas the last two cases are
decided to optimise system capacity.

PRINCIPLE
For this feature, two kinds of intracell handover are distinguished:

capacity intracell handover: this expression groups all intracell handovers,


which are triggered in order to increase the network capacity:
interzone handover from the outer to the inner zone,
AMR handover from FR to HR TCH,
tiering from BCCH to TCH frequency pattern.

quality intracell handover: this expression groups all intracell handovers,


which are triggered if the quality of the call is not sufficient:
normal intracell handover,
inter-zone handover from the inner to the outer zone,
AMR handover from HR to FR TCH,
tiering from TCH to BCCH frequency pattern.

The principle of this feature is to introduce two timers, associated to the intracell handover
type, which delay an intracell handover after an intracell handover:

capacityTimeRejection: defines the rejection time of a capacity intracell


handover after an intracell handover,
minTimeQualityIntraCellHO: defines the rejection time of a quality intracell
handover after an intracell handover.

Quality intracell Capacity intracell


HO request
HO request

First intracell HO

minTimeQualityIntraCell HO
capacityTimeRejection

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In order to avoid some load, this filtering is done at the BTS level, thus at the L1M activation
for the dedicated channel the BSC has to precise the cause:

initial assignment,
capacity intracell handover
quality intracell handover
intercell handover.

Due to the following handover non AMR priority:

RXQUAL
RXLEV
DISTANCE
PBGT
TRAFFIC
INTRACELL
AMR INTRACELL
INTERZONE

the BTS has to check if one cause of a lower priority is fullfilled.


At the TS release, the BTS sends in the Stop Measurement Ack, to the BSC the number of
each kinds of filtered intracell handovers. The BSC uses this information in order to generate 2
counters.
The feature is deactivated at the OMC-R,
minTimeQualityIntraCellHO parameters are set to 0.

if

the

capacityTimeRejection

and

LCAUTION!
Due to AMR L1m introduction, a new cause value is added in hoPingpongCombination:

AMRquality.

This value is used in case of AMR handover triggered for alarm purpose. This type of
handover can be chosen via the parameter amrReserved2
In case of interBSC handover, in order to distinguish between RxQual handover and AMR
quality handover (according to amrReserved2 chosen), the BSC uses following rules:
IF the handover cause = RxQual
AND IF the speech version <> AMR
THENHandover cause = RxQual.

IF the handover cause = RxQual


AND IF the speech version = AMR
THEN Handover cause = AMR quality.

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4.8.24 GSM TO UMTS HANDOVER


PRINCIPLE
Thanks to this feature, GSM to UMTS handover is possible for dual-mode mobiles in areas of
2G-3G coverage.
This feature requires the setting of O&M parameters in the following domains :

Normal or Enhanced Measurement Reporting activation and configuration

UTRAN classmark activation and configuration

Declaration of neighbouring cells belonging to the UTRAN

Handover timers, thresholds and margins

PREREQUISITES
Note that EMR is not a preequisite for 2G-3G handover. The system can perform handover on
mobiles that perform normal reporting.

EARLY CLASSMARK SENDING ACTIVATION


Early classmark sending consists in the mobile sending as early as possible after access a
CLASSMARK CHANGE message to provide the network with additional classmark
information.
Early classmark sending activation is mandatory as EMR capability and FDD radio capability
is provided by the mobile to the BSS in the Classmark 3 IE sent in the CLASSMARK CHANGE
message.
Rule :
earlyClassmarkSending (v10 parameter) = allowed.

3G CLASSMARK SENDING ACTIVATION


Although it is not used by the BSS, the UTRAN classmark information is mandatory to perform
a GSM to UMTS handover as the "INTER RAT HANDOVER INFO" IE shall be included by the
BSC in HANDOVER REQUIRED message.
The activation flag earlyClassmarkSendingUTRAN is used by the BSC and the MS:

when the 3G Early Classmark Sending Restriction field in SYSTEM INFORMATION


TYPE 3 message is set 1 (enabled), the MS is asked to the send its UTRAN
capabilites at the call set-up in the UTRAN CLASSMARK CHANGE message
subsequent to the CLASSMARK CHANGE one.

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on an incoming handover, if the UTRAN capabilities have not been received by the
the target BSC in the HANDOVER REQUEST message, this BSC sends a
CLASSMARK ENQUIRY message in order to ask the MS to send the UTRAN
CLASSMARK CHANGE message.

Rule :
earlyClassmarkSendingUTRAN = enabled.

USE OF MEASUREMENT INFORMATION MESSAGE


The MEASUREMENT INFORMATION message is used for 3 different purposes:

declaration of UTRAN neighbouring cells and configuration of UTRAN reporting


requirements

activation/deactivation of EMR feature

The feature GSM to UMTS handover can be used with either normal measurement reporting
or enhanced measurement reporting. The part of the MEASUREMENT INFORMATION
message related to EMR feature activation is fully described in 4.6.6.
When the mobile does not have the UMTS FDD RAT capability, it shall not receive information
about UTRAN cells. As a consequence, the BSC sends two different version of Measurement
information to the BTS: a 2G version with GSM cell information only and a 2G/3G version with
both GSM and UTRAN cell information. The BTS then broadcasts the appropriate message
according to each mobiles capability and according to the status of the GSM to UMTS
handover activation, as specified in the table below.

GSM to UMTS HO disabled

GSM to UMTS HO enabled

EMR disabled

EMR enabled

EMR disabled

EMR enabled

Release 4 2G only
mobiles

No MI message

MI 2G message

None

MI 2G message

2G-3G mobiles

No MI message

MI 2G message

MI 2G-3G message

MI 2G-3G message

The 2G measurement information message (2G MI) contains mainly the following information:

reportTypeMeasurement : parameter that defines the type of measurement report that


the mobiles are required to use

common (EMR and non-EMR) reporting configuration parameters :


multiBandReporting

EMR-specific configuration parameters : servingBandReporting,


servingBandReportingOffset

The 2G-3G measurement information message (2G-3G MI) contains mainly the following
information:

reportTypeMeasurement : parameter that defines the type of measurement report that


the mobiles are required to use
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common (EMR and non-EMR) reporting configuration parameters :


multiBandReporting, qsearchC, fDDMultiRatReporting, fDDReportingThreshold2

EMR-specific reporting configuration parameters : fDDReportingThreshold,


servingBandReporting, servingBandReportingOffset

UTRAN cells definition : mobileCountryCodeUTRAN, mobileNetworkCodeUTRAN,


locationAreaCodeUTRAN, rNCId, cId, fDDARFCN, scramblingCode, diversityUTRAN

NEIGHBOUR CELL LISTS


DEFINITION
The Neighbouring Cell List is built by a concatenation of two lists:

The GSM Neighbour Cell List : it is the list of GSM cells, ordered by ARFCN and
BSIC,
as
defined
in
the
BSIC_Description
parameter
of
the
MEASUREMENT_INFORMATION message, which takes the first position in the list

The 3G Neighbour Cell list: it is the list of UMTS cells, ordered by ARFCN &
scrambling code (the ARFCN are ordered the same way as received from the
network. For each ARFCN, scrambling codes are ordered in increasing number).

MAXIMUM SIZE
In this version the list is limited to 32 GSM cells and 32 UMTS cells.
When at least one UTRAN neighbouring cells is declared, only 31 different BCCH frequencies
for GSM neighbouring cells can be declared.

NEW BSS PARAMETERS


CREATION OF A NEW OBJECT
A new object is created alongside adjacentCellHandover: adjacentcellUTRAN.

2G-3G HANDOVER ACTIVATION : GSMTOUMTSSERVICE HO


PARAMETER
The following parameter (gsmToUMTSServiceHO) belonging to bsc object serves to
deactivate the 2G-3G Handover feature in all cells of the BSC or to provide a default GSM to
UMTS handover strategy when the MSC has failed to set one for the call :

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gsmToUMTSServiceHO value range :

Shall not

Should not

Should

GsmToUMTSDisabled

The MSC may include a similar service handover field in BSSMAP ASSIGNMENT
REQUEST and BSSMAP HANDOVER REQUEST messages sent to the BSS:

Shall not: the BTS shall never hand off the communication to UTRAN (No UMTS
neighbouring cell can be present in the candidate cells list)

Should not: the BTS shall not hand off the communication to UTRAN for a PBGT
reason but other criteria are nevertheless authorized to avoid call drop (handover for
alarm reason) or to reduce the load of the current cell when in congestion state
(handover for traffic reason)

Should: It can be understood either as immediate or as when possible or if


necessary. The hoMarginUtran(n) parameter setting allows dual-mode MS to go
more or less easily on UTRAN layer. With a very negative values, the PBGT emulates
a capture in order to recover the UTRAN service as soon as possible.

For each call, we must differentiate the following cases :

Case n1 : gsmToUMTSServiceHO is set to GsmToUMTSDisabled.


Handover to UMTS is disabled.

Case n2 : "service handover" is provided by the MSC, and gsmToUMTSServiceHO


value is different from GsmToUMTSDisabled.
The MSC "service handover" value is sent to the BTS and the handover strategy is
decided by the MSC (according to OMC hoMarginXX setting).

Case n3 : "service handover" field is not provided by the MSC and


gsmToUMTSServiceHO is different from GsmToUMTSDisabled
Then, the default OMC "service handover" (i.e. the gsmToUMTSServiceHO
parameter) value is sent to the BTS and the handover strategy is decided by the
Access network instead of the Core network.

Note: In case the gsmToUMTSServiceHO is modified, the change only applies to new calls (or
after a handover) except for a feature deactivation.

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CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS OF CLASSMARK SENDING


The following parameter should be set to enabled to allow the mobile to send its UTRAN
Classmark at call setup :

earlyClassmarkSendingUTRAN

The UTRAN_CLASSMARK_CHANGE message takes about 2 or 3 radio frames to transmit.


However, when supported by the UTRAN network, it is possible to reduce the size of the
message thanks to the compression of UE radio access capabilities and predefined
configuration Information Elements :
compressedModeUTRAN = enabled
Note: During IOT activities, it is recommended to disable this compression.

UMTS NEIGHBOUR CELLS DECLARATION PARAMETERS


The following 8 new parameters belonging to adjacentcellUTRAN object define the UMTS
neighbours :

mobileCountryCodeUTRAN

mobileNetworkCodeUTRAN

locationAreaCodeUTRAN

rNCId

cId

fDDARFCN

scramblingCode

diversityUTRAN

Up to 32 UMTS neighbours and 31 GSM neighbours may be declared.

MEASUREMENT REPORTING PARAMETERS


EMR must be activated for 2G-3G handover. The following 7 new parameters serve to
configure the Enhanced Measurement Reporting for 2G-3G handover purposes:

reportTypeMeasurement

qsearchC

fDDMultiRatReporting

fDDReportingThreshold

fDDReportingThreshold2

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servingBandReporting

servingBandReportingOffset

2G-3G HANDOVER TIMER


t3121 has the same use as t3103 in the GSM inter-BSC handover procedure. It sets the value
before countdown of T3121 timer deined in the GSM specification:

T3121 starts when the BSC sends an INTER SYSTEM TO UTRAN HANDOVER
message to the mobile.

T3121 stops when the mobile has correctly seized the UTRAN channel. The purpose
of this timer is for the BSC to keep the old channels long enough for the mobile to be
able to return to the old channels.

On expiry of T3121 (indicating the mobile is lost), the BSC may release the channels.

2G-3G HANDOVER THRESHOLDS


The following new parameters serve to configure thresholds :

rxLevMinCellUTRAN

rxLevDLPbgtUTRAN

These parameters have the same meaning as their counterparts on adjacentCellHandOver


object, but apply to a UTRAN neighbouring cell instead of a GSM neighbour cell.

2G-3G HANDOVER MARGINS


The following new parameters serve to configure margins for various types of handovers to 3G
cells :

hoMarginUTRAN

hoMarginAMRUTRAN

hoMarginRxLevUTRAN

hoMarginRxQualUTRAN

hoMarginDistUTRAN

hoMarginTrafficOffsetUTRAN

offsetpriorityUTRAN

All these parameters have the same meaning as their counterpart on adjacentCellHandOver
object, but apply to a UTRAN neighbouring cell instead of a GSM neighbour cell.
In practice, all handovers algorithms except Capture and Directed retry are allowed towards
an UMTS neighbouring cell.
Note : the Power Budget handover as defined in GSM may be used to emulate a capture by
UTRAN layer.

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CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS OF PING-PONG MECHANISM FOR 2G3G HANDOVERS


The existing mechanism to protect against ping-pong handover is used also for 2G-3G
handovers.
The list of outgoing causes for handovers towards UMTS neighbour cells is : traffic, pbgt,
rxLev, rxQual, dist, O&M (forced ho), all. This list is defined by setting the new parameter
hoPingpongCombinationUTRAN.
A specific timer is defined for time Rejection : hoPingpongTimeRejectionUTRAN.
If a pair of causes in the hoPingpongCombinationUTRAN parameter list refers to an incoming
or an outgoing cause that is not implemented in the source or in the target system, the existing
causes will be ignored.
On an incoming UMTS to GSM handover, if the BSC has not received the source "UTRAN
Cell identifier" (HANDOVER REQUIRED message / Old BSS to new BSS information"
container / Cell load information group IE), no rejection timer will be started for that UTRAN
cell.

UMTS CELL LOAD MANAGEMENT


UMTS cell load management is managed three different ways:

Through existing anti ping-pong mechanism for incoming 3G to 2G handovers

Through a new mechanism for outgoing handover failures : When a UMTS cell rejects
the handover, the 2G-MSC sends a BSSMAP HANDOVER REQUIRED REJECT
message including cause Traffic Load in the target cell higher than in the source cell
or no radio resource available. The BSC stores this information and does not attempt
a new handover towards this cell for a given time equal to
hoRejectionTimeOverloadUTRAN parameter.

Through a new mechanism for incoming handover from UTRAN :


o

if the handover cause in the BSSMAP HANDOVER REQUEST message is


either traffic, directed retry or reduce load in serving cell ,

and if the source RNC and the MSC have implemented the old BSS to new
BSS information container

and if the source RNC has included the Cell load information group within
this container

then the BSC stores the information and will not try a handover towards this
UTRAN cell for a given time equal to hoRejectionTimeOverloadUTRAN
parameter,

otherwise, the BSC does not start any rejection timer for that UTRAN cell.

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SUMMARY OF HO 2G-3G PARAMETERS (V17)

Parameter name

Definition

object

cId

Cell identity of the UMTS neighbouring cell for handover

adjacentCell
UTRAN

compressedModeUTRAN

flag to indicate whether compressed mode UTRAN is supported or


not. This flag is used by the network to indicate to mobiles whether to
use a compressed version of the INTER RAT HANDOVER INFO
message (UE to UTRAN message).

bts

diversityUTRAN

flag indicating whether there is deiversity in the neighbouring UTRAN


cell

adjacentCell
UTRAN

earlyClassmarkSendingUTRAN

flag indicating whether UTRAN classmark change message shall be


sent with Early Classmark Sending

bts

fDDARFCN

fDD channel number of the UTRAN neighbouring cell

adjacentCell
UTRAN

fDDMultiratReporting

Number of FDD UTRAN cells to be reported in the list of strongest


cells in the MR or EMR message

bts

fDDReportingThreshold

(used in EMR only) defines the CPICH RSCP level above which the
MS will apply a higher priority to UTRAN cells in the enhanced
measurement report message

Handover
control

fDDReportingThreshold2

(used in MR and EMR) defines the CPICH Ec/N0 level above which
the MS will report UTRAN cells in the normal or enhanced
measurement report message

Handover
control

gSMToUMTSServiceHO

This parameter serves to disable 2G-3G handover at BSC level or to


indicate the preference (2G versus 3G cells) to be applied for
handovers

bsc

hoMarginUTRAN

Handover margin for PBGT handover to a UMTS cell

adjacentCell
UTRAN

hoMarginAMRUTRAN

Handover margin for intercell quality handovers to UMTS, for AMR


calls

adjacentCell
UTRAN

hoMarginDistUTRAN

handover margin for handover to UMTS on distance criterion

adjacentCell
UTRAN

hoMarginRxLevUTRAN

handover margin for signal strength handover to UMTS

adjacentCell
UTRAN

hoMarginRxQualUTRAN

handover margin for signal quality handover to UMTS

adjacentCell
UTRAN

hoMarginTrafficOffsetUTRAN

offset to be subtracted to the homarginUTRAN to allow handover for


traffic reason when the current cell is congested

adjacentCell
UTRAN

hoPingpongCombinationUTRAN

list of pair of causes indicating the causes of ping-pong handovers in


the overlapping areas.

adjacentCell
UTRAN

hoPingpongTimeRejectionUTRAN

time that must elapse before attempting another handover towards


an UTRAN cell.

adjacentCell
UTRAN

hoRejectionTimeOverloadUTRAN

time that must elapse before attempting another handover towards a


congested UTRAN cell

adjacentCell
UTRAN

locationAreaCodeUTRAN

Location area code of the UMTS neighbouring cell

adjacentCell
UTRAN

mobileCountryCodeUTRAN

Mobile country code of the UMTS neighbouring cell

adjacentCell
UTRAN

mobileNetworkCodeUTRAN

Mobile network code of the UMTS neighbouring cell

adjacentCell
UTRAN

offsetPriorityUTRAN

priority offset applied by the BSC when selecting the candidate cell
for the handover process

adjacentCell
UTRAN

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Parameter name

Definition

object

search for UTRAN cells if signal level on the BCCH of serving cell :
is below threshold (0-7):
-98, -94, , -74 dBm, (always)
or is above threshold (8-15):
qsearchC

Handover
control

-78, -74, , -54 dBm, (never)


If the serving BCCH frequency is not part of the BA(SACCH) list, and
if the dedicated channel is not on the BCCH carrier, and if qsearchC
is not equal to 15, the MS shall ignore the qsearchC parameter value
and always search for UTRAN cells. If qsearchC is equal to 15, the
MS shall never search for UTRAN cells.

reportTypeMeasurement

type of measurement report to be reported on this cell : enhanced


measurement report or legacy measurement report

bts

rNCId

identity of the UTRAN neighbouring cells RNC

adjacentCell
UTRAN

rxLevDLPbgtUTRAN

downlink signal strength threshold above which handovers to UTRAN


for cause power budget are inhibited

adjacentCell
UTRAN

rxLevMinCellUTRAN

minimum signal strength level that the MS must measure on an


UMTS neighbour cell to be able to be granted a handover to this
UMTS neighbour cell

adjacentCell
UTRAN

scramblingCode

Scrambling code of the UMTS neighbouring cell

adjacentCell
UTRAN

servingBandReporting

defines the number of cells from the GSM serving frequency band
that shall be included in the list of strongest cells in the measurement
report.

bts

servingBandReportingOffset

If there is not enough space in the report for all valid cells, the cells
shall be reported that have the highest sum of the reported value
(RXLEV) and the parameter servingBandReportingOffset
(XXX_REPORTING_OFFSET) for the serving GSM band. Note that
this parameter shall not affect the value itself of the reported
measurement.

Handover
control

t3121 has the same use as t3103 in the GSM inter-BSC handover
procedure. It sets the value before countdown of T3121 timer defined
in the GSM specification .
T3121 starts when the BSC sends an INTER SYSTEM TO UTRAN
HANDOVER message to the mobile. T3121 stops when the mobile
has correctly seized the UTRAN channel. The purpose of this timer is
for the BSC to keep the old channels long enough for the mobile to
be able to return to the old channels if necessary. On expiry of T3121
(indicating the mobile is lost), the BSC may release the channels.

t3121

bts

2G-3G HANDOVER ALGORITHMS


REPORTING QUANTITY
In the Enhanced Measurement Report message, the downlink received power level of UMTS
neighbouring cells may be reported by the mobiles using one of two possible reporting
quantities :

either CPICH RSCP

or CPICH Ec/N0

In our v17.0 implementation, the reporting quantity that mobiles are expected to report to the
network is always CPICH RSCP. The mobiles are informed of this obligation by the
FDD_REP_QUANT flag that is sent by the network on SACCH in Measurement Information
messages.
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MAPPING BETWEEN RSCP (3G) AND RXLEV (2G)


This CPICH RSCP value is directly comparable to a classical RxLev value.
According to the mapping specified in the GSM specification, we can define the following
conversion table between RSCP values and the reported values in range [0..63]. Values below
0 are reported as 0 and values above 63 are reported as 63 by the mobiles. The L1M then
subtracts 5 to the reported value to obtain the equivalent Rxlev signal strength.

RSCP (unit : dBm)

Reported value inside EMR


(no unit)

L1M converted value (no


unit)

RxLev equivalent in dBm

RSCP<-120

<-110

-120<RSCP<-119

<-110

-119<RSCP<-118

<-110

-118<RSCP<-117

<-110

-117<RSCP<-116

<-110

-116<RSCP<-115

<-110

-115<RSCP<-114

<-110

-114<RSCP<-113

<-110

-113<RSCP<-112

<-110

-112<RSCP<-111

<-110

-111<RSCP<-110

<-110

-110<RSCP<-109

-110<RxLev<-109

-54<RSCP<-53

62

57

-54<RxLev<-53

-53<RSCP<-52

63

58

-53<RxLev<-52

-52<RSCP<-51

63

58

-53<RxLev<-52

-26<RSCP<-25

63

58

-53<RxLev<-52

-25<RSCP

63

58

-53<RxLev<-52

ALGORITHMS
Once the power level of all 2G and 3G neighbouring cells can be compared with one another,
all L1M handover algorithms are directly reusable.
For example, the algorithm for a Power Budget handover to UTRAN can be described as
follows :

The MS listens to UTRAN cells if RxLev < qsearchC

The MS reports the measured RSCP of the UTRAN cells for which CPICH Ec/N0
fDDReportingThreshold2

The service handover shall be set to should

The BTS discards UTRAN cells for which :

either CPICH RSCP < rxLevMinCellUTRAN(n)

or RxLev of the serving cell > rxlevDLPbgtUTRAN(n)

PBGT handover decision is taken if :


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o

CPICH RSCP(neighbour 3G cell)


hoMarginUtran(neighbour 3G cell).

>

RxLev

(serving

2G

cell)

UTRAN cells are sorted according to EXP2() values

IMPACT OF HO 2G-3G ON INTERFERENCE MATRIX


UMTS cells are not measured by the Interference Matrix feature.

EMR CASE
The introduction of UTRAN neighbouring cells has an impact on Interference Matrix feature
because of the number of GSM neighbour cells it induces.
If at least one UTRAN neighbour cell is declared, no more than 31 GSM neighbour cells can
be declared, instead of 32. The impacts on IM are the following:

The algorithm that calculates the number of cycles (used by launching tool on OMC-R
and by BSC for cycle definition) shall be done with only 31 BCCH frequencies

UTRAN neighbour cell creation must be forbidden if 32 different BCCH frequencies


are already declared for GSM neighbour cells

GSM neighbour cell creation with a 32nd different BCCH frequency must be forbidden
if at least one UTRAN neighbour cell is declared.

UTRAN neighbour cell creation, UTRAN neighbour cell deletion, fDDARFCN change,
scramblingCode change, must be forbidden while Interference Matrix feature is
running on the BSC.

the control that warns the operator if he tries to activate Interference matrix when one
cell has 32 GSM neighbouring cells (this control exists already in this case) must be
extended to the case where one cell has 31 GSM neighbouring cells and at least one
UTRAN neighbouring cell.

NORMAL MR CASE
Although fewer possibilities are available with MR than with EMR, the way GSM and UTRAN
neighbouring cells are reported in Measurement report messages is manageable, thanks to
multiBandReporting and fDDMultiratReporting parameters. Unlike EMR, the number of
reported non-serving band GSM and UTRAN valid neighbouring cells has an impact on the
number of remaining spare places in the Measurement report message that could be used for
fake neighbours in Interference Matrix.

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4.9.

HANDOVER ALGORITHMS ON THE MOBILE SIDE


For an intracell handover, the mobile receives an ASSIGNMENT COMMAND and simply
switches to another timeslot belonging to any TDMA of the cell.
For an intercell handover, upon reception of the HANDOVER COMMAND, the mobile checks
if it has the synchronization information. If not a handover failure is reported and
communication remains on old channel.
Then, if it is a synchronized handover, four access bursts are sent on the new channel before
actually switching to it.
If it is a non synchronized handover, the mobile will send contiguous access bursts on new
cell, expecting a PHYSICAL INFORMATION message to be sent back by the BTS, in order to
know the Timing Advance to be used on the new channel and actually switch to it. If that
message is not received within one second, then there is a handover failure and the mobile
returns to the old channel.
Once on the new cell, the mobile tries to establish level 2 connexion (SABM and UA exchange
procedure). If that procedure fails, then the mobile returns to the old channel, but if it succeeds
the synchronization information with previous best cells is kept for updating with new cell
parameters.
To conclude this paragraph, one realizes that a handover can be a rather lengthy process,
which should not be performed too late in order to ensure its success and not too often to
maintain a smooth voice or data flow.

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4.10. POWER CONTROL ALGORITHMS


The aim of the Power Control feature is to reduce the average interference level on the
Network and to save mobile batteries.

4.10.1 STEP BY STEP POWER CONTROL


LCAUTION!
In L1mV2, RxLevXX is always rescaled at the maximum power output (see chapter
Measurement Processing)
This algorithm is a step by step full path loss compensation. The algorithm determines the gap
between the received level at Pmax (theoretical maximum power without taking into account
Power Control) and the power control threshold (lRxLevDLP, lRxLevULP) and compensates
the path loss step by step until the received level reaches the threshold. That algorithm has
been improved in L1mV2 with the introduction of a limitation based on the one shot
computation when there is a need to re-compute the attenuation (high level and good quality)
The basic idea of the step by step power control algorithm is:

to reduce transmitted power when reception level is high and quality is


good
to compute a new transmitted power with total path loss compensation
when reception level is high and quality is good

At every runPwrControl event, the Weighted Average is computed at Pmax (SAveRxlev) and
the following algorithm is perfomed by Ms/Bs:
IF (SAveRxLev < lRxLevP) OR (SAveRxQual > lRxQualP)
NewAttRequestdB = Max (CurrentAttRequestdB - IncStepSizeXX, 0)

ELSE IF [(SAveRxLev > uRxLevP) AND (SAveRxQual < uRxQualP)]


TempAttRequestdB = SAveRxLev lRxLevP
IF (TempAttRequestdB < CurrentAttRequest IncrStepSizeXX)
NewAttRequestdB = CurrentAttRequestdB IncStepSizeXX
ELSE IF (TempAttRequestdB > CurrentAttRequest + RedStepSizeXX)
NewAttRequestdB = CurrentAttRequestdB + RedStepSizeXX
ELSE NewAttRequestdB = TempAttRequestdB

ELSE ((lRxLevPSAveRxLev uRxLevP) OR (uRxQualP SAveRxQual lRxQualP))


NewAttRequestdB = LastCommandedAttRequestdB

The resultfor the new attenuation request is stored into NewAttRequestdB


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The figure below summarizes the command for (UL or DL) transmission power according to
RxLev/RxQual values.

RxQual

Increase Tx Power
lRxQual

No new command for MS


(or BS) transmission power
uRxQual

New Tx Power
computation
lRxLev

RxLev

uRxLev

LCAUTION!
When the MS or the BTS is in the NEW TX POWER COMPUTATION zone, the recomputation of the attenuation does not lead necessarily to a reduction of the emitted power.
Note: This feature is activated at the BTS level by setting the following parameters:

powerControl object: uplinkPowerControl = enabled and bsPowerControl =


enabled
bts object: new power control algorithm = step by step

4.10.2 ONE SHOT POWER CONTROL


LCAUTION!
In L1mV2, RxLevXX is always rescaled at the maximum power output (see chapter
Measurement Processing).
The enhanced power control is a one shot partial path loss compensation algorithm.
The one shot power control algorithm determines the optimal transmit power by computing a
partial path loss compensation and compensates it in one step.
This feature is activated at the BTS level by setting the following parameters:

powerControl object: uplinkPowerControl = enabled and bsPowerControl =


enabled
BTS object: new power control algorithm = one shot

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At every runPwrControl event, the Weighted Average is computed at Pmax (SAveRxlev) and
the following algorithm is perfomed by Ms/Bs:
IF (SAveRxLev < lRxLevP) OR (SAveRxQual > lRxQualP)
NewAttRequestdB = 0

ELSE
NewAttRequestdB = K * (SaveRxLev - lRxLevP)

The values of K depend on the activation of frequency hopping and of the RxQual. Here are
the values of K, which come from simulation results:
0

K with Frequency Hopping

RXQUAL

0,9

0,8

0,7

K without Frequency Hopping

0,7

0,6

0,5

The figure below summarizes the command for (UL or DL) transmission power according to
RxLev/RxQual values.

RxQual

Tx Power max
(MS or BS attenuation = 0)
lRxQual

New Tx Power
computation

lRxLev

RxLev

Please note that if NewAttRequestdB = 0 then the MS power becomes equal to the maximum
power possible in the cell, i.e. Min(msTXPwrMaxCell(n), MSTxPwrMax). The limitation can
come from the mobile (MSTxPwrMax) or from the cell (msTxPwrMax).
Concerning the BTS, the attenuation (difference between current power and max power) is
considered, so if NewAttRequestdB = 0 then the BTS power becomes equal to the maximum
static power possible.

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LCAUTION!
An 8 dB limitation applies on decrease, e.g.the BTS will never decrease its power by more
than 8 dB (some mobiles would lose the BTS)

4.10.3 FAST POWER CONTROL AT TCH ASSIGNMENT


LCAUTION!
In L1mV2, RxLevXX is always rescaled at the maximum power output (see chapter
Measurement Processing).
This feature is an improvement of the one shot power control (described above). One shot
power control reactivity is improved by deciding power control on SDCCH allocation and on
TCH allocation with only rxLevHreqaveBeg or rxQualAveBeg measurements. With this
feature, attenuation (possibly decided on SDCCH) is kept at TCH assignment and for each
channel switch-over (start on SDCCH, SDCCH to TCH or TCH to TCH), the few first
measurements (from Max[rxLevHreqAveBeg, rxQualAveBeg] to Max[rxLevHreqave *
rxLevHreqt, rxQualHreqave * rxQualHreqt]-1) may be used to decide power control.
This feature is activated by setting the following parameters:

powerControl object: uplinkPowerControl = enabled and bsPowerControl =


enabled
BTS object: new power control algorithm = enhanced one shot

The triggering of the one shot power control is accelerated because rxLevHreqaveBeg or
rxQualAveBeg measurements are taken into account.
Until Max[rxLevHreqave * rxLevHreqt, rxQualHreqave * rxQualHreqt] is reached, the
attenuaton is computed with the compensation factor K for uplink and downlink. This factor no
more depends on the rxQualHreqave measurements but only on the frequency activation:
NewAttRequestdB = K * (SaveRxLev - lRxLevP)

K = 0.5 in case of non hopping channel,


K = 0.7 in case of hopping channel,

When Max[rxLevHreqAveBeg, rxQualAveBeg] > Max[rxLevHreqave


rxQualHreqave * rxQualHreqt] this feature is no more activated.

rxLevHreqt,

When Max[rxLevHreqave * rxLevHreqt, rxQualHreqave * rxQualHreqt] is reached the usual


average of the one shot power control described before is computed with the K value
depending of the rxQualHreqave measurements.
LCAUTION!
This feature is not supported with DCU2 boards or with a mix of DCU2/DCU4 boards.
Note: In some very specific cases with a poor quality and a good level strength (very interfered
environment) the Fast Power Control algorithm may prevent from powering up after a TCH
assignment until max(rxLevHreqave*rxLevHreqt, rxQualHreqave*rxQualHreqt) is reached.

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4.10.4 POWER CONTROL ON MOBILE SIDE


In RACH phase, the MS power is equal to Min [msTxPwrMax, msTxPwrMaxCCH].
When the MS switches from RACH to SDCCH or TCH, it keeps the same power.
In dedicated mode, the mobile transmits at the power required in the POWER COMMAND
message transmitted in the layer1 header of SACCH blocks. This command will be received at
the end of a reporting period (102 frames in SDCCH, 104 in TCH). It will be applied at the
beginning of the following period at a rate of 2dB per 13 frames.
Before triggering an intercell handover due to uplink causes (RXQUAL or RXLEV) and only
step by step power control and for L1mV1 (only), the BTS should request the MS to transmit to
its maximum power capability. In such cases, if the MS can increase its transmit power, no
Handover Indication is transmitted by the BTS.
In the case of a handover, the maximum transmitted power allowed in the target cell is sent to
the mobile in the handover command message (msTxPwrMaxCell).
In case of intracell handover, the power reduction is kept.
The current txpwr value is saved so that it can be sent in the next transmitted uplink SACCH.
For the BTS, the duration of the entire process (from order to acknowledgment) is three
multiframes.

BTS sends PC andTA


commands in a
SACCH block

SA0

SA1

SA2

SA3

BTS gets the


Measurement
Report

One SACCH reporting period


26 * 4 = 104 frames (480 ms)

SA0

SA1

SA2

MS starts applying
New PC and TA
MS gets the
SACCH block

SA3

SA0

SA1

SA2

SA3

MS starts transmitting
SACCH concerning
Previous multiframe

4.10.5 AMR POWER CONTROL


With the introduction of the AMR feature a new Layer 1 Management has been desgined to
take into account AMR channels specificity, including new algorithm for Power Control.
Please refer to section Power Control in the chapter AMR - Adaptative Multi Rate FR/HR.

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4.10.6 POWER ADAPTATION AFTER AN INTERZONE HO


This section is only applicable to RF power
Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell Handover).

control

in

multizone

cells

(see

PURPOSE
Before V17.0, after an inter-zone handover, the BSC sets the BTS and MS initial powers on
the new channel of the new zone to values that are identical to those used on the previous
channel in the other zone. As a result, the strength of the uplink and the downlink received
signal may decrease significantly on the establishment on the new channel. The risk is that the
handover could fail or the voice quality could deteriorate until the BTS has adjusted the BTS
and MS output TX power on the first run of the L1M power control process.
In v17.0, if the BSC expects the reception level to decrease following the interzone handover,
the BSC shall adapt the BTS and the MS output power, when activating the new channel, to
ensure a constant reception level for the MS and for the BTS. If on trhen other hand, the BSC
expects the reception level to increase, the BSC shall keep the BTS and MS power levels
unchanged and will simply wait for the L1M to adjust them via the standard power control
process.

ESTIMATION OF THE THEORETICAL POWER GAP


The BSC has to estimate the power gap in uplink and in downlink that would exist after an
inner to outer zone handover and an outer to inner handover :

Delta_RxLev_DL_oz_to_iz : DL signal strength gap following an outer to inner HO

Delta_RxLev_UL_oz_to_iz : UL signal strength gap following an outer to inner HO

Delta_RxLev_DL_iz_to_oz : DL signal strength gap following an inner to outer HO

Delta_RxLev_UL_iz_to_oz : UL signal strength gap following an inner to outer HO

This estimation depends only on the following O&M parameters :

concentric_cell (bts object): parameter defining the type of multizone cell : concentric,
dualband or dualcoupling.

zoneTxPowerMaxreduction (transceiverZone object): attenuation to be applied to


bsTxPwrMax (maximum theoretical level of BTS transmission power in a cell),
defining the maximum TRX/DRX transmission power in the zone.

bizonePowerOffset (handoverControl object): Estimated downlink power offset


between inner zone and outer zone TRXs of a multizone cell. For a dual-band cell,
this parameter has to be estimated in a worst case (edge of band1 zone). For a
concentric or dualcoupling cell, bizonePowerOffset = zoneTxPowerMaxreduction

The 3 different cases of concentric cell give different resultrs for the power gap :

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Concentric

Dual-coupling

Dual-band

Delta_RxLev_DL_
oz_to_iz

ZoneTxPowerMaxReduction [oz]
- ZoneTxPowerMaxReduction
[iz]

ZoneTxPowerMaxReduction [oz]
- ZoneTxPowerMaxReduction
[iz]

ZoneTxPowerMaxReduction [oz]
- ZoneTxPowerMaxReduction
3 4
[iz] - bizonePowerOffset( )( )

Delta_RxLev_UL_
oz_to_iz

0( )

0( )

- bizonePowerOffset ( )

Delta_RxLev_DL_
5
iz_to_oz( )

-(Delta_RxLev_DL_oz_to_iz)

-(Delta_RxLev_DL_oz_to_iz)

-(Delta_RxLev_DL_oz_to_iz)

Delta_RxLev_UL_
5
iz_to_oz( )

0( )

0( )

bizonePowerOffset

Notes :
(1) : for concentric and dualcoupling cells, there is no uplink signal strength gap. The uplink
gap only applies to dualband cells.
(2) : the type of coupler (D, H2D etc) does not impact the formula because the BTS takes the
coupling into account to reach the required output power which is equal to bstxpwrmax zonetxpowermaxreduction. So it is the same formula as concetric cell.
(3) : The higher the frequency, the steeper the signal strength decrease as a function of MSBTS distance. bizonePowerOffset is a worst case assessment of this path loss performed at
the inner-zone boundary.
(4) : As both heterogeneous coupling and dual-band could be applied simultaneously to a cell,
zoneTxPwrMaxReduction must be taken into account in te downlink formula
(5) : We hold this truth to be self-evident, that the inner-to-outer zone power gap is the
opposite of the outer-to-inner zone power gap.

CORRECTION OF THE POWER GAP


Upon activating the channel in the destination zone, the BSC considers the relevant
theoretical power gap as well as the last BTS transmission power and MS transmission power
used on the channel of the initial zone. These are reported by the BTS to the BSC in the Abis
connection state ack message.

MS TRANSMISSION POWER ADAPTATION


As explained above, no power adaptation is required on the uplink for a Concentric cell or a
Dual-coupling cell.
In a Dual-band cell :

if the uplink power gap is less than zero, this power loss shall be corrected with a
command sent to the MS to increase its transmission power

if the uplink power gap is more than zero, the last MS transmission power level shall
be kept unchanged. However, the new MS transmission power level shall not be
allowed to exceed the maximum power allowed by the network and the maximum MS
output power allowed in that band.

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BTS TRANSMISSION POWER ADAPTATION


Unlike MS transmission power adaptation, BTS transmission power adaptation applies to all
three types of multizone cells :

If the downlink power gap is less than zero, this power loss shall be corrected with a
BTS transmission power increase (i.e. BTS attenuation decrease)

If the downlink power gap is more than zero, the last BTS transmission power level
shall be kept unchanged.

The new BS transmission power level is sent by the BSC to the BTS inside the Abis Channel
activate message (used to initialise the BTS transmission power for the channel) as well as in
the Abis Start measurement Req message (used to initialise the L1M power control algorithm).

REMARKS
If BTS power control is disabled, there is in effect no power adaptation, as the BTS shall emit
at the maximum power allowed in the zone.
A dedicated TCH channel shall be activated at full BTS transmission power if it belongs to the
BCCH TDMA.

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4.11. TCH ALLOCATION MANAGEMENT


4.11.1 TCH ALLOCATION AND PRIORITY
ALLOCATION AND PRIORITY (RUN BY THE BSC) (ALL_1)
Different priorities are defined in GSM to prioritise TCH resource usage for the different types
of procedures. Basically, GSM procedures can be divided into the following types:

Assignment Request Messages: coming from MSC. It includes Public calls


and WPS calls. The only difference between the types of Assignment
Requests is basically the priority included in the message.
InterBSC Handovers
IntraBSC Intercell Handovers
Directed Retry Handovers
IntraCell Handovers: normal Intracell HO, small to Large zone, AMR, cell
tiering
TCH overflow cases: this includes different procedures in the signaling phase
when trying to get a resource SDCCH. If this one is not available, a resource
TCH will be requested instead.

For certain procedures like the handovers, where reactivity is crucial, it is important to
immediately have TCH resources available. This can be done by reserving some resources for
them. For other procedures like the Assignment Requests where the communication is not
established yet, it might be more interesting to allow the queuing of the requests for some
seconds in order to gain access to the network even if it is a few seconds later. The reactivity
time in this last context is not as important as for the handovers. To be able to control this, a
priority system has been created.
Priorities can be divided into two different groups: external and internal. The BSC is in charge
of converting external priorities into internal ones. Conversion rules will be detailed.
Two kinds of external priorities, NSS external priorities and BSS external, can be defined:

NSS external priorities are those included in the BSSMAP message coming
from the MSC. As only the Assignment Requests and the Handover Requests
(for interBSC HO) can generate this type of messages, these are the only
procedures having an external NSS priority.
BSS external priorities are defined via OMC parameter settings. They are set
for all types of procedures, even for the Assignment Requests.

The type of external priority of the Assignment Request procedures taken for conversion to an
internal priority is depending on the value of another OMC parameter (bscQueuingOption) that
indicates if the mode is MSC driven or OMC driven.
The mode MSC driven means that it is the NSS external priority which is taken into account
for internal priority conversion of Assignment Request Procedures. For Handover Request and
TCH overflow, it is BSS external priority that is used for conversion.
The mode OMC driven means it is the BSS external priority which is taken into account for
conversion, whatever the procedure.
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LCAUTION!
Note that if we are in MSC driven mode there might be different Assignment Requests
coming from MSC with different priorities, meaning that we could treat them differently
according to the type of call.
However, in OMC driven mode there is only one priority, set with a parameter, for all the
types of Assignment Requests. In particular, assignment requests with cause emergency call
are not differentiated from the other assignment requests.

At this point we can start introducing some of the main OMC parameters used for the TCH
allocation management:

ALLOCATION AND PRIORITY PARAMETERS


bscQueuingOption
bscQueuingOption = allowed

bscQueuingOption = forced

bscQueuingOption = not allowed

MSC driven mode

OMC driven mode

OMC driven mode

Queuing is allowed

Queuing is allowed

Queuing is not allowed

NSS external priorities are taken


into account for Assignment
Request.

BSS external priorities are


taken into account for all
procedures

BSS external priorities are taken into


account all procedures.

BSS external priorities are taken


into account for handover request
and TCH overflow

allocPriorityTable
It is probably the most important parameter for the allocation priority management. It is used to
make the conversion between external and internal priorities and it consists of a vector
containing 18 values. The values can go from 0 to 12 and define the internal priorities
associated to the different procedures. The association between external and internal priority
is done using the index number (or slot number) in this table that goes from 0 to 17. The index
in the table represents the BSS external priority. When NSS external priority is used, in order
to convert into internal priority, we look in the slot NSS external priority - 1.
NSS external priority contained in the BSSMAP message can take a value from 1 to 14. Slots
1 to 5 are reserved for WPS call treatment.
Example: allocPriorityTable = 0 8 9 10 11 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 0 4 2
Slot number
allocPriorityTable

10

11

12

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

With this example in MSC driven mode, for a BSS external priority = 16, the internal priority
defined is 4 and for a NSS external priority = 5, we have to look at the slot number = 5 1 = 4,
so the internal priority is 11.

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bscQueuingOption

"forced"

OMC driven

"allowed"

MSC driven

BSS ext. Priority = NSS ext. Priority - 1


(only for Ass. Requests)

Slot nb. (BSS Ext. Prio.)


allocPriorityTable

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

10 11 12 2

WPS

allocPriorityThreshold
Parameter that defines the number of TCH resources reserved for procedures with internal
priority = 0. This internal priority is typically used for Handovers procedures where the
reactivity time is very important. For all the other procedures with an internal priority > 0 a TCH
will be assigned if at least allocPriorityThreshold + 1 TCH resources are free. If that is not the
case the procedure will be rejected or queued depending on the provisioning and type of
procedure (see chapter Queuing).
LCAUTION!
The ressource reservation for priotity 0 procedures is independent from the queuing process,
i.e. even if the parameter bscQueuingOption = not allowed, the TCH reservation is effective.
Note also that this induces two pools of prioritie :

{0}, for which TCH resources are reserved according to the parameter
allocPriorityThreshold
[1..12], for which the TCH resources reserved for priority 0 procedures are not
available.

BSS EXTERNAL PRIORITY PARAMETERS


Parameters that are used to associate a BSS external priority to the different types of
procedures. As the NSS external priorities can go from 1 to 14, so slots 0 to 13 in the
AllocPriorityTable, we recommend using values from 14 to 17 for these parameters.
Assign request procedures:

assignRequestPriority: BSS external priority for Assignment Request


messages used when OMC driven mode is used.

Note: If the MSC driven mode is used and the priority is not included in the incoming
Assignment Request message from the MSC, the assignRequestPriority parameter will be
used instead.

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Handover procedures :

directedRetryPrio: BSS external priority for incoming Directed Retry


Handovers.
interCellHOExtPriority: BSS external priority for interBSC interCell Handovers.
interCellHOIntPriority: BSS external priority for intraBSC interCell Handovers.
intraCellHOIntPriority: BSS external priority for intraCell Handovers (normal
intracell Handovers, cell tiering Handovers or AMR intracell Handovers).
small to large zone HO priority: BSS external priority for Small to Large Zone
intracell Handovers in concentric/dualband/dualcouplig cells.

Note: these are external priority taken into account whatever the value of bscQueuingOption.

TCH overflow procedures :

answerPagingPriority: BSS external priority used for TCH overflow procedures


for an answer to paging.
callReestablishmentPriority: BSS external priority used for TCH overflow
procedures during the signaling phase of a Call Reestablishment.
emergencyCallPriority: BSS external priority used for TCH overflow
procedures during the signaling phase of an Emergency Call.
allOtherCasesPriority: BSS external priority used for TCH overflow procedures
during the signaling phase of a call establishment with cause other services.
otherServicesPriority: BSS external priority used for TCH overflow procedures
during the signaling phase of a call establishment with cause other services.

Note: these are external priority taken into account whatever the value of bscQueuingOption.
The table below presents the sum up of recommanded setting for each BSS External priority
and the mapping of each internal priority via the allocPriorityTable parameter:

Parameter

interCellHOExtPriority

BSS Ext
priority

Internal
priority

15

Assigning the internal priority 0 to these procedure will allow to


reserveTCH resources for them (using allocPriorityThreshold
parameter)

reserved for future use

Internal priority 2 is assigned to assignment requests in order to


perform some queuing as we will see in next section.

interCellHOIntPriority

Meaning

emergencyCallPriority
callReestablishmentPriority
assignRequestPriority

17

directedRetryPrio

intraCellHOIntPriority

Directed Retry Handovers are considered to have the same


priority than assignment requests, even if queuing is not allowed
for this type procedure
14

Internal priority 3 is assigned to IntraCell Handovers in order to


perform some queuing as we will see in next section

16

Internal priority 4 is assigned to the TCH overflow procedures

small to large zone HO


priority
allOtherCasesPriority
answerPagingPriority
otherServicesPriority

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4.11.2 QUEUING
Queuing is used to put TCH allocation request into a waiting queue when no TCH resource is
available. Some types of procedures are interesting to queue up: the TCH requests wait
during a certain time if these ones are not satisfied the first time. In this way the requests is
more likely to succeed if TCH resources become free during the queuing time.
This is typically the case of Assignment Requests or Intracell Handovers. By performing some
queuing on the Assignment Request the end-user impact is a little increase in the call
establishment duration. In the case of Intracell Handovers, as the call is already established,
the effect of the queuing from an end-user point of view is barely perceptible.
Assignment Requests and Intracell Handovers (normal intracell Handovers, small to large
zone, cell tiering, AMR) are the only procedures for which queuing is allowed. TCH overflow
procedures and intercell handovers are never queued.
The activation of the Queuing must be viewed as a solution to prevent an exceptionnal
saturation of TCH. For the waiting queue, a maximum waiting time (allocPriorityTimers) and a
maximum number of TCH allocation requests affected to this queue and the queues of greater
priorities (allocWaitThreshold) are defined via OMC-R parameters.
Note: as intercell handover procedures can not be queued, the allocPriorityThreshold
parameter must be correctly set to reserve TCH resource for incoming handovers (ie priority 0
for these procedures).
LCAUTION!
Please note that when an assignment request is queued, the MS is still attached to a SDCCH
channel and the measurement process keeps on going to allow the MS to perform a handover
on SDCCH. One must so pay attention to:

enable or not the feature intraBTS handovers on SDCCH (see


intraCellSDCCH).
Correctly dimension the allocWaitThreshold parameter to spare SDCCH
resources

QUEUING DRIVEN BY THE MSC (ALL_2)


The MSC driven mode is enabled by the bscQueuingOption parameter set to allowed.
In this mode queuing is used according to the priority defined in the message coming from the
MSC for the assignment requests (Slots from 0 to 13) and those defined with BSS external
priorities(Slots from 14 to 17) for the other procedures. As the NSS external priorities can take
values from 1 to 14 and, according to the conversion rule (Slot Nb =NSS Priority - 1), these
priorities match slots from 0 to 13 in the allocPriorityTable. According to this rule, the
Assignment Requests with NSS internal priority set to 1, usualy for emergency calls, will be
mapped to internal priority 0.
In order to make a clear difference between NSS external priorities and BSS external
priorities, the recommend values for BSS external priority parameters are from 14 to 17 (see
chapter Allocation and priority Parameters).

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Interest of MSC driven mode is to allow distinction between assignment request and then the
possibility to set different priority for them (WPS calls, VIP users ).
LCAUTION!
if WPS is activated, Slots from 1 to 5 are reserved for WPS priorities, as the assignment
request coming from the MSC for WPS requests can go from 2 to 6 (see chapter WPS Wireless Priority Service).

QUEUING DRIVEN BY THE BSC (ALL_3)


The OMC drive mode is enabled by the bscQueuingOption parameter set to forced.
In this mode queuing is used according uniquely to the priority defined with the BSS external
priorities (Slots from 14 to 17).
Queuing is managed by the BSC whatever queuing information coming from the MSC are. So
an assignment request priority is set accordingly to assignRequestPriority and the mapping
associated to in the allocPriorityTable.
LCAUTION!
In this mode, WPS can not be efficient because resource allocation request queuing depends
on the type of operation only: thus the priority in the WPS assignement request is not
considered (see chapter WPS - Wireless Priority Service).
In the same way, assignment request with cause emergency calls cannot be differentiated in
this mode, and are treated with priority according to assignRequestPriority.

QUEUING PROCESS
Whatever the queuing mode is, a queue is defined by its size and the maximum waiting time
beyond which it is not allowed to queue the request anymore,. set by these two parameters:
allocWaitThreshold
This parameter is a 13 slot vector. The slot number (012) represents the internal priority
queues and the values define the maximum number of TCH allocation requests queued for
each internal priority. The last five slots set to 5 are reserved for WPS call treatment. These
values are accumulative, so the value for one queue represents the maximum number of
requests for that queue and all the queues with lower priorities. Note that the serving
preference for these queues has an increasing order, e.g. if there are two TCH allocation
requests waiting in two different queues, when a TCH resource is released, the request with
the lowest priority is served.
Slot number
allocWaitThreshold

10

11

12

n is the integer part of (number of SDCCH sub-channels in the cell)/2.


Note: that while the TCH request is queued it remains in a SDCCH sub-channel. A queue size
longer than the number of sub-channels SDCCH in the cell is so useless. On the other hand a
value closed to the number of SDCCH channels may cause an increase of SDCCH blocking
rate due to the lack of SDCCH resources.
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allocPriorityTimers
This parameter is a 13 slot vector. The slot number (012) represents the internal priority
queues and the values mean the maximum waiting time (in seconds) in the queue of a TCH
allocation request for each internal priority. The last five slots set to 28 are reserved for WPS
call treatment.
Slot number

allocPriorityTimers

10

11

12

28

28

28

28

28

Note: a too long timer is unrealistic as an user will not wait indefinetely.
Sum up of the recommanded value
3

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

allocPriorityTable

Slot number

10

11

12

Internal priority /
queue number

10

11

12

allocWaitThreshold

allocPriorityTimers

28

28

28

28

28

procedures coming with an external priority 0 or 15 are associated to internal


priority and queue 0, but queuing is not allowed for intercell handovers
(system rule). In this configuration, only Emergency Call can be queued for
the external priority 0.
internal priority and queue 1 are reserved for future use
procedures coming with an external priority from [6 to 13] or 17 are associated
to internal priority and queue 2 and queuing is allowed
procedures coming with an external priority 14 are associated to internal
priority and queue 3 and queuing is allowed
procedures coming with an external priority 16 are associated to internal
priority and queue 4 but queuing is not allowed
procedures coming with an external priority from [1 to 5] are associated to
internal priorities and queues [8 to 12] and queuing is allowed (if WPS
activated)
internal priorities and queues [5 to 7] are not used

LCAUTION!
There is no queuing for TCH in signaling mode (TCH overflow).
It is important to note that even if Directed Retry Handovers are associated to
an internal priority 2 queuing is not allowed for this type of procedure, as for
the other intercell handover procedures.
Queuing set for procedures with internal priority 0 has been intentionally
configured for Assignment Requests cause Emergency Call (which should
have in this case a NSS external priority set to 1 if in MSC driven mode).
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Indeed, the only other procedures with priority 0 are intercell handover for
which queuing is forbidden.

It is recommended to give different BSS external priorities for the Assignment


Requests and intracell Handovers in order to prioritise the queued allocations
for Assignment Requests. This type of procedure is more sensitive from an
end-user point of view. A user not succeeding in the assignment request will
experience an establishment failure and have to re-establish the call, whereas
in the intracell Handovers, the call is already established and even in case of
Intracell Handover failure that does not necessarily mean a call drop. The
intracell Handover may be re-tried without a real end-user impact.

Below is the flowchart summarizing the TCH allocation handling if queuing is configured as
recommended in MSC driven mode:

Note: if directed retry handover is activated, another way of leaving the queue is a directed
retry handover. Refer to Directed Retry Handover for more details.

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4.11.3 BARRING OF ACCESS CLASS


On SYS INFO messages, the list of mobile access classes that can not start a call on the cell
is broadcast. Up to V8, this list is represented by the OMC-R parameter
notAllowedAccessClasses. A feature allows the modification of what is sent on SYS INFO in
case of congestion.
LCAUTION!
As the MS reads SYS INFO messages every 30 seconds in idle mode, there could be a time
window where non-authorized mobiles will still be allowed, e.g. if the MS did not read the
message before the cell selection, it could start a call.

DYNAMIC BARRING OF ACCESS CLASS (ALL_4)


The mechanism consists of temporarily forbidding cell access to some of the mobiles
(according to their access class) when a congestion situation is observed. The congestion
condition is based on:

The number of free TCH channels.


Note that TCH resources reserved for maximum priority requests (internal
priority = 0) are not considered as free TCH channels.
The
parameters
are
numberOfTCHFreeBeforeCongestion
and
numberOfTCHFreeToEndCongestion.

or

The number of queued requests in the cell.


The
parameters
are
numberOfTCHQueuedBeforeCongestion
numberOfTCHQueuedToEndCongestion.

and

The feature is enabled at bsc level by the attribute bscMSAccessClassBarringFunction, and at


bts level by the attribute btsMSAccessClassBarringFunction.

PRINCIPLE
In case of non-congestion, only the list of mobile access classes in notAllowedAccessClasses
is not allowed to select the cell.
In case of congestion, the list of mobile access classes in accessClassCongestion is not
allowed.

NO

Congestion ?

notAllowedAccessClasses
Forbidden in the cell

YES

accessClassCongestion
Forbidden in the cell

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CONGESTION DETERMINATION
To enter a congestion state, either the number of free TCH must be less than
numberOfTCHFreeBeforeCongestion or the number of queued TCH requests must be greater
than numberOfTCHQueuedBeforeCongestion.
To leave a congestion state, either the number of free TCH is greater than
numberOfTCHFreeToEndCongestion or the number of queued TCH request is less than
numberOfTCHQueuedToEndCongestion.
Example with a one TRX cell where one time slot is reserved for requests with an internal
priority equal to 0:
numberOfTCHFreeBeforeCongeston = 1

BCCH
SA0

SA1

SA2

SA3

SA0

SA1

SA2

SA3

T: TDMA enter in congestion

BCCH
SA0

SA1

SA2

SA3

SA0

SA1

SA2

SA3

T+1: TDMA is still in congestion

BCCH
SA0

SA1

SA2

SA3

SA0

SA1

SA2

SA3

T+2: TDMA gets out of congestion

numberOfTCHFreeToEndCongeston = 3

SA1

Used TCH

SA0

Free TCH

time

SA3

reserved TS
for priority 0

A congestion situation may be detected each time one of the following events occurs:

allocation of a TCH resource


queuing of a TCH resource request
blocking of a TCH resource (O&M action)
TDMA removal for defense or O&M reason
detection thresholds modification

End of congestion situation may be detected each time one of the following events occurs:

release of a TCH resource


a queued TCH resource request is served or aborted
unblocking of a TCH resource (O&M action)
TDMA attribution
detection thresholds modification

Note: The overload state duration of a cell can be monitored thanks to the counter C1714, but
that counter is effectively reported to the OMC-R only if the load of the cell is taken into
account (i.e. only if hoTraffic = enabled at cell and BSC levels).

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V15.0 CHANGES OF DYNAMIC BARRING OF ACCESS CLASS (ALL_4)


The previous access class barring mechanism can be improved on 3 main points:

The list of forbidden access classes is fixed, so the same customers are
always impacted.
The number of barred access classes is fixed, so the number of barred
access classes may be insufficient.
The mechanism is triggered on TCH allocation or release basis, but due to the
Erlang law (which induces sudden traffic modification) and because the MS
rereads the SYS INFO (only every 30 seconds), that mechanism could be
improved.

To ensure the functionning of the new mechanism, two levels of barring are created and run at
the same time:

One level (low level) to provide point 1 and point 3


One level (high level) to provide point 2

This feature is controlled by bscMSAccessClassBarringFunction on the bsc object and


btsMSAccessClassBarringFunction on the bts object.

HIGH LEVEL MECHANISM DESCRIPTION


To provide point 2, the number of access classes can be modified (additional or less) in order
to adapt to the length of congestion level. Once the cell enters in the congestion state, a
supervision timer is set, and every 3 minutes (system rule), an adaptation is made based on
the new cell congestion state:

If the cell is still in the congestion state, 2 additional access classes are barred
(assuming they are not all barred)
If the cell is not in the congestion state, 2 less access classes are barred (until
none are barred)

Once the cell is no longer in the congestion state, and if no access classes are barred, the
supervision timer (3 minutes) is stopped.
Congestion level

Beginning of
congestion

Beginning of congestion:
3 minutes timer is set

No more classes
barred: 3 minutes
timer is stopped

End of congestion :
3 minutes timer
is running

End of
congestion
3 minutes

time
Number of access
classes barred

[0 to 2]

[2 to 4]

[4 to 6]

[6 to 4]

[4 to 2]

[2 to 0]

This mechanism is independent of the low level of barring mechanism.


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The barred access classes rotate inside the 3 minute time period according to the low level
mechanism of barring described below:

LOW LEVEL MECHANISM DESCRIPTION


Two parameters are important
accessClassCongestion parameter.

in

this

mechanism:

the

periodicity

and

the

Periodicity: the congestion condition is still triggered on a TCH allocation or TCH release
basis, but once the congestion condition is triggered, a 60 seconds interval (system rule) is
used to periodically change which access classes are barred.
accessClassCongestion parameter: this parameter is a list of access classes which are
eligible to be barred during the congestion condition. The principle is that, during each 60
seconds interval of congestion, a different subset of access classes (and thus a different set of
mobile sets) may be barred. Access classes 11 to 15 are managed and can be automatically
barred if they are included in the accessClassCongestion parameter. They can not be
automatically barred if they are not in the accessClassCongestion parameter.

LOW AND HIGH LEVEL MECHANISM EXAMPLE


Congestion level

Beginning of
congestion

Beginning of congestion:
3 minutes timer is set

End of
congestion
3 minutes

Number of access classes


barred
Barred access classes

60 seconds
time

[0 to 2]

[2]

[2]

[0,1]

[2,3]

[4,5]

[2 to 4]
[6,7,8,9]

[4]
[0,1,2,3]

[4]

[4 to 2]

[4,5,6,7]

[8,9]

Let us take an example for the accessClassCongestion = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9].


Next time the cell is in congestion, since the last barred access classes are memorised in the
BSC, the new barred access class are the 2 followings in the list of access classes indicated in
the accessClassCongestion parameter.
In case the BSC12000 switchover, TMU reset for BSC3000 or lock/unlock of the cell, the first
barred access class is the first one in the list of access classes indicated in the
accessClassCongestion parameter.
In case the feature is turned off (cell or BSC level), the BSC sends immediately the system
information with notAllowedAccessClasses parameter included whatever is the cell congestion
status.

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In case the accessClassCongestion parameter is modified while the cell is in congestion, the
list of access classes to be barred will be re-evaluated on the 60s timer expiry, and on the 3
minutes timer expiry, the evaluation will be done on this new list (and not on the list of the
previous 3 minutes timer expiry).

NOTALLOWEDACCESSCLASSES PARAMETER MANAGEMENT


The following principle applies:

In case of non congestion, only the list of mobile access classes in


notAllowedAccessClasses is not allowed to select the cell
In case of congestion, the list of mobile access classes in
accessClassCongestion is not allowed.

Usually all users are authorized, and the notAllowedAccessClasses list is empty.
With the redefinition of the access class barring functionality, the management of the
notAllowedAccessClasses parameter is modified in the following way:

In case of non congestion, only the list of mobile access classes in the
notAllowedAccessClasses parameter is not allowed to select the cell: there
is no modification compared to the previous management.
In case of congestion, the accessClassCongestion parameter is used to
process access classes rotation on all the access classes listed in the
accessClassCongestion except on the access classes listed in the
notAllowedAccessClasses parameter, which remain barred during the
congestion.

Let us take the example for the accessClassCongestion = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9] and


notAllowedAccessClasses = [3, 4].
This means, as described here above, that access class rotation will be done on the following
access class list = [0, 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9] and that access classes 3 and 4 remain barred during
the congestion.

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4.11.4 RADIO LINK FAILURE PROCESS (RUN BY THE MS)


It is performed by the MS in dedicated mode on SACCH blocks.
RLC counter is initialized to radioLinkTimeout at the beginning of a dedicated mode.

IF good SACCH block


THEN RLC = Min[RLC+2, radioLinkTimeout]

IF bad SACCH block


THEN RLC = RLC - 1

If RLC reaches 0, then call is dropped and re-establishment is tried if reselection is made on a
cell with CallReestablishment set.

4.11.5 RADIO LINK FAILURE PROCESS (RUN BY THE BTS)


The FrameProcessor sets the CT counter to 0 at channel activation
On each correct SACCH:
IF good SACCH block AND IF (CT = 0)
THEN CT = 4*rlf1 + 4
ELSE CT = Min[4*rlf1 + 4,CT+rlf2]

IF bad SACCH block


CT = max(0,CT-rlf3)

If CT reaches 0, a connection Failure Indication is sent to the BSC every T3115, until a
Deactivate Sacch or RF Channel Release message is received.

This process is started when the first SACCH frame is received correctly, and the CT counter
is set according to rlf1 value. If SACCH frame is not received, then the radio link failure
process is not started, CT value is kept to zero and is not modificated.
Interest of the algorithm: the quality of an uplink communication is now considered for the
decision to cut a communication.

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4.11.6 CALL REESTABLISHMENT PROCEDURE


The call re-establishment procedure allows a mobile station to resume a connection in
progress after a radio link failure, possibly in a new cell and possibly in a new location area.
So this feature avoids losing calls, improving in that way the quality of service. Moreover, in
case of call drop, it reduces the SICD load by avoiding the subscriber to hang off and on.
The Call Re-establishment can be launched following 2 different procedures depending on the
entity which detects the radio link failure:
a) The radio failure is first seen at the MS side (RadioLinkTimeOut value):
The mobile sends a call-reestablishment on a selected cell (previous one or
new one) and the MSC re-allocate new resources. The old resources are
free by the BSS after the rlf1 timer has expired.
b) The radio failure is first seen at the BSS side:
The BTS send a radio_link_failure message to the BSC after rlf1 has
expired, the BSC releases the radio resources and in the same time the
MSC activates the t3109 timer and waits a call-reestablishment. Then, when
the MS has detected the radio link failure as well, it performs the selection
and sends a channel request on the selected cell.
To attempt a call re-establishment on a cell, the parameter callReestablisment of the cell will
be set to allowed and the cell will not be barred (see chapter Barring of access class).
The mobile station is not allowed under any circumstance, to access a cell to attempt call reestablishment later than 20 seconds after it detects the radio link failure causing the call reestablishment attempt.
The mobile station shall perform the following algorithm to determine which cell to use for the
call re-establishment attempt within 5 seconds max:

The level measurement samples taken on the serving cell BCCH carrier and
on neigbhor cells carriers (carriers indicated in the BA (SACCH) received on
the serving cell) received in the last 5 seconds shall be averaged.
The carried with the highest average received level is selected.
On this carrier the MS shall attempt to decode the BCCH data block
containing the parameters affecting cell selection.
If the parameter C1 is greater than zero call re-establishment shall be
attempted on this cell.
If the MS is unable to decode the BCCH data block or if the call reestablishment is not allowed, the carrier with the next highest average
received level shall be taken, and the MS shall repeat steps 2) and 3) above.
If the cells with the 6 strongest average received level values have been tried
but cannot be used, the call re-establishment attempt shall be abandoned.

Beware, during a re-establishment attempt the mobile station does not return to idle mode,
thus no location updating is performed even if the mobile is not updated in the location area of
the selected cell, however the mobile station will update its location area at the end of the call.
Generally a call re-establishment procedure lasts from 4 seconds to 20 seconds max.

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4.11.7 CALL CLEARING PROCESS (RUN BY BTS)


This process is used to drop calls with mobiles which are located too far away from a serving
cell and that may disturb other communications on adjacent time slots.

Every runCallClear:
IF (MS_BS_Dist > CallClearing)
THEN call needs clearing.

4.11.8 INTERFERENCE MANAGEMENT (BTS AND BSC)


All interference measurements performed by the BTS on the idle channels are performed in
Watts. Each sample is computed in Watt before being translated in dBm and sent to the L1M.
This method of calculation provides a result which is 2.5 dB higher than the one directly
performed in dB.
Every averagingPeriod, BTS computes Interference levels of idle channels (SDCCH and TCH)
according to the 4 defined thresholdInterference (resulting in 5 Interference ranges) and sends
this information to the BSC. It is therefore possible to monitor interference levels at the OMC.
The BSC will use RadChanSelIntThreshold parameter in order to sort available channels
according to their interference level. Thus the BSC will allocate channels using the following
priority:

Hop and low_IF


NoHop and low_IF
Hop and (high_IF or just released)
NoHop and (high_IF or just released).

Note: No interference level management is performed for PDTCH channel, Therefore the level
status of PDTCH resource is always high level (bad level).

4.11.9 UPLINK DTX


DTX is possible both downlink and uplink, but configuration and activation are uncorrelated in
the 2 mechanisms.
The uplink DTX feature is enabled when dtxMode parameter is set to msShallUseDtx (the
shall is dependent on the MS decision or capability.
When uplink DTX is activated on the network, MS gets the information from the BTS
(activation parameter). Then it is allowed to perform uplink DTX, i.e. to transmit
discontinuously only a subset of TCH bursts.
If the MS perform DTX on a call, the minimum number of transmitted bursts is 12 (out of 104
for a complete reporting period of 480ms).
The 12 bursts correspond to the 4 SACCH + 8 fixed positioned TCH bursts.
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Compared to a full TCH frame (120ms to be multiplied by 4 for a complete message):
DTX deactivated
DTX activated

1 SACCH
12 bursts TCH

1 idle
12 bursts TCH

(given fixed positions are only examples; for speech, a SID frame (Silence Descriptor frame:
used to describe comfort noise) made of 8 consecutive TSs shall be sent at the start of every
inactivity period and more are sent regularly, at least twice per second, as long as inactivity
lasts)
Full frame x 4:
(24 TCH + 1 SACCH + 1 idle) x 4 = 96 TCH + 4 SACCH + 4 Idle
= 104 bursts
With DTX:
(1 SACCH) x4 + 8 TCH = 12 bursts minimum
Then, depending on the communications (presence of silences), the MS can use DTX or not.
Note: To the minimum number of bursts (12) can be added other transmitted bursts depending
on some criteria (user traffic activity and interleaving depth).

The MS sends to the BTS 2 kinds of measurements, RxQual/RxLev Full, and RxQual/RxLev
Sub.
RxQual/RxLev Full corresponds to an average of measurements performed over 100 out of
104 frames in a SACCH reporting period. These measurements are valid if DTX has not been
used by the MS.
RxQual / RxLev Sub correspond to an average of measurements performed over 12 frames
(instead of 100), these 12 frames being fixed as explained previously. These measurements
are valid if DTX has been used by the MS.
With these measurements, the MS has to send to the BTS a notification that it has performed
DTX or not (uplink DTX status), so that the BTS can choose the average which is valid
(RxQual / RxLev Full or Sub) for L1M purposes. This notification is done via the DTX-used bit
in the Measurement Report.

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4.11.10 DOWNLINK DTX


In the same way as the mobile, the BTS is able to transmit discontinuously (cellDtxDownLink
parameter, bts object).
The activation of downlink DTX follows depends on :

authorisation for the BSS to use DL DTX, given by the MSC to the BSC at
assignment request, dynamically on a call-by-call basis

The value of cellDtxDownLink parameter (bts object)

The type of radio channel : voice half-rate, voice full-rate, cicuit data

The values of certain bits in the bscDataConfig file (bits n1, n2 and n3 of label 64)

MSC AUTHORISATION
On a call per call basis, the MSC may forbid the BSS to use Downlink DTX.
The MSC indicates this to the BSC by including a 1-bit long field called DTX Downlink Flag
inside BSSMAP Assignment Request (for call setup) or BSSMAP VBS/VGCS Assignment
Request (for group call setup, GSM-R only) or BSSMAP Handover Request (for incoming
external handover of a call coming from another BSS) :
-

If DTX Downlink Flag is present and if DTX Downlink Flag = 1, then the MSC forbids the
use of DL DTX for that particular call

If DTX Downlink Flag is absent or if DTX Downlink Flag is present and DTX Downlink
Flag = 0, then the MSC does not forbid the use of DL DTX for that particular call

In the second case, the decision to use DL DTX for that call is left entirely up to the BSS and
depends on BSS configuration parameters and the type of channel.

CELLDTXDOWNLINK
If cellDtxDownLink = disabled in the cell, then Downlink DTX is unconditionally turned off in
the cell for all types of call (voice and circuit-switched data).

So, cellDtxDownLink = enabled is a necessary condition to activate downlink DTX in the cell,
but it is not sufficient. It further depends on the type of channel (circuit data, voice half-rate,
voice full-rate).

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TYPE OF CHANNEL
CIRCUIT-SWITCHED DATA CHANNELS
DTX downlink is unconditionally turned off for circuit-switched data channels, even if
cellDtxDownLink = enabled.
Note : Bit n1 of label 64 of bscDataConfigfile, called DTX Downlink in data, is not used any
longer in the software. Whatever its value, and whatever the value of cellDtxDownLink, DTX
Downlink is disabled for CS data channels.

FULL-RATE VOICE CHANNELS


If bit n2 of label 64, called DTX Downlink FR, is equal to 1 : DTX Downlink is unconditionally
turned off for FR voice channels. This applies to all types of full-rate codecs supported by the
BSS : AMR FR, EFR and FR.
If bit n2 = 0, and if cellDtxDownLink = enabled in the cell, then downlink DTX is used on all
FR Voice channels, provided that its use has not been explicitly forbidden by the MSC at
assignment request stage.
By default, label 64 bit n2 = 0 so by default DL DTX is activated for FR voice calls.

HALF-RATE VOICE CHANNELS


If bit n3 of label 64, called DTX Downlink HR, is equal to 1 : DTX Downlink is unconditionally
turned off for AMR HR voice channels.
If bit n3 of label 64 = 0, and if cellDtxDownLink = enabled in the cell, then downlink DTX is
used on all AMR HR Voice channels, provided that its use has not been explicitly forbidden by
the MSC at assignment request stage.
By default, label 64 bit n3 = 0 so by default DL DTX is activated for FR voice calls.

SUMMARY
The table below summarises the activation scenarios of DL DTX :

DTX DL flag
(from MSC)

cellDtxDown
Link

Label 64 bit
1

Label 64 bit
2

Label 64 bit
3

DL DTX for
CS data

DL DTX for
FR voice

DL DTX for
HR voice

any value

any value

any value

any value

disabled

disabled

disabled

0 or absent

disabled

any value

any value

any value

disabled

disabled

disabled

0 or absent

enabled

disabled

enabled

enabled

0 or absent

enabled

disabled

enabled

disabled

0 or absent

enabled

disabled

disabled

enabled

0 or absent

enabled

disabled

disabled

disabled

0 or absent

enabled

disabled

enabled

enabled

0 or absent

enabled

disabled

enabled

disabled

0 or absent

enabled

disabled

disabled

enabled

0 or absent

enabled

disabled

disabled

disabled

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4.12. EMLPP PREEMPTION


4.12.1 PRINCIPLE OF EMLPP
DEFINITIONS
eMLPP priority : eMLPP priority associated to a call for preemption purposes. The BSC
transparently conveys eMLPP priority between the mobile and the NSS. The BSC does not
process this eMLPP priority.
NSS external priority (also known as BSSMAP priority) : priority associated to a call by the
NSS in the assignment or handover procedure. This priority is sent by the NSS to the BSS and
may then be used by the BSS for queuing or for preemption. Unlike the eMLPP priority, it is
transparent to the mobile.
BSS external priority : queuing priority defined via OMC parameter settings. Each type of
procedure is associated to a BSS external priority for queuing. This priority is used by the BSS
but it is strictly local, therefore the NSS and MS are not aware of it.
internal priority : this priority is local to the BSS. Therefore the NSS and MS are not aware of it.
It is an output of the allocprioritytable.

PRINCIPLE
eMLPP is an extension to GSM networks of the existing MLPP service for fixed lines.
eMLPP covers 2 basic aspects :

Resource preemption for mobile originated or mobile terminated call establishment


procedures

Called party preemption for mobile terminated calls

RESOURCE PREEMPTION
eMLPP allows the network to preempt resources from ongoing calls (circuits on the A interface
and/or radio resources in the BSS) to allocate them to an incoming call of greater priority :
o

Preemption on the A interface is fully managed (decision and execution), on a per call
basis, by the NSS.

Preemption on the Radio interface is executed, on a per call basis, by the BSS.
However, the decision to allow the preemption comes from the NSS because the NSS
is in charge of the Call Control procedures.

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CALLED PARTY PREEMPTION


In the case where the called subscriber has a subscription for eMLPP and for CW (Call
Waiting supplementary service), the mobile station shall be informed of the priority of the
incoming high priority call together with the CW indication. On reception of the set-up message
for the incoming call the compatible mobile station decides on called party pre-emption. If
called party pre-emption applies, the mobile station shall automatically accept the incoming
waiting call and send a hold message to the network. If a hold acknowledge is received, the
waiting call is accepted.
CW is mandatory for called party preemption.

4.12.2 END-TO-END PERSPECTIVE


eMLPP is an extension to GSM networks of the existing MLPP service for fixed lines.
In GSM, eMLPP is a Supplementary Service that is essentially under the control of the NSS. It
allows the network to preempt resources (circuits on the A interface and/or radio resources in
the BSS) for a particular call.
The eMLPP precedence level is selected by the subscriber on a per call basis. The subscriber
may select any precedence level up to and including his maximum authorized precedence
level. The service provider at the subscribers originating exchange ensures that the selected
precedence level does not exceed the maximum level assigned to that subscriber.

EMLPP PRIORITY
eMLPP defines seven priority levels as A, B, 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 (A being the strongest and 4
the weakest priority). Mobile users may subscribe to all priority levels A, B, 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4.
However, priority levels A and B may only be used locally, i.e. in the domain of one MSC. The
other five priority levels are offered for subscription and may be applied globally, e.g. on interMSC links, and also for interworking with ISDN networks that provide the MLPP service.

The precedence level is selected by the subscriber on a per call basis. The subscriber may
select any precedence level up to and including his maximum authorized precedence level.
The service provider at the subscribers originating exchange ensures that the selected
precedence level does not exceed the maximum level assigned to that subscriber at
subscription.

In public GSM, the eMLPP priority is transparent for the BSS. It is meaningful only for the
mobile and for the NSS. It is included in the following messages :

By the mobile in the CM SERVICE REQUEST message sent to the NSS, for mobileoriginated call establishment. It indicates to the NSS the eMLPP priority requested by
the mobile for the call establishment.

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By the BSS in the PAGING REQUEST type 1, 2 ,3 messages sent to the mobile on
the PCH channel. The purpose of including eMLPP priority in paging requests is used
by mobiles who are engaged as listeners in a group call to decide to leave the group
call or not.

By the NSS in the PAGING message sent to the BSS. The purpose of including
eMLPP priority in BSSMAP PAGING message is so that the BSS may include it in the
Paging Request (see previous bullet point)

By the NSS in the SETUP message sent to the mobile for mobile-terminated call
establishment. It indicates to the mobile already engaged in a call whether to perform
called party preemption or not.

By the NSS in the CALL PROCEEDING message by the network to the mobile. This
message is sent by the network to the calling mobile station to indicate that the
requested call establishment information has been received. In this message, the NSS
indicates to the mobile station the eMLPP priority level that the NSS has granted to
the call.

EMLPP SUBSCRIPTION
Two precedence levels are defined by subscriber and stored at the HLR:

Subscribers Maximum Precedence Level. The subscriber may originate a call with a
precedence level up to his maximum precedence level

Subscribers Default Priority Level. In the case no precedence level is sent in the CM
service request message, this level is used as the priority of the call

EMLPP PRIORITY SETTING AT MO CALL SETUP


For Mobile Originated point to point calls, the eMLPP priority precedence level is included
inside the CM SERVICE REQUEST message sent by the mobile to the network. Its value is
set as follows.

EMLPP SUBSCRIBER
The user may select an eMLPP priority value for the call. If he does not, the precedence is set
to its default value by the mobile.
The mobile checks that the priority is within the provisioned range.
The MSC validates the priority value, and possibly reduces it to the subscribers maximum
precedence stored in the VLR

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NON-EMLPP SUBSCRIBER
A default priority level is set by the MSC.

4.12.3 PREEMPTION ATTRIBUTES


OVERVIEW
Each call that comes into a BSC from the NSS (via ASSIGNMENT REQUEST or HANDOVER
REQUEST) has radio resource preemption capabilities, that have been allocated to it by the
NSS.
BSS Radio resource Preemption works as follows. In case of a lack of available radio
resources, the BSC is capable of allocating currently occupied resources to incoming calls that
have a preemption capability, by preempting resources of ongoing calls that are preemptionvulnerable.
Only TCH channels in dedicated mode, or PDTCH channels used for a CS call, are subject to
preemption.
The preemption mechanism of radio resources that is detailed here is based on the BSSMAP
Priority Information Element carried in ASSIGNMENT REQUEST or HANDOVER REQUEST
messages at the BSSMAP layer of the A interface. The BSSMAP priority is the input given to
the BSC by the MSC. The BSSMAP Priority Information Element contains preemption
attributes that are the result of the eMLPP functionality implementation in the NSS.

PREEMPTION ATTRIBUTES
The BSSMAP priority information element of a given call is optional and contained in
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST and HANDOVER REQUEST. It is sent by the NSS to the BSS, and
it provides the BSS with the eMLPP preemption capability of the call.

IF THE BSSMAP PRIORITY IS PRESENT


The BSSMAP priority information element is made up of the following 4 attributes : PCI, PVI,
QA and Priority.

PCI: preemption capability indicator. The PCI attribute is a flag that specifies whether the call
is allowed to preempt another one or not. It is applicable while negotiating the allocation of
resources :

PCI = 0 : this allocation request (resulting from assignment or handover) cannot


trigger the preemption procedure.

PCI = 1 : this allocation request (resulting from assignment or handover) can trigger
the running of the preemption procedure.

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PVI: preemption vulnerability indicator. The PVI attribute is a flag that specifies whether the
call is allowed to be preempted by another call or not.

PVI = 0 : this connection is not vulnerable to preemption.

PVI = 1 : this connection is vulnerable to preemption.

QA: queueing allowed indicator. The QA attribute is a flag that specifies whether the call is
allowed to b a queueing procedure or not :

QA = 0 : queuing is not allowed

QA = 1 : queuing is allowed

PRIORITY : priority level. The priority attribute is an integer value in the range 1 ... 14 that
specifies the level that is applied to the call. Values 0 and 15 indicate priority not used.
It is built by the MSC thanks to a hardcoded lookup table that maps the eMLPP priority of the
call to the BSSMAP priority.

eMLPP priority value

BSSMAP priority value

A (strongest priority)

4 (weakest priority)

IF THE BSSMAP PRIORITY IS ABSENT


If the BSSMAP priority is absent, the assignment request for that call is treated by the BSS as
though the flags were defined as follows :

PCI = 0: no preemption capability;

PVI = 0: no vulnerability;

QA = 0: queueing not allowed;

priority level = 0: no priority.

4.12.4 BSS RADIO RESOURCE PREEMPTION ALGORITHM


PROCEDURE
Definition : a vulnerable resource is a radio resource whose PVI is defined and equals 1.

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Upon receiving an ASSIGNMENT REQUEST or a HANDOVER REQUEST, the BSC follows
the following allocation algorithm :

If there is an available radio resource, the BSC immediately performs the allocation
without invoking the preemption procedure;

If there is no available radio resource :


o

If PCI = 1 attribute is set for the request, and if a vulnerable resource (PVI = 1)
is available whose priority is strictly weaker than the requests priority, the
BSC triggers the preemption procedure : the BSC starts the release of the
active call using this vulnerable resource and starts a specific internal timer
(Tpreempt).

If the release of the vulnerable resource is completed before expiry of


Tpreempt, or if another resource is freed up in the meantime, the
assignment is successful.

if Tpreempt expires before the resource is freed up, the preemption


procedure stops and the BSC declares an assignment failure. No
queuing or directed retry is attempted.

If PCI is absent or if PCI = 0 or if no vulnerable resource exists or if the


weakest priority of the existing vulnerable (PVI =1) resources is at least as
strong as the requests priority, the BSC does not start a preemption
procedure. Instead :

If allowed, the queuing and directed retry procedures are started,

Otherwise the BSC declares an assignment failure.

PREEMPTION TIMER
The preemption timer value Tpreempt is computed from T3111 timer (t3111 parameter) as
follows:
Tpreempt = TdeactAck + (4 x T3111)
Tdeactack = 5 seconds (hard-coded).

VULNERABLE TCH SELECTION CRITERIA


The selection algorithm differs depending on the type of transceiver : DRX and DCU2. To
simplify, we assume that only DRX are used (not DCU2).

RANKING OF OCCUPIED TCH RESOURCES


To be considered a possible candidate for preemption by the BSC, a TCH must first fulfill the
following requirements :
o

the TCH must be occupied by a FR voice call,


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o

and the TCH must be allocated in the large zone in case of concentric cell,

and the PVI of the call must be equal to value 1 (preemption possible),

Such a TCH is called a busy TCH.


The BSC puts these potential candidates in 2 separate pools :
o

hopping busy TCH pool

non-hopping busy TCH pool

In each of these pools, the BSC classifies the TCH according to the BSSMAP priority of the
call :
o

BSSMAP = 0 first (value 0 means spare in the GSM specs)

Next BSSMAP = 14 (weakest priority)

Next BSSMAP = 13

Finally, BSSMAP = 1 (strongest priority)

Busy TCH of equal BSSMAP priority are ranked as follows :


1. TCH allocated to VBS/VGCS initiators are always in front : the most recent
ones first, followed by the second most recent etc. The oldest ones are last in
the list.
2. TCH allocated to point-to-point calls or to VBS/VGCS listeners come next :
the most recent ones first, followed by the second most recent etc. The oldest
ones are last in the list.

SELECTION ALGORITHM FOR PREEMPTION


VOICE CALL ALLOCATION REQUEST
For a preemption-capable allocation request concerning a voice call, the BSC selects the TCH
timeslot to preempt based on the following algorithm :
o

Choice of busy TCH pool : hopping TCH pool is preferred. If the hopping busy TCH
pool is empty, the BSC searches instead inside the non-hopping busy TCH pool.

Once the correct pool is selected, the BSC chooses the first busy TCH in the list
(according to the ranking explained above) whose priority is strictly weaker than the
allocation request.

CIRCUIT DATA CALL ALLOCATION REQUEST


The only difference with speech concerns the choice of busy TCH pool (hopping or nonhopping) :

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o

If the circuit data allocation request concerns the CSD 14.4 service and if the bts
object parameter data14-4OnNoHoppingTs = enabled, the preferred busy TCH pool
is the non-hopping one.

If the circuit data allocation request concerns the CSD 14.4 service and if the bts
object parameter data14-4OnNoHoppingTs = disabled, the preferred busy TCH pool
is the hopping one (same a speech allocation request).

If the circuit data allocation request concerns CSD services other than 14.4, the
preferred busy TCH pool is the non-hopping one(same a speech allocation request).

4.12.5 ACTIVATION PARAMETER


BSS Radio resource preemption must be authorised by a specific O&M parameter :
preemptionAuthor :

Class 3

signallingPoint object

range : forbidden, authorizedWithRelease, authorizedWithForcedHO

preemptionAuthor = forbidden means that the BSC never performs radio resource
preemption, whatever the priority and PCI/PVI flags values.
preemptionAuthor = authorizedWithRelease means that the BSC is allowed to perform radio
resource preemption if necessary and if authorised by the MSC.A successful preemption
results in the preempted call being released.
preemptionAuthor = authorizedWithForcedHO means the same thing as preemptionAuthor =
authorizedWithRelease in the current implementation, despite the different name.

4.12.6 EMLPP PREEMPTION VERSUS PDTCH PREEMPTION


PDTCH preemption consists in the BSC negotiating with the PCU to be allowed to use (to
preempt) a PDTCH for a CS call.
Although the same word is used, PDTCH preemption is not the same as eMLPP preemption.
In particular, PDTCH preemption is targeted on a chosen resource, whereas eMLPP
preemption is not.

PDTCH PREEMPTION
o

The BSC receives an allocation request from the MSC

The BSC chooses a radio resource for that particular allocation request.

If the chosen resource is a PDTCH, the BSC starts the preemption negotiation with
the PCU. No other resource can be used instead, even if a TCH is freed in the
meantime.

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EMLPP PREEMPTION
o

The BSC receives an allocation request from the MSC

The BSC chooses a preemptable radio resource and starts the release of the call
currently using that resource.

In parallel, while the preemption procedure is ongoing, the BSC puts the allocation
request that was the cause of the preemption inside a special queue entirely
dedicated to preemption-capable allocation requests.

The first radio resource that becomes available is allocated to the preemption request
that is at the front of the queue. Therefore the radio resource that was preempted
originally is not necessarily allocated to the request which initially triggered that
particular preemption.

4.12.7 INTERWORKING
HANDOVER
During handover procedures, preemption in best cell is always preferred than fallback to
another one. Preemption leads to favour attempting to obtain a radio resource in the first cell
of the handover list (ensures better quality, but may cause additional delay to the handover
procedure completion), even though a radio resource may be immediately free in a further cell
in the list.

DIRECTED RETRY
If preemption is authorised (i.e. preemptionAuthor = authorizedWithRelease), and if no
resource is free, the BSC first looks to see, based on the PVI flag and the relative BSSMAP
priorities, whether a resource could be preempted.
If so, the BSC starts the preemption procedure. Then, either the preemption (and the
assignment) succeeds, or the BSC returns an assignment failure. Directed Retry cannot be
attempted as a fallback.
Therefore, Directed retry may be attempted only after the BSC has decided not to trigger the
preemption procedure (due to lack of potential candidate resources, e.g. PVI of all TCH = 0).

QUEUING
As for Directed retry, queuing may be attempted only after the BSC has decided not to trigger
the preemption procedure (due to lack of potential candidate resources, e.g. PVI of all TCH =
0). To solve a congestion issue, preemption is always considered first by the BSC. If a
preemption procedure is started and if it fails, queuing may not be attempted as a fallback : the
assignment request results in an assignment failure.

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Also, the BSS priority table (allocPriorityTable) is not used by the BSS in the preemption
procedure. Only the external BSSMAP priority given by the MSC is considered by the BSC in
the preemption algorithm, regardless of the corresponding internal priority given by the BSS
priority table.

RESERVED RADIO RESOURCES


Reminder : it is possible to reserve radio resources to assignment requests of internal priority
= 0 thanks to the allocPriorityThreshold parameter. When the number of free resources falls
below allocPriorityThreshold , these remaining free resources may only be allocated to
assignment requests of internal priority = 0.
Even preemption-capable assignment requests cannot use these free timeslots if the value of
their internal priority is different from 0. They have to preempt ongoing calls on other timeslots
and leave these reserved timeslots free.

4.12.8 RESTRICTIONS
Network resources (both radio channels and fixed circuits) used by emergency calls (TS12
service) may not be preempted.
SDCCH channels may not be preempted.
The following TCH channels may not be preempted :
o

TCH channels used for signalling (TCH overflow)

TCH channels used for HR calls

All other TCH, including those used for data calls, are preemptable provided that PVI = 1.
In the very first phase of a mobile originated call establishment, in case there are no SDCCH
and no TCH available, a Channel Request is not capable of triggering a preemption.

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4.13. PCH AND RACH CHANNEL CONTROL


4.13.1 PAGING COMMAND PROCESS
Paging process is triggered by the system when a mobile needs to be found (incoming calls or
short messages) in a location area (LA). The paging command is broadcast over all the cells
of the LA where the mobile is located. In idle mode, the mobile listens to the broadcast
channel (BCCH).
Paging messages are carried by the CCCH which is a sub-channel of the BCCH. It is divided
into 3 logical channels:

Uplink: RACH (Channel Request)


Downlink: AGCH (Immediate assignment)
Downlink: PCH (Paging command)

Four (4) CCCH frames are necessary to transmit a complete paging message due to bursts
interleaving.
For the mobile, listening to the broadcast channels is battery consuming. Therefore the paging
messages broadcast has been optimized. Instead of listening continuously to the paging
channel, the mobile waits for specific occurrences of paging message. A set of mobiles are
associated to a specific occurrence of the paging channel, they belong to a so-called paging
group.
In order for a mobile to find its associated paging group among N groups, the following rule is
applied:
Nb of paging group = (IMSI mod1000) mod N

Dimensioning the paging means determining the number of paging groups needed to meet
incoming calls requirements inside a specific LAC. Two basic factors are taken into account:

the number of subscribers


the average amount of paging messages per subscriber (or average number
of subscribers that receive a paging message at the same time)

PAGING CHANNEL CONFIGURATION


According to the required number of paging groups, the CCCH configuration is consequently
tuned. This configuration depends on the TDMA model and on 2 parameters:

TDMA Model: is the BCCH combined or not


noOfBlockForAccessGrant: bts object parameter (class 2)
noOfMultiframesBetweenPaging: bts object parameter (class 2)

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CONSEQUENCES OF THE TDMA MODEL


The number of CCCH occurrences depends on the BCCH model, i.e., if the BCCH is
combined or not. If the BCCH is combined, there are less Frames dedicated to the CCCH.

BCCH COMBINED CASE

FCCH
SCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
FCCH
SCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
FCCH
SCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
FCCH
SCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
FCCH
SCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
IDLE

BCCH Multiframe representation in combined configuration

When using a TDMA model with BCCH combined, there are 3 occurrences of CCCH per
multiframe of 51 frames.

BCCH NOT COMBINED CASE:

FCCH
SCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
FCCH
SCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
FCCH
SCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
FCCH
SCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
FCCH
SCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
IDLE

BCCH Multiframe representation in not combined configuration

When not combined, a BCCH multiframe carries 9 CCCH occurrences.

CONSEQUENCES OF NOOFBLOCKSFORACCESSGRANT.
Whatever the value of noOfBlocksForAccessGrant, AGCH messages overlap on PCH
channels each time AGCH channels are full. The aim was to use when needed the preemption
mechanism which is better than booking a specific CCCH for Immediate Assignment. It means
that it has been defined to be sure AGCH will be treated as soon as possible in any
configuration. In that case, new priorities are applied. This gives the possibility of a higher
priority for paging messages repetitions if required on the network.

Priority 1: Immediate assignment message never sent


Priority 2: Paging message never sent
Priority 3: Paging message already sent
Priority 4: Immediate assignment message already sent

Note: see chapter Paging Parameters for more information on this parameter advised values.
SMS-CB use has some influence on noOfBlocksForAccessGrant value (see chapter Effects of
SMS-Cell Broadcast Use on noOfBlocksForAccessGrant).

CONSEQUENCES OF NOOFMULTIFRAMESBETWEENPAGING: CCCH


CONFIGURATION
The noOfMultiframesBetweenPaging parameter defines the frequency of a paging group
occurrence. For instance, if noOfMultiframesBetweenPaging = 3, 1 multiframe out of 3 will
carry an occurrence of a paging group.
Using the same example as above with BCCH combined, noOfBlocksForAccessGrant = 1,
and noOfMultiframesBetweenPaging = 2, one can see that one out of 2 multiframes wont
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transmit paging messages for the paging group A. This space is necessary to locate several
paging groups.
Paging
group
nb1

Paging
group
nb2

Paging
group
nb3

Paging
group
nb0 (A)

Paging
group
nb1

FCCH
SCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
FCCH
SCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
FCCH
SCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
IDLE

FCCH
SCH

Paging
group
nb0 (A)

FCCH
SCH

Block
booked
for AGCH

FCCH
SCH

FCCH
SCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH

FN0

Block
booked
for AGCH

FCCH
SCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
FCCH
SCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
FCCH
SCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
IDLE

FCCH
SCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH

FN1

Block
booked
for AGCH

FCCH
SCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
FCCH
SCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
SDCCH
FCCH
SCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
SACCH
IDLE

FCCH
SCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH

FN2

This parameter is deeply involved in the time needed to establish a call when a paging
message is coming. For instance, if a paging command is to be transmitted in a paging group
P1 just after the paging group P1 occurrence, the paging command will have to wait for at
least noOfMultiframesBetweenPaging x 240ms to be transmitted.
If noOfMultiframesBetweenPaging = 8, the time waited to transmit a paging message can be
of 2 seconds without any other delays.
From the configuration, paging group occurences are determined. In the previous example,
the paging groups will be split as follows:
Nb of Paging groups = (na - nb) x nc

na = number of CCCH groups per BCCH multiframe


nb = noOfBlocksForAccessGrant
nc = noOfMultiframesBetweenPaging

Note: see chapter Paging Parameters for more information on this parameter recommended
values.
noOfMultiframesBetweenPaging has also an influence on mobile battery consumption and on
reselection reactivity (see chapter Effects of noOfMultiFramesBetweenPaging on Mobile
Batteries and Reselection Reactivity).

4.13.2 PAGING COMMAND REPETITION PROCESS (RUN BY BTS)


Paging messages are systematically repeated. Three (3) parameters will manage paging
message repetitions:

nbOfRepeat
defines the number of times a paging message will be repeated by the BTS

delayBetweenRetrans
defines the number of occurrence between 2 repetitions of the same paging
group

retransDuration
defines the maximum time allocated to broadcast a paging message
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The following rule is checked at the OMC-R:
retransDuration > (delayBetweenRetrans + 1) x nbOfRepeat

This inequality is to insure at least nbOfRepeat paging transmissions when there is no


blocking on paging channel.
See chapter Paging Parameters and chapter GSM Paging Repetition Process Tuning to find
engineering rules to set these parameters.

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4.13.3 REQUEST ACCESS COMMAND PROCESS


RACH are used when mobiles request a channel to establish a communication (both
terminated and initiated calls, see chapters Mobile Terminating Call and Mobile Originating
Call). Request management is configurated (nb of repetitions, time between repetitions...) at
the OMC-R thanks to different parameters.

4.13.4 REQUEST ACCESS COMMAND REPETITION PROCESS


After sending the initial CHANNEL REQUEST message, the MS starts a timer (T3120) and
listens to AGCH logical channel. When this timer expires and number of retransmissions does
not exceed maxNumberRetransmission, the MS repeats the CHANNEL REQUEST.
See also chapter GSM Paging Repetition Process Tuning.

PHASE 1 MOBILES
When the timer is started, a random value n is drawn with equal probability between 0 and N-1
where N is:

for the initial access: max (8, numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans)


for next attempts: numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans

T3120 is set so that there are n RACH slots between T1 and the expiry of T3120. T1 is a fixed
delay thanks to the configuration of the BCCH:

before initial access, T1 = 0


after initial access, T1 = 250 ms (for non combined CCCH)
after initial access, T1 = 350 ms (for combined CCCH)

Fixed delay whose


value depends on
whether or not the
BCCH is combined

Variable delay from 0 to


numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans 1
RACCH

time

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PHASE 2 MOBILES
Rec 04.08 have been modified to avoid double allocation (see chapter Paging Parameters).
When the timer is started, a random value n is drawn with uniform probability distribution in the
interval [S, S+1, ..., S+T-1]:

where T is numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans
where S depends on the BCCH configuration and on T (see following table).

numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans

S on non-combined BCCH

S on combined BCCH

3, 8, 14, 50

55

41

4, 9, 16

76

52

5, 10, 20

109

58

6, 11, 25

163

86

7, 12, 32

217

115

Fixed delay whose


value depends on
BCCH configuration and
numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans

Variable delay set according to


numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans

time

4.13.5 I MULTIPAGING COMMAND MESSAGE


The multipaging command message is a Nortel Specificity. The principle of this
implementation is to form group of paging on the Abis interface. Before BSS V14.3.1, for each
paging message receives from the MSC; one paging message is sent on Abis interface to a
target cell.
The aim of this feature is to reduce the congestion and overload messages on Abis interface.
In order to achieve this goal, a new BSC timer Called T_Paging_Group was introduced, to
define the minimum of time between two occurrences of multi paging command messages on
Abis interface.
Therefore, at emission of one multi paging command message, the BSC starts
T_Paging_Group.
If during T_Paging_Group, more than 10 paging messages are received, then only the 10
first messages are stored, thus others messages are discarded.

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At T_Paging_Group expiry, either no paging message is received from the MSC or at least
more than one paging message is stored and the BSC sends these messages to the BTS.
In both cases the BSC restarts the timer.
Note: The maximum length is 12 paging messages.
A multi paging command is sent by the BSC in two cases:

As soon as the 12 first paging are received by the BSC, a paging group
message is sent to the BTS leading to avoid discarding paging messages
and waiting for T_Paging_Group timer expiry.
If T_Paging_Group timer is reached and at least one paging message is
received, a multi paging command is sent

LCaution!
The value of this T_Paging_Group is set to 200ms. Only CS paging use I Multipaging
command, therefore the PS pagings are not combined. Thus a single paging I is used for data
paging.
The following figure illustrates the principles of multipaging command

BTS

MSC

BSC
Paging MS1

T_Paging_group

Paging MS2

Multi paging command

Paging MS3

MS1, MS2, MS3


T_Paging_group

Paging MS4

Multi paging command


MS4
The two major improvements bring by this feature are:

a large Lap D bandwidth associated to the BCCH for non-paging messages,


which provides a better quality of service,
a reduction of the CPU load generated by paging messages at BSC and BTS
levels.

However, it induces a delay (average=100ms, min=0ms, max=200ms) during the paging


management at the BSC level, and the mobile terminated call setup time is lightly increased.
LCAUTION!
Note: As this feature increases the BSS capacity, since BSS V14.3.1 it is activated by default.
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4.13.6 UI MULTIPAGING COMMAND MESSAGE


PRINCIPLE
Each time a data request message (I frame on LapD) is used to convey a multipaging
message to the BTS, the BSC has to wait for an acknowledgement before sending the
next multipaging message. Therefore, the paging process is RTD dependent.
Using the Unit Data Request message (UI frame on the LapD), no acknowledgement
is required before sending the next frame, which decreases the lapd bandwidth
associated to the BCCH TRX for paging messages.
Hence, whatever is the paging number per second, the quality of service is increased
and more especially in case of large location area which generates high number of
paging messages or during exceptional events.
This feature is introduced in V15.1.1 and it allows, at equivalent paging messages
number, to better fill the downlink lapd bandwidth associated to the BCCH for paging
messages and to decrease the use of the uplink lapd bandwidth. Hence it increases
the lapd bandwidth associated to the BCCH for non-paging messages.

SPECIFICATIONS OF THE UI MULTIPAGING COMMAND MESSAGE


UI Multipaging command message uses the same mechanisms (to group the paging
command messages) as the I Multipaging command message described in below
except the ones described here under.
In order to build the UI Multipaging message, the BSC timer T_Paging_Group is
used, which defines the maximum time between 2 occurrences of UI Multi Paging
Command message on the Abis interface.
The BSC starts T_Paging_Group at emission of one UI Multi Paging Command
message.
Until T_Paging_Group expiry, as soon as a MultiPaging command message has
stored 12 unit paging command messages, it is transmitted immediately to the BTS.
At T_Paging_Group expiry, if one or more than one paging command messages are
currently stored:

the MultiPaging command message is transmitted to the BTS and


T_Paging_Group timer is restarted

otherwise T_Paging_Group timer is restarted

Hence, all paging requests messages accepted by the BSC filter are all sent to the
BTS which means up to 105 paging command / second.
Note: The value of this T_Paging_Group is set to 200ms and can not be modified
even via the bsc data config tool.

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The Packet paging message, received from the PCU, are sent by the BSC to the BTS
(on the SAPI GSL) whereas the Circuit paging message from MSC are sent to the
BTS by the BSC on the SAPI RSL. Therefore PS and CS pagings are not sent into the
same multipaging message command.
With I multipaging command message the process of combining paging messages
into one multipaging command message is supported by CS paging only.
The restriction is removed with UI multipaging command feature as it allows
combining the packet paging messages before sending them to the BTS.

FEATURE ACTIVATION
The feature is deactivated by default and can be activated thanks to a build on line.
Recommended upgrade steps are the following:

Upgrade of the BSC without activation of the UI MultiPaging feature (type 4)

Upgrade of the BTS supported by the BSC

Activation of the UI Multipaging feature in the BSC (via a build on line)

LCAUTION!
In order to identify bad PCM links and fix it, the operator should monitor the quality of
all the PCM links before the feature activation.
As soon as the BSCe3 and the TRXs of BTS are able to manage this feature, the BSC
sends UI MultiPaging Command messages.
The BSC is aware of the BTS capacity for the Circuit Service thanks to the DRX
catalog file and especially the bit 8 (from 0 to 31) of the hardware mask defined as
follow:

0: UI MultiPaging Command message for Circuit Service not supported

1: UI MultiPaging Command message for Circuit Service supported

As all types of DRX support this feature (except DCU2), there is no modification of the
"display all" feature, in order to know the activation state of this feature.
Note: As this feature is not implemented on BSC12000 and due to upgrade
constraints, then the BTS has to manage the following types of paging messages: I
paging command, I MultiPaging and UI MultiPaging command messages.

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4.13.7 NETWORK MODE OF OPERATION I SUPPORT IN BSS


The Network Mode of Operation 1 (NMO1) takes benefit of the Gs interface to exchange
messages between the MSC and SGSN in order to coordinate the CS and PS paging
management and to optimize some signaling procedures.
Note that Gs interface (between SGSN and MSC) is a pre-requesite before using NMO1.

The feature should be enabled with gprsNetworkModeOperation (bts object). The parameter is
at BTS object but must be consistent at Routing Area level, i.e. activated (or de-activated) in
all cells of a given Routing Area.

PAGING MANAGEMENT
If NMO1 is activated, CS-Paging are managed through Gb interface for any GPRS-attached
MS. ClassB MS may be simultaneously attached to GSM and GPRS services but cannot
simultaneously perform CS and PS transfer.
If the MS is not attached to GPRS services, the CS-Paging procedure is not modified and
done through the A interface.
If the MS is attached to GPRS, the CS-Paging is sent from the MSC to the SGSN (Gs
interface) and then to the PCU (Gb interface):

If the target mobile is in GMM STANDBY state, the PCU transmits the Paging
message to the BSC on the SAPI RSL. Therefore the BSC has to broadcast
this message on the CCCH of all target cells.
If the mobile is in GMM READY state, the PCU sends the Paging on the
PACCH of the TBF or on the CCCH of the cell if there is not an established
TBF for the target mobile. In case Paging is sent on PACCH, the PCU repeats
the paging message 3 times (1 emission + 3 repetitions), with a delay
between 2 occurrences equal to 480 ms. This enhances the probability of
success of the Paging procedure.

The 3 different cases (MS not GPRS-attached, MS in GPRS STANDY state and MS in GPRS
READY state) are illustrated below.
Note that the load of some interfaces is impacted by NMO1 activation:

less paging on A interface


less load on A interface.
more paging on AGPRS interface more load on AGPRS LAPD TS.

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MS not attached to
GPRS services
SGSN

MSC/VLR

PCU

MS attached to
GPRS services &
standby state
SGSN

MSC/VLR

PCU
BSC

BTS

BTS

BTS

MS attached to
GPRS services &
ready state
SGSN

MSC/VLR

PCU
BSC

BTS

Paging procedure not


modified

BTS

BTS

BTS

BSC

BTS

BSC broadcasts paging


on CCCH

BTS

BTS

BTS

BTS

Paging on:
PACCH if TBF established
CCCH if no TBF established

COMBINED SIGNALING PROCEDURES


Two procedures are combined when using NMO1:

Combined GSM / GPRS Attach


Combined LA / RA update.

Each procedure is performed with a single access on packet channels. This is transparent for
the PCU, which manages it as usual without any particular action. The SGSN then informs the
MSC through the Gs inteface.
The following gains are expected:

decrease of SDCCH occupancy


less load on A and Abis interfaces
less load on BSC
faster cell reselection between 2 LA.

As the combined procedures are performed on packet channels, it is critical to


protect the access to GPRS service and thus set minNbrGprsTs > 0
There is a LAPD impact on Agprs interface due to the addition of cs_paging
messages for the data attached mobiles.

Notes:

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4.13.8 BSS CS PAGING COORDINATION


For details please refer to the functional note ([R57] and also to the aPUG document ([A1]).

PRINCIPLE
When NMO II is used, the network sends all paging messages on the PCH paging channel
even if the mobile has been assigned a packet data channel, which might require the MS to
leave the packet channel to monitoring the occurrence of paging messages. Compared to
NMO II, the BSS CS Paging Coordination is an additional mechanism for handling CS paging.
It provides an NMO I-like mechanism (BSS CS Paging Coordination) without involving the
packet core and Gs interface. This maximizes the end-user availability for receiving CS calls
and the related revenues.
While the network is running with NMO II, the BSC sends all CS paging messages received on
A interface both to the BTS and, with BSS CS Paging Coordination feature activated, to the
PCU as well. The PCU then checks whether the corresponding MS is engaged in a PS
session, by checking the IMSI. If so, the PCU sends the CS paging message to the mobile on
PACCH channel.

BSS CS PAGING COORDINATION MECHANISM


ACTIVATION PARAMETER
The activation parameter of this feature is bssPagingCoordination (class 3, bts objet).
If the network is running in Network Mode of Operation II and if BSC and PCUSN support the
BSS CS Paging Coordination feature, the bssPagingCoordination parameter serves to set
BSS_PAGING_COORDINATION bit in GPRS Cell Options to 1 to enable the BSS CS
Paging Coordination mechanism for all GPRS/EDGE mobiles.
Therefore, the behaviour of class B mobiles (from Release 97) is modified when enabling this
new BSS CS Paging Coordination in the network, provided that both the BSC and the PCUSN
support the feature.

SI13 UPDATE
The BSC updates the System Information 13 message to indicate the activation/deactivation
of the feature and sends PCU BROADCAST INFO MODIFY to provide the updated content of
the SI13 to the PCU.

DETAILED PAGING COORDINATION MECHANISM

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PCUSN
SGSN

MSC/VLR

SPM
SPM
SPM

p All CS pages
are transferred to
the PCUSN

SPM

nCS Pages

PCUSN

SPM
SPM
SPM

qSPM has

BS
C

found that a
TBF is alive
for this MS

o CS Pages
broadcast on CCCH

o
r CS pages

BTS

on PACCH

BTS
BTS

BTS

BTS

CS pages on
CCCH

TBF alive

No TBF alive

If the network is running in Network Mode of Operation II, when the BSC receives a CS paging
from A interface :

the BSC broadcasts this paging message in the target cells (as it has always done so
far), regardless of bssPagingCoordination parameter value,

and, if bssPagingCoordination is enabled on at least one cell of the area, the BSC
sends the paging message in a single BSC CS Paging message to the PCU (even if
the CS paging addressee is a list of cells) on one of the available Agprs PCM (with a
round-robin mechanism to spread the CS paging load on all Agprs PCMs connected
to this BSC).

When a PCU element receives a CS paging on its Agprs PCM, it broadcasts this message to
all PCU elements connected to the same BSC that issued the CS paging message. Each PCU
element then checks whether the IMSI value included in the BSC CS Paging message
corresponds to one of the existing MS context (i.e. a mobile that is known as currently having
an established TBF). In this case :

if the bssPagingCoordination parameter is set to enable BSS paging coordination in


the corresponding cell, the PCU sends the CS paging on PACCH using the
mechanism used for Network mode of Operation I (see 4.13.7).

otherwise the paging is discarded.


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4.14. FREQUENCY HOPPING


4.14.1 FREQUENCY HOPPING PRINCIPLES
Basically, Frequency Hopping aims at spreading the spectrum of the signal to minimise the
impact of potential interferers. Frequency Hopping consists in changing the frequency used by
a channel at regular intervals.
In GSM, the transmission frequency remains the same during the transmission of a whole
burst. Thus, it is possible to have different frequencies on each burst of a frame. The radio
interface of GSM uses then slow Frequency Hopping.
According to the type of coupler used in the BTS, two (2) main types of Frequency Hopping
mechanism can be used:

Synthesised mode for Hybrid couplers with duplexers: hopping time slots can
hop on a large band of frequencies.
Baseband mode using Cavity couplers with duplexers: hopping time slots can
hop on a set of frequencies limited by the number of TRXs (only available with
S4000 BTS).

Note: using frequency hopping allows to adapt and maximise the frequency re-use pattern
efficiency by maximising the capacity in term of offered Erlang/Mhz/km2. The pattern to use
will depend on the available frequency band and the traffic requirement.
It is possible (and recommended) to mix different frequency re-use technique, as 4X12 for
BCCH and 1X3 or 1X1 for TCH. Indeed, a traditional 4X12 reuse pattern is appropriate to a
wide spectrum allocation as for BCCH frequency (only one frequency per cell is needed).
However, in order to increase the number of TRX per cell with a given frequency band, while
keeping a low interference level, the only solution is to use more restricting reuse pattern, as
1X1 or 1X3.
See also chapter General Rules For Synthesised Frequency Hopping.

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4.14.2 MAIN BENEFITS OF FREQUENCY HOPPING

the higher the number of frequencies in the hopping law, the smaller the
Fading margin taken into account in the link budget (due to Rayleigh fading).
RXLEV cdf versus SFH
100

1 freq
2 freq
4 freq
8 freq
% 10

2
8

1
-2 -1 0

4
3

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

FADING MARGIN (dB)

the smaller the mobile speed and the higher the number of frequencies, the
higher the benefit of the frequency hopping.
Frame Erasure Rate versus SFH at 104 dBm (DCS)
12.00
10.00

0.5

1.5 km/h
2.5 km/h

8.00
FER (%)

0.5 km/h

1.5
2.5

4.00
2.00

km/h

25 km/h

6.00

5
25

0.00
1

NUMBER OF FREQUENCIES FOR HOPPING

the higher the number of frequencies in the hopping law, the narrower the
Rxqual distribution. However Rxqual mean remains the same (see figure
below). Hence the Frequency Hopping eliminates the number of bad Rxqual
samples but it also reduces the number of good Rxqual ones.

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cdf RxQual with SFH, at 0.5 km/h, -104 dBm (DCS)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40

1 freq
4 freq
8 freq
16 freq

30
20

10

16

0
0

10

BER %

Increase resistance to Rayleigh fading:


re-centred RxQual distribution for slow moving mobiles
better stability of the received signal level (smoothing effect)
completion of diversity task on uplink and full benefit on downlink
high improvement for areas of weaker signal strength (inside buildings and
on street level)

Resistance to interference
spread of interference over all RF spectrum
spread of interference over time
highly loaded sites benefit from lower load on adjacent sites
more efficient error correction gain from digital processing

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4.14.3 SYNTHESISED FREQUENCY HOPPING


Using synthesised frequency hopping, each TX is associated to one FP (TDMA) and can
transmit on all the frequencies. It is used with hybrid coupling systems then more frequencies
than TRXs can be used.
The main issue is to ensure that the frequency BCCH is transmitted all the time (on all the TS
of the TDMA) at a constant power even if there is no call to transmit (no voice or data burst).
This is done by a specific configuration which consists in dedicating a TRX to the BCCH
frequency (so the TDMA called BCCH does not hop).
Generally, the number of frequencies is greater than the number of TRX in order to have the
smallest Fading margin in the link budget.

TDMA1

TX1

TDMA2

TX2

TDMA3

TX3

TDMA4

TX4
MA frequency list

BCCH Freq

MAIO

The TDMA configurations in case of synthesised frequency hopping are defined as follows:

F1 is the BCCH frequency.


the other two TDMA of the cell have the same MA. HSN and MAIO can be
different.

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4.14.4 BASEBAND FREQUENCY HOPPING


PRINCIPLE
Using baseband frequency hopping, each TX is dedicated to one frequency and is connected
to all the Frame Processor (TDMA) via the FH bus. It is used with cavity coupling system. It
uses exactly the same number of frequencies as TRXs.
The filling is done by the FP according to the configuration of the TDMA (all the parameters for
the frequency hopping are static and not per call basis; so even if there is no call the FP
knows if it has to transmit on the BCCH frequency).
Moreover the TX can have a carrier filling functionality which is not useful for the BCCH
frequency (Carrier filling is already done by the FP) but which can be used in case of other
frequencies carrier filling with the use of a specific BCF load.

FP1

TX1

FP2

TX2

FP3

TX3

FP4

TX4

BCCH Freq

Filling burst when there is no information


to transmit on the BCCH frequency.

If filling is needed on other frequencies,


it is managed by the TXs.

For a given cell with the previous configuration (4 TRX), one Mobile Allocation should be
defined:

MA0 contains all the frequencies except the BCCH frequency (3


frequencies in the exemple).

The baseband frequency hopping configuration is the following:

hopping on TCH, no hopping on BCCH

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TS

TDMA 0

F1

F1

F1

F1

F1

F1

F1

F1

MAIO=0

TDMA 1

MA0

MA0

MA0

MA0

MA0

MA0

MA0

MA0

MAIO=1

TDMA 2

MA0

MA0

MA0

MA0

MA0

MA0

MA0

MA0

MAIO=2

TDMA 3

MA0

MA0

MA0

MA0

MA0

MA0

MA0

MA0

MAIO=3

MA: Mobile Allocation (list of hopping frequencies for a TRX)


MAIO: Mobile Allocation Index Offset between 0 and (Nb of Freq in MA 1).
F1: BCCH frequency

LCAUTION!
It is not recommended to hop on BCCH frequency when using baseband frequency hopping,
because it can lead to some troubles when downlink DTX or downlink power control are
enabled.

RECONFIGURATION PROCEDURE
This procedure is not applicable to BTS that use hybrid coupling.
With the baseband frequency hopping mechanism (used only by BTS that have cavity
couplers), it is possible to reconfigure the frequencies in certain cases. In case of equipment
failure/recovery within a TRX, the BSC starts the reconfiguration process for a Radio Cell
which supports frequency hopping and uses the Frequency Management GSM function.
This function is supported by the TRX and allows the BSC to configure or to reset a frequency
on a TX which is identified by the TEI of the corresponding TRX. The loss of one TX implies
the loss of one frequency (which is not the BCCH) and of one TDMA (the one defined with the
lowest priority) if no redundant TRX.
Two symmetric mechanisms are managed by the BSC to handle the automatic frequency
reconfiguration in the case of frequency hopping cavity coupling BTS:

loss of a frequency
the cell is stopped and restarted with new set of frequencies. This may lead
to release the calls if there is more live TX than btsThresholdHopReconf

recovery of all frequencies


an automatic reconfiguration is triggered by the BSC when all the
frequencies are recovered. This may lead to release the calls

There will be a reconfiguration if the flag bscHopReconfUse is set to true (defined at BSC
level) and if there are more frequencies than the threshold btsThresholdHopReconf (defined at
BTS level). Otherwise the cell is badly configured.
When a end of fault occurs if the flag btsHopReconfRestart is set to true and if there are
more frequencies than the threshold (btsThresholdHopReconf), there is a complete cell
reconfiguration.

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4.14.5 AD-HOC FREQUENCY PLAN


The Ad-Hoc frequency hopping does not reproduce a pattern all over the network. Frequency
planning is done (HSN, MAIO, MA lists) according to the interference matrix. The particularity
is that the number of hopping TRX = the number of hopping frequencies in most of the cases.
A frequency plan optimizes frequency hopping list of each sector in order to reduce the
interferences. The length of the frequency hopping list is variable (it should be at least equal to
the number of TRx on the sector).

TDMA1

TX1

TDMA2

TX2

TDMA3

TX3

TDMA4

TX4

BCCH Freq

MA frequency list: n frequencies for n TRX


For ad-hoc frequency planning, an interference matrix or a very intense and accurate drive
tests campaign is needed. A frequency planing tool can also be used.
For each method the principle is the same: take into account DL BCCH and HO interactions
between cells. The frequencies on the list are planned intelligently in order to avoid collision
with the neighboring cells, allocating same frequencies on the hopping list to cells which are
far in distance or that the interaction between them is the minimum as possible.
There is a reduction on the number of frequencies on the frequency hoping list. It is
recommended to space the maximum as possible (at least 3 channels) the frequencies used
in the same frequency list to maximize frequency hopping gain (fading reduction)
Every sector of one site has a different HSN in order to minimize co-channel or adjacent
collisions.
The main drawback is the cost to maintain the plan since regularly it is recommended to
review the plan in order to optimize its performances.
Ad-hoc should be considered as a spectral efficiency feature in a constraining bad condition
assuming the cost associated. In case of non frequency band constraining conditions, 1x1 has
shown a great cost-performance trade-off and is worth to use in the case of a fast growing
network in order to minimize operational impacts.
In summary Ad-Hoc frequency plan allows good performances if the calculation method is
very precise (either Interference matrix, drive tests or frequency planning tool) and number of
hopping frequencies per TDMA is sufficicent (at least MA list 4 frequencies)
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4.15. BSC OVERLOAD MANAGEMENT MECHANISMS


The aim of such a feature is to avoid BSC restart or crash because of overload conditions.
Without defense mechanism, an overload of one of the BSC boards will imply a suicide of the
active chain, a switch to the passive chain and at last a suicide of the new active chain. This
implies a suppression of all the communications and an interruption of service.
For further details on this feature please refer to BSS Engineering Rules in chapter Reference
Documents

4.15.1 BSC3000 OVERLOAD MANAGEMENT


The Overload software manages the board load and the global load of the system so as to
avoid the crash in case of overload. On the BSC sub-system an overload situation is mainly
due to the traffic management which is computed on the TMU module. The overload software
uses system indicators to calculate overload levels that allow applications to decrease the load
level.

BSC3000 DIMENSIONING RULES


The BSC is responsible for accepting or rejecting sites creation or reparenting in order to
ensure that the hardware capacity is sufficient to handle the traffic.
The maximum dimensioning of a BSC 3000 is 3000 or 4000 Erlang, 500 Sites, 600 Cells,
1000 or 1500 TRX, 16 SS7 links, 567 LAPD links. A good dimensioning lead to the following
relations:
Carried Traffic BSC hardware capacity (number of TMU)

Offered Traffic BSC hardware capacity (number of TMU)

CARRIED TRAFFIC
The carried traffic (or real traffic) is the number of simultaneous voice communication a BSC
handles at the busy hour. The carried traffic is given by the customer for an area or can be
observed with monitoring. It is necessary to consider a margin carried traffic for a lot of
reasons (GPRS traffic is increasing lightly the load on the TMU, Load balancing algorithm
shares fairly the load between TMU, The operator wants to be able to absorb additional traffic
in case of special Event).
As a consequence it is recommanded to use a margin of about 20-25 % when considering the
carried traffic.
Moreover AMR handset penetration should be considered if half rate vocoder is used on a
network since it increases offered capacity on radio sites.

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OFFERED TRAFFIC
The offered traffic in a cell is the number of simultaneous users that can use a resource with a
target quality of service objective (blocking rate). This step will consist in determining the
values of table ERLANG_PER_N_TRX_CELL in order to let the BSC computes the most
adapted offered erlang.

TMU NUMBER
To set the appropriate number of TMU boards please refer to the BSS Engineering Rules
(Reference Documents).

BSC3000 OVERLOAD MECHANISM


The overload mechanism only applies to TMU boards. TMU boards are SBC and PMC, from
V16.0 a new TMU was introduced: TMU2. This new TMU has only one board, the SBC one.
OMU and interface node overload are not managed.
This overload mechanism is based on the following principles:

Decisions are only taken on traffic stimuli, not on O&M stimuli. On the BSC
sub-system, an overload situation is mainly due to the traffic management,
which is computed on the TMU module
Each TMU monitors its overload level and decisions will be applied to all
the cell-groups it manages.

The overload management concerns overload levels of two boards of the TMU:

SBC board (based on CPU usage, memory and waiting time of messages
in the mailbox)
PMC board (based only on CPU usage).

For TMU2 the overload management concerns one board only (therefore the monitoring
counter pegged is the one associated to SBC )
Overload architecture is hierarchically organized:

1) the elementary overload level is returned from SBC and PMC by


comparing their level of CPU, memory and mailbox resources to specific
thresholds
2) the maximum of these elementary overload level gives the local
overLoad level
3) for each new local overload level received, each TMU computes its
TMUOvLevel(i) as the maximum of all the local overload levels of the
boards it manages. TMUOvLevel(i) is then sent to a centralized overload
control task located on the OMU that will trigger the appropriate action for
TMU(i).

The actions are triggered at TMU level, as TMU are rather independent one from the other in
terms of overload handling. When a TMU is in overload, it will filter partially the new coming
traffic requests related to the cell-groups it manages.

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LIST OF OPERATIONS TO BE FILTERED

Overload level 1: filtering 33,33% requests of the following messages:


Paging request
Channel request with cause different from Emergency call
All first layer 3 messages with cause different from emergency call
Handover for traffic reason
Directed retry

Overload level 2: filtering 66,66% requestsof the messages described above


Overload level 3: no new traffic is accepted by filtering all previous and
following messages
All first layer 3 messages
All handover indication
All handover requests

PARAMETERS
No specific new counters or configuration parameters are introduced with this feature.

4.15.2 LOAD BALANCING


The Load Balancing is a mechanism that allows a distribution as balanced as possible (from
the traffic weight point of view) of the Cell Groups (CG) among the existing TMUs (See
chapter BSC Boards Management) during the initialization phase. It also allows a
redistribution of the CG on the TMUs (if all the CG are duplex), without disturbing the
established calls when:

A TMU module fails or comes into operation (for hardware or operator


reasons)
An imbalance of the TMU loads is detected by the BSC (on online operations
such as new TMU board, new BTS, or new TRX). In this case, the load
balancing can be manually started.

For further details on this feature please refer to the corresponding chapter in the BSS
Engineering Rules (chapter Reference Documents).

4.15.3 EVOLUTION OF LOAD BALANCING


Some evolutions are introduced in the Cell Group Management and Load Balancing
algorithms used by the BSCe3. These evolutions are made in order to take into account the
introduction of new TMU boards (TMU2), to better introduce new big site configurations.

MAIN EVOLUTIONS
Global dimensioning constraints for the BSC remain unchanged: the BSC capacity is limited
by the following maximum number of managed objects:
Maximum of 1000 TRX or 1500 per BSC
Maximum of 600 Cells per BSC
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Maximum of 500 Sites per BSC


Maximum of 1 PCUSN per BSC
Maximum of 2 TCUe3 per BSC
Maximum of 32 TCU2G per BSC

Concerning the maximum site configuration supported in V15.1, the limitations are the
following:
Maximum of 16 TRX per Cell
Maximum of 48 TRX per Site
Moreover, the maximum capacity of the BSC remains 3000 or 4000Erlang.
The rules to respect the same dimensioning constraints for the TMU and TMU2 boards are
defined in the BSS Engineering Rules (see chapter Reference Documents), as well as those
existing for the Cell Group definitions.

PACKAGING OF CG IN ERLANG
The previous packaging of site in CG was previously based on the number of TRX. The
addition of a site of N TRX in an existing CG was roughly done if the CG had no more than 16N TRX, else an empty CG was chosen. The maximum number of TRX per CG (48) could be
an issue in the case of site extension. The packaging of sites in CG is now based on a target
in Erlang. The weight of each site is estimated and this estimation is used for the packaging of
the CG: the objective is to have a target of 84 Erlang per CG. So the principle of the algorithm
remains the same: the addition of a site with N TRX in an existing CG is roughly done if this
one has no more than 84 Erlang. If no more empty CG remains, the site is added in the
existing CG with a maximum constraint of 10 sites per CG. A site created on line is considered
with a value of Erlang corresponding to a site of one Cell with 8 TRX.

ESTIMATEDSITELOAD PARAMETER
A new parameter called estimatedSiteLoad. (applicable to the btsSiteManager object) allows
specifying the value in Erlang for a given site. This parameter is optional (default value 0).
If this parameter is not specified (value of 0), the BSC will use the ERLANG_PER_N_TRX
table for the estimation of the sites weight, else it is the estimatedSiteLoad value that is used.
This weight will be considered for the placement of the site into a CG and naturally also for the
CG distribution on the TMU.
This parameter is a class 3 parameter. Thus, this one may be used at site creation (off line or
on line) but may also be changed at any moment while the site is operational. On an online
change of this parameter, the BSC will regenerate the site weight estimation (and the CG
weight estimation) and will perform a new CG re-balancing if needed (as in case of a TRX
addition for instance: the packaging of sites in CG are not re-performed, but the distribution of
the CG according to new CG weight will be reconsidered: if the capacity of the TMU hosting
the active CG or the passive CG reach their limits, the algorithm considers if it can move these
CG to other TMU. Otherwise, it suppresses the CG that can not fit).
Please refer to the BSS Engineering Rules (see chapter Reference Documents) for further
informations on the use of that parameter.

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4.16. CABINET OUTPUT POWER SETTING


This section aims at describing the way to determine the output power of a BTS knowing its
coupling and its associated parameter setting. As described in following figure, two OMC
parameters are involved: bsTxPwrMax (powerControl object) and attenuation
(btsSiteManager object).

4.16.1 CABINET POWER DESCRIPTION


There are three steps in the cabinet output power evaluation.

OMC attenuation
(since V9)
DLU
attenuation
(until V8)

OR

Pc

bsTxPwrMax
SUM

Tx
Tx
Pr
translation
translation
table
table

Coupling
Coupling
system
system

Ps

Pc: bsTxPwrMax + DLU/OMC attenuation


Pr: given by a translation table
Ps: Cabinet output power

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4.16.2 PR COMPUTATION
According to bsTxPwrMax, the coupling system and the product family (S8000/S12000) Pr
can be defined
For more details on the Pmax per products, please refer to the Engineering Rules (ref. [R47]
to ref. [R56]).

4.16.3 PS COMPUTATION
Then, the effective cabinet output power is:
Ps = Pr - cablesLoss - couplingLoss
Pr is derived from Pc (where Pc = bsTxPwrMax + OMCattenuation or DLU attenuation) based
on the translation table ( 4.13.2). Pr can only be equivalent to Pmax in case when the
operator has chosen the maximum value for bsTxPwrMax for a given coupling system.

POWER AMPLIFIER 30W


The nominal output power output for PA is 44.8 dBm (+/- 0.5dBm). This nominal output is the
same for all frequencies.

HIGH POWER EDGE POWER AMPLIFIER (HEPA)


The nominal power output for HePA depends on the frequencies and on the product. Please
note that not all product support HePA for all the frequency bands.
For more details on HePA output power as a function of the product and the frequency band,
please refer to the appropriate Engineering rules document ([R47] to [R56])..

COUPLING SYSTEM
To know the input power, it is important to factor in the system coupling losses. Please refer to
the appropriate Engineering rules document ([R47] to [R56]).

CABLE LOSS
For the values of the losses depending on the BTS configuration and frequency band, please
refer to the appropriate Engineering rules document ([R47] to [R56]).

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RF/IO CABLE
It is the RF cable connecting the Antenna connector of the duplexer to the output connector (to
connect the antenna feeder).
Each cable is specifically dedicated to a frequency band. This particularity is due to the quarter
wave lightning protector which must be adapted to the frequency band.

S8000 Example: Maximum insertion attenuation (guaranted):

GSM 900: 0.2 dB Outdoor BTS, 0.25 dB Indoor BTS


GSM1800&1900: 0.3 dB Outdoor BTS, 0.35 Indoor BTS
Characteristic impedance: 50
Total length: 290 mm
Maximum cable diameter: 7 mm

CABLE BETWEEN PA AND COUPLING SYSTEM


It is the RF cable connecting the PA (Power Amplifier) output connector to the input connector
of the Hybrid combiner.
S8000 Example: Maximum insertion attenuation (guaranted):

Cable total length: L 305 mm


GSM 900: 0.25 dB Outdoor BTS, 0.35 dB Indoor BTS
GSM1800&1900: 0.40 dB Outdoor BTS, 0.5 dB Indoor BTS
Characteristic impedance: 50
Maximum cable diameter: 5.5 mm

PS COMPUTATION EXAMPLE
Calculation for S8000 Outdoor coupling duplexor, GSM 900 band:

Pr = 44.8 dBm +/- 0.5 dB

PA-coupling system cable loss = 0.25 dB

RF/IO cable loss = 0.2 dB

Duplexor loss = 1.0 dB

Therefore : Ps = 44.8 (+/- 0.5dB) (0.2+0.25) 1= 43.35dB (+/-0.5dB)

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4.17. SYSTEM INFORMATION MESSAGES RELATED FEATURES


4.17.1 DUAL BAND HANDLING
The purpose of this feature is to allow an operator with licenses in several frequency bands to
support the use of multiband mobile stations in all its bands. In addition, it also allows the
operator to support the use of single band mobile stations in each band of the license. The
specification indicates that GSM900 and GSM1800 frequency bands can be combined. No
frequency band is treated as the primary band. However, parameter setting can help
multiband MS to give a higher priority to one of the bands.
LCAUTION!
It has been experimented that with some mobile brands a delay in the other band neighbor
cells reports occurs, i.e. a minimum time is necessary for those mobiles to send
measurements from neighbors transmitting of the other band to the current cell.

MULTIBAND MOBILE STATION


A multiband mobile station is a mobile station which:

supports more than one band


has the functionality to perform handover, directed retry, channel assignment,
cell selection and cell reselection between the different bands in which it can
operate (within the PLMN)
has the functionality to make PLMN selection in the different bands in which
can it operate
has 2 receivers, one specific to each band
has 2 transmitters, one specific to each band

MODIFIED SYS INFO 3


Two new fields have been added to SYS INFO 3:

EARLY_CLASSMARK_SENDING_CONTROL
It indicates if multiband MS is authorized to send the early Classmark Change message to the
BSC via the BTS. This allows the MSC to receive as soon as possible the multiband
information and to pass it to the target BSC. It will speed up call set-ups and allows to perform
Handover and directed retry when needed. The Classmark Change indicates the frequency
bands supported by the MS and MS power classes to perform HO procedures in the best
conditions.
The corresponding parameter is the class 3 attribute early classmark sending belonging to bts
objects. If it is set to enabled, the Classmark_Change message is sent just after the SABM
and UA frames exchange on the Immediate_Assignment procedure. This message makes
interband handover procedures possible. Moreover this parameter allows the mobile to send
its capacity downlink Advanced Receiver performance. That helps to have SAIC mobile
penetration
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In single band networks, early classmark sending will be set to disabled.
Note: indeed monoband network may forbid a dual band mobile to use the Early Classmark
sending procedure in order to prevent phase 2 mobiles to send useless information to the
network, and to cope with any potential problems with this feature in the mobiles.

SYS_INFO_2TER_INDICATOR
It is used to inform multiband MS that SYS INFO 2ter information is available.

NEW SYS INFO MESSAGES


The neighbouring cell lists for handover and cell reselection are broadcast towards multiband
and single band mobile stations. The frequencies of neighbouring cells in other frequency
bands than the current cell will be carried by new SYS INFO messages:

SYS INFO 2ter for reselection neighbours.


SYS INFO 5ter for handover neighbours.

A single band mobile station will only use frequencies from SYS INFO 2 and 5 and if
necessary, 2bis and 5bis for reselection and handover purposes, i.e. frequencies from the
frequency band it supports. The BSC selects neighbour cells from the other band out of the
neighbour list and sends them in SYS INFO 2ter and 5ter (see table below).
Sys info 2

Sys info 2bis

Sys info 2ter

Sys info 5

Sys info 5bis

Sys info 5ter

GSM900 cell

GSM900 nei list

GSM1800 nei list

GSM 1800 cell

GSM1800 nei list

GSM1800 nei list

GSM900 nei list

NEIGHBOUR CELL LIST IN SYS INFO


The new SYS INFO 2ter and 5ter messages carry parameters which are needed by multiband
mobile stations to perform respectively cell reselection (2ter) and handover (5ter) towards cell
from another band:

Multiband Reporting: indicates to multiband MS the minimum number of cells


to report in their measurement report outside the current frequency band. Its
value is equal to the Multiband reporting parameter in the SYS INFO 5ter
message.
Neighbouring Cells List: coding of the frequencies of neighbouring cells.

LCAUTION!
Some single band mobiles are disturbed by the receipt of SYS INFO 5ter. They react by
sending an RR status message, that can load the BSC. To avoid this, the sending of these
messages is controlled by the BTS. On the opposite, single band mobile stations are not
disturbed by 2ter messages because they ignore them.
No field called Sys_Info_5ter_Indicator exists. To know if 5ter messages are sent, SACCH
filling messages are used.
The parameter cellBarQualify is not used by some dual band MS in selection and reselection
algorithms.
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MULTIBAND REPORTING
Multiband mobile stations report cells from different frequency bands according to Multiband
Reporting parameter (corresponding to class 3 attribute multi band reporting of bts objects)
broadcast in SYS INFO messages:

the six strongest cells: default value. The multiband MS reports the six
strongest allowed cells regardless of the frequency band.
1, 2, 3: the multiband MS reports the strongest or the two, three strongest
allowed cells outside the current frequency band. The remaining space in the
report is used to give information about cells in the current frequency band. If
there are still some remaining positions (not enough neighbours in the current
frequency band), these positions are used to report cells outside the current
frequency band.

LCAUTION!
A maximum of six cells will be reported. Only this maximum of 6 best cells
transmitted to the BSC by the L1M in a Handover_Indication message .

will be

OHER PROCEDURES
The handling of multiband MS did not need specific changes in L1M. Main changes are on MS
side. However, main procedures can be reviewed with the differences that occur in V10.

PLMN selection: a single band MS only selects a PLMN from its frequency
band. A multiband MS can select PLMNs of both bands.
Cell selection & reselection: a single band MS only selects or re-selects cells
from its frequency band. A multiband MS can select or re-select cells of both
bands. Priority can be given to one band (see chapter Selection, Reselection
Algorithms).
Handovers: a new attribute is introduced in both adjacentCellReselection and
adjacentCellHandover objects. Its name is standardIndicator Adjc and tells the
type of network where the neighboring cell operates (gsm or dcs or
gsmdcs or dcsgsm). A single band MS only performs handovers towards
cells from its frequency band. A multiband MS can perform handovers
towards cells of both bands if classmark 3 is supported on NSS side.

If local mode directed retry is chosen, as it is performed towards a specific neighbour, one
type of single band MS (the one which does not support the frequency band of adjacent cell
umbrella ref) will not use this feature.
For multiband MS, formulas like PBGT or thresholds are the same as single band ones, their
power class is replaced according to the band of the cell they are in (se chapter General
formulas).

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4.17.2 SI2QUATER & SI13 ON EXTENDED OR NORMAL BCCH


PRINCIPLE
This feature has been designed to allow configuring the sending of System Information 13
(SI13) and System Information 2Quater (SI2Quater) messages either on normal or extended
BCCH.
This configuration is possible on a per BSC basis and done via the BSC Data Config tool.
That feature is avalaible for BSC3000 and BSC12000.
3GPP recommendations gives:

SI2QUATER
It is sent if needed, as determined by the system operator. If sent on BCCH Norm, it shall be
sent when TC = 5 if neither of SI2bis and SI2ter are used, otherwise it shall be sent at least
once within any of 4 consecutive occurrences of TC = 4. If sent on BCCH Ext, it is sent at least
once within any of 4 consecutive occurrences of TC = 5.

SI13
It is only related to the GPRS service. SI13 need only be sent if GPRS support is indicated in
one or more of System Information Type 3 or 4 or 7 or 8 messages. These messages also
indicate if the message is sent on the BCCH Norm or if the message is transmitted on the
BCCH Ext. In the case that the message is sent on the BCCH Norm, it is sent at least once
within any of 4 consecutive occurrences of TC = 4.

FCCH
SCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
FCCH
SCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
FCCH
SCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
FCCH
SCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
FCCH
SCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
IDLE

Today SI13 and SI2Quater are allocated on Norm BCCH.

FCCH
SCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
BCCH
FCCH
SCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
FCCH
SCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
FCCH
SCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
FCCH
SCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
IDLE

The feature allows configuring separately SI2Quater and SI13 per BSC either on Norm BCCH
or Ext BCCH.

As a consequence, SI3 message has been updated in order to indicate to the mobile:

whether or not SI2quater and SI13 is broadcast


if broadcast is done on Normal or Extended BCCH

PERFORMANCES
The BCCH channel has a repeat period of 8 multi-frames. One multi-frame has 51 frames and
one frame is approximately 4,615ms long. Therefore, the BCCH repeat period is
8*51*4.615ms, or 1,88 seconds. Each period of the BCCH channel is given a number in the

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range 0 to 7. This number is called TC. The 3GPP specifications define in which BCCH repeat
period (TC value) a specific SYS INFO message can be sent.
SI2Ter, SI13 and SI2quater can be sent when TC=4.
This means that:

if 1 of SI2Ter, SI13 and SI2Quater messages has to be sent, it will be sent


every 1.88 seconds.
if 2 of SI2Ter, SI13 and SI2Quater messages has to be sent, each will be sent
every 3.76 seconds.
if all of SI2Ter, SI13 and SI2Quater messages has to be sent, each will be
sent every 5.64 seconds.

Redirection procedure duration is directly linked to the time the MS needs to read system
information messages.
On the contrary, the sending of system information on extended BCCH increase load on
AGCH/PCH channel.

BENEFITS
Customers are facing MS issues:

Devices being unable to read SI13 messages when these are sent on the
Extended BCCH. The impact of the failure to read this message was that the
device is partially or completely unable to connect to GPRS services.
Devices seeing valid SI messages containing 3G NCells (SI2Quater) as
corrupted when sent on the Normal BCCH; continued reception of these
messages resulted in the device rebooting or failing to set up CS calls.

So if customers dont wish to recall affected MS the feature allows to modify the allocation of
SI2Quater and SI13 messages
SI2Quater and SI13 on Ext BCCH allow as well speeding up 3G toward 2G cell reselection
(see chapter Mobility 2G - 3G Reselection).
The drawback is a PCH / AGCH capacity lost.
LCAUTION!
When this feature is enabled, e.g. if SI2Quater and/or SI13 on extended BCCH features are
activated, the parameter noOfBlocksForAccessGrant has to be greater than 0.

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4.17.3 SUMMARY OF SYSINFO SCHEDULING


For each multi-frame, the BCCH block is used to transmit a BCCH system information. TC
defines the index of the multiframe in which the Sysinfo message is sent by the network. The
broadcast cycle is 8 multiframes therefore the TC index ranges from TC = 0 to TC = 7.
In the absence of option SYSINFO messages, the basic cycle is :
SYSINFO 1, SYSINFO 2, SYSINFO 3, SYSINFO 4, SYSINFO 1, SYSINFO 2, SYSINFO 3,
SYSINFO 4.
TC5 may be preempted by the optional SYSINFO 2x that has the highest priority, where 2bis
priority > 2ter priority > 2quater priority. TC4 is shared by remaining optional SYSINFO
messages one after the other in the following order : SYSINFO 2ter, SYSINFO 2quater and
SYSINFO 13.

Optional SYSINFO to
broadcast
None

TC=0

(Si n) 1

TC=1

TC=2

TC=3

TC=4

TC=5

TC=6

TC=7

(SI n) 2

(SI n) 3

(SI n) 4

(SI n) 1

(SI n) 2

(SI n) 3

(SI n) 4

2bis only or 2ter only or


2quater only

2bis or
2ter or
2quater

13 only

13

2bis & (2ter or 2quater or


13)

2ter or
2quater
or 13

2bis

2ter & (2quater or 13)

2quater
or 13

2ter

2quater & 13

13

2quater

2ter

2bis

2quater
or 13

2bis

2quater

2bis

2bis & 2ter & (2quater or


13)
2bis & 2quater & 13
2ter & 2quater & 13

2bis & 2ter & 2quater &


13

13

2bis

2quater

2ter

13

2ter

2ter

2bis

2quater

2bis

13

2bis

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4.18. INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION


Note : to activate interference cancellation feature, it is necessary to have receive diversity
enabled. Interference cancellation is a very important feature in a mobile network, especially
when capacity is a critical issue and aggressive frequency reuse schemes are applied to
maximize it. Experience has shown gains with an adhoc frequency plan. Preliminary studies
had indicated that in a 1X3 reuse frequency pattern network, capacity could be limited by
uplink interferers. In general, even if capacity is not limited by uplink interferers, it is essential
to mitigate their effect for quality improvement. Moreover it has been experienced that even if
capacity is not UL limited, Interference Cancellation ensures improvements on data
performance in UL, vocal quality in UL and measurement reports in UL, which improve
mobility management. This results in a descreasing number of radio drops (study done with
half MS quite UL weak, half MS quite DL weak).
A BTS-based interference cancellation algorithm is of great interest. Nortel has designed a
proprietary signal processing scheme aimed at cancelling the interferers. It works on the Base
Stations equipped with all DRX S8K/S12K and with BTS18000. The effect of the feature
depends on diversity: on a site without diversity, the feature Interference Cancelation will have
no benefit. The algorithm works as well with or without frequency hopping and it can remove
any kind of interferer that has some spatial or temporal coherence (co-channel, adjacent
channel, CDMA signal leaking in the PCS band, TV transmitter, etc..). It can be viewed as a
digital beam-forming technique in which a null of the radiation pattern is pointed towards the
interferer.

8 interfering MS s
on the 8 TS s of F0

BS#2

call drop:
too high C/I

MS driving away
from serving BS

BS#1

The algorithm is based on the use of the Maximum Ratio Combining diversity technique and
the midamble in the GSM burst that is used to gain some indication of the channel
characteristics, and hence an estimate of the noise present. This noise is approximately made
up of interference and thermal-noise. The midamble is a known sequence of bits, which
undergoes changes after propagation. The interference estimation is necessarily biaised since
it is estimated on a short period of time (22 Tsymbol compared to the 148 Tsymbol) and the
interference cancellation in the absence of interference will result in decreasing the SNR ratio.
To avoid this problem, a parameter is introduced.

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Thus, it is better not to try to estimate the noise but to put as an a priori information that there
is only white noise. However when there are interferers, it is necessary to estimate them and
the algorithm can do it only on the 22 signal samples where the useful signal is known.
The parameter is the interferer cancel algo usage parameter that can be set from the OMC.
The parameter is a compromise parameter that can trade-off the pure noise performances
against the dominant interferer case. The algorithm finds the maximum of the modified signalto-noise ratio:

= 0 implies that we have a constant term at the denominator, the noise


energy, and the processing finds the linear combination that maximizes the
signal (under the constraint that |a|2+|b|2=1), i.e. it performs the maximal ratio
combiner (MRC).
= 1 (100%) means that we remove the constant term i.e. the a priori
information on the noise. When there is no interference an approximate MRC
combiner is performed.
other values like e.g. .5 (50%) mean that a compromise is made between
performances at high interference and at pure noise situations.

MRC is Nortel equipments diversity combining technique which is known to be the linear
combination of signals received on the two antennas, that maximises the S/N ratio when there
is only thermal noise (for example it is 1.5dB better than selection combining). It suffers about
2dB loss when there are strong interferers. Simulations have been carried out to show how
with the use of MRC, the required Carrier-to-Int+Noise ratio (C/(I+N)) to maintain a particular
BER reduces, as the presence of synchronus/asynchronus interferers increases. Although
following the same trend, ICA simulation showed the use of a lower C/(I+N) to maintain the
same BER as opposed to only using MRC.
Before V15.1.1, gain of interferer cancellation was not optimal in case of low Rxlev. Since
V15.1.1 interferer cancellation algorithm has been improved to take into account all range
value for parameter "interferer cancel algo usage" (called rejection factor ) for all RxLev
range

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4.19. EXTENDED CCCH


This feature consists in the implementation of the extended CCCH feature The need of this
feature has been identified in some configuration where only one CCCH is not sufficient, due
to a high rate of paging and immediate assignment.

4.19.1 CUSTOMER/SERVICE PROVIDER BENEFITS


This feature allows increasing the rate of paging and immediate assignment messages related
to a cell and thus:

Allows managing large location area with up to 16 TRX per cell,

Gives the ability to manage multi-layers networks

Allows managing GPRS traffic.

4.19.2 FEATURE FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION


You can allow the configuration of extended CCCH on TS 2, 4 and 6 of the BCCH TDMA.
The following CCCH configurations are now available :

CCCH_Conf = 0:

CCCH_Conf = 1:

TS 0 = FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH
TS 2 = CCCH

CCCH_Conf = 4:

TS 0 = FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH+SDCCH/4+SACCH/4

CCCH_Conf = 2:

TS 0 = FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH

TS 0 = FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH
TS 2 = CCCH
TS 4 = CCCH

CCCH_Conf = 6:

TS 0 = FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH
TS 2 = CCCH
TS 4 = CCCH
TS 6 = CCCH

Note: By increasing the number of CCCH, we decrease the number of TCH, so it leads to
reduction of the capacity. For example, an O8 with 1 BCCH has a capacity of 48,65 Erlangs
(with 2% of blocking rate); with 4 CCCH its capacity drops to 45,88 Erlangs.
To configuration of a CCCH block on a TS the channelType parameter must be set to cCH.
See also chapter SDCCH Dimensioning an TDMA Models.

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4.20.

CELLULAR TELEPHONE TEXT MODEM (TTY)


Deaf, hard of hearing, and speech-impaired persons have been using specific Text Telephone
(referred to as TTY in North America) equipment in the fixed network for many years to
transmit text and speech through ordinary speech traffic channels.
To answer US FCC requirements, NORTEL release with BSC/TCU 3000 introduction) BSS
includes now the Cellular text Telephone Modem (CTM) solution for reliable transmission of a
Text Telephone conversation via the speech channel of cellular or PSTN networks.

4.20.1 TTY PRINCIPLE


Data transmission methods exist in the wireless services, but for various reasons, a text
telephone transmission method for the speech path is desired. Two reasons are:

text telephony is acknowledged as a way to contact the emergency services,


and emergency services in wireless networks are so far only defined for
speech calls.
alternating speech and text in a call is desired, and one simple way to
accomplish that without special service support (like multimedia) is by
alternating the use of the speech channel.

CTM allows reliable transmission of a text telephone conversation alternating with a speech
conversation through the existing speech communication paths in cellular mobile phone
systems. This reliability is achieved by an improved modulation technique, including error
protection, interleaving and synchronization.
The CTM is intended for use in end terminals (on the mobile or fixed side) and within the BSS
network for the adaptation between CTM and existing traditional text telephone standards.
The signal adaptation Baudot CTM is localized in the TCU 3000 in each TRM board.

NORMAL CASE
SPEECH/DATA INDICATOR = SPEECH + CTM
If an ASSIGNMENT REQUEST or HANDOVER REQUEST message is received from the
MSC with:

Circuit Identity Code compatible with TRM capability (EFR+CTM)


Speech/data indicator = Speech + CTM
and permitted speech version identifiers = EFR

an ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE or HANDOVER COMPLETE message will be sent to the MSC


with Speech Version (Chosen) = EFR.

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SPEECH/DATA INDICATOR = SPEECH


If an ASSIGNMENT REQUEST or HANDOVER REQUEST message is received from the
MSC with:

Circuit Identity Code compatible TRM capability (EFR+CTM)


Speech/data indicator = Speech
and permitted speech version identifiers = EFR
and unavailable archipelago EFR resource (SPU)

an ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE or HANDOVER COMPLETE message will be sent to the MSC


with Speech Version (Chosen) = EFR.

ABNORMAL CASE
On reception by the BSC of an ASSIGNMENT REQUEST or HANDOVER REQUEST
message with:

Circuit Identity Code incompatible with TRM capability (the circuit pool implied
by the CIC information element is incompatible with the channel type
indicated)
Speech/data indicator = Speech + CTM
and permitted speech version identifiers = EFR
and unavailable archipelago EFR_CTM resource (SPU)

In a first step an ASSIGNMENT FAILURE or HANDOVER FAILURE message will be sent to


the MSC.
In a second step an ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE or HANDOVER COMPLETE message will be
sent to the MSC with Speech Version (Chosen) = EFR TTY impact

4.20.2 TTY IMPACT


TCU 3000
The TCU 3000 capacity is affected by the CTM implementation according to the configured
archipelagos EFR_CTM number.
Please refer to BSC/TCU 3000 Engineering Rules [R63]

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4.21. SMS-CELL BROADCAST


The objective of this feature is to support new broadcast services as advertising or
informations with BSC12000 and BSC3000
The goal is to offer an interface for the SMS-CB that allows to send easily the same message
on every cell of a list of BSCs and so that the system can update all the cells in a quicker time.

BS
OMC

BS
Cell
Broadcast
Center

SMS-CB
manager

BSC

BS
BS
BSC

BS

4.21.1 PRINCIPLE
In the Nortel networks structure of Cell Broadcast Service a Cell Broadcast Center is
interfaced with the OMC via a non Q3 interface. The OMC act as the SMS-CB manager and
broadcast SMS over all the BSCs placed under its control.
The new requirements concern:

the broadcast of the same short messages on all the cells which are managed
by an OMC-R or a BSC list.
the change rate of these short messages: 13 seconds are required;
The current implementation about the short message broadcast involves
several limitations and OAM constrains which should be raised:
CBC/OMC-R interface throughput which must be compliant with the user
activity performance.
OMC-R/BSC interface throughput which must be compliant with the number of
message (TGE) to be processed by the BSC (from 1 up to 2 TGE/sec for all
transactions).
Heavy OAM constraint to update the data base CBC when network (re)
configuration occurs.
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4.21.2 PERFORMANCES
The following table depicts the number of messages:
CBC / OMC / I/F
Messages

Old

New

Create short message

Start broadcast (first time)

X*Y

Set short message (continued)

Stop broadcast (continued)

X*Y

Start broadcast (continued)


Stop broadcast (last)
Periodic MMI commands
number

OMC / BSC / I/F

Old

New

X*Y

X*Y

(1+2*X*Y)*n

2*n
2*y*n

Periodic TGEs number

320*n max or

1200*n max

X: BSC number
[1:30]
Y: Cell number / BSC12000 [1:160]
X*Y: Cell number / OMC
[1:2400]
n: Number of updates of messages
With this solution, SMS-CB has been dimensioned for following capacities:

5 messages maximum per cell (broadcast in loop)


message format: 1 page / 93 characters
broadcast periodicity (30 sec, 1 mn, 2mn, 4 mn, 8 mn or 16 mn), 2 sec (1
message / cell) corresponding to the CBCH maximum capacity

The whole users activity can be:

on an average: 1 MMI command every 10 sec. for the whole set of users. Or,
1 MMI unitary command every 160 sec. per users, with a maximum of 16
users.
on a maximum: 1 MMI unitary command every 2 sec. for the whole set users,
during 2 hours maximum. Or 1 MMI unitary command every 32 sec. per users,
during 2 hours maximum, with a maximum of 16 users.

The CBC can be associated to n users among 16 ones: then the number of MMI commands
on the CBC / OMC interface is n every 32 sec.
Every short message modifications involves 2 MMI unitary commands (set short message &
start broadcast) the short message change rate is 32*2n.
Note:
When the OMC-R receives one command for all the cells of one or several BSC, it checks for
each cell if there is a CBCH channel and if the limit of 5 short messages is not exceeded. That
defines a compliant cell. It then checks if a threshold S (per BSC) corresponding to a max of
tolerated non compliant cells is reached.

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If the limit of 5 messages is exceeded for one or several cells and if the number of non
compliant cells exceeds the threshold S for one or several BSC, the OMC-R rejects the
command and does not sent the TGEs. The TGEs will not be sent for these BSC(s), but will be
sent for the others. The response (FAILED) to the CBC will report per BSC the non compliant
bts identities (up to the first S bts identities per BSC).
If the number of non compliant cells does not exceed the threshold S for any BSC, the OMC-R
accepts the command and sends the TGEs. The response (SUCCEEDED) to the CBC will
report per BSC the non compliant bts identities (up to S bts identities per BSC).

CBCH CHANNEL RECOMMENDATION


On the air interface the CBCH channel takes 4 TS bursts (4*0.577 ms) on one 51 multiframe.
The CBCH channel takes the place of one SDCCH channel.
The SDCCH channel can be mapped on two different ways on TDMA: with BCCH combined
(SDCCH/4) or on one reserved TS for SDCCH (SDCCH/8). Thus it is the same thing for
CBCH.
The CBCH is not using the radio resources of the CCCH. It is using the radio resources of one
SDCCH channel. The activation and the use of the SMS-CB will not impact the load on the
CCCH.
The activation of the CBCH will take 1 SDCCH channel and so will increase the SD
congestion. After the activation of the CBCH one needs to follow the SDCCH congestion and
maybe if necessary on some cells to increase the number of SDCCH channels.
Once defined on the cell the CBCH channel can only be used to send SMS-CB. Thus the
quantity of SMS-CB sent will not impact the load of the radio channels other than the CBCH.
Throughput calculation:
The CBCH (idem to SDCCH) offers 184 bits for a block message (or 4TS).
The corresponding throughput offered by the CBCH carried on 51 multitrame:
Throughput = 184 * 4 / 4.615 ms / 51 = 781 b/s
The limitations described in the FN are:

SMS of 88 bytes
5 messages per cell
2 seconds between each message.

This means a throughput of: 88 * 8 * 5 / 2= 1760 b/s, which is more than 2 times the max
throughput of the CBCH channel.

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4.22. AMR - ADAPTATIVE MULTI RATE FR/HR


Nortel BSS has evolved to introduce sophisticated traffic management features dealing with
call quality management and capacity improvements. This feature manages AMR services,
which allow high gains and good trade-off between these 2 objectives.

4.22.1 BASICS AND SPECIFIC TERMINOLOGY


In GSM, speech is transmitted on a radio channel (using a speech coder also called source
coder) which has a fixed raw bit rate. The coder delivers speech frames every 20 ms. From
that standpoint, speech quality tends to improve when the source coder bit rate is increased.
If we use a high coder rate, the speech quality will be very good in excellent radio conditions,
as long as speech frames can be decoded properly. But in bad radio conditions, a high
proportion of speech frames will not be decoded, in which case some interpolation will be
done by the decoder, and speech quality actually drops. If we use a low coder rate, speech
quality will be medium or low, but will resist very well to radio channel impairments, due to the
high level of redundancy. Consequently, present techniques like FR or EFR are the result of
compromises between the source coder rate, and the channel coding, within the boundaries of
the raw bit rate of a GSM channel.
AMR techniques are adaptive, and multirate. It means that it allows adapting the compromise
between source coder rate and channel coding/redundancy to actual radio conditions. AMR
may operate in full rate channels, or half rate channels. This is called the channel type
(TCH/FR or TCH/HR). Uplink and downlink always apply the same channel type.
Basis of AMR is that within the channel (FR or HR), there is a set of voice coders, along with
associated channel coding, among which the best combination can be selected to maximize
speech quality according to conditions met on the radio link. This is codec mode adaptation.
For codec mode adaptation the receiving side performs link quality measurements of the
incoming link. The measurements are processed yielding a Quality Indicator.
For uplink adaptation, the Quality Indicator, as measured in the BTS is compared to certain
thresholds and generates, also considering possible constraints from network control, a Codec
Mode Command (CMC) indicating the codec mode to be used on the uplink. The Codec Mode
Command is then transmitted inband to the mobile side where the incoming speech signal is
encoded in the corresponding codec mode. For downlink adaptation, the DL Mode Request
Generator within the mobile compares the DL Quality indicator with certain thresholds and
generates a Codec Mode Request (CMR) indicating the preferred codec mode for the
downlink.
Both for uplink and downlink, the presently applied codec mode is transmitted inband as
Codec Mode Indication (CMI) together with the coded speech data. At the decoder, the Codec
Mode Indication is decoded and applied for decoding of the received speech data.

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The following figure provides the AMR data flow from a "CMR, CMC and CMI" point of view
and explains the CMI, CMC and CMR period.

MS

BTS
CMI
CMI

20ms

CMR

40ms

20ms

CMC

40ms

CMI
CMI
CMR
CMC
AMR is introduced to choose in real time the repartition between rate of the source vocoder
and channel protection:

Half Rate
Source coding
Global throughput = 11,4 kBits/s

Channel coding

Full Rate
Global throughput = 22,8 kBits/s

when the transmission is good, a high rate vocoder is chosen and the
number of bits dedicated to the channel protection is low,
in case of degraded radio conditions, the vocoder rate is decreased, in
order to provide a better channel protection and allow a better voice
quality.

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4.22.2 AMR MECHANISMS


AMR introduces algorithms based on requested codec mode, which are fixed using an
approximation of C/I and a set of thresholds and hysteresis. Depending on the channel used,
the set of codec mode is different:

For AMR FR, 5 codec modes can be requested: 12k2, 10k2, 6k7, 5k9, 4k75
(12k2 is a virtual mode)
For AMR HR, 4 codec modes can be requested: 7k4, 6k7, 5k9, 4k75 (7k4 is a
virtual mode)

CODEC MODE ADAPTATION


The purpose of AMR codec mode adaptation is to provide the "best" compromise between
data rate of codec mode and channel protection, according to the link quality. This adaptation
is done for uplink and downlink and there is no interdependence between the 2 links, but both
sets of codec have to be identical.
Each 40ms, according to the requested codec mode and the applied codec mode, the BTS:

increases by one step the rate of the codec mode, if the requested codec
mode (CMR) is greater than the applied codec mode,
decreases by one step the rate of the codec mode, if the requested codec
mode (CMR) is lower than the applied codec mode,
keeps the same codec mode, if the requested codec mode (CMR) is equal to
the applied codec mode.

DOWNLINK REQUESTED CODEC MODE


A comparison of the estimated uplink C/I is then made with the network parameters to see to
which codec mode the C/I corresponds.

C/I
Codec Mode 4
Thresold_3 + Hysteresis_3 = Threshold_Max_Up(3)
Thresold_3 = Threshold_Max_Dn(4)

Codec Mode 3

Thresold_2 + Hysteresis_2 = Threshold_Max_Up(2)


Thresold_2 = Threshold_Max_Dn(3)

Codec Mode 2

Thresold_1 + Hysteresis_1 = Threshold_Max_Up(1)


Thresold_1 = Threshold_Max_Dn(2)

Codec Mode 1

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UPLINK REQUESTED CODEC MODE


The BTS computes for each burst the SNR criteria, which provides a good approximation of
C/I. In order to have a smooth variation of these criteria, the BTS applies the following filter:
(SNR)(k) = * (SNR)(k) + (1 - ) * (SMR)(k - 1)

Where is equal to:


0.05 in case of FR no frequency hopping channel and slow moving mobile,
0.1 in others cases of FR channels,
0.1 in case of HR no frequency hopping channel and slow moving mobile,
0.2 in others cases of HR channels.
In case of DTX, the BTS cannot evaluate the SNR criteria, thus during the DTX period, the last
value of (SNR)k is taken into account and at the end of the DX period, a time exponential filter
is used in order to increase the weight of the new measures and keep the same period of
filtering. This filtered SNR is compared to a set of thresholds and allows determining the
requested codec mode. If no uplink correct frames is received, the BTS has no way to
evaluate the quality of the downlink path, the BTS decreases the applied downlink codec
mode of one step each 40ms. This procedure is repeated until an uplink frame is correctly
received or the 4k75 codec mode is selected for the downlink path.
LCAUTION! Before V16.0 there was a limitation on UL SNR in order to have homogeneous
behavior for AMR calls with every kind of DRX. From now, UL SNR measurements are
truncated at 24dB (48 in 0.5dB) at SDO level, whatever hardware is used. The 48 value given
from the BTS corresponds to 24dB and more. This new implementation improves the power
control reactivity. That impacts on the AMR metric. Therefore C/I metric values for both AMR
and EFR calls cannot be compared.

PARAMETERS
For each mobile, the following set of parameters has to be defined:

for each link direction (upLink or DownLink), one threshlod per subsequent
codec in the defined Active Codec Set (ACS),
one hysteresis (the same value is used for each codec mode, but one for FR
and another one for HR channel).

But these parameters are linked to a set of factors, some of them being determined by the
BTS (frequency hopping, MS speed), others being network dependent (environment profile).
The following table is implemented in the BSS:

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5k9 to 4k75
6k7 to 5k9
FR thresholds
10k2 to 6k7
12k2 to 10k2
FR hysteresis
5k9 to 4k75
HR thresholds 6k7 to 5k9
7k4 to 6k7
HR hysteresis

slow MS no FH
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89

uplink
downlink
ideal FH
fast MS SFH 900
< 4 FH
(>= 4 freq)
no FH
TU3
90
99
108
117
91
100
109
118
92
101
110
119
93
102
111
120
94
103
112
121
95
104
113
122
96
105
114
123
97
106
115
124
98
107
116
125

According to the network configuration, and for each combination of codec mode and link
direction, the operator selects the appropriate thresholds by using the parameters
amrUlFrAdaptationSet, amrUlHrAdaptationSet, amrDlFrAdaptationSet, amrDlHrAdaptationSet
(or the single parameter amrAdaptationSet before V15.1.1). These parameters allow to
choose between 3 sets of pre-defined tables (optimistic, pessimistic and typical settings) plus
one set of tables which is user-defined The BSS using the TS configuration and the MS speed
applies the appropriate column for the uplink path.
As specifed in the GERAN recommendations (05.09) the mobile shall use the downlink
thresholds provided by the BSS defined for a reference environement: Typical Urban 3 km/h
with ideal frequency hopping at 900 MHz. The MS shall then apply a normalization factor to
normalize with respect to different channel types. The normalization factor is mobile
dependant.

See also chapter AMR Field Feedback for further informations on the codec adaptation table.

RATSCCH MANAGEMENT
This new channel is used in order to change the set of codec modes (see "L1m" section), and
has the following main characteristics:

frame stealing (1 speech frame for a FR channel, 2 speech frames for a HR


channel),
priority of RATSCCH frames is lower than FACCH priority,
a RATSCCH message has to be acknowledged in the next 3 frames by the
MS,
the content of RATSCCH message is applicable 12 frames after this
message,
in case of failure (ACK_ERR message), a RATSCCH procedure is repeated
twice. If the procedure completely fails, the MS and the BTS use the previous
set of codec modes.

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When amrReserved1 is set to enabled, this procedure is used by the L1m to modify the set of
codec modes, for a FR channel and in case of handover failure with return on the old FR
channel, in order to avoid inconsistency between the BTS and the MS (the BTS sends the
AMR_CONFIG_REQ message).
For TCH/FR, the default transmission phase shall be such that Codec Mode Indications are
sent aligned with TDMA frame 0 in the uplink and with TDMA frame 4 in the downlink. For
TCH/HR, the default transmission phase shall be such that Mode Indications are sent aligned
with TDMA frame 0 or 1 depending on the subchannel in the uplink and with TDMA frame 4 or
5 depending on the subchannel, in the downlink.
If at call setup or after a handover, the Codec Mode Indication is not aligned, an Ater
procedure is engaged in order to change the default phase in downlink direction.

PRINCIPLES
The RATSCCH as the FACCH shares the dedicated channel of the TCH. Contrarily to the
FACCH the RATSCCH is time synchronous. The RATSCCH allows modification of the AMR
configuration (CMI/CMC phasing, Adaptation Thresholds, ACS)..The introduction of the AMR,
Nortel Networks BTS will support the RATSCCH (All Nortels BTS from the S4000 DCU4 to
the most recent BTS will support the AMR speech service.)
The RATSCCH message is composed of a preamble and of a message part. Several
messages have been defined. These messages correspond to different procedures. At the
moment the following have been defined:

Changing of the Active Codec Set


Changing of the thresholds and hysteresis

PRE-HANDOVER
In case of intracell or intercell handover, the adaptation mechanism has to be frozen to the
ICM. For this result, the BTS has to intercept:

the Assignment Command in case of intracell,


the Handover Command in case of intercell handover,

and to perform up to 2 codec mode adaptations, in order to activate the initial codec mode
(5k9 kbits in all cases) and to stop the adaptative mechanism.
This induces:

an increase of around 150ms on the handover duration from the BSS point of
view,
a delay of around 150ms on the handover starting time from a MS point of
view, but no impact for the end-user in term of voice quality (i.e. same speech
gap).

In case of handover failure when the MS returns on the old channel, the adaptation
mechanism is restarted by the BTS at reception of the Start Measurement message

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4.22.3 TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT MECHANISMS


CHANNEL ALLOCATION
TCH channel allocation is triggered by the reception of an Assignment request or a Handover
request message from the MSC, or in case of an intraBSC handover. The BSC should
determine whether AMR is to be used, and select between FR or HR. This mechanism is
based on proprietary algorithms, which provide to the operator a full control of the allocation.
These decisions are made based on several criteria:

OAM flags which indicate if the BSC, the TCU, and the cell support AMR, and
strategy selected
MS capability, which is reported by the MSC in Assignment request or
Handover request messages
radio context, for instance as evaluated during the SDCCH phase.

The BSC also has to control the BSS version: an AMR channel is activated only if all nodes
managing the call are at least in V14.

FLAG MANAGEMENT
We use the two following parameters:

coderPoolConfiguration (AMR, fullrate, enhancedfullrate) attribute. This


attribute indicates enumerated speech coding algorithms supported by the
TCU.
speechMode (halfRateAMR, fullRateAMR, fullrate, enhancedfullrate) attribute.
This attribute indicates speech coding algorithms supported by the cell.

CHANNEL TYPE MANAGEMENT


In order to select the channel type associated to the connection, the BSC uses the channel
rate and type and permitted speech version information, in order to know the MS capability in
term of:

FR/HR management
Speech codec

But the chosen channel type is fixed according to radio criteria and some O&M parameters,
and the BSS has the possibility to modify the channel type during the connection, in all cases.
So at reception of the Assignment Request or Handover Request, the following mediation is
done on the Channel Type octet 4:

IF Target TCH = FR TCH


THEN the BSC always allocates a FR TCH

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IF Target TCH = HR TCH


AND IF AMR HR is allowed in the cell
THEN the BSC allocates a HR TCH
ELSE the BSC allocates a FR TCH.

CELL LOAD STATE


The cell load state is used in order to choose between a FR or a HR channel, and is defined
using following parameters:

hrCellLoadStart
hrCellLoadEnd
filteredTrafficCoefficient

Previously to V15.1.1, if hrCellLoadStart = 0, then FR radio channel is always allocated to the


MS, and if hrCellLoadStart > 0, then HR radio channel is allocated to the MS, according to its
radio conditions. For one call, the cell load state is evaluated at the first TCH allocation in the
cell, thus in case of intracell handover, the cell load state is not reevaluated.
In V15.1.1, the feature AMR based on traffic is introduced. The goal is to enhance the HR
allocation in order to take into account the cell load: AMR HR channels are allocated only
during loaded period. The cell load state is evaluated every 10s (see Filtered Erlang traffic and
cell load state)

ASSIGNMENT
In case of assignment, according to:

the speechMode parameter value of the target cell (signalingPoint +


TranscoderBoard + bts parameters)
the cell load of the target cell
the radio condition of the MS

the BSC selects the target Channel Type.


To know the radio conditions, the BSC sends to the BTS a Connection State Request and in
the Connection State Ack the BTS gives the following bit map:

small zone bit indicates if the small zone of the serving is eligible in case of
multi-zone cell
HR large bit indicates if the MS has sufficient radio conditions to manage a
HR channel in the large zone of a mullti-zone cell or in normal cell
HR small bit indicates if the MS has sufficient radio conditions to manage a
HR channel in the small zone of a mullti-zone cell or in normal cell

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Using these bits and the following priority order between channel type and zone:
Priority

Preferred zone

++

HR small zone

HR large zone

FR small zone

--

FR large zone

the BSC selects the channel type and the zone for the MS.

RADIO ALLOCATOR
The radio allocator is improved in order to manage AMR calls. Due to intrinsic quality of FR
AMR and HR AMR, 2 new parameters are created on the transceiver object, in order to give
an AMR priority to each TDMA:

frAMRprioriry
hrAMRPriority

Priority 0 is given to a high priority TDMA


Priority 1 is given to a low priority TDMA
Priority 2 disables this service on the TDMA

where

Thus according these new parameters, the BSC chooses the radio TS using the following
order:

Interference level,
TDMA priority,
TDMA number (from the smallest to the biggest: 0 to n),
TS number (from the biggest to the smallest: TS7 to TS0).

In case of HR request, the BSC applies the following rules:

Always fill the holes in term of tree half (between 2 holes, the BSC uses
priority rules previously defined
If there is no hole, then the BSC allocates the highest priority TS using the
rules previously defined
This radio allocator is not improved in order to manage AMR calls, thus if an
AMR request occurs and this radio allocator is selected, then:
an other vocoder (EFR or FR) is selected using priority order given in the
channel type element
the allocated channel type is always a full rate TCH.

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4.22.4 AMR L1M


Up to V14, L1m algorithms are common for all types of dedicated channel, but due to
performances of AMR channels:

A FR AMR channel, specially with low codec mode, is more resistant than the
normal FR channel
A HR AMR channel, is more sensitive to interference than the normal FR
channel

Some new mechanisms dedicated for AMR channels based on "requested codec mode" in
uplink and downlink paths, which are the best representation of the quality in this case, are
designed.
For this reason, RxQual criterion is not used in AMR L1m algorithm, dealing with AMR
channel.

12K2 AND 7K4 CODEC MODE FALSE ACTIVATION


As seen before following codec mode sets are implemented in the BTS:
AMR FR

AMR HR

10k2
6k7

6k7

5k9

5k9

4k75

4k75

In AMR L1m mechanisms, the main criterion for L1m is the requested codec mode provided
by the MS or the BTS. With this set of codec modes, it is impossible to detect if the quality is
good or very good (in both cases the MS and the BTS provide the 10k2 or 6k7 codec mode
according to the channel type).
In order to solve this problem, for an half rate channel, a fourth codec mode (7k4) is added to
the list allowing to distinguished between good and very good radio conditions. Thus the half
rate codec mode set becomes:
AMR HR

7k4
6k7
5k9
4k75

For a full rate channel:

if the radio conditions are good for uplink and downlink, then the 12k2 kbits
codec mode is configured and the 4k75 discarded allowing to distinguish
between good and very good radio conditions (using RATSCCH channel).
if the radio conditions are bad for uplink or downlink, then the 12k2 kbits
codec mode is removed and the 4k75 is set back (using RATSCCH channel).

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Thus the codec mode set becomes:
AMR FR

AMR FR

12k2
10k2

10k2

6k7

6k7

5k9

5k9
4k75

The following algorithm details the way of changing the codec mode set, for both paths:
1) initial state: the active codec mode set is {12k2, 10k2, 6k7, 5k9}

2) during the last 480ms period, at least one 4k75 code mode or 3 * 5k9 codec mode
are requested for uplink or downlink paths, then the active codec mode set is change
to {10k2, 6k7, 5k9, 4k75}

3) if the active code mode set is {10k2, 6k7, 5k9, 4k75} and during the last 2*480ms
period, no 5k9 nor 4k75 code mode is requested for uplink and downlink paths, then
the active codec mode set is change to {12k2, 10k2, 6k7, 5k9}.

POWER CONTROL
The Power Control feature reduces the average interferences level on the Network and saves
mobile batteries.
Power control algorithms are redesigned for AMR calls, in order to take into account the
requested codec mode. With the following parameters (powerControl object), the operator
defines the target codec mode of each channel type:
Uplink target codec

hrPowerControlTargetMode
frPowerControlTargetMode

Downlink target codec

hrPowerControlTargetModeDl
frPowerControlTargetModeDl

For the uplink path, SNR and CMR criteria are available, but the SNR is more accurate than
the CMR. For the downlink path only the CMR is available. Thus the AMR power control does
not apply same principles for both paths. This new power control mechanism is also controlled
by the 2 classical power control parameters:

bsPowerControl for the downlink path,


uplinkPowerControl for the uplink path.

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UPLINK POWER CONTROL


For the uplink path, the criterion is the SNR, averaged on 2 measurement periods. As this
mechanism shall guarantee a voice quality, the target SNR is the upper threshold of the
adaptation mechanism:
Note: for the 12k2 (or 7k4) value, the BTS takes into account the 10k2 (or 6k7) value plus the
FR (or HR) hysteresis.
At each measurement period, the BTS calculates the new MS power using the following
formula:
IF (Filtered_SNR Target _SNR) > 0
THEN MS_txpwr(N) = MS_txpwr(N-1) 0.7*( Filtered_SNR Target _SNR)
ELSE IF
THEN MS_txpwr(N) = MS_txpwr(N-1) + 1.4*( Target _SNR -Filtered_SNR)
Note: From V 16, the reactivity of UL power control is improved as UL SNR measurements
limited to 24 dB (48 in 0.5 dB) are taken out.

DOWNLINK POWER CONTROL


The power control principle is:

To decrease the power level of one step if the last requested codec mode of
the 480 ms is greater than the target codec mode,
To increase the power level of one step if the last requested codec mode of
the 480 ms is lower than the target codec mode

Note: in AMR like in EFR, the parameter lRxLevDLP indicates the threshold below which
power control is inhibited.

HANDOVER MECHANISMS
The following table describes which handover mechanisms are impacted by the AMR
introduction
Handover type

modified

uplink and downlink quality

yes

uplink and downlink strength

no

distance

no

power budget

no

uplink and downlink intra-cell handover

yes

capture

no

inter-zone

yes

directed retry

no

Traffic

no

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PRINCIPLE
These 4 handovers are based on "(n,p) voting" principle, using the requested codec mode.
The (n,p) voting principle considers the last p requested codec modes, it compares them to
two parameters: a codec mode threshold defined for the procedure and the specific n value
pRequestedCodec

t
Handover
decision

used for the procedure.


If p is set to 2 SACCH periods (2*12), n is set to 10, the target codec mode is the green one,
and then a handover is triggered in the following example:
This principle applies in uplink and downlink direction independently.
This mechanism is managed by the L1m and triggered at the end of each period of
measurement, thus p has to be a multiple of the number of requested codec mode in one
measurement period (i.e. 480 / 40 = 12).
The following parameters are defined in the handOverControl object:

pRequestedCodec
nHRRequestedCodec
nFRRequestedCodec

If the n parameter is set to a value greater than the p parameter, then all associated features
are deactivated. If the target codec mode is the smallest, then the associated feature is
deactivated.

INTERBSC HANDOVER
In case of interBSC handover, according to:

the speechMode parameter value of the target cell (signallingPoint +


transcoderBoard + bts parameters)
the cell load of the target cell
the Current Channel element
the Cause element

the BSC selects the target Channel Type:

if one out of these last 2 optional A interface elements is not set in the
Handover Request message, the chosen channel type is FR
if these 2 elements are present and the half rate is allowed in the target cell,
then the following table is applied:

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Current Channel type 1

HR

Cause

FR

uplink quality

FR

FR

uplink strength

FR

FR

downlink quality

FR

FR

downlink strength

FR

FR

Distance

FR

FR

O&M intervention

FR

FR

Better cell

HR

FR

Directed retry

FR

FR

Traffic

HR

FR

In all other case, a FR channel is allocated.

INTRABSC INTERCELL HANDOVER


In case of intraBSC handover, following transitions are defined in order to determine the target
channel type:
Initial Channel type
Handover cause

HR AMR

FR AMR

AMR quality

FR AMR

FR AMR

DISTANCE

FR AMR

FR AMR

PBGT

HR AMR

FR AMR

TRAFFIC

HR AMR

FR AMR

Forced HO

FR AMR

FR AMR

Capture

FR AMR

FR AMR

Directed retry

FR AMR

FR AMR

The speechMode parameter value of the target cell and the cell load are also checked in order
to verify that the half rate is allowed in the cell.
With AMR calls, RxLev and RxQual criteria for uplink and downlink are not used and replaced
by an algorithm based on "(n,p) voting" principle, using the requested codec mode.
Following parameters are introduced in order to specify the target requested codec mode for
FR and HR AMR channel:

amrHRIntercellCodecMThresh
amrFRIntercellCodecMThresh

In order to manage the eligible cell list, a new handover margin is introduced in the
adjacentCellHandOver object: hoMarginAMR this parameter is used in order to calculate the
Exp2 (this expression is used to evaluate the PBGT criteria for each cell and to classify eligible
cells, please refer to chapter EXP2).

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IF N(Uplink) nXXRequestedCodec
OR N(Downlink) nXXRequestedCodec
THEN the Handover is triggered

With N the number of requested codec mode for the uplink or the downlink strictly lower than
AMRXXIntercellCodecModeThreshold (XX stands for HR or FR)

INTRABSC INTRACELL HANDOVER


In order to select the channel type, the BSC applies the following table:
Handover cause

original channel type

target channel type

normal intra-cell

FR

FR

Small to large zone

FR or HR

FR

large to small zone

FR

FR or HR according to radio conditions*

large to small zone

HR

HR**

tiering FH to no FH

FR

FR

tiering FH to no FH

HR

FR

tiering no FH to FH

FR

FR

tiering no FH to FH

HR

HR

AMR FR to HR

FR

HR

AMR HR to FR

HR

FR

*The radio conditions are given by the BTS to the BSC using the Current Cell Add information
element in the Handover Indication message.
**If radio conditions are not sufficient in the small zone to manage this HR MS, the MS
remains in the large one, due to the HR priority.
Intracell handover principle is to give to the mobile a better resource in term of interference, if
its C/I is low, with a high C value.
This principle is only applicable to FR AMR mobiles, due to interaction with HR >FR handover:
in these radio conditions, it is really more efficient to allocate a FR radio TS to a HR AMR
mobile, than to perform a handover from an HR TS to a HR TS. This intracell handover is
triggered only if the intracell parameter of handovercontrol object is set to enable.
The following parameter is introduced on the handoverControl object, in order to specify the
target requested codec mode for FR AMR channel:

amrFRIntracellCodecMThresh

The minimum level to perform an AMR intracell handover is defined by following parameters
on the handoverControl object:

amriRxLevDLH
amriRxLevULH

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So the intracell handover uses the following criteria:


IF N(Uplink) nFRRequestedCodec AND RxLevUL > amriRxLevULH
OR N(Downlink) nFRRequestedCodec AND RxLevDL > amriRxLevDLH
THEN the handover is triggered.

With N the number of requested codec mode for the uplink or the downlink strictly lower than
amrFRIntracellCodecMThresh for the uplink or the downlink

INTRACELL HANDOVER AMR FR AMR HR


This handover is used to change the channel type of a mobile from FR to HR if the quality is
sufficient.
Due to the high C/I requirement for HR channel, the requested codec mode of "(n,p) voting"
mechanism is fixed by default to 12k2 kbits/s and a dedicated "n" parameter allows to set the
trade-off between quality and capacity:

nCapacityFRRequestedCodec

The handover is triggered if the "(n,p) voting" principle is fulfilled in both directions.
Note:

this mechanism is not linked to the intracell parameter of handovercontrol


object.
this mechanism is deactivated if nCapacityFRRequestedCodec is greater than
pRequestedCodec.

So the handover AMR FR to HR uses the following criteria:


IF N(Uplink) nCapacityFRRequestedCodec
AND N(Downlink) nCapacityFRRequestedCodec
THEN the capacity handover is triggered.

With N the number of requested codec mode for 12k2 in the p requested codec mode for the
uplink and the downlink path,

INTRACELL HANDOVER AMR HR AMR FR


This handover is used to change the channel type of a mobile from HR to FR if the quality is
not sufficient.
The handover is triggered if the "(n,p) voting" principle is fulfilled in one direction.
The following parameter is introduced on the handoverControl object, in order to specify the
target requested codec mode for this handover:

amrHRtoFRIntracellCodecMThresh

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Note: this mechanism is not linked to the intracell parameter of handovercontrol object, and it
is deactivated if amrHRtoFRIntracellCodecMThresh is set to 4k75.

DIRECT HALF RATE TCH ALLOCATION


In order to avoid some unnecessary handover from FR to HR channel, it is mandatory to
evaluate the radio conditions at following stages:

primo allocation: SDCCH to TCH in a normal cell,


primo allocation: SDCCH to large zone TCH in a multi-zones cell,
primo allocation: SDCCH to small zone TCH in a multi-zones cell,
inter-zone handover from large to small in a multi-zones cell.

and allocate immediately a HR channel if radio conditions are sufficient.


The principle of this mechanism is to compare the RxLev uplink and downlink to dedicated
thresholds, in order to estimate the MS HR capability.
Following parameters are introduced on the handoverControl object, in order to specified
RxLev thresholds for this handover:

amrDirectAllocIntRxLevDL
amrDirectAllocIntRxLevUL
amrDirectAllocRxLevDL
amrDirectAllocRxLevUL

So the direct half rate TCH allocation uses the following criteria:
In a normal cell or in the large zone:
IF RxLevDL > amrDirectAllocRxLevDL and RXLevUL > amrDirectAllocRxLevUL
THEN the direct HR TCH allocation is eligible

In a small zone:
IF RxLevDL > amrDirectIntAllocRxLevDL and RXLevUL > amrDirectIntAllocRxLevUL
THEN the direct HR TCH allocation is eligible

In v17.0, the Direct TCH Allocation mechanism has been improved to take into account the
case where only a short, not fully reliable, measurement average is available. In that case, all
algorithm criteria are tightened by adding the hoMarginBeg parameter to the appropriate
thresholds (amrDirectAllocIntRxLevDL, amrDirectAllocIntRxLevUL, amrDirectAllocRxLevDL,
amrDirectAllocRxLevUL).

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SUMMARY
The following table presents a summary of all new L1m decisions:
HO decision

channel type

p value for (n,p) voting

n value for (n,p) voting

target codec

quality intercell UL / DL

TCH FR

pRequestedCodec

TCH HR

pRequestedCodec

nFRRequestedCodec

amrFRIntercellCodecMThresh

nHRRequestedCodec

amrHRIntercellCodecMThresh

quality intracell UL / DL

FR FR

TCH FR

pRequestedCodec

nFRRequestedCodec

amrFRIntracellCodecMThresh

HR FR

TCH HR

pRequestedCodec

nHRRequestedCodec

amrHRtoFRIntracellCodecMThresh

FR HR

TCH FR

pRequestedCodec

capacity intracell

Direct HR TCH allocation

outer zone
inner zone

channel type

SDCCH

nCapacityFRRequestedCodec

fixed to FR codec 12k2

averaging window

thresholds

1 rxLevHreqt*

amrDirectAllocRxLevDL

rxLevHreqave

amrDirectAllocRxLevUL

SDCCH

1 rxLevHreqt*

amrDirectAllocIntRxLevDL

TCH FR

rxLevHreqave

amrDirectAllocIntRxLevUL

TCH HR

* in this case, all available measures, up to rxLevHreqt are taken into account.0

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Following figures illustrate all possible transitions for an AMR call, in a multi-zones cell
environment:

INTRACELL HANDOVERS ON QUALITY

Tiering BCCH to FH FR
Tiering BCCH to FH HR

Intracell FR or HR

FR

FR

Interzone FR or HR

Intracell FR or HR

FR

FR

INTRACELL HANDOVERS ON CAPACITY

Tiering BCCH to FH FR
Tiering BCCH to FH HR
Interzone FR
Interzone HR

FR or HR
HR Capacity FR

Capacity FR

HR
HR

FR or HR

FR
HR

HR

FR or HR
Direct TCH
allocation

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INTERCELL HANDOVERS:

FR FR

Target Cell

FR

FR

HR
HR

PBGT
Traffic

Alarm
Capture

HR
HR
FR FR

Source Cell
FR
FR

HR

HR

FR FR

Directed
Retry

4.22.5 LEGACY L1M


Type of power control and quality handover can be chosen via the parameter amrReserved2.
While legacy L1m bases its decision on RxQual/RxLev measurements (please refer to chapter
Measurement Processing), AMR L1m base trigger its algorithms on C/I estimations (please
refer to chapter AMR L1m).
The choice between legacy or AMR power control or handover management is up to the
operators strategy.

4.22.6 PDTCH PREEMPTION BY AMR FR OR HR CALLS


The GSM/GPRS TS sharing feature allows the BSC to preempt some GPRS radio resources,
in case of lack of circuit radio resources.

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AMR FR REQUEST
In case of AMR FR request, there is no specific mechanism. The request is granted in the
same conditions as for a non-AMR circuit-switched call.

AMR HR REQUEST
Before v17.0, in case of an AMR HR request, if a preemption has to be done, then the
allocated channel following preemption is an AMR FR channel.

From v17.0, if the AMR-HR on preempted pDTCH feature is activated (v17 parameter
gprsPreemptionForHr = enabled), then the BSC is able to preempt a shared GPRS timeslot to
serve an AMR-HR request. The algorithm is as follows :
When the BSC receives an assignement or a handover request for a half-rate speech channel,
the BSC searches for an available HR channel in the following order of preference :

free half-rate channel of a TCH physical channel whose other half-rate channel is
already allocated to a voice AMR HR call (no dialog between BSC and PCU is
needed)

free TCH physical channel (no dialog between BSC and PCU is needed)

free half-rate channel of an already preempted PDTCH whose other half-rate channel
is already allocated to a voice AMR HR call (no dialog between BSC and PCU is
needed)

half-rate channel of a newly preempted PDTCH (BSC and PCU must negotiate)

This feature for AMR-HR preemption may have an impact on the AMR based on Traffic
threshold settings, see 4.23.7

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4.22.7 ENGINEERING RULES


QUEUING/PRIORITY 0

queuing is not possible for an HR only request,


for a FR or HR request in queue, only a FR TCH can be allocated.

The number of priority 0 TS takes into account only radio TS which are completely free (i.e. a
free half rate TS is count for 0).

TCH SIGNALLING
A signaling half rate TCH can not be activated at reception of Channel Required.
If a signaling Assignment Request (channel type: speech/ data indicator field), for a mobile
using a half rate TCH, an assignment procedure is triggered to a SDCCH channel and the
associated CIC is released (this case occurs at the end of a speech call, if a SMS procedure is
started and not finished).
If a signaling Assignment Request (channel type: speech/ data indicator field), for a mobile
using a full rate TCH, a channel mode modify procedure is triggered to a signaling TCH
channel and the associated CIC is released (this case occurs at the end of a speech call, if a
SMS procedure is started and not finished).
If an AMR HR or FR Assignment Request is received for a mobile using a signaling FR TCH,
the BSC modifies the current signaling FR TCH to a AMR FR TCH and later, if radio
conditions are sufficient, then a handover from AMR FR to AMR HR will be triggered by the
BTS (see section Principles/ L1m/Handover mechanisms/ handover HR->FR).

AUTOMATIC CELL TIERING


This mechanism has to be enhanced as show below, in order to take into account AMR HR
calls:

P%=

P% is evaluated as:

(Number of non hopping TCH nbLargeReuseDataChannel) * (1 + Non_FH_HR%)


(Total number of TCH in the cell nbLargeReuseDataChannel) * (1 + HR%)

FH_HR% is the percent of HR calls managed by the hopping pattern in the


cell,

HR% is the percent of HR calls managed in the cell.

These 2 percentages are calculated by the BTS.

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GENERAL PROTECTION AGAINST HO PING PONG


Due to AMR L1m introduction, a new cause value is added in hoPingPongCombination:
AMRquality. This value is used in case of AMR handover triggered for alarm purpose.
In case of interBSC handover, in order to distinguish between RxQual handover and AMR
quality handover, the BSC uses following rules:

If the handover cause = RxQual and the speech version <> AMR then the
Handover cause = RxQual.
If the handover cause = RxQual and the speech version = AMR then the
Handover cause = AMR quality.

HANDOVER EFR/FR - AMR


For handover from an AMR cell to a non-AMR cell it is performed via the A interface using
external handover mechanism, in order to allow the fallback to EFR or FR channel (according
to Assignment Request order).
For handover from a non-AMR cell to an AMR cell, in order to decrease the MSC load, the call
is not upgraded to AMR and a normal EFR handover occurs.
Note that interBSC procedure may increase the number of dropped call, so it is recommended
to minimize that trnasition period.

TDMA CONFIGURATION
Due to the half rate channel introduction and to limit the number of contexts in the BSC, the
number of SDCCH per TDMA is limited as following:
normal cell:

Maximum number of SDCCH per TDMA: 2,


only one SDCCH TS managed by odd TS per TDMA,
only one SDCCH TS managed by even TS per TDMA.

extended cell:

Maximum number of SDCCH per TDMA: 1.

LCAUTION!
It is highly recommended to respect that TDMA configuration in case of activation of AMR.

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AMR HR-FR INTERWORKING


In case of deactivation of AMR FR service, following points have to be highlighted:

direct HR TCH allocation is available, even if AMR FR is not configured in the


cell,
handovers from FR radio TS to AMR HR are triggered on requested codec
mode criterion, but this criterion is available only for AMR calls, thus this kind
of handover is not possible from a FR or EFR channel and decreases the
AMR HR efficiency,
handovers from (or to) an AMR HR channel to (or from) EFR channel are
performed using an external handover procedure and thus induce:
more load on the MSC,
more perturbations on the voice quality, thus it is mandatory to activate AMR
FR service, in case of AMR HR activation.

4.22.8 AMR BASED ON TRAFFIC


PRINCIPLE
Before the feature introduction the choice between an half rate and full rate channel was
based only on radio criteria, thus in order to guarantee the voice quality at any time the
operator had to tune the network with conservative values.
With the introduction of AMR based on traffic, AMR HR channels are allocated only during
loaded period, so the operator could choose more aggressive radio thresholds and then get
more radio capacity for the same number of TRX.
In order to minimize impacts of this strategy, this feature tunes the half rate penetration
according to the cell load:

HR capacity

HR

FR capacity

FR

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This feature is based on a smooth mechanism, which allows anticipating the cell load and
switching the allocation into HR mode, when an Erlang threshold is reached.
The following picture illustrates the interworking between these 2 kinds of mechanisms over
24 hours:

Blocking managed
thanks to directed retry
and HO traffic

Traffic
Max HR
capacity
Number of
allocated TCH

Half rate area


Max FR
capacity
FR->HR threshold
Blocking managed
thanks to directed retry
and HO traffic

Full rate area

Avg Erlang

24 hours

Two typical periods are observed:

Low traffic: all calls are allocated in full rate mode and the blocking is
managed thanks to directed retry and traffic handovers features.
High traffic: call are allocated in half or full rate modes, according to radio
conditions of each calls and the ultimate blocking is managed thanks to
directed retry and traffic handovers features.

FILTERED ERLANG TRAFFIC AND CELL LOAD STATE


Prior to V18, the Filtered Erlang Traffic used the following formula

Filtered_TCH_ration = a*

busy_TCH_TS
+ (1 - a)* Filtered_TCH_ration-1
available_TCH_TS

where:

Filtered_TCH_ration is the busy TCH ratio managed by the cell at period n.


is the filter coefficient (filteredTrafficCoefficient parameter).
busy_TCH_TS is the number of TCH TS allocated to a FR or a HR TCH call
(in case of multi-zones cell, traffic of both zones is taken into account).
Available_TCH_TS is the number of TCH TS configured and available in the
cell (in case of multi-zones cell, traffic of both zones is taken into account).
The initial value of Filtered_TCH_ration is set to 0.
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From V18, thanks to AMR maximization introdution the the filtered Erlang evaluation was
modified to take into account a configurable number of shared PDTCH
Filtered _ Erlang ( N ) = *

(busy _ TCH _ TS + (Pr eempted _ PDTCH * shared _ PDTCH _ ratio))


+ (1 ) * Filtered _ Erlang ( N 1)
available _ TCH _ TS + (available _ PDTCH MinNbrGprsTS ) * shared _ PDTCH _ ratio

Where:

Filtered_Erlang is the number of Erlang managed by the cell at second n.


is the filter coefficient (filteredTrafficCoefficient parameter).
busy_TCH_TS is the number of TCH TS allocated to a FR or HR TCH call
voice in this cell (in case of multi-zones cell, traffic of both zones is taken into
account).
Preempted_PDTCH_ is the number of PDTCH TS allocated to a FR or HR
call voice in this cell (in case of multi-zones cell, traffic of both zones is taken
into account).
shared PDTCH_ratio is a percentage of shared PDTCH TS (configured and
available) taken into account in the Filtered_Erlang.
available_TCH_TS is the number TCH TS (configured and available) in the
cell
available_PDTCH is the number PDTCH TS (configured and available) in the
cell
MinNbrGprsTS is the number of GPRS TS in the cell (cell object parameter)
to guarantee a minimal number of radio TS allocated to GPRS service.

This formula is valid for AMR Based on Traffic and AMR maximization algorithm.
Note that if the denominator of the Filtered_Erlang formula is null or negative, no computation
is done and the previous value of Filtered_Erlang value is kept.
This filtered busy TCH ratio is then compared to the 2 thresholds HRCellLoadStart and
HRCellLoadEnd in order to determine the cell load state:

If (Filtered_TCH_ration < HRCellLoadEnd),

Then Cell_Load_Staten = min(max (0, Cell_Load_Staten-1 -1); nb of in service DRX)

Else if (Filtered_TCH_ration >= HRCellLoadStart),

Then Cell_Load_Staten = min(nb of in service DRX, Cell Load_Staten-1 +1).

Else Cell_Load_Staten = min(Cell_Load_Staten-1; nb of in service DRX)

The initial value of this Cell_Load_Staten is set to 0.


This mechanism is activated whatever values of all associated parameters (AMR FR and / or
HR activated or not, HRCellLoadStart, HRCellLoadEnd ), in order to allow the monitoring at
the OMC-R level of this mechanism.

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In case of TDMA / TRX defense mechanism, the BSC has to take into account the new
number of DRX in service at the next period, in order to evaluate the cell load state.

TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE


The 3 algorithms used to allocate a HR channel to a mobile are tuned in order to be adapted
to the cell load.

DIRECT HALF-RATE ALLOCATION


Direct half rate allocation: the range between the OMC-R RxLev threshold and -48dBm (the
deactivation value) is divided in N sub-range, thus new subthresholds are dynamically created
by the BSC. At each cell load state modification, appropriate sub-thresholds is used by the
BTS:
Cell load state
RxLev
distribution

Smax
S4
S3
S2
S1
S0

amrDirectAlloc RxLev4
(Int)RxLevxx

-110

RxLev3

RxLev2

RxLev1

-48

dBm

The principle is for the BSC to adapt the following OMC-R parameters according to the cell
load state:

AMRDirectAllocRxLevUL
AMRDirectAllocRxLevDL
AMRDirectAllocIntRxLevUL
AMRDirectAllocIntRxLevDL

The threshold associated to the cell load state i is evaluated according to the following
formula:

Nb_DRX-i
Threshold_i = int AMRDirectAllocyyRxlevxx + (-48 - AMRDirectAllocyyRxlevxx)*
Nb_DRX

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Where:

xx is used for UL or DL,


yy is used for int or nothing.

Every 10 seconds if needed, new thresholds are sent to all DRX.


The initial value of this mechanism is the threshold_0 (-48dBm),
At the end of a defense TDMA procedure, current thresholds are sent to the BTS.
This mechanism is activated only if:

at least one OMC-R threshold is not equal to -48.


The AMR HR service is activated in the cell (speechMode parameters of the
BSC & cell object)

In case of modification of one AMRDirectAllocyyRxlevxx parameter, the new value is taken


into account at the next period.

FR TO HR HANDOVER
FR to HR handover: this handover is activated DRX per DRX according to the cell load state:

S0: no DRX is configured in order to allow the FR to HR handover


Si: i DRX are configured in order to allow the FR to HR handover and N-i-1
are configured in order to deactivate this handover.

The BSC chooses the i DRX in the cell according to the AMR FR radio allocator priority.
Highest priority TDMA are switched in FR->HR mode in first. Every 10 seconds if needed, new
parameters are sent to all DRX.
The initial is no DRX activated, especially at the end of a defense TDMA procedure.
In case of modification of any AMR FR to HR handover parameter, the new value is taken into
account at the next period.
All Handover Indication messages sent by the BTS, have to be managed by the BSC
whatever the cell load state.
This mechanism is activated only if:

nCapacityFRRequestedCodec not greater than pRequestedCodec.


The AMR HR service is activated in the cell (speechMode parameters of the
BSC & cell object)

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INTRA CELL HANDOVER


From V18, the following table describes the BSC mediation in case of intra-cell
handover for an AMR call with the cell in AMR Based on Traffic congestion state:
AMR Based on Traffic
Intra-cell incoming handover mediation

Initial Channel type

HR AMR

FR AMR

FR only

FR only

FR only

FR only

FR only

FR only

Inter-zone (outer to inner zone)

HR preferred (***)

HR preferred (***)

Inter-zone (inner to outer zone)

FR only

FR only

Frequency tiering

FR only

FR only

Not applicable

FR only

Not applicable

FR only

FR only

Not applicable

FR only

Not applicable

Not applicable

HR only

Handover Cause
Intracell uplink

Intracell downlink

Capture

Alarm intra-cell HO (FR => FR) for uplink criteria


in case of AMR FR channel
Alarm intra-cell HO (FR => FR) for downlink
criteria in case of AMR FR channel
HR => FR HO for uplink criteria in case of AMR
HR channel
HR => FR HO for downlink criteria in case of
AMR HR channel
Capacity HO (FR => HR) for uplink and downlink
criteria in case of AMR FR channel

(***) The HR or FR HR inter-zone handover is only possible if the HR eligibility in


the inner zone is allowed by the BTS inside the HANDOVER INDICATION message
(i.e. the radio conditions are sufficient to allow HR).
AMR HR preferred is activated only if the AMR HR service is activated in the target
cell (speechMode parameters of the BSC and cell object).

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INTER CELL HANDOVER


From V18, the following table describes the algorithm used on the reception of a HANDOVER
REQUEST inter-cell (from the MSC or internal BSC) for an AMR call with the target cell in
AMR Based on Traffic congestion conditions (Cell Load State > 0):

AMR Based on Traffic


Inter-BSC and inter-cell intra-BSC incoming handover mediation

Initial Channel type

HR AMR

FR AMR

Uplink quality (*)

FR only

FR only

Uplink strength (*)

FR only

FR only

Downlink quality (*)

FR only

FR only

FR only

FR only

Distance

FR only

FR only

O&M intervention

FR only

FR only

Better cell

HR preferred

HR preferred(**)

Directed Retry

FR only

FR only

Traffic

HR preferred

HR preferred(**)

Handover Cause

Downlink strength
(*)

(**) New behavior introduced with AMR Based on Traffic evolution.


(*) Note that this handover causes include following Alarm AMR causes:

Alarm inter-cell HO for uplink criteria in case of AMR FR channel

Alarm inter-cell HO for downlink criteria in case of AMR FR channel

Alarm inter-cell HO for uplink criteria in case of AMR HR channel

Alarm inter-cell HO for downlink criteria in case of AMR HR channel

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4.22.9 AMR MAXIMIZATION


PRINCIPLE
The aim of this feature is to maximize usage of AMR HR in order to reduce congestion, even if
this objective could lead to potential voice quality degradation. It offers temporarily higher cell
capacity to manage traffic peak

by disabling the RF checks for HR allocation, i.e. forcing 100% new call in HR

by disabling fall back in AMR FR for ongoing call

by forcing all incoming handover in AMR HR whatever the received cause

Area of AMR HR maximization application is configurable through 2 new thresholds in addition


to the existing AMR based on traffic algorithm (See figure below):

fullHRCellLoadStart

fullHRCellLoadEnd.

This function is active as soon as these 2 new thresholds are both different from 100.

Blocking managed
thanks to directed retry
and HO traffic

Traffic
Max HR
capacity
Number of
allocated TCH
FullHRCellLoadStart

AMR HR maximization
area

FullHRCellLoadEnd

HRCellLoadStart
Max FR
capacity

Max FR capacity

AMR HR based on traffic area

->HR threshold
HRRCellLoadEnd
FR

Blocking managed
thanks to directed retry
and HO traffic

Full rate area

Avg Erlang

24 hours

In case of modification of one any new parameter, the new value is taken into account at the
next period.
Note that the AMR Half Rate speech mode is a pre-requirement of AMR Maximization.
Without Half Rate capacity allowed, all calls will be allocated in FR mode whatever the cell
state (normal, high traffic or congested).
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AMR MAXIMIZATION ALGORITHM


This filtered erlang defined for AMR based on traffic is also used for AMR maxization
algorithmto. The term congestion period used in the following sentence means cell is in AMR
maximization conditions. Indeed the filtered busy TCH ratio obtained thanks to filtered erlang
formula is then compared to the 2 new thresholds fullHRCellLoadStart and fullHRCellLoadEnd
in order to determine the cell load state therefore the congestion period

If the cell is not in congestion period then


If the Filtered erlang is equal or greater than fullHRCellLoadStart, the cell is at the
beginning of the congestion period:

Direct Half rate allocation (primo allocation) shall be forced in HR mode.


Note that the AMR HR Direct allocation thresholds remain at their previous value
and will be only updated at the end of congestion state.

The HR to FR handover shall be deactivated: fall back to AMR FR not possible for
on going AMR HR (see Handover during congestion period). In order to prevent
those handovers, the Extended Current Cell Parameters message is sent to all
DRX with the parameter AMRHRToFRIntracellCodecModeThreshold set to
4.75.This parameter is in the AMR Handover Parameters IEI of the Extended
Current Cell Parameters message.

all incoming Handover shall be forced to Half rate mode whatever the cause
received in the request of the handover if the MS capability supports the HR mode
(channel type);

all intra cell handover FR to HR rate mode are authorized for all DRX

The cell load state continues to be calculated.

Else the HR calls are managed by AMR Based on Traffic algorithm


If the cell is in congestion period then
If the Filtered erlang is lower than fullHRCellLoadEnd: The cell is at the ending of
congestion period.
In order to update the controls of the Handover by the BTS, the Extended Current Cell
Parameters
message
is
sent
to
all
DRX
with
the
parameter
AMRHRToFRIntracellCodecModeThreshold set to MMI value.
If the AMR based on Traffic is activated, the current traffic load (AMR BOT criteria) is
calculated thanks to the cell load state elaborated during the congestion period.
New thresholds are elaborated based on this current load and sent to all DRX
using the Extended Current Cell parameters message. The number of DRX allowing
the FR to HR handover is updated according to the current cell load state value.
Else, the cell stays in congestion period. The cell load state continues to be elaborated

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HANDOVER DURING CONGESTION PERIOD


During AMR maximization period, the MS on an AMR-HR channel should not be handed over
to an AMR-FR resource in the serving cell, that is to say that AMR quality intracell handover
on uplink CMC (Codec mode command) or downlink CMR (Codec mode request) shall be
inhibited setting the AMRHRToFRIntracellCodecModeThreshold to 4.75 codec value. AMR
codec mode adaptation is not impacted as it is not correlated with AMR handovers.
Note that, as the AMR Based on Traffic and AMR Maximization thresholds can be reached at
the same time, the AMR Maximization supersedes the AMR BOT mechanism in case of
conflict.
The following table describes the algorithm used on the reception of a handover request inter
cell (from the MSC in the Handover Request message or internal BSC) for an AMR call.
It is based on the value of channel rate and type and handover cause received in the
Handover Request.

AMR Maximization
Inter-BSC and inter-cell intra-BSC incoming handover mediation
Target

Handover cause

Cell

congestion

in
and

MS supports HR

Target Cell not

in

congestion

mode
Uplink quality (**)

HR

FR only

Uplink strength (**)

HR

FR only

HR

FR only

HR

FR only

Distance

HR

FR only

O&M intervention

HR

FR only

Better cell

HR

Directed Retry

HR

Traffic

HR

Downlink

quality

(**)
Downlink strength
(**)

FR

only

or

HR

or

HR

preferred (*)
FR only
FR

only

preferred (*)

(*): HR preferred according to the AMR Based on Traffic condition: cell Load
State > 0

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(**) Note that this handover causes include following Alarm AMR causes:

Alarm inter-cell HO for uplink criteria in case of AMR FR channel

Alarm inter-cell HO for downlink criteria in case of AMR FR channel

Alarm inter-cell HO for uplink criteria in case of AMR HR channel

Alarm inter-cell HO for downlink criteria in case of AMR HR channel

The following table describes the BSC mediation in case of intra-cell handover for an AMR call
with the cell in AMR Maximization congestion state:
AMR Maximization
Intra-cell incoming handover mediation
Target Cell in congestion and

Handover cause

MS supports HR mode

Intracell uplink
HR

Intracell downlink
HR

Capture
HR

Inter-zone

HR

Frequency tiering

HR

Alarm intra-cell HO (FR => FR) for uplink criteria in


case of AMR FR channel
Alarm intra-cell HO (FR => FR) for downlink
criteria in case of AMR FR channel
HR => FR HO for uplink criteria in case of AMR HR
channel
HR => FR HO for downlink criteria in case of AMR
HR channel
Capacity HO (FR => HR) for uplink and downlink
criteria in case of AMR FR channel

HR

HR

HR

HR

HR

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AMR MAXIMIZATION INTERWORKING


Since ABOT (AMR Based on Traffic) and AMR maximization can be activated independantly,
the following conditions are required for the ABOT and AMR Maximization thresholds

In case where both ABOT & Maximization activated i.e hrCellLoadStart <> 100 AND
fullHRCellLoadStart <> 100
Then the following rule must be followed
fullHRCellLoadStart > fullHRCellLoadEnd
fullHRCellLoadStart > hrCellLoadStart
fullHRCellLoadEnd > hrCellLoadEnd

In case where ABOT not activated & Maximization activated i.e hrCellLoadStart =100
AND fullHRCellLoadStart <> 100
Then the following rule must be followed
fullHRCellLoadStart > fullHRCellLoadEnd

In case where ABOT activated & Maximization not activated i.e hrCellLoadStart <>
100 AND fullHRCellLoadStart = 100
Then the following rule must be followed
hrCellLoadStart >= hrCellLoadEnd

4.22.10

QUEUING HR

The previous Nortel implementation does not allow a direct AMR HR allocation for a call that is
being queued. In V18, the requested AMR-HR from queuing can be served in AMR-HR mode.
Moreover in case of one HR resource is released, an HR request queued should take
precedence over a FR request in same queue (same internal priority) in a cell congested or in
high traffic state. This new functionality is available by default on the V18 software load, no
need to activate the feature.
.
FR requested

HR requested

Before V18 BSS version

FR

FR

AMR Maximization (Congestion period)

HR

HR

AMR Based On Traffic (cell load state > 0)

FR

HR

AMR Based On Traffic (cell load state = 0)

FR

FR

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4.22.11

REPEATED DOWNLINK FACCH

The purpose of the feature Repeated downlink FACCH is to secure the handover procedure
in poor radio condition (with AMR FR and HR) by retransmitting the FACCH frames in
downlink after about 40ms, i.e. without waiting for the mobile acknowledgement
Thanks to this feature end-users will experience a better call retainability in badly covered or
interfered area. Acceptable voice quality will be maintained thanks the robust AMR/FR & HR
codec usage. On the other hand voice quality being slightly degraded during handover
procedures due to repeated frame stealing; the preventive retransmission scheme should be
triggered only in bad radio conditions.
Note that repeated downlink FACCH mechanism is supported for TCH/F from BSS V16 to
enhance signaling channel performance with AMR/F. This feature is applicable for AMR HR
calls since V18

PRINCIPLE OF THE FEATURE


The Repeated Downlink FACCH functionality is applicable when sending LAPDm command
frames on the TCH/F channel (resp TCH/H channel). The BSS uses the Repeated Downlink
FACCH functionality when AMR FR codec (resp AMR HR codec) used is less than a defined
threshold (settable at OMC-R) and when the first transmission fails (T200 expires).
A repeated FACCH block is sent in such a way that, if the first burst of the downlink FACCH
block containing the first instance of a LAPDm frame is sent in TDMA frame M, the first burst
of the downlink FACCH block containing the repeated instance of the LAPDm frame is sent in
TDMA frame M+ 8 or M+ 9 (the latter corresponding to the case where the two FACCH blocks
are separated by either a SACCH frame or an idle frame) for AMR FR.
For AMR HR calls if the selected CODEC matches the operator choice, it stores the LAPDm
frame to be repeated in TDMA frame M+6 or M+7 (the latter corresponding to the case where
the two FACCH blocks are separated by either a SACCH frame or an idle frame).
The MS shall, when receiving a downlink FACCH block, always attempt to decode it without
combining with any previously received FACCH block
If the current FACCH block is successfully decoded and an identical FACCH block was
previously received (successfully decoded and spaced in time from the current FACCH block
as specified here-above):

The MS (Release 6 and subsequent) shall not send the LAPDm frame of the current
FACCH block to the LAPDm entity.

Pre-release 6 MS may send a REJ message upon receiving repeated frame, but this
does not prevent this MS to get the benefit from the repetition mechanism.

If the current FACCH block is successfully decoded and there was no such previously
received identical FACCH block, the LAPDm frame of the current FACCH block is sent to the
LAPDm entity.
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FEATURE ACTIVATION
A dedicated cell class 2 parameter, enableRepeatedFacchFr, is used to enable the feature by
chosing a codec threshold or to disable the support of Repeated FACCH in each cell.for AMR
FR
Since V18 a new dedicated cell class 2 parameter enableRepeatedFacchHr, is used to enable
the feature for AMR HR calls

MECHANISM OF THE FEATURE


When the Repeated FACCH feature has been enabled on the cell, each time the AMNU entity
needs to re-transmit an I-frame on FACCH due to T200 expiry, it sends this frame again to the
SPU entity (with a flag related to the retransmission). The SPU entity sends first the I-frame on
FACCH in TDMA frame M as it does when the feature is disabled. And if the selected CODEC
is lower than the threshold set to activate the feature, it stores the LAPDm frame to be
repeated in TDMA frame M+ 8 or M+ 9 for AMR FR calls (resp TDMA frame M+ 6 or M+ 7 for
AMR HR calls if activated)

When repeating FACCH messages, T200 is started when transmitting the subsequent FACCH
(~ 40 ms later) to cope with the case where an MS fails to decode the downlink FACCH block
used to send the first instance of a repeated LAPDm frame.

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PERFORMANCE
When repeating a frame, the applicable T200 duration is increased by about 40 ms (~20%).
This induces a longer time for drop call detection with T200 mechanism because N200 cannot
be modified.
In addition, a new MS shall soft combine the frames to optimize the decoding probability
whereas legacy mobile will simply see an increased probability of decoding Lapdm frame. The
expected benefit for mobiles using soft combining is about 4 dB gain and about 2 dB gain for
legacy mobiles.
This graph presents the expected benefits on softcombining MS and lecacy MS.

Legacy MS gain

Soft combining gain

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4.22.12

TX POWER OFFSET FOR SIGNALING CHANNELS

In order to increase the signaling channels (FACCH and SACCH) robustness in downlink, BTS
may use a power offset (above the Tx power applicable for speech) to transmit the signaling
bursts.
The benefit in term of C/I is depending on the power offset for the signaling robustness and
allows the operator increasing the fractional load and thus the spectrum efficiency. Voice
quality can be still acceptable thanks to the use of robust AMR codec.

PRINCIPLE OF THE FEATURE


The Tx Power Offset for Signaling Channels is applicable to:

The first transmission of HO COMMAND and ASSIGNMENT COMMAND for all AMR
calls in order to maximize the likelihood of decoding these messages from the first
instance,

Every re-transmission of I-frame on FACCH for all AMR calls (HR and FR) in order to
maximise the likelihood of decoding these messages.

Every RR and REJect frame on FACCH corresponding to an uplink retransmission for


all AMR calls (HR and FR) in order to improve the two-ways robustness.

Every UA (respectively DM) frame on FACCH corresponding to an uplink retransmission of SABM (respectively DISC) frames for all AMR calls (HR and FR) in
order to improve the two-ways robustness.

The transmission of all SACCH frames for AMR FR 4.75 kbps, 5.9 kbps and 6.7 kbps
calls (tunable with an OMC-R parameter) in order to avoid radio link time-out (that
leads to drop calls.

On theses messages a power offset (tunable from the OMC-R) is applied up to the nominal Tx
power.

Note: The power offset applies (up to the nominal Tx power of the BTS) on BTS18000, ecell,
as well as S8000 and S12000 fitted with e-DRX or DRX-ND3. For other BTS hardware, the
feature does not apply. In addition this feature is not applicable on BCCH TRX (PA is always
transmitting with Pmax and transmitting power should not fluctuate).

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FEATURE ACTIVATION
This feature is activated at cell level; dedicated class 2 parameters are used to enable/disable
the feature in each cell. The parameters related to tune the feature are the following:

facchPowerOffset

sacchPowerOffset

sacchPowerOffsetSelection

Note: If the BTS hardware (DRX or RM) does not support the signalling offset mode (up to
Pnominal), the facchPowerOffset and sacchPowerOffset provisioning is not considered and
the DRX or RM behaves as it behaves when facchPowerOffset and sacchPowerOffset are set
to 0 dB.

FEATURE DESCRIPTION
The Tx Power Offset for Signaling Channels is applicable to different type of message;
hereafter the process for each specific handling:

SPECIFIC HANDLING OF HO COMMAND AND ASSIGNMENT COMMAND


For all AMR calls, these messages are transmitted with the maximum power (considering
facchPowerOffset) from the first instance in order to maximize the likelihood of decoding these
messages with no LAPDm repetition at all, and therefore avoid as far as possible the drop
calls during (inter-cell or AMR triggered) handover procedure.
Since these messages can be segmented, the power offset applies on all segments: the level
3 entity flags all frames of the HO COMMAND and ASSIGNMENT COMMAND messages then
SPU entity checks this flag in each I-frame to apply (or not) the power offset
(facchPowerOffset) on the transmitted frame.
When applying the power offset,
First case:
IF PWR + facchPowerOffset Pnominal
THEN
SPU modifies the dynamic power control in accordance with PWR + facchPowerOffset

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Second case:
IF PWR + facchPowerOffset > Pnominal
THEN
SPU set the dynamic power control to: 0 BTS transmits the frame at Pnominal

Note: PWR is the BTS transmit power computed by L1M power control algorithm and
applicable for speech and Pnominal is the BTS Tx power set by the static power control

SPECIFIC HANDLING OF RE-TRANSMITTED I-FACCH FRAMES, RR AND


REJECT CORRESPONDING TO RE-TRANSMITTED UPLINK FACCH
FRAMES AND UA CORRESPONDING TO RE-TRANSMITTED SABM OR
DM
For all AMR calls, every re-transmission of FACCH frames as well as:

UA (with F bit set to 1) corresponding to a retransmitted SABM or Disconnect Mode,

and RR and REJect frames on FACCH (with F bit set to 1) corresponding to an uplink
retransmission of a FACCH frame

are transmitted with the maximum power in order to maximise the likelihood of decoding
these messages and therefore avoid as far as possible the drop calls due to N200 overrun.
The BTS LAPDm entity flags each FACCH frame mentioned here-above then SPU entity
checks this flag and apply (or not) the power offset (facchPowerOffset) on the re-transmitted
frame.
When applying the power offset:
SPU (as describes for HO command and assignment command) either modifies the dynamic
power control in accordance with PWR + facchPowerOffset or set this power control to 0
leading the BTS to transmit the frame at Pnominal.

SPECIFIC HANDLING OF SACCH FRAMES


For AMR calls, depending on sacchPowerOffsetSelection provisioning, the transmission of
SACCH frames for AMR FR 4.75 kbps, 5.9 kbps and 6.7 kbps calls are transmitted with the
maximum power (considering sacchPowerOffset) in order to avoid radio link time-out (that
leads to drop calls) and the drop calls due to N200 overrun (for re-transmission).
For SACCH transmission, SPU entity, according to the last selected AMR CODEC and
sacchPowerOffsetSelection provisioning, applies (or not) the power offset (sacchPowerOffset)
on the transmitted bursts.
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When applying the power offset:


First case:
IF PWR + sacchPowerOffset Pnominal
THEN
SPU modifies the dynamic power control in accordance with PWR +
sacchPowerOffset

Second case:
IF PWR + sacchPowerOffset > Pnominal
THEN
SPU set the dynamic power control to: 0 BTS transmits the frame at Pnominal

Note: Correction of RxLev (to remove the impact of the power offset on Tx power control
mechanism) can be approximated by SPU entity and conveyed to the L1m. In another hand,
correction of CMR is not possible since BTS does not have the SNR info from MS. The impact
on the choice of AMR CODEC cannot be by-passed see [R36]

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ENHANCEMENT OF AMR POWER CONTROL MECHANISM


Since this feature improves the downlink robustness, new parameters are introduced to define
dedicated target for uplink and downlink AMR CODEC.
The existing parameters (hrPowerControlTargetMode and frPowerControlTargetMode) still
apply on uplink and two new parameters are introduced for downlink targets:

hrPowerControlTargetModeDl: downlink AMR codec target to define the downlink


power control threshold for HR AMR calls,

frPowerControlTargetModeDl: downlink AMR codec target to define the downlink


power control threshold for FR AMR calls,

With setting a lower codec as a Downlink Power control target:

A more protected AMR speech codec is used in downlink,

Overall BS attenuation is higher and the overall interference level is decreased


accordingly.

So, in poor radio condition, the transmission power for signaling burst may stay identical
thanks to the Power offset while interference level has decreased.
Since the low target codec for Downlink Power control cannot be reached if the RxLev Power
control threshold limits the BS attenuation and if the Tx Power Offset for Signaling Channels
feature is enabled, lRxLevDLP for AMR communication is set to:
LRxLevDLP - min (facchPowerOffset, sacchPowerOffset).

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4.23. WPS - WIRELESS PRIORITY SERVICE


The current United States industry focus in support of National Security and Emergency
Preparedness telecommunications services is to specify the requirements for Wireless Priority
Services. The initial deployment of WPS is intended to allow qualified and authorized NS/EP
users to obtain priority access to radio traffic channels during situation when Commercial
Mobile Radio Service (CMRS) network congestion is blocking call attempts.
WPS is intended to facilitate emergency response and recovery operations in response to
natural and man-made disasters and events, such as floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, and
terrorist attacks. WPS is also intended to support both national and international emergency
communications.

4.23.1 PRINCIPLE
If a Service user invokes WPS (Wireless Priority Service) and no radio traffic channel is
available in the cell, the WPS request shall be queued according to the WPS priority, the call
initiation time and the state of the queue for the cell.
This feature is an improvement of the queuing services available to WPS users.
The WPS queuing principle is the following:

The eight (8) current queues are kept unchanged

Five (5) new queues are added an dedicated to WPS request

For public queue management and related parameters, refer to chapter Queuing.

4.23.2 WPS QUEUING MANAGEMENT


The new queuing management of WPS requests is activated when queuing is driven by the
MSC (bscQueuingOption parameter is set to allowed) and WPS management is activated
(wPSManagement parameter is set to enabled)
LCAUTION!
The bscQueuingOption is a class 1 parameter, which means that parameter can be set only
when the parent bsc object is locked.
It is important to underline that the internal queues associated with WPS requests and the
internal queues associated with public requests are treated in completely separate ways.

CHARACTERISTIC OF THE WPS QUEUE


Each WPS queue is defined with:

Its associated priority Pi


Its queue size Ni, the maximum number of WPS call requests (of priority Pi or
higher) which can be queued simultaneously

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Its own T11 timer value, which represents the maximum time a WPS call
request of a given priority Pi can remain in queue

The priority Pi is received from the MSC in the assignement request message.
The size Ni of a given WPS queue is set according to the allocWaitThreshold parameter. In
order to be in accordance with the WPS industry requirement and configuration, each queue
size threshold Ni (with 8< i <12) should be equal (N8=N9=N10=N11=N12) and equals the
maximum number of WPS requests allowed in the WPS queues.
The timer T11 for a given queue can be defined with the allocPriorityTimers parameter. It is
understood that the request will immediately be denied with a cause no radio resource
available if this timer is set to 0.

PROCEDURE TO QUEUE SERVICE REQUEST USER WPS


FIRST CASE: MS IS PUT IN QUEUE
As no radio channel is available, and as the queue size threshold Ni of the queue
corresponding to the WPS priority Pi is not reached, the WPS call request is put in queue i. A
queuing indication message is sent to the MSC.

SECOND CASE: MS IS DENIED (QUEUE FULL)


As no radio channel is available, and as the queue size threshold Ni of the queue
corresponding to the WPS priority Pi is reached, the WPS call request is denied. An
assignement failure message with cause no radio resource available is returned to the MSC.

THIRD CASE: MS IS PUT IN QUEUE TAKING THE PLACE OF AN OTHER


MS
As no radio resource is available, if the queue size threshold Ni corresponding to the WPS
priority Pi is not reached, but if adding the call request to queue i would cause the threshold Nj
of another internal WPS queue j to be violated, and if the WPS request priority (Pi) is higher
than at least one WPS request (Pk) already in queue in the cell, the BSS takes the following
actions:

the BSS shall remove the WPS request with the lowest priority (Pk) and the
most recent initiation time from the queue. It sends an assignment failure for
this removed WPS request with the cause no radio resource available.
the BSC shall place the newly arrived WPS request in the queue i according
to the initiation time and the priority level.

A queuing indication for the WPS call request of priority Pi and an assignement failure for the
WPS call request of priority Pk are sent to to the MSC.

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MANAGEMENT OF SERVICE REQUEST USER WPS PUT IN QUEUE


RESOURCE AVAILABLE
If a radio traffic channel becomes available when there are WPS requests in queue, the
process of ressource allocation decribed in the WPS Public access bandwith protection
(see chapter WPS Public access bandwith protection below) has to be followed.

T11 EXPIRY
If the WPS request is in queue i for a radio traffic channel and the maximum time allowed for
that queue expires, the WPS request is removed from the queue and the call is cleared. A
clear request with the cause no radio resource available is then sent to the MSC.

RADIO CONTACT WITH THE MS IS LOST


If the WPS request is in queue for a radio traffic channel but radio contact with the mobile is
lost (detected by the BTS which informs the BSC), the WPS request is removed from the
queue and the call cleared. A clear request with the cause Radio Interface Failure is sent to
the MSC.

MS DISCONNECTS THE CALL


If the MS decides to disconnect the call while the WPS request is queued, the BSC receives a
clear command message from the MSC and processes the release of the call including the
request removing from the WPS queue.

FEATURE ACTIVATION
If the bscQueuingOption parameter is set to not allowed then queuing is not performed, i.e.
no request goes into any of the queues 0 to 12, whatever the wPSManagement value is. In all
the following cases, the bscQueuingOption flag is considered as allowed (MSC driven).
One has to well understand the two levels of queuing in MSC Driven queuing mode:

At the MSC level the call request is described by two fields in the assignement
request message: queuing allowed set to allowed / not allowed, and priority
level (14 are defined)
At the BSC level the queuing management of the call requests is set to
allowed, so the BSC takes into account the 2 fields described above

WPS queuing is so done according both to the queuing allowed field value set in the
assignment request message sent by the MSC (if this field value is set to queuing not
allowed, then there is no queuing) and the WPS priority (1 to 5).
In all the following cases, this field value is considered as queuing allowed for all WPS and
public call requests.

WPSMANAGEMENT FLAG IS ENABLED


The WPS request is queued according to the mapping (GSM 08.08 priority / internal priority)
done by the customer at the OMC-R.
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Internal priorities correspond to the queues 0 to 7 for public requests, and queues 8 to 12 for
WPS requests.
When the wPSManagement flag is enabled, a recommended mapping of the allocPriorityTable
has to be respected.
When the wPSManagement flag is turned on, it also enables the PURQ AC algorithm feature.
(see chapter WPS Public access bandwith protection below)

WPSMANAGEMENT FLAG IS DISABLED


It is recommended that the customer sets the mapping (GSM 08.08 priority / internal priority)
at the OMC-R, so that only internal priority 0-7 are used when the wPSManagement flag is
disabled. In this case, if a WPS request is received by the BSC, the request will be managed
like a public call since it will be queued in the public queues.
If no mapping is specified by the customer, the default mapping is done to the internal queue
0.

4.23.3 WPS ACCESS CLASS BARRING WITH CLASS PERIODIC


ROTATION
In normal conditions, the number of WPS Users should be sufficiently small that there is little
likelihood of them having a significant impact on public use. But in case of exceptional events,
the number of initial access is dramatically increased and can induce a full blocking of the
system.
In V9, a feature called "access class barring" was designed in order to avoid this kind of
problem, thanks to a dynamic barring of a significant part of users. An enhancement of this
feature has been designed, in order to allow users to access periodically to the network,
without huge network congestion.
To synthesize, one can say that this feature allows users to access the network periodically
during network congestion by modifying the number of barred access classes in function of the
congestion state of the cell, and by periodically changing which access classes are barred.
There are no specific access class parameters that can be tuned in order to optimize WPS
use.
For further details about this change of access class baring, see chapter Barring of access
class.

4.23.4 WPS PUBLIC ACCESS BANDWITH PROTECTION


The public access bandwidth protection is required in case of cell congestion with WPS users
in the cell. Assuming that the number of WPS users is less important than public users, and
taking into account that WPS users are priority users, this feature ensures that a radio network
bandwidth is available to public users during cell congestion (lack of radio resources).

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PRINCIPLE
The idea of the algorithm is to allocate a specified portion of the traffic channels (as they
become free) with preference to public calls, and to allocate a second portion of the traffic
channels (as they become free) with preference to WPS calls.
The BSC radio resource allocator processes the algorithm which favors WPS calls 1 out of
wPSQueueStepRotation times and then process the algorithm which favors public calls P out
of wPSQueueStepRotation times (P = wPSQueueStepRotation 1).
With this choice, 1 out of wPSQueueStepRotation of the call capacity can be allocated for
WPS users, wPSQueueStepRotation being 1,2, ,10. (recommended value is 4 and hence
25% can be allocated with preference to WPS requests)

PURQ-AC ALGORITHM WITH SUPERCOUNT


PURQ-AC stands for Public Use Reservation for Queuing - All Calls
This algorithm is only activated if If the wPSManagement flag (BSC level) authorizes the WPS
requests management
When the algorithm is turned on (i.e at the startup of a BSC or after a lock/unlock of the cell),
the priority is given to a WPS call request (1 out of wPSQueueStepRotation times), the
algorithm proceeds to some checks about the state of the WPS queues (left side on the
schema below), then the priority is given to public call requests (P out of
wPSQueueStepRotation times) and the algorithm proceeds also to some checks about the
state of the WPS queues (right side of the schema below).
The aim of the supercount is to allow 10 call running deficit over allocation, and enhanced
small cell performances. It smoothes out short term variations, and decreases delay. The
Supercount tigger value of 10 is a fixed value. Supercount is initialised to 0 and is reset to 0
when a lock/unlock action is done on the cell for instance.

FEATURE ACTIVATION
If the wPSManagement flag (BSC level) is disabled but queuing indications in the assignement
request message still give the priority to WPS call requests, in case of cell congestion, the
WPS users may use all the cell bandwidth (due to their priority) and public users may not have
an access to the network. However that case could only occur if WPS queues are mapped on
internal queues 0-7 instead of the queues dedicated for WPS, because only internal queues 07 are evaluated to serve a queued request when wPSManagementFlaf is turned off. The new
algorithm has a cell based internal management that does not impact any other cells in term of
traffic management.
This feature is linked with the queuing management (public and WPS requests) and hence
parameters related to the queue management have to bet set in order to take advantage of
the benefits provided by the PURQ AC algorithm.

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4.24. SATELLITE ABIS INTERFACE


The use of Satellite Abis links will be possible to allow the connection between BSC and BTS.

BTS

BSC
Abis
Agprs

Ater

Abis

BTS
Abis

In some network areas, there is no earth terrestrial transmission infrastructure between the
BSC and the BTS. This feature solves this problem thanks to a satellite link between these 2
nodes.
To get detailed information about the implementation of this feature, please refer to document
[R31].
More details on recommended parameter associated to feature restrictions are given in the
Satellite Abis Interface - Engineering Guideline (refer to document [R32])

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4.25. NETWORK SYNCHRONIZATION


4.25.1 GLOBAL DESCRIPTION
ASYNCHRONOUS NETWORK
When NW synchronization is not applied (asynchronous network), cells get their time base
through the PCM time. As PCM of different cells are not correlated, it can be considered that,
comparing to the hypothetical network time reference, the not co-site cells have on a site
basis:

Random time bit offsets (from 0 to 156,25)

Random time slot offsets (integer from 0 to 7)

Random frame numbers offsets (integer from 0 to 2 715 647).

Consequently, as shown in the figure below, between two not co-site cells there are random:

time bit offsets

time slot offsets

frame numbers offsets

FN x-1 FN x-1 FN x-1 FN x

cell 1

FN x

FN x

FN x

FN x

FN x

time bit offset (random)

FN y-1 FN y

cell 2

FN y

time slot offset


(random)
FN y FN y FN y

FN y

FN y

FN y

frame number offset = y-x


(random)

General case of non synchronization

It has to be noted that a MS computes - using its timebase counter - the time offset by
measuring the time from the beginning of TS0 on its BCCH carrier and the beginning of the
first TS0 on a neighbor BCCH carrier. Also, the data found on these 2 TS0 may be used for
calculating the FNOffset between its cell and the neighbor cell.

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SYNCHRONIZED NETWORK
With NW synchronization feature, all cells of a network could be synchronized on the same
clock, the GPS clock, through an additional external GPS receiver.
There are 2 ways this can be implemented:

Burst synchronization in which all burst are aligned to the GPS clock
Time synchronization in which all burst are aligned to the GPS clock and
also a absolute time (or a way to deduce it) is provided, as well, to all the
equipments

FN x-1 FN x-1 FN x-1 FN x

cell 1

FN x

FN x

FN x

FN x

FN x

time slot offset


(random in burst synch)
(known&controlled in time synch)
FN y-1 FN y

cell 2

FN y

FN y

FN y

FN y

FN y

FN y

FN y

frame number offset = y-x


(random in burst synch)
(known&controlled in time synch)
General case of synchronization

Both type of synchronizations are implemented in Nortels portfolio and are supported by
addition of equipments (TMU) and parameters.

BURST SYNCHRONIZED NETWORK


In a burst synchronized network, it can be considered that, comparing to the hypothetical
network time reference, the not co-site cells have on a site basis:

Time bit offsets = 0


Random time slot offsets (integer from 0 to 7)
Random frame numbers offsets (integer from 0 to 2 715 647).

It has to be noted that in a burst synchronized network these time slot offsets and frame
number offsets cannot be controlled and that every time a site is locked-unlocked these offsets
change randomly.
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Consequently, see general case of synchronization figure on previous page, between two not
co-site burst synchronized cells there are:

time bit offsets = 0


Random time slot offsets
Random frame numbers offsets

As in the case of an asynchronous network, the co-site cells have the same time bit offsets,
time slot offsets and frame number offsets.

TIME SYNCHRONIZED NETWORK


In a time synchronized network, it can be considered that, comparing to the hypothetical
network time reference, the not co-site cells have on a site basis:

Time bit offsets = 0


Known & controlled time slot offsets
Known&controlled frame numbers offsets

Also, similar to the asynchronous network, the co-site cells have the same time bit offsets,
time slot offsets and frame number offsets.
Consequently, see general case of synchronization figure on previous page, between two not
co-site time synchronized cells there are:

time bit offsets = 0


Known & controlled time slot offsets
Known&controlled frame numbers offsets

It has to be noted that the main difference between a time synchronized and a burst
synchronized network is that time slot offset planning and frame number offset
planning are possible only in a time synchronized network.

4.25.2 FEATURE ACTIVATION


The parameters related to tune the feature are the following:

btsSMSynchroMode
tnOffset,
fnOffset
masterBtsSmId

Note: Other network existing parameters may have a significant impact on network
performances when network synchronization is applied:

baseColourCode TSC (TSC=BCC) planning and therefore whole BSIC (NCC&


BCC) planning.

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Hopping laws parameters (HSN, MAIO, MA list)


dARPPh1Priority

Also, it has to be noted that more parameters (for handovers, location services etc) may
have to be eventually retuned for an optimal functioning when network synchronization feature
is deployed.

4.25.3 FEATURE IMPACTS EXPECTATIONS


Network synchronization simple deployment may have positive impact on location services as
the location precision will improve with a better synchronization of the network elements.
However, synchronizing all BTS in a network, meaning synchronizing interferers and their
victims, doesnt provide alone any gain of RF quality or RF capacity. On the contrary, the
network synchronization may degrade the network RF performances if no additional feature or
engineering solution is applied. (The main degradation is mainly due to the eventual TSC
collisions if a traditional BSIC -NCC/BCC- planning as for an asynchronous network is used)
Therefore, for improving the RF quality and capacity, a network synchronization deployment
must be accompanied by additional features and significant engineering parameter planning.
Please refer to chapter Network synchronization engineering planning methodologies.
After Activing NW synchronization significant modifications of the NW behavior may occur at
various levels:

Quantity of interferences:
being able to control cell FN Offsets, it may be possible to use some
carefully chosen of hopping laws (HSN, MAIO, MA list, FN) in order to
decrease the collision probability between one or more couples of cells
being able to control cell TN and FN Offsets, it is possible to completely
avoid the collisions between two cells which are not co-site when using a
fractional reuse frequency plan
Note: all this eventual control of the quantity of interferences is possible only
when time synchronizing the network as it is required to control and plan the
FN Offsets (and TN Offsets as well);

Impact of interferences:
the various features of interferences cancellation and noise cancellation for
both BTS and MS are expected to work optimally (or better) when
synchronizing the network

Others
HO reactivity, LCS precision

Please refer to Network Synchronization handbook [R34] for a complete Impact, engineering
rules and KPI Results presentation.

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4.26. NOVEL ADAPTIVE RECEIVER


4.26.1 PRINCIPLE
This v17.0 feature introduces a novel digital processing approach developed by Nortel
Networks for improving reception performances of GSM and EDGE radio communications. It
has been developed to enhance performances in real radio conditions (multipath profiles), with
a particular focus on interference from other radio channels (a major cause of disturbance for
reception performances).
Usual reception schemes are optimal under one specific noise assumption only, basically
thermal noise. However, digital communication faces in practice other noise sources, namely
adjacent channel and/or co-channel interferences, the statistics of which strongly differ from
thermal noise. The consequence is lower reception performances in presence of interferers,
leading to a poorer speech quality or lower throughput for the end-user. The approach
developed by Nortel consists in a scheme that adapts itself to the interference condition
affecting each received burst. In addition, a new filter design strategy has been developed in
order to come out, for each basic noise situation, with a filtering process yielding the minimal
BER.
This new method calls, prior to processing the burst, for an estimation of the noise situation.
This is achieved by a filter bank detector for the adjacent interferers; co-channels interferences
are taken into account later on, after channel sounding. According to the adjacent interference
noise estimated by the detector, a filter matching the noise situation is designed and applied to
the current burst.
Reception performance is significantly improved in most situations, especially with adjacent
interference conditions.
These benefits apply both to GMSK and 8PSK modulations, traffic and data applications. It
thus provides the end-user with an increased throughput for data transmission as well as an
improved quality of service for voice calls.
For more details, please refer to the Functional Note ([R45]).

4.26.2 HW/SW DEPENDENCE


This feature is applicable to :

Hardware : BTS 6000/BTS18000 Radio Modules, 1900 MHz band only

Software : v17.0 release.

4.26.3 ACTIVATION GUIDELINES


O&M PARAMETER
adaptiveReceiver is a new Class 2, transceiver object, parameter that serves to activate or
deactivate the Novel Adaptive Receiver. It can take two values :
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enabled : use of the Novel Adaptive Receiver

disabled : use of the legacy signal processing

RECOMMENDATIONS
HILLY TERRAIN PROFILES
For cells operating under very specific radio conditions, namely hard Hilly Terrain profiles, the
Novel Adaptive Receiver structure may possibly cause a slight performance loss compared
with the initial processing. Therefore, it is recommended to disable the adaptive receiver for
these cells. :
adaptiveReceiver = disabled

INTERWORKING WITH RX DIVERSITY


If Rx diversity is used, best receiver performance is achieved by activating both Joint diversity
and Novel Adaptive Receiver features :
adaptiveReceiver = enabled; diversity = enhancedDiversity.

INTERWORKING WITH EXTENDED CELL


Novel Adaptive Receiver does not interwork with the Extended Cell feature.
Therefore, for extended cells, the Novel Adaptive Receiver must be deactivated :
adaptiveReceiver = false.

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4.27.

A5/3 ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM

4.27.1 PRINCIPLE
For details, please refer to the Functional Note ([R41]).

PURPOSE OF THE FEATURE


Before v17.0, the only available encryption algorithms available in the BSS were :

No encryption

Encryption algorithm version 1, also called A5/1

Encryption algorithm version 2 (also called A5/2). A5/2 was removed from the GSM
networks at the end of 2006 in compliance with the 3GPP recommendations, as a
consequence of the published attacks against A5/2.

This v17.0 feature provides a new encryption algorithm in the BSS called A5/3.
Also, this feature changes the class of the existing parameter encryptAlgorSupported from
class 0 to class 3 to limit service disruption when changing its setting.

A5/3 ALGORITHM OVERVIEW


The A5/3 algorithm is stream cipher that is used to encrypt/decrypt blocks of data under a
confidentiality key Kc. The algorithm is based on the KASUMI algorithm, which is specified in
3GPP TS 35.202. KASUMI is a block cipher that produces a 64-bit output from a 64-bit input
under the control of a 64-bit ciphering key.

4.27.2 HARDWARE DEPENDENCE


A5/3 is supported on :

DRX ND3

eDRX

RM.

4.27.3 CIPHERING ACTIVATION RULES


BSS PARAMETERS
ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM ACTIVATION
The BSS can select A5/3, on MSC request, for a call, assuming that :

A5/3 is supported by the TRX

A5/3 is supported by the mobile


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A5/3 is configured at the O&M level as the preferred encryption algorithm in the BSS

Since the A5/3 encryption algorithm is neither supported by all types of TRX nor by all
mobiles, and more especially by legacy mobiles already deployed by the operators, a fallback
encryption algorithm needs to be available whenever the A5/3 encryption algorithm is
requested by the MSC. In such a case, based on the value of the O&M parameter
encryptAlgorSupported , either no encryption or A5/1 may be defined at O&M level as the
fallback encryption algorithm to be used by the BSS.

The encryptAlgorSupported parameter is an existing parameter which has been modified in


v17.0 as follows :

The class is changed in v17.0 from class 0 to class 3. Thus, no BDA build is
necessary when changing the value of this parameter : no interruption of service

The range of values has been expanded and now includes the following values :
o

None : the BSS will not cipher any calls

gsmEncryptionV1 : all the BTS of the BSS will use A5/1 for ciphering, if
requested and allowed by the NSS

(new value) gsmEncryptionV3FallbackNoEncryption : A5/3 is the preferred


algorithm for the BTSs of the BSS, but if this algorithm cannot be used for a
specific call in a specific cell (due to mobile capability limitation or TRX
capability limitation or MSC request), the BSS will not cipher the call

(new value) gsmEncryptionV3FallbackV1 : A5/3 is the preferred algorithm


for the BTSs of the BSS, but if this algorithm cannot be used for a specific call
in a specific cell (due to mobile capability limitation or TRX capability limitation
or MSC request), the BSS will attempt to use A5/1 instead.

BSSMAP MESSAGES CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS


With a Nortel BSS supporting the A5/3 feature, the NSS must be able to understand ciphering
information fields conveyed by the BSS to the NSS in the following BSSMAP messages :

CIPHER MODE REJECT

ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE

HANDOVER PERFORMED

HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE

CIPHER MODE COMPLETE.

Today (2007), all NSS software on the market supports these messages. Therefore, these
BSSMAP messages and fields must be enabled on the BSS side, otherwise the BSS will not
send them to the NSS, and this risks causing the ciphering procedure to operate in a lessthan-optimal manner.
To prevent this happening, the following BSS parameters must be set to value true :

cypherModeReject
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encrypAlgoAssComp

encrypAlgoCiphModComp

encrypAlgoHoPerf

encrypAlgoHoReq

layer3MsgCyphModComp

NSS PARAMETERS
A5/3 is supported by the NSS Nortel since GSM07 by feature AD8028.
A5/3 is datafilled in the MSC by setting the following Office Parameters :

GMSC_CIPHERING (OFCOPT table) : enables ciphering and deciphering of the radio


interface control between the MSC and the radio network subsystem (RNS) for the
transmission of user data or confidential network parameters.

GSM_CIPHER_ALGORITHM_SUPPORTED (OFCENG table) : indicates which GSM


ciphering algorithms are supported, in addition to the no encryption option. There are
seven defined algorithms (A5/1, A5/2, A5/3, A5/4, A5/5, A5/6, and A5/7).

4.27.4 PERFORMANCE IMPACT


BTS PROCESSING TIME
The ciphering processing time of the A5/3 encryption algorithm is not degraded compared to
the A5/1 processing time inside the BTS.

CALL SETUP TIME


On the other hand, since the ciphering mode setting field may be included in the Radio
Interface ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message, adding 1 byte, the BSS may need to send an
additional frame on the radio interface SDCCH channel in case the existing frame is already
full without this field. This additional frame could lead to 235 ms additional delay at the call
setup.

HANDOVER DURATION
In the same way, since the ciphering mode setting field may be added in the Radio Interface
HANDOVER COMMAND message, adding 1 byte, the BSS may need to send an additional
frame on the radio interface dedicated channel in case the existing frame is already full without
this field. This additional frame could lead to 235 ms (handover on SDCCH) or 20 ms
(handover on TCH) additional delay during the handover.

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4.28. BTS SMART POWER MANAGEMENT


4.28.1 DEFINITIONS
Several definitions will be used in this section :

Configured TRX : TRX that is mapped to a TDMA. The state of a configured TRXs PA
depends on whether the TRX is active or idle (see definitions below) and on the
circumstances.

Unconfigured TRX : transient state of the TRX that exists while the TRX has not yet
received the current cell parameters from the BTS

Deconfigured TRX : state of a TRX that exists after having received a clear config
command from the BTS

Spare TRX : TRX that is not mapped to a TDMA. The PA of a spare TRX may be in
state ON or state OFF depending on the circumstances, as explained in what
follows.

Active TRX : configured TRX that is being used by signaling or traffic on at least one
of the TDMAs radio timeslots. The PA of an active TRX is always ON.

Idle TRX : configured TRX whose TDMA is not currently carrying any ongoing traffic or
signalling. The PA of an idle TRX may be in state ON or state OFF depending on
the circumstances, as explained in what follows.

4.28.2 PRINCIPLE
This feature permits to reduce BTS power consumption by automatically switching the PA off
when no circuit communication is on-going.
On BTS 18000 family, the PA can be switched OFF or ON thanks to an electronic
switch. This switch can be set to ON or OFF by software, thanks to a dedicated new
TX firmware function.
On S8000 and S12000 BTS, the PA RF part can be switched OFF or ON thanks to a
firmware command.
PA switching off can be managed in two different ways, depending on RM hardware:

Regular smart power management feature: the PA is switched off when no circuit
communication is on-going on the TRX for a configurable time. PA is automatically
switched on as a circuit communication establishment begins

Enhanced smart power management feature: the PA is switched off per timeslot
when there is nothing to be emitted for the timeslot.

Enhanced smart power management is only available for BTS 18000 families on RM
equipped with PA Andrew. It is not available on RM equipped neither with PA
Powerwave nor on BTS S8000 or S12000.

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When the TRX receives the current cell parameter message activating smart power
management, it activates either regular or enhanced feature depending on type of
activation requested by the operator.
If enhanced feature is requested on a non compatible PA hardware, regular feature is
activated by the TRX in place. When enhanced feature is activated, the timing before
PA switching OFF parameter is ignored by the TRX.

On BTS 18000 family, if the RM is equipped with PA Andrew, both regular and
enhanced features are supported.

On BTS 18000 family, if the RM is equipped with PA Powerwave, only regular


smart power management is supported.

On BTS S8000 and S12000, only regular smart power management is supported.

Note:

For BTS 18000 families, if some RM is equipped with PA Andrew and


other are equipped with PA Powerwave, enhanced feature can be
activated on RM with PA Andrew, while regular feature is activated on
RM with PA Powerwave.

If enhanced feature has been requested at MMI on a non compatible


PA, the BTS does not notify the OMC that regular feature has been
actually activated on the TRX in place.

The "enhanced" feature behavior is not compatible with the PA


Powerwave switching time; this is the reason why it is only available
on RM with PAs Andrew.

4.28.3 BTS BEHAVIOR BEFORE FEATURE INTRODUCTION


Before v17.0, the BTS behaviour is the following:
When the TRX restarts (BTS start up, TRX lock/unlock, TRX trap ) the PA is in an unpowered state. It remains un-powered until it has received an RF Trans message from the
BSC.
Once the PA has been powered on, it remains so until the next reset or lock of the TRX.
This behaviour applies to all TRX regardless of their state:

configured TRX (by definition, a configured TRX is mapped to a TDMA),

spare TRX (by definition, a spare TRX is not mapped to a TDMA)

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4.28.4 REGULAR SMART POWER MANAGEMENT BEHAVIOR


FEATURE DEACTIVATED
CASE OF CONFIGURED TRX
In v17.0, if the feature is deactivated, the TRX behaves as before v17.0.

CASE OF SPARE, UNCONFIGURED OR DECONFIGURED TRX


The feature cannot be activated on a spare, unconfigured or deconfigured TRX. However, the
behaviour has been modified between v16.0 and v17.0 so that a spare or unconfigured or
deconfigured TRX is systematically switched off after a certain time For this, a 30 second
internal timer is started when the enable TRX procedure (RF Trans un-configuring) is
performed. When this timer expires, if no TDMA has been configured on the TRX, the PA is
switched off and its display hardware state is set to OK OFF cause
SmartPowerManagement
As soon as the TRX is configured with a TDMA, this PA will be switched on.

FEATURE ACTIVATED
CASE OF TRX CONFIGURED WITH SPECIFIC TDMA
The TRX that are mapped to specific TDMA configurations are not allowed to turn off their PA.
The feature, even if it is activated, does not apply to them. These TDMA configurations are the
following:

TDMA containing a BCCH channel

TDMA containing a combined BCCH/SDCCH channel without CBCH

TDMA containing a combined BCCH/SDCCH channel with CBCH

TDMA containing a non-combined SDCCH/8 channel with CBCH channel

TDMA containing a pDTCH channel

ALL OTHER CASES OF CONFIGURED TRX


For all other configured TRX whose TDMA is not in one of the above categories, if the feature
has been activated, the TRX automatically switches its PA OFF after the TDMA has been idle
a certain amount of time (configurable timer). The TRX switches its PA on again when a
channel is activated on the TDMA for a circuit-switched call establishment or for an incoming
handover.

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More precisely :

when the BTS receives a channel activation message from the BSC :
o

If the PA had been switched off, it is switched back on. PA hardware state is
set to OK (or KO).

If the PA is still on but the TRX is idle, meaning that the smart Power SwitchOff timer is running, then this timer is immediately stopped.

when the BTS receives a channel release message from the BSC : if there are no
more ongoing circuit-switched calls on the TRX (TRX has become idle), the
countdown of the smart Power Switch-Off timer is started.

The fact that the PA is switched off has no impact on the TRX operational state : the TRX
remains in the in service state.
The PA switching off has no impact on the TRX receive chain.

CASE OF SPARE TRX


The feature does not operate on a spare, unconfigured or deconfigured TRX, even if the
feature is activated on the cell.
However, the behaviour has been modified between v16.0 and v17.0 so that a spare,
unconfigured, or deconfigured TRX is systematically switched off, regardless of the activation
or deactivation of the smart power management feature. For this, a 30-second internal timer is
started when the enable TRX procedure (RF Trans un-configuring) is performed. When this
timer expires, if no TDMA has been configured on the TRX, the PA is switched off and its
display hardware state is set to OK OFF cause SmartPowerManagement
As soon as the TRX is configured with a TDMA, it ceases to be a spare, unconfigured or
deconfigured TRX and its PA will be switched on.

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4.28.5 ENHANCED SMART POWER MANAGEMENT BEHAVIOR


Once the enhanced feature has been activated, the PA is switched off as soon as there is
nothing to emit during at least two consecutive Timeslots. It is switched on as soon as some
signal has to be sent again.
There is no signal to emit on one timeslot in the two following cases:

No communication is on-going on the timeslot,

One communication is on-going on a TCH timeslot but the communication is on DTX


(during silence, no signal is emitted). It is considered that a communication is on DTX
during 50% of the time.

TCH timeslot may be switched off during DTX period while a communication is on-going.
At reception of current cell parameter message activating the feature, the RM (with PA
Andrew) applicative software activates the enhanced feature in the firmware. The PA
switching off and switching on are then managed by the firmware this way:
The firmware knows two timeslots in advance if there is some signal to emit or not.
If nothing has to be emitted (for at least two consecutive TS), the firmware switches the PA off
at the beginning of the first idle timeslot. Once PA is switched off, when there is some signal
to emit again, the firmware switches the PA on one timeslot in advance, so that the PA is
switched on at the beginning of the timeslot to emit.
As a consequence, if there are N consecutive idle timeslots, the PA will be effectively switched
off during N-1 timeslots. PA can only be switched off if there are at least 2 consecutive idle
timeslots. It is called timeslot switching off.
As PA switching off and on is managed per Timeslot when there is some signal to emit or not,
the enhanced feature can be activated on all the TDMA, whatever the type of channels
configured on the TDMA. BCCH and combined BCCH TDMA will never be switched off
because its Timeslots are never idle; TRX supporting combined BCCH, SDCCH/8 used for
CBCH or PDTCH channel will switch its PA off when there are idle timeslots.

4.28.6 HARDWARE DEPENDENCE


This feature is applicable to RM family only.

4.28.7 ACTIVATION GUIDELINES


O&M PARAMETERS
ACTIVATION PARAMETER
This feature is activated thanks to a BSS parameter called smartPowerManagementConfig :
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Class 3

object : powercontrol

range : disabled; enabled; enhanced;

POWER SWITCH-OFF TIMER


Once the regular feature has been activated, when the TRX has detected its PA has to be
switched off, it is not done immediately but after a confirmation time configured at the OMC.
Once the enhanced feature has been activated, the PA is switched off as soon as there are
two consecutive idle timeslots; no timer is managed in that case. When enhance feature is
active no timer is started or stopped until the feature is deactivated.
When it is used, the confirmation time is managed thanks to smartPowerSwitchOffTimer

Class 3

Object : powercontrol

range : 5 to 255 minutes

At TRX start up it is initialized at 30 s default value. It is set to smartPowerSwitchOffTimer at


reception of regular feature activation (current cell parameter message, if feature can be
activated on TDMA). It is set to non significant value at reception of enhanced feature
activation.
It is reset to 30 s default value at TRX reset, and at clear config.

RECOMMENDATIONS
CONFIGURATION OF LOGICAL CHANNELS ON TDMA
At radio TS configuration, if BCCH, combined BCCH (and SDCCH/4 or not), SDCCH/8 used
for CBCH channel, or PDTCH channel is configured on the TRX, the regular feature cannot be
activated on the TRX. Enhanced feature can be activated on any type of TDMA.
, As TDMAs that carry BCCH, SDCCH or pDTCH are never switched off when using regular
feature it is recommended to collect these channels as far as possible on the same TDMA
rather than spread them onto several TDMAs or not to configure more pDTCH than are strictly
necessary.

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MINIMUM TIMER VALUE


On BTS family 1800 (without the feature), if there is no call on a TRX for 5 minutes at least,
the VVA consign of the PA is reduced by 2 dB.
The aim is to avoid untimely a high current alarm when the PA starts transmitting again after
a while without transmission. Such an alarm could occur if the PA gain, which depends on the
VVA consign, is not consistent with the new temperature of the PA when it starts transmitting
again (temperature goes down when PA stops transmitting).
With the smart power management feature activated, the temperature will fall all the more
as, on top of not transmitting, the PA is actually completely switched off. Moreover, this off
state may last the whole night causing even further temperature drop.
Therefore, before a PA is switched off, it is vital that the VVA consign should have been
reduced by 2dB so that when the PA is switched back on again, there are no high current
alarms. To ensure this VVA is reduced by 2dB, as explained above, 5 minutes must elapse
after the last call on the TDMA has been released. If the smart power timer is less than 5
minutes, the PA would be switched off before a VVA consign reduction cpuld be applied. So,
when the PA is switched back on again, it will apply the old consign corresponding to a high
temperature, whereas the PA will have significantly cooled down. This risks triggering an
alarm ans dpossibly damaging the PA.
To prevent this, the smart power swicth off timer minimum value has, by design, been set to 5
minutes.
In case enhanced feature is active, if the PA is switched on then off in the same frame,
temperature variation will be low enough to remain compatible with current VVA consign. We
consider this is true even if PA remains completely OFF during 5 minutes. Beyond 5 minutes
off, VVA consign will be automatically reduced.
This doesnt apply to S8000 or S120000 BTS whose power loop behavior doesnt need such
attenuation.

OPTIMUM TIMER VALUE


When regular smart power management is used, the smaller the switch-off timer :

the more reactive the power management will be to the minute-by-minute changes to
the call profile as the day progresses towards quieter moments

the more power is likely to be saved as a result.

but the more frequently the PA is likely to go through off/on cycles, especially at the
transition from busy hour to quieter hours, thus possibly impacting its life expectancy.

Furthermore, the more TRX per cell, the more TRX are eligible for switch-off, and therefore the
more the feature is expected to make a difference to the power consumption.

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4.29. EVEA: ENHANCED VERY EARLY ASSIGNMENT


4.29.1 PRINCIPLE
When a mobile initiates an access to the network, the BSC allocates a SDCCH channel. Then,
according to the MSC request, the call stays on the signaling channel, or changes on a traffic
channel.
The BSC is able to allocate for signalling purpose a TCH channel instead of a SDCCH
channel, with the introduction of the feature SDCCH overflow. This feature is activated as
soon as there is no more SDCCH
Note: PDTCH can't be preempted to perform signaling, because of the timer in the mobile
which expire too quickly and requests a new channel.
The BSC is also able to allocate directly a TCH with a fall back with SDCCH, with the
introduction of call reestablishment feature. It is triggered when the establishment cause,
included in channel request message on Air interface, is set to specific cause. The NECI bit is
not used in current version limiting the possibility of using such a mechanism.
Indeed prior to V18, the following 2 processes were available:
EA: Early Assignment; GSM feature consisting to allocate a SDCCH during signaling phase
and then a TCH during speech/data phase.
VEA: Very Early Assignment; GSM feature consisting to allocate a TCH during signaling
phase.
In V18, EVEA: Enhanced Very Early Assignment feature consists mainly in broadcasting NECI
bit in system information so the BSC is able to analyze more accurately the mobile request.
Therefore, when there is no traffic load in cell : according to the type of communication
requested by the mobile in the channel request, the BSC shall allocate a TCH for a speech
call or a CS data call, and to keep SDCCH channels for procedures in signaling mode, like
location update, attach, detach, SMS in idle mode...

4.29.2 ACTIVATION
New parameters which manage the feature activation are:

EATrafficLoadStart

EATrafficLoadEnd

VEASDCCHOverflowAllowed

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The EVEA feature is activated as soon as the two new parameters EATrafficLoadStart and
EATrafficLoadEnd are both different from 100.
Note that if EATrafficLoadStart is equal to 100 and EATrafficLoadEnd is different to 100,
EVEA feature is activated.
The VEA allocation is activated until the traffic load in cell is high, and deactivated if the load
increases. To avoid ping pong effects, a hysteresis is managed:

Traffic
Max HR
capacity
Number of
allocated TCH

EA

EA
Max FR
HRCellLoadStart
capacity

Max FR capacity

EA

AMR HR based on traffic area

EA

HRCellLoadEnd
EA
EA

Full rate area

EATrafficLoadStart
VEA

EA

EATrafficLoadEnd
VEA
VEA

Time
24 hours
24 hours

Here below is the synthetic view


EVEA deactivated
No traffic load

Traffic load
(v17 behavior) (*)

No SDCCH blocking

VEA
VEA,

SDCCH blocking

SDCCH

overflow

allowed

if

EA

EA

VEA, no SDCCH overflow

EA, SDCCH overflow

(*) Whatever the traffic load

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SDCCH BLOCKING
The SDCCH blocking cases are temporary and transitional.
To manage the SDCCH blocking, SDCCH overflow (i.e. allocating a TCH for signaling
call) is allowed:

if there is no traffic load and,

if the parameter VEASDCCHOverflowAllowed allows it.

The VEASDCCHOverflowAllowed allows or not to perform SDCCH overflow when


there is no traffic load but there is no more available SDCCH in cell. This parameter is
used only when EVEA is activated and doesnt impact the actual behavior.

TRAFFIC LOAD
The Filtered TCH ratio used for AboT explained in is reused to evaluate traffic load
and compared to two thresholds:

IF EATrafficLoadStart and EATrafficLoadEnd are both different from 100


THEN
IF Filtered TCH ratio < EATrafficLoadEnd then the traffic is not loaded
ELSE IF Filtered TCH ratio EATrafficLoadStart THEN the traffic is loaded
ELSE no change

IF EATrafficLoadStart and EATrafficLoadEnd are both equal to 100


THEN
The EVEA feature is deactivated and so the V17 behaviour is kept

At the beginning, the traffic is considered as not loaded


Note : the case traffic load and SDCCH blocking may seem inconsistent but is in fact
is logical : if there is no more SDCCH available, no more signaling communication can
be established and a TCH signaling is used for speech communication (this is VEA
behavior).
LCAUTION!
The explanation of the activation/deactivation VEA allocation, is that VEA allocation
may disturbs many features useful when the network is loaded (AMR Based on Traffic
or AMR Maximization features for instance).

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4.29.3 FEATURE INTERWORKING


EVEA feature disturbs the AMR feature because the AMR TDMA priority can't be
checked before allocating a TCH.
No specific allocation is performed during signaling phase; so, the classical allocation
algorithm is run (TS number, TDMA number, and level of interference).
If parameters are consistent, the EVEA feature is complementary with AMR
maximization, because the first one is used only when there is no load, while the
second is used when there is load.

AMR BOT evolution: no impact.

Direct HR allocation: no impact; the case TCH FR signaling to TCH HR


speech is already taken into account in EVEA feature.

HR to FR handover deactivation: no impact; the BSC cant allocate HR


signaling channel.

All incoming handover forced to HR: no impact.

Queueing HR: no impact.

If parameters are inconsistent, then EVEA disturbs ABoT & AMR maximization

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5.

ALGORITHM PARAMETERS

5.1.

INTRODUCTION
This chapter lists parameters, sorted according to their group, as they were defined in the
previous Chapter.
The following information is provided for each parameter:

a brief description
value range and unit
the recommended value: takes the best benefit of the feature in a standard
network configuration and environment.
process in which it is used (see Chapter 2)
some engineering rules that must be considered for the parameter setting
the object that contains this parameter
the default value. Most of the time, the default value inhibits the feature
characterized by this parameter
corresponding GSM name
GSM Recommendation
parameter type and OMC-R class (see note below)

Note: The recommended value is established from Nortel experience and studies. This value
has to be adapted according to the network specificities. For the recommended value in GSM
900, it is the same value for eGSM and GSM-R when nothing else is recommended for these
two networks. This value is not contractual, and it could change with Nortel new studies results
and experience growth.
The following types of parameters can be distinguished:

Customer engineering parameters:


Addressing: relative to an object
Design: contract characteristic
Optimization:network tuning
Operation: network operation

Manufacturer parameters:
System: modifying such a parameter seriously impacts system
behaviour
Product: parameters related to the current system release
DP: stands for permanent data

OMC-R class gives rules to be followed when modifying a parameter:


CLASS
Class 0
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3

Rules
Implies reconstruction of the BDA
Put BSC out of service (i.e. BSC state set to locked), takes new parameters into account by
resetting active chain and passive chains
Declares the object (or its parent) temporarily out-of-service before modification
Modification is dynamically taken into account

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5.2.

2G CELL SELECTION AND RESELECTION PARAMETERS


cellReselectHysteresis

Class3

V7

Description:

Hysteresis to reselect towards a cell:


when the MS is in IDLE mode and reselects a cell with a different
LA (Location Area)
when the MS is in GPRS STANDBY mode and reselects a cell with
a different LA (Location Area) or a different RA (Routing Area)
when the MS is in GPRS ready state and reselects a different cell

Value range:

[0 to 14, by steps of 2] dB

Object:

bts

Default value:

6 dB

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

6 dB (rural / low cell overlap), 10 dB (urban / high cell overlap)

Used in:

Criteria for reselection towards a cell of a different Location Area


(Sel_2)

Eng. Rules:

GSM case:
A high value prevents the MS from making frequent location updates
and may also prevent an MS from performing adequate location
updates, thus risking not receiving calls. The level variation of the
signal is more important in an urban context, so a higher value of
hysteresis should be set. To avoid frequent location updates, there is
also a timer forbidding the reselection of the previous server cell. For
a reselection with change of location area, the value is 15 seconds.
GPRS case:
In order to minimize the impact of the introduction of the GPRS in an
existing GSM network, it is recommended not to modify the current
value of CellReselectHysteresis used for voice. A high value would
keep the link for a long time hence some communications would have
a high BLER due to an important load of the cell. The throughput
would then decrease because of the retransmission at RLC/MAC
layer.
On the other hand a low value would ease the cell reselection pingpong in data mode which could severely decrease the overall user
throughput due to the gap of transmission during the reselection.
In case of cell overlap (i.e. urban environment, site covered in several
frequency bands), 10dB should be considered in order to minimize
ping-pong reselections.

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cellReselectOffset

Class 3

Description:

Encouragement to reselect a cell (C2 criterion) for phase 2 MS

Value range:

[0 to 126, by steps of 2] dB

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Between 4 and 10

Used in:

Additional reselection criterion (for phase 2) (Sel_3)

Eng. Rules:

Otherwise, if there is no privileged layer, the recommended value


remains the same for both sites, between 4 dB and 10 dB.

cellReselInd

Class 3

Description:

Whether cell reselection criterion (C2) use is authorized

Value range:

[true / false]

Object:

bts

Default value:

true

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

True

Used in:

Additional reselection criterion (for phase 2) (Sel_3)

Eng. Rules:

See chapter Selection, Reselection Algorithms

msTxPwrMaxCCH

Class 3

V8

V8

V7

Description:

Maximum MS transmission power in a cell CCCH


The BSC relays the information to the mobiles in the Abis CELL
MODIFY REQUEST message.

Value range:

[5 to 43, by steps of 2] dBm (GSM 900, GSM-R, GSM850, GSM850GSM1900 and GSM 900& 850MHz - GSM 1800 networks)
[0 to 36, by steps of 2] dBm (GSM 1800 and GSM 1900 - GSM 900 &
850MHz networks)
[0 to 33] dBm (GSM 1900 network and 1900-850 network)
[0 to 33] dBm (E-GSM network)

Object:

bts

Default value:

Typical value of 33 dBm for GSM 900 & 850MHz handhelds, 30 dBm
for GSM 1800 and 1900

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

33 dBm for GSM 900 & 850MHz, 30 dBm for GSM 1800 and 1900

Used in:

Selection or reselection between cells of current Location Area


(Sel_1), Criteria for reselection towards a cell of a different Location
Area (Sel_2), Additional reselection criterion (for phase 2) (Sel_3)

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Eng. Rules:

In GSM 900 & 850MHz, msTxPwrMax = msTxPwrMaxCCH. In GSM


1800 or 1900, msTxPwrMaxCCH msTxPwrMax. Both are verified at
OMC-R level. This value is related to typical mobile (handheld or
vehicle-mounted) and assumed an environment (urban, rural). If the
cell is rural, it is possible to put a higher value because lot of mobiles
have car kits (can transmit at a higher power). In urban environment,
the density of mobile increases and care should be taken to reduce
interferences. Furthermore, the major part of the mobile market are
handsets.

Remark:

If the cell is used as a neighbor cell of another serving cell in the


network, msTxPwrMaxCCH must be identical to the msTxPwrMaxCell
power defined for the corresponding adjacentCellHandOver object
(the values must be checked by users).

penaltyTime

Class 3

V8

Description:

Timer used by an idle mobile before reselecting a cell (C2 criterion)


When a mobile places the cell on the list of strongest carriers, it starts
a timer that stops after penaltyTime seconds. This timer is reset when
the mobile removes the cell from the list.
For the entire timer duration, the reselection criterion (C2) is assigned
a negative temporaryOffset value.
Refer to the cellReselectOffset parameter in the Dictionary.

Value range:

[20 to 640, by steps of 20] seconds.


The value 640 is reserved and indicates that the temporary offset is
ignored in the reselection criterion (C2) calculation. It also changes
the sign in the C2 formula.

Object:

bts

Default value:

20

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

20

Used in:

Additional reselection criterion (for phase 2) (Sel_3)

Eng. Rules:

The longer this timer is, the longer a penalty is applied for reselecting
that cell. The value should be correlated with the expected mobiles
speeds, which are to be managed by that cell.

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rxLevAccessMin

Class 3

V7

Description:

Minimum signal strength level received by the mobiles for being


granted access to a cell. The information is sent to MS prior to
registering.
As an example, a threshold level of -104 dBm corresponds to an
acceptable BER of approximately 10-2 (minimum recommended
value).

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109, ... , -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm

Object:

bts

Default value:

less than -110 dBm

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

GSM 900/GSM 850: -101 to -100 dBm,


GSM 1800/1900: -99 to -98 dBm

Used in:

Selection or reselection between cells of current Location Area


(Sel_1), Criteria for reselection towards a cell of a different Location
Area (Sel_2), Additional reselection criterion (for phase 2) (Sel_3)

Eng. Rules:

Main parameter for selection or reselection.


Notice that the tuning of this parameter strongly depends on the
operator strategy. Decreasing the value eases the access to the
network by reducing the quality. This parameter defines the cell
access size.

Remark:

The difference between GSM 900/GSM 850 and GSM 1800/1900 is


due to MS sensitivity (-104 dBm (GSM 900/GSM 850), -102 dBm
(GSM 1800/1900)).
Example:

RxLevAccessMin 1 = -100 dBm


RxLevAccessMin 2 = -99 dBm
A rough calculation gives the following impact on the cell access
surface: Access Zone 1 = Access Zone 2 x 1.2
LCAUTION!

A very low value of RxlevAccessMin allows mobiles to camp and


attempt calls. Most of calls attempts at very low field levels fail, or lead
to a call drop a few seconds after the call has been established. This
assessment is also true for GPRS/EDGE procedure, a very
permissive value of RxlevAccessMin leads to data establishment
failure and TBF drop.

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temporaryOffset

Class 3

V8

Description:

Negative offset applied during Penalty Time for reselecting a cell (C2
criterion)
This negative offset is applied during the entire penaltyTime duration
and allows to prevent speeding mobiles from selecting the cell. Refer
to the cellReselectOffset entry in the Dictionary.

Value range:

[0 to 70, by steps of 10] dB

Object:

bts

Default value:

70

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

0 (microcell & macrocell in mono-layer),


70 (macrocell in multi-layers)

Used in:

Additional reselection criterion (for phase 2) (Sel_3)

Eng. Rules:

The value prevents a mobile from reselecting a cell during


PenaltyTime. By giving the highest possible value, which is higher
than the field strength range (0 to 63), we ensure that the mobile will
not reselect the cell before the timer expires. Then, the value 70
means the applied offset is infinite.
It could be dangerous on a microcell or macrocell in a mono-layer
environment to have a high value, because it slows down the
reselection process. However, on a macrocell in a multi-layers
environment, it is recommended to prevent from reselecting a cell
(value 70), in keeping a low value for penaltyTime (20 seconds).

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5.3.

2G-3G CELL RESELECTION PARAMETERS


3GTechnology
Description: FDD or TDD 3G technology selection
Value range:

FDD (0) /TDD (1)

Object:

bts

Default value:

FDD

Type:

DP

Rec. value:

Accordingly to the technology used for 3G

Used in:

2G - 3G Cell Reselection

Class 3

V17

Class 3

V14

Class 3

V14

Eng. Rules:

gsmToUmtsReselection
Description:

gsmToUmtsReselection is composed of 4 parameters:


3GsearchMinLevel
3GreselectionOffset
3GAccessMinLevel
3GReselectionARFCN

Object:

bts

Type:

DP

3GAccessMinLevel
Description:

A minimum threshold for Ec/No for UTRAN FDD cell re-selection


(GSM spec 45.008 name for this parameter is FDD_Qmin)

Value range:

[0: - 20 dB, 1: - 6 dB, 2: - 18 dB, 3: - 8 dB, 4: - 16 dB, 5: - 10 dB, 6: 14 dB, 7: - 12 dB]

Object:

bts

Default value:

- 12 dB

Type:

DP

Rec. value:

- 12 dB

Used in:

2G - 3G Cell Reselection

Eng. Rules:

below the recommended value UE may not be able to reach the 3G


network in good conditions.

Note:

The SI2Quater message broadcasted by the BSS is an index [0 to 7]


that is interpreted by the mobile depending on the release date of that
mobile:

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Index

Mobiles interpretation
before October 2003

Mobiles interpretation
after October 2003

- 20 dB

- 20 dB

- 19 dB

- 6 dB

- 18 dB

- 18 dB

- 17 dB

- 8 dB

- 16 dB

- 16 dB

- 15 dB

- 10 dB

- 14 dB

- 14 dB

- 13 dB

- 12 dB

One should be advised that OMC-R may eventualy display old


values while the offset is broadcasted.

3GReselectionARFCN
Class 3 V14
Description:
Neighbouring UMTS cell ARFCN. The BSS does not perform any
check on UARFCN value so new UMTS frequency band introduction
applies to any BSC architecture.
(GSM spec 45.008 name for this parameter is FDD_ARFCN)
Value range:

0 to 16383

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP

Rec. value:

a non-null value to broadcast the SI2Quater on the BCCH

Used in:

2G - 3G Cell Reselection

Eng. Rules:
3GReselectionOffset

Class 3

V14

Description:

Applies an offset to RLA_C for cell reselection to access technology /


mode FDD (GSM spec 45.008 name for this parameter is
FDD_Qoffset)

Value range:

[-dB, -28 dB, -24 dB, -20 dB, -16 dB, -12 dB, -8 dB, -4 dB, 0 dB, 4
dB, 8 dB, 12 dB, 16 dB, 20 dB, 24 dB,28 dB]

Object:

bts

Default value:

-dB

Type:

DP

Checks:
Rec. value:

see Engineering Rules

Used in:

2G - 3G Cell Reselection

Eng. Rules:

that parameter allows a fine tuning in UMTS re-selection by


introducing a favorable/defavorable offset toward a UMTS cell.
The recommanded value by default is 0 dB.

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3GSearchLevel

Class 3

V14

Description:

Search for 3G cell if signal level is below or above the threshold


(GSM spec 45.008 name for this parameter is Qsearch_I)

Value range:

[0: < -98 dBm, 1: < -94 dBm, 2: < -90 dBm, 3: < -86 dBm, 4: < 82 dBm, 5: < -78 dBm, 6: < -74 dBm, 7: Always, 8: > -78 dBm,
9: > -74 dBm, 10: > -70 dBm,11: > -66 dBm, 12: > -62 dBm, 13:
> -58 dBm, 14: > -54 dBm, 15: Never]

Object:

bts

Default value:

-98 dBm

Type:

DP

Rec. value:

see Engineering Rules

Used in:

2G - 3G Cell Reselection

Eng. Rules:

this parameter set whether UE should search for UMTS cells or not. It
can allow UE to search above a certain level, below a certain level, or
always. Note that in this last case the UE battery autonomy can be
impacted.

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5.4.

LEGACY MEASUREMENT REPORTING PARAMETERS

powerControlIndicator

Class 3

V7

Description:

Whether MS signal strength measurements on the TCH or SDCCH


should include measurements on BCCH frequency or not.

Value range:

[include BCCH measurements / do not include BCCH measurements]

Object:

bts

Default value:

include BCCH measurements

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

See Eng. Rules

Used in:

Power Control Algorithms

Eng. Rules:

Downlink measurements performed by the mobile on TCH or SDCCH


should not include measurements done when the channel frequency
is the BCCH frequency if the following two conditions are met:
The radio channel hops at least on two different frequencies, on of
which is the BCCH frequency.
Power control on the downlink is used.

LCAUTION!

This parameter is only relevant with BTS using cavity coupling


because only cavity coupling allows to use BCCH frequency as part of
the hopping frequency list. For BTS using hybrid coupling, the BCCH
frequency is never part of the hopping list, so this parameter is
irrelevant in that case. See 4.5.9 for details.

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5.5.

ENHANCED MEASUREMENT REPORTING PARAMETERS

fDDMultiratReporting
Description:

Value range:

Class 3

V17

(applicable both to normal measurement reporting and EMR) Number


of UTRAN FDD cells to be reported by the mobile in the list of
strongest cells inside the normal or Enhanced Measurement Report
message.
0: no UTRAN cell is favoured
1: 1 UTRAN strongest cell is favoured
2: 2 strongest UTRAN cells are favoured
3: 3 strongest UTRAN cells are favoured

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

see Eng. Rules

Used in:

Enhanced Measurement Reporting (EMR)


UTRAN cell reporting using legacy measurement reports (V17)

Eng. Rules:

The value depends on the network operator strategy.


However, in case of HO2G-3G enabled with normal measurement
reporting (EMR disabled), it is necessary to exercise caution when
fDDMultiRatReporting
and
setting
the
parameters
multiBandReporting. These parameters define the number of UTRAN
cells and non-serving band GSM cells, respectively, that must be
included by the mobile in the list of strongest cells in the measurement
report. Therefore it leaves (6 - fDDMultiRatReporting multiBandReporting) spaces for the serving band GSM cells.
Therefore, if EMR is disabled, it is recommended not to exceed
fDDMultiRatReporting = 2 and multiBandReporting = 2.

fDDreportingThreshold

Class 3

V17

Description:

CPICH RSCP level measured on UTRAN cells, above which the


mobile shall apply a higher priority to UTRAN cells in the enhanced
measurement report message

Value range:

-115 dBm, -109 dBm, -103 dBm, -97 dBm, -91 dBm, -85 dBm, -79
dBm, never

Object:

handoverControl

Default value:

never

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

-97 dBm

Used in:

Enhanced Measurement Reporting (EMR)

Eng. Rules:

An operator willing to unload GSM network to UMTS network but


keeping calls in good conditions should set this parameter to at least 97dBm, ensuring a high probability of good Ec/No value after the HO
and limiting the high increase of UTRAN incoming HO due to ping
pong handover.

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This parameter must be in accordance with 3G to 2G HO


parameters.
In order to limit ping pong effect, a hysteresis of 5 dB is
recommended between fDDreportingThreshold and UTRAN hard
HO 3G to 2G CPICH RSCP threshold.
fDDreportingThreshold2

Class 3

V17

Description:

(applicable both to normal measurement reporting and EMR,


applicable from MS release 5) CPICH Ec/N0 level measured on
UTRAN cells, above which the mobile shall report UTRAN cells in the
enhanced measurement report message

Value range:

0 to 63 (0 means always reported)

Object:

handoverControl

Default value:

0 (always reported)

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

28

Used in:

Enhanced Measurement Reporting (EMR)


UTRAN cell reporting using legacy measurement reports (V17)

Eng. Rules:

To ensure a good quality after the handover, a simultaneously not too


restrictive and good C/I value must be required.
Setting this parameter at 28 which corresponds to Ec/No = -10 dB
seems to be a good compromise.
This parameter must be in accordance with 3G to 2G HO
parameters.
In order to limit ping pong effect, a hysteresis of 2 dB is
recommended between fDDreportingThreshold2 and UTRAN
hard HO 3G to 2G Ec/No threshold.

Note:

The Ec/No step is in half dB:


- 0 means always reported
- In range 1 to 49, 1 means CPICH Ec/No -24 dB and 49 means
CPICH Ec/No 0 dB.
CPICH Ec/N0 level measured = - 24 + fDDreportingThreshold2/2
- Values from 50 to 63 should not be used for Ec/No.

qsearchC

Class 3

V17

Description:

(applicable both to normal measurement reporting and EMR). This


parameter is called Qsearch_C in the GSM specification. It gives the
serving cells BCCH level below which the MS must listen to
neighbours. If the serving BCCH frequency is not part of the
BA(SACCH) list, the dedicated channel is not on the BCCH carrier,
and qsearchC is not equal to 15, the MS shall ignore the qsearchC
parameter value and always search for UTRAN cells. If qsearchC is
equal to 15, the MS shall never search for UTRAN cells.

Value range:

0: < -98 dBm


1: < -94 dBm
2: < -90 dBm
3: < -86 dBm
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4: < -82 dBm
5: < -78 dBm
6: < -74 dBm
7: always
8: > -78 dBm
9: > -74 dBm
10: > -70 dBm
11: > -66 dBm
12: > -62 dBm
13: > -58 dBm
14: > -54 dBm
15: never
QsearchC < -XX dBm: the HO towards the UMTS can be done only if
the RxLev from the serving cell is below -XX dBm.
QsearchC > -XX dBm: the HO towards the UMTS can be done only if
the RxLev from the serving cell is above -XX dBm.
Object:

handoverControl

Default value:

15 (never)

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

7 (always)

Used in:

Enhanced Measurement Reporting (EMR)


UTRAN cell reporting using legacy measurement reports (V17)

Eng. Rules:

Cases where a different value from always could be useful have not
been identified. Therefore value always is recommended.

reportTypeMeasurement

Class 3

Description:

type of measurement report to be reported on this cell : enhanced


measurement report or legacy measurement report

Value range:

0 : Measurement report

V17

1 : Enhanced Measurement Report


Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Used in:

Enhanced Measurement Reporting (EMR)


UTRAN cell reporting using legacy measurement reports (V17)

Eng. Rules:

To take advantage of EMR benefits it is recommended to activate


EMR.
In case of HO 2G -3G activation either EMR or legacy measurement
does not have any impact on the Handover 2G to 3G efficiency.

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servingBandReporting
Description:

Class 3

V17

(applicable to EMR only) This parameter sets the value of the


SERVING_BAND_REPORTING field in Measurement Information
messages.
It defines the number of cells from the GSM serving frequency band
that shall be included in the list of strongest cells in the enhanced
measurement report.

Value range:

0 : no inband cell is favoured


1: 1 strongest inband cell is favoured
2: 2 strongest inband cells are favoured
3: 3 strongest inband cells are favoured

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Used in:

Enhanced Measurement Reporting (EMR)

Eng. Rules:

Depends on the network operator strategy.

servingBandReportingOffset
Description:

Class 3

V17

(applicable to EMR only) This parameter sets the value of the


XXX_REPORTING_OFFSET field in Measurement Information
messages, for the GSM band (XXX =900 or 1800 or 400 or 850 or
1900).
If there is not enough space in the report for all valid cells, the cells
shall be reported that have the highest sum of the reported value
(RXLEV) and the parameter servingBandReportingOffset
(XXX_REPORTING_OFFSET) for the serving GSM band. Note that
this parameter shall not affect the value itself of the reported
measurement.

Value range:

0, 1, ... 7, 0xFF : 0 dB, 6 dB, , 42 dB, not significant

Object:

handoverControl

Default value:

empty

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

See Eng. Rules

Used in:

Enhanced Measurement Reporting (EMR)

Eng. Rules:

This parameter should be tuned if EMR is used during an IM


campaign. If, during the Interference Matrix campaign in a dual band
network, the reporting of serving band neighbours is deliberately
favoured by using the servingBandReportingOffset , then, as a sideeffect, the traffic distribution may be modified. This undesirable sideeffect may in turn modify the results of the IM measurements, which
therefore may no longer reflect the real situation in the field once the
IM has ceased. Therefore it is recommended to ensure that the
chosen value of servingBandReportingOffset does not cause
unacceptable changes in the traffic distribution.

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5.6.

RADIO LINK FAILURE PARAMETERS


callReestablishment

Class 3

V7

Description:

Whether call re-establishment in a cell is allowed when the radio link


is broken off for propagation reasons
The information is broadcast to the mobiles at regular intervals on the
cell BCCH.
On receipt of a CHANNEL REQUIRED message with cause call reestablishment, the BSC attempts to allocate a TCH in one of the cells
where call re-establishment is allowed. Then, if no TCH is available
the BSC attempts to allocate a SDCCH.

Value range:

[allowed / not allowed]

Object:

bts

Default value:

not allowed

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

allowed

Used in:

Radio link failure process (run by the MS),


Call reestablishment procedure

Eng. Rules:

Enabling or not this feature is a MSC capability issue

radioLinkTimeout

Class 2

V7

Description:

Maximum value of the counter (S) associated with the downlink


SACCH messages, beyond which the radio link is cut off. It is lower
than or equal to t3109.
Mobiles comply with system operating conditions when the counter
(S) is assigned a value lower than or equal to t3109.
If the receiver is unable to decode a downlink SACCH message
(BTStoMS direction), the counter is decreased by 1. If the message
is received, the counter is increased by 2. When the counter goes
down to zero, the radio link is declared faulty.

Value range:

[4 to 64, by steps of 4] SACCH frames (1 unit = 480 ms on TCHs, 470


ms on SDCCHs)

Object:

bts

Default value:

20 SACCH

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

20
32 when AMR is activated
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Used in:

Radio link failure process (run by the MS),


AMR - Adaptative Multi Rate FR/HR

Eng. Rules:

radioLinkTimeOut < t3109.


If surrounding cells accept re-establishment (from GSM08 for DMS
MSC), overall process should not be too long.

Remark:

Small value: call might be dropped before a move to a more


favorable environment could occur.
High value: in case of permanent bad conditions, users anger and
taxation increase before actual calls end or reestablishment.

The rlf1 attribute serves the same goal on the uplink, but the system
does not check that the values of the two attributes are consistent.

rlf1
Description:

Class 2

V8

Value to compute the initial and maximum value of the (CT) counter
used in the BTS radio link control algorithm
The FP runs the following algorithm to monitor the uplink SACCHs
(MStoBTS direction):
The CT counter is reset to zero when the FP receives a CHANNEL
ACTIVATION message.
On each occurence of an uplink SACCH, the following occurs:
if the channel is decoded and CT = 0, then CT = 4 * rlf1 + 4
if the channel is decoded and CT 0, then CT = min (4 * rlf1 + 4,
CT+rlf2)
if the channel is not decoded, then CT = max (0, CT - rlf3)
When the CT counter goes down to zero, the radio link is broken and
the BTS sends a CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION message to
the BSC.

Value range:

[0 to 15]

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Used in:

Radio link failure process (run by the BTS),


AMR - Adaptative Multi Rate FR/HR

Eng. Rules:

The resulting CT value is the same as radioLinkTimeOut value.


There is no reason to recommend to cut a communication more
rapidly in the uplink or downlink direction. In a network with a lot of
traffic or with many zones of interference, a lower value (between 2
and 4) of this parameter is recommended. Typically the value, in such
a case should be 2.

Notes:

The radioLinkTimeOut attribute serves the same goal on the downlink,


but the system does not check that the values of the two attributes are
consistent.

7 when AMR is activated

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rlf2

Class 2

V8

Description:

Step value by which the (CT) counter is increased by the radio link
control algorithm when an uplink SACCH is decoded.
Refer to the rlf1 entry.

Value range:

[1 to 4] SACCH frames

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Used in:

Radio link failure process (run by the BTS)

Eng. Rules:

The value should be higher than rlf3 value, in order to encourage the
continuity of service. The higher the value, the longer an MS will keep
a bad quality communication in a disturbed zone. The choice of this
value must be made by the operator, in keeping with its service quality
level.

rlf3

Class 2

V8

Description:

Step value by which the (CT) counter is decreased by the radio link
control algorithm when an uplink SACCH is not decoded
Refer to the rlf1 entry.

Value range:

[1 to 4] SACCH frames

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Used in:

Radio link failure process (run by the BTS)

Eng. Rules:

It is recommended to fix this value to 1. This allows the use of the rlf1
value to set the maximal duration of consecutive non-reception of
SACCH frame.

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5.7.

SIGNAL QUALITY AVERAGING PARAMETERS


missRxQualWt

Class 3

V7

Description:

Weight applied to missing Quality measurement


The missing measurement is replaced by the latest computed
arithmetic average, or by the latest received raw measurement if no
average value is available, weighed by this corrective factor when
calculating the average bit error rate in the radio link. The range of
permitted values makes missing quality measurements not favored.

Value range:

[100 to 200] %

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

110

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

110

Used in:

Missing Downlink Measurements

Eng. Rules:

The higher the value is, the higher the missing measurement will be
weighted.

rxQualHreqave

Class 3

V7

Description:

Number of bit error rate measurements performed on a serving cell,


used to compute arithmetic BER averages in handover and power
control algorithms

Value range:

[1 to 10] number of measurement results

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

4 in urban environment,
> 8 in rural environment

Used in:

Measurement Processing

Eng. Rules:

In order to minimize calculation of temporary averages it is better if


runHandOver and runPwrControl are multiples or sub multiples of
rxQualHreqAve. Length of weighed average window should be
reduced when the cell is small or environment requires quick
reactivity. Studies have shown that a reduction of the window size
value (from 8 to 4 for instance) does not increase the number of
handovers on a network and does not change handover causes.
However, it has a positive impact, because it leads to a greater
reactivity.Then, the weighted average window size (rxQualHreqAve *
rxQualHreqt) has to be correlated to the hoMargin value to keep a low
ping-pong probability.
The larger the window size, the lower the hoMargin should be.

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rxQualHreqt

Class 3

V7

Description:

Number of arithmetic averages taken into account to compute the


weighted average bit error rate in handover and power control
algorithms. Each is calculated from rxQualHreqave bit error rate
(BER) measurements on a radio link.

Value range:

[1 to 16]

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Used in:

Measurement Processing

Eng. Rules:

The quality and signal strength weighted average window should


encompass the same period. For the sake of simplicity, the default
value disables weighting. The weighed average window size
(rxQualHeqAve * rxQualHreqt) must be correlated to the hoMargin
value to keep a low ping-pong probability.
The larger the window size, the lower the hoMargin should be.

rxQualWtsList

Class 3

V7

Description:

List of up to sixteen weights used to compute the average bit error


rate on a radio link
The L1M function calculates rxQualHreqave arithmetic averages from
raw measurements, and balances rxQualHreqt averages among those
with the weights defined in rxQualWtsList.
Each arithmetic average is partnered with one weight in the list.
Weight/average associations are set in the order in which the weights
are recorded. The latest computed arithmetic average is always
partnered with the first weight in the list.
Superaverage = [ (averagei x weighti)] / 100, i = 1 to rxQualHreqt

Value range:

[0 to 100] %

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

100

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

100

Used in:

Measurement Processing

Eng. Rules:

Values add up to 100.


If there are several values, the biggest weights must be used for more
recent reports.
In rural environment, rxLev and rxQual weighed average window will
not refer to the same time window.

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5.8.

SIGNAL STRENGTH AVERAGING PARAMETERS


missRxLevWt

Class 3

V7

Description:

Weight applied in case of missing signal strength measurement


report
The missing measurement is replaced by the latest computed
arithmetic average, or by the latest received raw measurement if no
average value is available, weighed by this corrective factor when
calculating the average signal strength in the cell.
Selecting the greatest value makes missing strength measurements
not favored.

Value range:

[0 to 100] %

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

90

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

90

Used in:

Measurement Processing

Eng. Rules:

rxLevHreqave

Class 3

V7

Description:

Number of signal strength measurements performed on a serving cell,


used to compute arithmetic strength averages in handover and power
control algorithms

Value range:

[1 to 10] number of measurement results

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

6 for small cells (Dintersite < 800m)


between 8 and 10 for large cells (Dintersite > 1600m)

Used in:

Measurement Processing

Eng. Rules:

In order to minimize calculation of temporary averages it is better if


runHandOver and runPwrControl are multiples or sub multiples of
rxLevHreqAve. In an urban environment, the window size should be
minimized and the hoMargin value should be high. However, choosing
too small a value leads to averaging meaningless measures in case of
DTX activation uplink or downlink. Then, in an urban environment,
according to building density, antenna height and global environment,
the window size can fluctuate between 6 and 8. The minimum value,
6, may be preferred, because it ensures a good reactivity without bad
influence if the parameter hoMargin is well chosen.

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rxLevHreqaveBeg

Class3

V11

Description:

Number of measurement reports used in short averaging algorithm on


current cell for signal strength arithmetic average
Refer to the rxLevHreqave entry in the Dictionary.

Value range:

[1 to 10]

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Used in:

Early HandOver Decision


Automatic handover adaptation
Fast power control at TCH assignment

Eng. Rules:

rxLevHreqaveBeg < rxLevHreqave


This parameter has to be coupled
rxLevNCellHreqaveBeg.

Remark:

with

hoMarginBeg

and

This parameter is only available for DCU4 or DRX transceiver


architecture.

rxLevHreqt

Class 3

Description:

Number of arithmetic averages taken into account to compute the


weighted average signal strength in handover and power control
algorithms. Each is calculated from rxLevHreqave signal strength
measurements on a serving cell.

Value range:

[1 to 16]

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

V7

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Used in:

Measurement Processing

Eng. Rules:

In a urban environment, the window size should be minimized and the


hoMargin value should be high.
For the sake of simplicity, weighted averaging is disabled by default
value.

LCAUTION!

The weighted average is not used for the PBGT. The weighed
average window size (rxLevHreqAve * rxLevHreqt) has to be
correlated to the hoMargin value to keep a low ping-pong probability.
The larger the window size, the lower the hoMargin should be.

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rxLevWtsList

Class 3

V7

Description:

Values of weights to be used for signal strength weighed average


The L1M function first calculates rxLevHreqave arithmetic averages
from raw measurements, and balances rxLevHreqt averages among
those with the weights defined in rxLevWtsList.
Each arithmetic average is partnered with one weight in the list.
Weight/average associations are set in the order which the weights
are recorded. The latest computed arithmetic average is always
partnered with the first weight in the list.
Superaverage = [ (averagei x weighti)] / 100, i = 1 to rxLevHreqt

Value range:

[0 to 100] %

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

100

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

100

Used in:

Measurement Processing

Eng. Rules:

Arithmetic law to be preferred, biggest weight for most recent reports

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5.9.

NEIGHBOR CELL AVERAGING PARAMETERS


cellDeletionCount

Class 3

V7

Description:

The cellDeletionCount is to be compared to the number of


consecutive Measurement Results messages not containing
information on one of the neighbour cells that would result in the cell
being no longer eligible.
(TF 1089-2), from a number cellDeletionCount the cell will be non
eligible, but the information of that neighbour cell will only be
discarded when the number of consecutive Measurement Results with
no information on the cell will reach 10 (i.e. 5 sec).

Value range:

[0 to 31]

Object:

bts

Default value:

5 in rural environment, 2 in microcell environment

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

5 in rural,
2 in urban environment

Used in:

Measurement Processing
Handovers screening

Eng. Rules:

As there is no weighting factors on neighboring cells, low values of


cellDeletionCount are advised and so the rule cellDelectionCount <
rxNcellHrequave. A mobile is required to keep synchronization
information at least 10 seconds after a cell was removed from the best
cells list. This synchronisation becomes quickly obsolete in the case of
fast moving mobiles.

LCAUTION!

This mechanism applies only for Power budget handover.

Remark:

Further informations are provided in chapter Best Neighbor Cells


Stability

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rxNCellHreqave

Class 3

V7

Description:

Number of measurement results used in the PBGT algorithm to


compute the average neighboring signal strength
No weighed average is computed for this category of measurement

Value range:

[1 to 10] number of measurement results

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

6 for small cells (Dintersite < 800m)


between 8 and 10 for large cells (Dintersite > 1600m)

Used in:

Measurement Processing
Early HandOver Decision
Automatic handover adaptation

Eng. Rules:

In the PBGT formula, the RXLEV_DL is the last arithmetic signal


strength on the current cell. In order to use the same time base, we
should have rxNcellHreqAve = rxLevHreqAve.

rxLevNCellHreqaveBeg

Class 3

V11

Description:

Number of measurement results used in short averaging algorithm to


compute the average neighboring signal strength

Value range:

[1 to 10]

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Used in:

Early HandOver Decision

Eng. Rules:

rxLevNCellHreqaveBeg < rxLevNCellHreqave


This parameter has to be coupled with
rxLevHreqaveBeg.

Remark:

hoMarginBeg

and

This parameter is only available for DCU4 or DRX transceiver


architecture.

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5.10. DISTANCE AVERAGING PARAMETERS


distHreqt

Class 3

V7

Description:

Number of distance measurements, used to compute the weighted


average MStoBTS distance in handover algorithms

Value range:

[1 to 16]

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Used in:

Measurement Processing

Eng. Rules:

For distance handover and Call Clearing, a weighted average of the


MS-BS distance is computed from timing-advance results.

distWtsList

Class 3

V7

Description:

List of no more than sixteen weights, used to compute the average


MStoBTS distance from distHreqt measurements
The L1M function balances distHreqt raw measurements with the
weights defined in the distWtsList list. Each measurement is partnered
with one weight in the list. Weight/measurement associations are set
in the order which the weights are recorded. The latest received
measurement is always partnered with the first weight in the list.
Superaverage = [ (measurementi x weighti)] / 100, i = 1 to distHreqt

Value range:

[0 to 100] %

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

40 30 20 10

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

40 30 20 10

Used in:

Measurement Processing

Eng. Rules:

A supply weights to distHreqt values, highest value for latest


measurements. Choosing an arithmetic law enables to enhance latest
values while not putting too much weight upon the period of time
which might not be representative of the current trend.

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missDistWt

Class 3

V7

Description:

Weight applied to missing Distance measurement.


The missing measurement is replaced by the latest received raw
measurement weighed by this corrective factor when calculating the
average MSBTS distance.
The range of permitted values makes missing distance measurements
not favored.

Value range:

[100 to 200] %

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

110

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

TBD

Used in:

Measurement Processing

Eng. Rules:

The higher the value is, the higher the missing measurement will be
weighted.

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5.11. HANDOVER (GLOBAL) PARAMETERS


bts time between HO configuration

Class 3

V9

Description:

Whether the hoPingpongTimeRejection timer can be used at bts level


when processing handovers

Value range:

[0 / 1]
0:The timer is disabled.
1:The timer is used.

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Used in:

Minimum time between Handover


General protection against HO ping-pong

Eng. Rules:

New semantic in order to restore the minimum time between HO


feature (TF218, V9):
timeBetweenHOconfiguration = used
bts time between HO configuration = 1
ho Pingpong combinaison = (all, allPBGT)
ho Pingpong Time Rejection > 0

forced handover algo

Class 3

V9

Description:

Minimum signal strength level received by the mobiles to be granted


access to a neighbor cell in case of forced handover

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109, ..., -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm

Object:

adjacentCellHandover

Default value:

less than -110

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

= rxLevMinCell -1

Used in:

Forced Handover

Eng. Rules:

The neighbour cell eligibility criterion for forced handover compares


the Rxlev received by the mobile from the neighbour cells with the
value of "forced handover algo". If the Rxlev is greater than "forced
handover algo", then the forced handover is triggered. Therefore :

the higher the value of "forced handover algo" parameter, the


less efficient the forced handover feature, because fewer mobiles
will comply with the eligibility criterion. The mobiles who are
located too far away from the strongest neighbour cell will be
kept by the network on the current cell. So, it will take longer to
empty the cell because the operator has to wait for all mobiles to
move around and get closer to a neighbour cell. Note that it does
not make sense to set "forced handover algo" to a higher value
than "rxLevMinCell", although nothing prevents from doing so.

the smaller the value of "forced handover algo" parameter, the


faster mobiles will be forced out of the current cell. On the
downside, if "forced handover algo" is significantly lower than
"rxlevMinCell", quality of service for the mobile on the destination
cell will be poorer with a risk, ultimately, of call drop.
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Therefore a compromise should be found, and BPUG recommends
that forced handover algo = RxlevMinCell - 1dB. This is only a
recommendation. A different value may be chosen by the customer.
handOver from signalling channel

Class 3

V7

Description:

Authorization to perform intercell handovers on signalling channels


(SDCCH or TCH in signalling mode)

Value range:

[enabled / disabled]

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

disabled

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

disabled

Used in:

Direct TCH Allocation and Handover Algorithms

Eng. Rules:

It is recommended to enable this feature when queuing is activated.

hoMargin

Class 3

V7

Description:

Margin to use for PBGT handovers to avoid subsequent handover, in


PBGT formula

Value range:

[-63 to 63] dB

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

between 4 and 6 for small cells


(4 in an 1X1 pattern, 5 or 6 otherwise),
5 for large cells.

Used in:

Handovers
Power budget formula
Handover for traffic reasons
Define eligible neighbor cells for intercell handover (except directed
retry)
Automatic handover adaptation

Eng. Rules:

As a general rule, this parameter enables to harden access to a new


cell in order to avoid a subsequent return to the current cell (provided
rxLevMinCell is set to its minimal value and does not already take into
account ping-pong handover protection).
The value of this hoMargin must be correlated to the window size
value to keep a low ping-pong probability. In case of ping-pong,
handover hoMargin value must be incremented, and the window size
value must be decremented.
For a dual Band Network where one frequency band is privileged, it is
advised to increase this value in neighbouring objects with a
frequency belonging to the low priority frequency band. Thus, these
neighbours will be underprivileged.

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hoMarginBeg
Description:

Class 3

V11

Margin that is added to hoMargin, concentAlgoExtRxLev,


amrDirectAllocRxLevUL, amrDirectAllocRxLevDL,
amrDirectAllocIntRxLevUL, amrDirectAllocRxLevDL,
bizonePowerOffset, until rxLevHreqave for short averaging algorithm
in order to compensate the lack of reliable measurements
This parameter is coupled with hoMargin, concentAlgoExtRxLev,
amrDirectAllocRxLevUL, amrDirectAllocRxLevDL,
amrDirectAllocIntRxLevUL, amrDirectAllocRxLevDL,
bizonePowerOffset and rxLevHreqaveBeg.

Value range:

[0 to 63] dB

Object:

bts

Default value:

4 dB

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

4 dB
2 dB with Automatic Handover Adaptation

Used in:

Handovers
Early HandOver Decision
Automatic handover adaptation
Direct TCH Allocation

Eng. Rules:
Remark:

This parameter is only available for DCU4 or DRX transceiver


architecture.

hoMarginDist

Class 3

Description:

Margin to be used for Distance Handovers

Value range:

[-63 to 63] dB

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

Default value:

- 24 dB

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

- 2 dB

V8

Depends on the environment and on the value of the


msRangeMax Threshold.
Used in:

Handover condition for leaving a cell on distance


Define eligible neighbor cells for intercell handover (except directed
retry)

Eng. Rules:

Because the priority of the handover on Distance cause is lower than


the Quality and Strength causes, it is performed while the quality and
the signal strength on the current cell are still acceptable. Setting a
negative value decreases the interference.

L CAUTION!

PBGT hoMargin in the target cell should be set in order to avoid a


ping-pong handover. For a dual Band Network where one frequency
band is privileged, it is advised to increase this value in neighbouring
objects with a frequency belonging to the low priority frequency band.
Thus, these neighbours will be underprivileged.

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hoMarginRxLev

Class 3

Description:

Margin to be used for signal strength Handovers

Value range:

[- 63 to 63] dB

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

V8

Default value:

- 24 dB

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

From 3 to 6 dB in urban environment, from 1 to 3 in rural


environment. Depends on the environment and the value of
lRxLevXXH. threshold.

Used in:

Handovers
Define eligible neighbor cells for intercell handover (except directed
retry)

Eng. Rules:

In rural environments, the hoMargin value on signal strength should


be between 1 and 3.
On the contrary, due to fast radio signal variations in urban
environments, this criteria must be selective to allow good reactivity.
Furthermore, this criteria can be selective due to site density in urban
environments.
The value of this hoMargin must be correlated to the window size
value to keep a low ping-pong probability. In case of ping-pong
handover, hoMargin value must be incremented, and the window size
value must be decremented.
This parameter, defined per neighbor, is used to select and sort
neighbors.
The setting of hoMarginRxLev depends of the gap between
rxLevMinCell and lRxLevXXH. The higher the difference between
these two values is, the higher the hoMarginRxLev.
For a dual Band Network where one frequency band is privileged, it is
advised to increase this value in neighbouring objects with a
frequency belonging to the low priority frequency band. Thus, these
neighbours will be underprivileged.

hoMarginRxQual

Class 3

Description:

Margin to be used for Signal Quality Handovers

Value range:

[-63 to 63] dB

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

Default value:

- 24 dB

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

in [- 2; 0] without SFH,

V8

in [1; (hoMargin - 2)] with SFH (#2 or 3)


Used in:

Handovers
Define eligible neighbor cells for intercell handover (except directed
retry)

Eng. Rules:

Handover cause on Signal Quality: case where access to another cell


should be encouraged, provided target cell field strength is not much
lower than the current one. If bad quality remains there is a risk of
return handover but there is nothing much to be done.

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LCAUTION!

PBGT hoMargin in target cell should be set in order to avoid a pingpong handover. This parameter, defined per neighbor, is used to
select and sort neighbors. For a dual Band Network where one
frequency band is privileged, it is advised to increase this value in
neighbouring objects with a frequency belonging to the low priority
frequency band. Thus, these neighbours will be underprivileged.

hoMarginTrafficOffset

Class 3

V12

Description:

Minimum signal strength margin with the serving cell that allows to
select the best neighbor cell when a handover is triggered for overload
reasons

Value range:

[0 to 63] dB

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

Default value:

0 dB

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

6 dB (if overlapping exists)

Used in:

Handovers
Handover for traffic reasons

Eng. Rules:

Since the HO for traffic reasons uses the PBGT HO procedure, the
parameter powerBudgetInterCell shall be enabled.
It is advised to combine the HO for traffic reason with the feature HO
decision according to priority and Load.
This parameter shall be set at a value which guarantees that cell
overlapping exists with (hoMargin -hoMarginTrafficOffset).
See Paragraph 2.5k9 for more details.
When set to 0, handovers for traffic reasons are not allowed in the
adjacent cell (the PBGT HO is done before because it has a higher
priority than the HO for traffic).

LCAUTION

Only applicable to BTSs equipped with non mixed DCU4, or DRX


boards

hoPingpongCombination
Description:

Class3

V12

List of couples of causes (HOInitialCause and HONonEssentialCause)


indicating the causes of ping-pong handovers in the overlapping areas
The following causes are defined with regard to the neighboring cell:
HOInitialCause indicates the essential handover cause which leads
to enter the neighbor cell (cause of incoming handover).
HONonEssentialCause indicates the non-essential handover
cause which leads to leave the cell (cause of outgoing handover).
This parameter defines the combination for which the
HOPingpongTimeRejection attribute is used.

Value range:

[rxQual, rxLev, distance, powerBudget, capture, directedRetry, OaM,


traffic, all, allCapture, allPowerBudget, AMRquality]

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

Default value:
Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

(all, PBGT)

Used in:

General protection against HO ping-pong


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Eng. Rules:

This parameter shall be known by the new BSC (whatever the type of
HO is intra or inter BSC) ; so, it must be defined at the entering cell
(relatively to the first HO of the combination) level, for the
neighbouring cell (adjacentCellHandover object) corresponding to the
left cell (still relatively to the first HO of the combination).
Example: if you perform a handover from cell A to cell B for quality
reason and you want to protect against pingpong HO for PBGT
reason (from B to A), you have to declare (rxQual, PBGT) as one of
the forbidden handover combinations at cell B level (for the
neighbouring cell A).

Note:

The hoPingpongCombination list can hold up to 4 couples of causes.

LCAUTION!

No protection against intracell or interzone pingpongHO


No protection against pingpong HO between more than 2 cells except
for allcapture / all PBGT causes.
Directed retry can only be an initial cause.
timeBetweenHOConfiguration and bts Time Between HO
configuration shall be set accordingly in order for the feature to be
activated.

hoPingpongTimeRejection

Class 3

V12

Description:

Time before a new handover attempt can be triggered


Refer to bsc object timeBetweenHOConfiguration and bts object bts
time between HO configuration attributes in this Dictionary of
Parameters for this timer activation.
Refer to adjacentCellHandOver object HOPingpongCombination
attribute in this Dictionary of Parameters for the combinations for
which this timer applies.
To avoid ping-pong handovers this new timer is started after a
successful handover. Up to the expiration of this timer, the receipt of
HANDOVER INDICATION message is ignored.

Value range:

[0 to 60] s

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

Default value:

30 s

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

between 8 and 30 s

Used in:

General protection against HO ping-pong

Eng. Rules:

The value of HOPingpongTimeRejection may be between 8 and 30


to have a real impact. The following rule can be applied:
HOPingpongTimeRejection = 50% TCH effective occupancy average
in a cell.
If the rescue handovers are disabled in the network a too high value
can result in dropped calls.
The value depends on the speed of the mobile, the size of the cell and
the type of cell (micro-micro etc).
For an area where there are ping-pong handovers on Quality cause
(the first HO occurs on Quality reason, the second one on PBGT),
the value corresponds to the distance between the interference point
and the limit of the cell.
Care must be taken for small cells with high speed mobiles.
See also chapter Minimum Time Between Handover

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hoSecondBestCellConfiguration

Class 3

V9

Description:

Number of neighbor cells in which the BSC immediately attempts to


perform a new handover when the previous handover attempt failed
with return to the old channel
Giving the attribute a value greater than 2 allows the BSC to renew
the handover request without waiting for a new set of radio
measurements (the first attempt is included in this count). The same
list of neighbor eligible cells is used to process the request (no new list
is provided by the BTS).

Value range:

[1 to 3]

Object:

bsc

Default value:

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

Used in:

Handover to 2nd best candidate when return to old channel

Eng. Rules:

The value 1 means no new attempt after a handover failure, 2 means


one new attempt and 3 corresponds to another new attempt if the first
new attempt has failed. The recommended value optimizes the
handover completion rate.
Comment about the process: when all handover attempts have failed,
the mobile returns on the previous channel. The measurement history
is then complety lost, and the BTS will wait until the next (HReqAve x
HReqt) period to relaunch a handover request.
See also chapter Directed Retry Handover Benefit

hoTraffic

Class 3

V12

Description:

Whether handovers for traffic reasons at bts level are allowed.

Value range:

[disabled / enabled]

Object:

bts

Default value:

enabled

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

enabled

Used in:

Handover for traffic reasons

Eng. Rules:

enabled will be effective only if it is also enabled for the bsc object.
In order to activate the feature handover decision according to
adjacent cell priority and load (TF716), either hoTraffic shall be
enabled or btsMSAccessClassBarringFunction shall be enabled
(with also bscMSAccessClassBarringFunction).
See parameter hoMarginTrafficOffset

hoTraffic

Class 3

Description:

Whether handovers for traffic reasons at bsc level are allowed.

Value range:

[disabled / enabled]

Object:

bsc

Default value:

disabled

Type:

DP, Optimization

V12

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Rec. value:

enabled (only if hot spotcells linked to the BSC)

Used in:

Handover for traffic reasons

Eng. Rules:

See parameter hoMarginTrafficOffset

incomingHandOver
Description:

Whether incoming handovers are allowed in a cell.

Value range:

[disabled / enabled]

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

enabled

Type:

DP

Rec. value:

enabled

Class 3

V7

Class 3

V7

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

msTxPwrMax
Description:

Maximum MS transmission power in a serving cell. It is equal to


msTxPwrMaxCCH in a GSM 900 network.

Value range:

[5 to 43, by steps of 2] dBm (GSM 900, GSM850, GSM-R, GSM850GSM1900 and GSM 900 - GSM 1800 networks)
[0 to 36, by steps of 2] dBm (GSM 1800, and GSM 1800 - GSM 900
networks)
[0 to 33] dBm (GSM 1900 network)
[0 to 33] dBm (E-GSM network and 1900-850 network)
[0 to 33] dBm (GSM850 network)

Object:

bts

Default value:

Typical value of 33 dBm for GSM 900 handhelds and 30 dBm for
GSM 1800 and 1900 handhelds

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

33 dBm for GSM 900 in urban environment


39 dBm for GSM 900 in rural environment handhelds
30 dBm for GSM 1800 and 1900 handhelds
33 dBm for GSM 850s

Used in:

Accuracy related to measurements


General formulas
Forced Handover
One shot power control
Power control on mobile side

Eng. Rules:

We must have msTxPwrMax = msTxPwrMaxCCH for GSM 900


Networks and msTxPwrMaxCCH msTxPwrMax for GSM 1800 and
1900 Networks (check done at OMC-R). This parameter is adapted to
mobile classes taken into account in Network Design.

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msTxPwrMaxCell

Class 3

V7

Description:

Maximum MS transmission power in a neighbor cell. It is equal to


msTxPwrMaxCCH when the cell is declared as a serving cell on the
network (the value must be checked by users).

Value range:

[5 to 43, by steps of 2] dBm (GSM 900, GSM850, GSM-R and GSM


900 - GSM 1800 networks)
[0 to 36, by steps of 2] dBm (GSM 1800 network
and GSM 1800 - GSM 900)
[0 to 33] dBm (GSM 1900 network)
[0 to 33] dBm (E-GSM network)
[0 to 33] dBm (GSM 1900-850 network)

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

Default value:

Typical value of 33 dBm for GSM 900/850 handhelds and 30 dBm for
GSM 1800 and 1900 handhelds

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

msTxPwrMaxCell = msTxPwrMaxCCCH of the current cell

Used in:

General formulas
Handovers screening
Directed Retry Handover: BTS (or distant) mode
Forced Handover
Define eligible neighbor cells for intercell handover (except directed
retry)
One shot power control
Power control on mobile side

See Paragraph 2.5.1 and Paragraph 2.7.


Eng. Rules:

If this value is higher than the actual MS classmark, then MS will apply
its own capability.

Remark:

If the cell is used as a neighbor cell of another serving cell in the


network, msTxPwrMaxCell should be identical to the
msTxPwrMaxCCH power defined for the corresponding
adjacentCellHandOver object (the values must be checked by users).

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offsetLoad

Class 3

Description:

Load offset applied by the bsc in the cell selection process of the
Handover algorithm.

Value range:

[0 to 63] dB

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

Default value:

0 dB

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

3 dB

V12

offsetLoad hoMarginTrafficOffset (Handovers for traffic reason


feature activated)
Used in:

Handover decision according to adjacent cell priorities and load Eng.


Rules: When set to 0, no offset is effective.
This parameter is set to 0 for the cells that do not belong to the
related bsc object.
This parameter allows to put a disadvantage to overloaded eligible
cells for HO (for cells with the same offsetPriority).
In order to take into account this parameter, the overload detection
must be activated ; so either hoTraffic shall be enabled (bsc and bts
objects) or btsMSAccessClassBarringFunction shall be enabled
(with also bscMSAccessClassBarringFunction).
A bad offset load parameter tuning can induce a risk of ping-pong HO
or longer handover procedures; so, it is advised to set the General
protection
against
HO
ping-pong
feature
with
HOPingpongCombination including (traffic, all PBGT).
See also chapter Handover for Traffic Reasons Activation Guideline.

offsetPriority

Class 3

V12

Description:

Priority offset applied by the bsc to the cell selection process in the
Handover algorithm

Value range:

[1 to 5]

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Used in:

Handover decision according to adjacent cell priorities and load

Eng. Rules:

1 is the highest priority.


This parameter allows to classify eligible cells according to its value;
so, it is used to optimize the traffic distribution between layers.
See also chapter DualBand Networks.

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powerBudgetInterCell

Class 3

Description:

Authorization to perform intercell handovers for power budget

Value range:

[enabled / disabled]

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

enabled

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

enabled

Used in:

Handovers screening
Power budget formula
Handover for traffic reasons

Eng. Rules:

Handover on PBGT should be enabled, because for an optimized


network it ensures the best quality of service.

runHandOver

Class 3

V7

V7

Description:

Number of Measurement Results messages that must be received


before the handover algorithm in a cell is triggered

Value range:

[1 to 31] SACCH frames (1 unit = 480 ms on TCHs, 470 ms on


SDCCHs)

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

Used in:

Handovers
Microcellular Algo type A
Protection against RunHandover=1

Eng. Rules:

Should be run as often as possible, main impact is upon BSS load.


Therefore, runHandOver may be set to 1 in some environments where
the reactivity is crucial (microcell, high-speed environment). it is
recommended to set this parameter to 1. However, this parameter
setting must be done in accordance with the value of handover
thresholds, margins and timers.
See also chapter Impact of the Averaging on the Handovers and
chapter Street Corner Environment

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rxLevMinCell

Class 3

V7

Description:

Minimum signal strength level received by MS for being granted


access to a neighbor cell

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109, ... , -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

Default value:

- 95 to -94 dBm (GSM 900 & 850), - 93 to - 92 (GSM 1800 & 1900)

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

- 95 to - 94 dBm (GSM 900 & 850)


- 93 to - 92 dBm (GSM 1800& 1900) in urban environment
RxLevMinCell = lRxLevDLH if HOmargin 0 in rural environment

Used in:

General formulas
Handovers screening
Define eligible neighbor cells for intercell handover (except directed
retry)

Eng. Rules:

A method to estimate this value is to use MS sensitivity (-104 dBm in


GSM 900 for handheld, and -102 dBm in GSM 1800/1900 for
handheld, otherwise -104 dBm) and applying a margin to it. However,
if most of communications are handled in an indoor environment, or
overlap between cell coverage is not sufficient, these recommended
values can be decreased.
For a dual Band Network where one frequency band is privileged, it is
advised to set this parameter to a lower value in neighbour cells
belonging to the priority frequency band. Thus, this band will be
preferred. However, it may be greater than the value rxLevAccessMin.
Thus the recommended value is -99 to -98 dBm (GSM900) or -97 to 96 dBm (GSM1800) for neighbour cells belonging to the priority
frequency band.
Studies have shown that the subjective quality depends on the way
erroneous bits are spread into each frame. Experiments have shown
that with frequency hopping in TU3 (Typical urban at 3 Km/h) up to
Rxqual = 5 the subjective quality seems to be good, on the other hand
without frequency hopping Rxqual = 4 seems to be the maximum
value for which subjective quality is good.
The table below gives examples of the margins that could be taken
into account for an infinite C/I and for different mobile speeds.
t 50 km/h

u 50 km/h - t 80 km/h

u 80 km/h

margin with FH

2 dB

2 dB

2 dB

margin without FH

5 dB

4 dB - 2 dB

2 dB

And that other table below shows the different margins that could be
taken into account in a slow mobile area depending of the C/I.
C/I = 35

C/I = 20

C/I = 15

margin with FH

2 dB

3 dB

4 dB

margin without FH

5 dB

6 dB

10 dB

See also chapter Directed Retry Handover Benefit and chapter


DualBand Networks.

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synchronized

Class 3

V7

Description:

Whether the neighbor cell and the associated serving cell are
synchronous, that is attached to the same BTS

Value range:

[not synchronized cells / synchronized cells / pre sync HO with timing


advance / pre sync HO, default timing advance]
not synchronized cells: the neighbor cell and the serving cell are
not attached to the same BTS.
synchronized cells: the neighbor cell and the serving cell are
attached to the same BTS
pre sync HO with timing advance: the handover procedure
between the neighbor cell and the serving cell is presynchronized
with the real Time Advance.
pre sync HO, default timing advance: a predefined timing
advance is used in the presynchronized handover procedure
between the serving cell and the neighbor cell. Refer to
preSynchroTimingAdvance parameter.

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

Default value:

not synchronized cells

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

See Eng. Rules

Used in:

Pre-synchronized HO
Handover Algorithms on the Mobile Side

Eng. Rules:

It is recommended to use pre-synchronized HO in microcellular


environment because in small cells the timing advance when
handovers are triggered is generally a low value (less than 3).
It is also interesting to use this feature for determined path such as
railways, highways, and tunnels where handovers between two cells
happen always at the same place.
See also chapter Synchronized HO versus Not Synchronized HO

timeBetweenHOConfiguration

Class 3

V9

Description:

Whether the HOPingpongTimeRejection timer can be used in a BSS


when processing handovers. Refer to bts object bts time between HO
configuration and adjacentCellHandOver object
HOPingpongTimeRejection attributes in this Dictionary of Parameters.

Value range:

[used / not used]

Object:

bsc

Default value:

used

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

used

Used in:

Power Budget Handover


General protection against HO ping-pong

Eng. Rules:

see Engineering Rules for the parameter bts time Between HO


Configuration.
See also chapter Minimum Time Between Handover and chapter
Directed Retry Handover Benefit.

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5.12. INTRACELL HANDOVER PARAMETERS


intraCell

Class 3

V7

Description:

Whether intrabts handovers on TCH are allowed in a cell for


interference reasons or Cell Tiering reasons

Value range:

[cellTieringHandover / intraCellHandover / handoverNotAllowed]


cellTieringHandover: the intraBTS handovers are allowed for
CellTiering reason
intraCellHandover: the intraBTS handovers are allowed for
interference reason
handoverNotAllowed: the intra bts handovers are not allowed

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

handoverNotAllowed

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

cellTieringHandover

Used in:

Intracell Handover decision for signal quality

Eng. Rules:

For mono-TRX cell, do not enable intracell handover


(handoverNotAllowed).
As the MS power is not checked before performing an intracell
handover, it is not advised to enable this feature as intraCellHandover.
It would lead to a high ratio of intracell handover.
To enable tiering, the cell tiering conditions shall be fulfilled and the
cell tiering advantages shall be estimated as well (see chapter
Automatic cell tiering and hoMarginTiering parameter).

intraCellSDCCH

Class 3

V8

Description:

Whether intraBTS handovers on SDCCH are authorized in a cell for


interference reasons

Value range:

[enabled / disabled]

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

disabled

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

disabled

Used in:

Intracell Handover decision for signal quality

Eng. Rules:

None except system ability.


Note that, some mobiles have been reported to drop the call when
that feature is performed.

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rxLevDLIH

Class 3

V7

Description:

Maximum interference level in BTStoMS direction, beyond which an


intraCell handover may be triggered

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109,..., -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

-85 to -84 dBm

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

-85 to -84 dBm

Used in:

Intracell Handover decision for signal quality

Eng. Rules:
LCAUTION!

Path balance must be looked for this threshold parameter setting.

rxLevULIH

Class 3

V7

Description:

Maximum interference level in MStoBTS direction, beyond which an


intra cell handover may be triggered

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109, ... , -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm.

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

-85 to -84 dBm

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

-85 to -84 dBm

Used in:

Intracell Handover decision for signal quality

Eng. Rules:
LCAUTION!

Path balance must be looked for this threshold parameter setting.

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rxQualDLIH

Class 3

V12

Description:

Bit error rate threshold in BTS-to-MS direction for intracell handover,


above which a handover may be triggered.

Value range:

[less than 0.2, 0.2 to 0.4, 0.4 to 0.8, ... , 6.4 to 12.8, more than 12.8] %

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

1.6 to 3.2 %

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

rxQualDLIH lRxQualDLH

Used in:

Intracell Handover decision for signal quality

Eng. Rules:

Intracell HO for signal quality uses a different threshold than the


intercell one and intracell HO can only use either hopping channels
having low interference or non hopping channels having low
interference. This should improve the voice quality and the
performance.
The possible drawback could be to increase queuing at BSC level for
networks experiencing interferences.
To favor intracell HO for quality (compared to intercell HO for quality),
the following rule shall be satisfied: rxQualDLIH < lRxQualDLH.
The intracell HO has a lower priority than the intercell HO for quality.

rxQualULIH

Class 3

V12

Description:

Bit error rate threshold in MS-to-BTS direction for intracell handover,


above which a handover may be triggered.

Value range:

[less than 0.2, 0.2 to 0.4, 0.4 to 0.8, ... , 6.4 to 12.8, more than 12.8] %

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

1.6 to 3.2 %

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

rxQualULIH lRxQualULH

Used in:

Intracell Handover decision for signal quality

Eng. Rules:

Intracell HO for signal quality uses a differentthreshold than the


intercell one and intracell HO can only use either hopping channels
having low interference or non hopping channels having low
interference. This should improve the voice quality and the
performance.
The possible drawback could be to increase queuing at BSC level for
networks experiencing interferences.
To favor intracell HO for quality (compared to intercell HO for quality),
the following rule shall be satisfied: rxQualULIH < lRxQualULH.
The intracell HO has a lower priority than the intercell HO for quality.

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5.13. INTERCELL HANDOVER THRESHOLD PARAMETERS


lRxLevDLH

Class 3

Description:

Signal strength threshold in BTStoMS direction, below which a


handover may be triggered

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109, ... , -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

-101 to -100 dBm (GSM 900) / -99 to -98 dBm (GSM1800/1900)

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

-95 to -94 dBm in urban environment (900 MHz or 850 MHz)

V7

-101 to -100 dBm in rural environment (900 MHz or 850 MHz)


Used in:

Handover condition for leaving a cell on rxlev


Define eligible neighbor cells for intercell handover (except directed
retry)

Eng. Rules:

This threshold must be set from the MS sensitivity. A margin must be


taken to consider shadowing, fast fading and MS measurement
accuracy. At least, a 3 dB margin can be taken into account in a rural
environment and a 10 dB margin in an urban environment.

LCAUTION!

where the cell is declared as a neighbor, we should have: lRxLevDLH


< rxlevMinCell, and path balance must be considered for this
threshold parameter setting.
See also chapter lRxlevDLH and lRxlevULH Definition.

lRxLevULH

Class 3

Description:

Signal strength threshold in MStoBTS direction, below which a


handover may be triggered

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109, ... , -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

-101 to -100 dBm (GSM 900) / -99 to -98 dBm (GSM 1800/1900)

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

-95 to -94 dBm in urban environment (900 MHz or 850 MHz)

V7

-101 to -100 dBm in rural environment (900 MHz or 850 MHz)


Used in:

Handover condition for leaving a cell on rxlev

Eng. Rules:

The recommended values given above correspond to the worst case


BTS (e-cell). An e-cell has -104 dBm Rx sensitivity in all frequency
bands and diversity is not applicable, thus leading to "-95 to -94" for
urban environments and "-101 to -100" for rural environments when
applying a 3dB margin in a rural environment and a 10 dB margin in
an urban environment. In fact, these thresholds depend on BTS
sensitivity. Values should be increased if one of the following points is
verified:
the thresholds on quality are permissive
run-handover 3 scarce
mobile speed is high
initial tuning causes frequent level strength handover failure rate
At least, a 3 dB margin can be taken into account in a rural
environment and a 10 dB margin in an urban environment.
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LCAUTION!

where the cell is declared as a neighbor, we should have: lRxLevULH


< rxLevMinCell, and path balance must be considered for this
threshold parameter setting.
See also chapter lRxlevDLH and lRxlevULH Definition.

lRxQualDLH

Class 3

V7

Description:

Bit error rate threshold in BTStoMS direction, above which an inter


cell handover may be triggered

Value range:

[less than 0.2, 0.2 to 0.4, 0.4 to 0.8, ... , 6.4 to 12.8, more than 12.8] %

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

1.6 to 3.2 %

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

1.6 to 3.2 % (4 in rxqual GSM unit) without frequency hopping.


See Engineering Rules in case of frequency hopping.

Used in:

Handover condition for leaving a cell on rxqual

Eng. Rules:

According to some experiments and studies, 4 in GSM unit is the


upper limit for TU3 no hopping, while 5 in GSM unit for TU3 hopping.
Suggested values become 4 in GSM unit (no frequency hopping or
MS speed > 80km/h) and 5 in GSM unit (frequency hopping and low
urban speed). High BER rate for threshold is dangerous (risk of
handover failure). On the contrary, if a tight rxqual threshold is linked
with a short averaging period, the risk is that a single bad quality
report will affect the whole result (ie: if 8 samples without weighting
and a threshold of 2 in GSM unit: if 7 of these samples are 2 in GSM
unit and 1 of them is 5 in GSM unit, handover decision will be taken
on a wrong basis). Experience shows whatever the MS speed, rxQual
= 6 does not provide a comfortable voice quality.
The average in the above is equal to:
(7 * 0.57 + 4.53) B 8 = 1.065 greater than 0.57 (2 in GSM unit).
In case of using synthesized frequency hopping, this threshold has to
be increased in order to limit the increase of the number of handover
on quality criteria.
In a 1X1 pattern, it is advised to set this value to 5 or 6 (3.2 to 6.4 %
or 6.4 to 12.8 %).
In case of a 1X3 pattern, the recommended value is 4 or 5 (1.6 to 3.2
% or 3.2 to 6.4 %).
DTX is often used with Frequency Hopping. There are less
measurement reports with DTX, and thus the RxQual_average may
be less reliable. But no degradation was observed when using both
features therefore there is no need to disable handovers on quality
criteria in this case.

lRxQualULH

Class 3

V7

Description:

Bit error rate threshold in MStoBTS direction, above which an inter


cell handover may be triggered

Value range:

[less than 0.2, 0.2 to 0.4, 0.4 to 0.8, ... , 6.4 to 12.8, more than 12.8] %

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

1.6 to 3.2 %

Type:

DP, Optimization

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Rec. value:

1.6 to 3.2 % (4 rxqual GSM unit) without frequency hopping.


See Engineering Rules in case of frequency hopping.

Used in:

Handover condition for leaving a cell on rxqual

Eng. Rules:

According to some experiments and studies, 4 in GSM unit is the


upper limit for TU3 no hopping while 5 in GSM unit for TU3 hopping.
Suggested value becomes 4 in GSM unit (no frequency hopping or
MS speed > 80km/h) and 5 in GSM unit (frequency hopping and low
urban speed). High BER rate for threshold is dangerous (risk of
handover failure). On the contrary, if a tight rxqual threshold is linked
with a short averaging period, the risk is that a single bad quality
report will affect the whole result (ie: if 8 samples without weighting
and a threshold of 2: if 7 of these samples are 2 and 1 of them is 5,
handover decision will be taken on the wrong basis).
In case of using synthesized frequency hopping, this threshold has to
be increased in order to limit the increase of the number of handover
on quality criteria.
In a 1X1 pattern, it is advised to set this value to 5 or 6 (3.2 to 6.4 %
or 6.4 to 12.8 %).
In case of a 1X3 pattern, the recommended value is 4 or 5 (1.6 to 3.2
% or 3.2 to 6.4 %).
DTX is often used with Frequency Hopping. There are less
measurement reports with DTX, and thus the RxQual_average may
be less reliable. But no degradation was observed when using both
features therefore there is no need to disable handovers on quality
criteria in this case.

rxLevDLPBGT

Class 3

V11

Description:

Downlink signal strength threshold above which handovers for power


budget are inhibited
In certain issues, the operator may want to prevent handover for
power budget in case of the received level in the serving cell is good
enough so that a handover would not improve the situation.
This parameter shall be set such as rxLevDLPBGT > lRxLevDLH.

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109,..., -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

Default value:

more than -48

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

TBD

Used in:

Handovers screening
Maximum RxLev for Power Budget

Eng. Rules:

rxLevDLPBGT > lRxLevDLH


This parameter has to be managed carefully because it can prevent
all the handover for power budget when set to less than -110.
Moreover, the setting of this parameter has to be done with the help of
some radio measurement campaigns.
This parameter shall be disabled by setting the value to more than
48 (dBm).

Remark:

This parameter is only available for DCU4 or DRX transceiver


architecture. It shall be disabled for DCU2 architecture.
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5.14. HANDOVER FOR MICROCELLULAR NETWORK


PARAMETERS
cellType

Class 3

V7

Description:

Type of the adjacent cell

Value range:

[normalType / umbrellaType / microType]

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

Default value:

normalType

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

normalType

Used in:

Microcellular Algo type A

Eng. Rules:

To run a capture handover (umbrella to micro) on a neighbor, which


must be microType, the bts must be declared as umbrellaType. It is
possible to manage a three layer network by declaring cell A and cell
B as umbrellaType, neighbor B and neighbor C as microType for cell
A, neighbor A as umbrellaType and neighbor C as microType for cell
B, and finally neighbor B as umbrellaType for cell C.
See also chapter Minimum Time Between Handover

cellType

Class 3

V7

Description:

Type of the serving cell

Value range:

[normalType / umbrellaType / microType]

Object:

bts

Default value:

normalType

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

normalType

Used in:

Microcellular Algo type A

Eng. Rules:

To run a capture handover (umbrella to micro) on a neighbor, which


must be microType, the bts must be declared as an umbrellaType. It
is possible to manage a three layer network by declaring cell A and
cell B as umbrellaType, neighbor B and neighbor C as microType for
cell A, neighbor A as umbrellaType and neighbor C as microType for
cell B, and finally neighbor B as umbrellaType for cell C.

Remark:

The adjacent cell umbrella Ref attribute is defined at the OMC-R if the
cell is a microcell (cellType) and directed retry handovers are
processed in BSC mode (directed-RetryModeUsed).

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microCellCaptureTimer

Class 3

V8

Description:

Time used to confirm a capture (signal strength stability) when using


microcell Algorithm type A

Value range:

Time = N multiplied by runHandOver.


According to microCellCaptureTimer value, N values are the
following:

[0 to 249]
250
251
252
253
254
255

N = [0 to 249]
N = 512
N = 1024
N = 2048
N = 4096
N = 8192
N = 16384

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

Default value:

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

8s, whatever runHandOver value


(e.g. if runHandOver = 2 N = 8, if runHandOver = 1 N = 16)

Used in:

Microcellular Algo type A

Eng. Rules:

Experiments done in urban areas show that a timer of 8 seconds to 10


seconds allows a better use of the capture.
See also chapter Impact of the Averaging on the Handovers.

microCellStability

Class 3

V8

Description:

Strength Level Stability Criterion for Capture Algorithm A

Value range:

[0 to 255] dB

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

Default value:

10 dB

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

63 dB

Used in:

Microcellular Algo type A

Eng. Rules:

To allow handovers on capture this parameter has to be set at a value


greater than 0. A value of microCellStability equal to 63 dB has to be
set first, because with such a value, the stability constraints are
always verified.
The value of this parameter can then be decreased case by case.

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5.15. DISTANCE MANAGEMENT PARAMETERS


callClearing

Class 3

V7

Description:

Maximum distance between MS and BTS before call is cleared


It is greater than msRangeMax.
This distance defines the cell maximum coverage area.

Value range:

[2 to 35] km (non-extended mode)


[2 to 120] km (extended mode)

Object:

bts

Default value:

35 in non-extended mode, 90 in extended mode

Type:

DP, Product

Rec. value:

Depends on the environment, typical value = (1.5 * cell diameter)


+ 2 km or best cell distance coverage server
Generaly for non-extended mode: 7 km for urban, 35 km for rural

Used in:

Call Clearing Process (run by BTS) (Cc)

Eng. Rules:

The value should be related to the current cell coverage. A margin is


taken by using the 1.5 coefficient. A 2km margin is also considered to
compensate lack of mobile timing advance accuracy.
If the observation counter shows a high number of call clearings, it
may mean that handover parameters on that cell are too permissive or
badly tuned.
At the OMC-R, a control exists: callClearing > msRangeMax

extended cell
Description:

Class 2

V9

Whether the cell is extended (up to 120 km large) or not


The cell working mode governs the upper limit of the following
attribute values (refer to theses entries in the Dictionary):

callClearing, msRangeMax, and rndAccTimAdvThreshold


attributes of the bts object
concentAlgoExtMsRange and concentAlgoIntMsRange attributes
of the associated handOverControl object if the bts object
describes a concentric cell

Value range:

[true (extended) / false (normal)]

Object:

bts

Default value:

false

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

see Engineering Rules

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

Extended cells will be used to reach mobiles that are far from the BTS
(in the case of sea shores and pleasure boats, for example).
In an extended cell, two consecutive time slots are reserved for each
channel. The capacity is then decreased.

LCAUTION!

Up to V10, an extended cell cannot be concentric. Whatever the MSBTS distance is, two consecutive time slots are reserved on Air
interface.
See also chapter SDCCH Dimensioning an TDMA Models.

LCAUTION!

GPRS/EDGE is not supported when extended cell feature is activated.


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msRangeMax

Class 3

V7

Description:

Maximum MStoBTS distance beyond, which a handover may be


triggered. It can be set to 1 for a microcell and is less than callClearing
in all cases.

Value range:

[1 to 34] km (non-extended mode)


[1 to 120] km (extended mode)

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

34 in non-extended mode, 89 in extended mode

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

= callClearing - 1 km

Used in:

Handover condition for leaving a cell on distance

Eng. Rules:

If the associated serving cell is a concentric cell, the following


inequality, that is not checked by the system, must be true (refer to
this entry in the Dictionary):
concentAlgoExtMsRange concentAlgoIntMsRange msRangeMax

LCAUTION!

callClearing > msRangeMax is controled at the OMC level. It must be


adapted to current cell extent in order to be an efficient preventive
handover. If value is too small, there is a big risk of ping-pong
handover.

LCAUTION!

Due to lack of mobile timing advance accuracy this parameter must


not be set at a too low value (not < 2). Generaly for non-extended
mode (6 km for urban and 34 km for rural)

msBtsDistanceInterCell

Class 3

V7

Description:

Whether interbts handovers are allowed in a cell for distance


reasons

Value range:

[enabled / disabled]

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

enabled

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

enabled

Used in:

Handovers screening
Handover condition for leaving a cell on distance

Eng. Rules:

Due to the imprecision of some MS on Timing Advance (see chapter


Distance - timing advance conversion) and due to the delay spread in
a very urban environment, it is possible to set this parameter to
disabled (in an urban environment). However, for all cells with a
radius of more than 1 km, handover on distance must be authorized.

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preSynchroTimingAdvance

Class 3

V10

Description:

Pre-defined timing advance used in a pre-synchronized handover


procedure between the serving cell and this neighbor cell.

Value range:

[1 to 35] (km)

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

Default value:

Refer to parameter synchronized

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

see Engineering Rules

Used in:

Pre-synchronized HO

Eng. Rules:

This value of timing advance is used when the parameter


synchronized is set to pre sync HO with timing advance. A
predefined timing advance can be defined when phase 2 MSs always
handove from the serving cell to this neighbor cell approximately at
the same place (railway, highway).
If the parameter synchronized is set to presyncho HO, default timing
advance, the default TA value is -1 (554 m).
If the parameter synchronized is set to presyncho HO, with timing
advance, the parameter preSynchroTimingAdvance must be tuned to
the estimated value of TA.
See also chapter Synchronized HO versus Not Synchronized HO.

LCAUTION!

preSynchroTimingAdvance value is not controlled at the OMC-R

rndAccTimAdvThreshold

Class 3

V8

Description:

MStoBTS distance beyond which mobile access requests to a cell


are refused.
It defines the maximum timing advance value accepted.
The effective timing advance value is broadcast in the CHANNEL
REQUIRED message sent by the BTS to the BSC. If it is above the
user defined threshold, the BSC ignores the request.

Value range:

[2 to 35] km (non-extended mode)


[2 to 120] km (extended mode)

Object:

bts

Default value:

35 (non-extended cell), 90 (extended cell)

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

msRangeMax (= call clearing - 1km = 1.5* cell diameter + 2 km -1


km)
Generally for non-extended mode: 6 km for urban, 35 km for rural

Used in:

Request access command process (RA)

Eng. Rules:

The maximum authorized value will inhibit the feature.


By adjusting the value to the size of the cell (see recommended
value), parasite RACH (noise which is decoded by the system like a
RACH) are filtered. This avoids the unnecessary assigment of
SDCCH.
For example, for small cells, if the value is 35 km, almost 30% of the
RACHs are parasite. If the value is modified to 2, almost no parasites
RACH are detected.

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runCallClear

Class 3

V7

Description:

Number of Measurement Results messages that must be received


before the call clearing algorithm in a cell is triggered

Value range:

[1 to 31] SACCH frames (1 unit = 480 ms on TCHs, 470 ms on


SDCCHs)

Object:

bts

Default value:

16

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

16

Used in:

Call Clearing Process (run by BTS) (Cc)

Eng. Rules:

It is not necessary to run Cc too often, since those calls are going to
be ended anyway. Nevertheless, traffic out of a cells range interferes
on other cells or timeslots.

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5.16. POWER CONTROL PARAMETERS


bsMsmtProcessingMode

Class 2

V7

Description:

Whether radio measurements collected by the mobiles for a cell are


processed by the BTS or the BSC

Value range:

[preProcessedMeasurementReporting (BTS) /
basicMeasurementReporting (BSC)]

Object:

bts

Default value:

preProcessedMeasurementReporting

Type:

DP, Product

Rec. value:

preProcessedMeasurementReporting

Used in:

Measurement Processing

Eng. Rules:

Since radio measurements are always preprocessed by the BTS,


changing this attribute has no meaning.

bsPowerControl

Class 3

V7

Description:

Whether BTS transmission power control is allowed at cell level

Value range:

[enabled / disabled]

Object:

powerControl

Default value:

disabled

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

enabled

Used in:

Step by step Power control


One shot power control
Fast power control at TCH assignment
Power Control (AMR)

Eng. Rules:

Not useful for mono-TRX cells, because BTS power control on BCCH
frequency is not allowed.

LCAUTION!

During a measurement field campaign, it can be normal to disable this


feature in order to have the real signal strength and not the adjusted
one.

bsTxPwrMax

Class 3

V7

Description:

Maximum theoretical level of BTS transmission power in a cell


The BSC relays the information to the mobiles in the Abis CELL
MODIFY REQUEST message.

Value range:

[0 to 47] dBm

Object:

powerControl

Default value:

43 dBm

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

depends on the equipment

Used in:

General formulas
Cabinet Output Power Setting

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Eng. Rules:

This power is used to calculate the cabinet output power. It depends


on the attribute attenuation of btsSiteManager objects (see chapter
Pr computation), because the value of the parameter attenuation is
then taken into account as DLU attenuation.

Remark:

For a GSM 1900 network (standardIndicator of bts object set to


pcs1900), the MD-R checks the following: bsTxPwrMax < 32 (dBm)
when an edge frequency is defined for the cell (i.e. if the value is
included in the cellAllocation attribute values).
Some bsTxPwrMax values are not compatible with the effective power
output by the BTS (see chapter Pr computation).

lRxLevDLP

Class 3

V7

Description:

Signal strength threshold in BTStoMS direction, below which the


power control function increases power. It is lower than uRxLevDLP.

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109, ... , -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm

Object:

powerControl

Default value:

-95 to -94 dBm

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

-95 to -94 dBm (step by step)


-85 to -84 dBm (one shot)

Used in:

Step by step Power control


One shot power control
Fast power control at TCH assignment
Power Control (AMR)

Eng. Rules:

The difference between lower and upper thresholds must be greater


or equal to max (powerIncrStrepSize, powerRedStepSize), because it
is controled at the OMC level.
lRxLevDLP > lRxLevDLH, up to V7, because power Control and
handover algorithms are decorrelated.

LCAUTION!

In case the AMR power control algorithm is activated ( refer to the


amrReserved2 parameter) that parameter defines the threshold below
which the AMR power control is inhibited.
In that case the recommended values remain the same if the AMR
penetration is low, and the same + 2dB if the AMR penetration is high.

lRxLevULP

Class 3

V7

Description:

Signal strength threshold in MStoBTS direction, below which the


power control function increases power. It is lower than uRxLevULP.

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109, ... , -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm

Object:

powerControl

Default value:

-95 to -94 dBm

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

-95 to -94 dBm (step by step)


-85 to -84 dBm (one shot)

Used in:

Step by step Power control


One shot power control
Fast power control at TCH assignment
Power Control (AMR)
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Eng. Rules:

lRxLevULP > lRxLevULH, up to V7, because power Control and


handover algorithms are decorrelated.

LCAUTION!

In case the AMR power control algorithm is activated ( see


amrReserved2 parameter) that parameter defines the threshold below
which the AMR power control is inhibited.
In that case the recommended values remain the same if the AMR
penetration is low, and the same + 2dB if the AMR penetration is high.

lRxQualDLP

Class 3

V7

Description:

Bit error rate threshold in BTStoMS direction, above which the


power control function increases power. It is greater than or equal to
uRxQualDLP.

Value range:

[less than 0.2, 0.2 to 0.4, 0.4 to 0.8, ... , 6.4 to 12.8, more than 12.8] %

Object:

powerControl

Default value:

0.4 to 0.8

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

0.8 to 1.6 % (RxQual = 3 in GSM unit) without SFH


3.2 to 6.4 % (RxQual = 5 in GSM unit) with SFH

Used in:

Step by step Power control


One shot power control
Fast power control at TCH assignment
Power Control (AMR)

Eng. Rules:

This value must be lower than lRxQualDLH in order to maintain


priority between power control and handover.

lRxQualULP

Class 3

V7

Description:

Bit error rate threshold in MStoBTS direction, above which the


power control function increases power. It is greater than or equal to
uRxQualULP.

Value range:

[less than 0.2, 0.2 to 0.4, 0.4 to 0.8, ... , 6.4 to 12.8, more than 12.8] %

Object:

powerControl

Default value:

0.4 to 0.8

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

0.8 to 1.6 % (RxQual = 3 in GSM unit) without SFH


1.6 to 3.2 % (RxQual = 4 in GSM unit) with SFH

Used in:

Step by step Power control


One shot power control
Fast power control at TCH assignment
Power Control (AMR)

Eng. Rules:

This value must be lower than lRxQualULH in order to maintain


priority between power control and handover.

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msTxPwrMax2ndBand

Class 3

V12

Description:

Maximum MS transmission power in the band 1 of the dualband cell


depending on the network type (BCCH is only defined in band 0)

Value range:

[0 to 36] for GSM 900 GSM 1800 (gsmdcs),


[5 to 43] for GSM 1800 GSM 900 (dcsgsm)
[0 to 33] for GSM 850 GSM 1900 (gsm850pcs)
[5 to 43] for GSM 1900 GSM 850 (pcsgsm850)
for all in the steps of 2 + value = 33 for GSM 850 GSM 1900
0..43 for other standardIndicator types

Object:

bts

Default value:

Typical value of 33 dBm for GSM 900 & 850 handhelds, 30 dBm for
GSM 1800 and 1900

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

33 dBm for dcsgsm


30 dBm for gsmdcs & 850

Used in:

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell Handover

Eng. Rules:

This parameter is only used for power control.


The attribute value is within the range [0 to 36] and even when the bts
object standardIndicator attribute is gsmdcs.
The attribute value is within the range [5 to 43] and odd when the bts
object standardIndicator attribute is dcsgsm.

new power control algorithm

Class 3

V9

Description:

Algorithm used by the BTS to control power in a cell


step by step value refers to the standard power control algorithm.
one shot value refers to the advanced power control algorithm.
enhanced one shot value refers to the advanced power algorithm
used in connection with the handOverControl object
rxLevHreqaveBeg attribute used in the early handover mechanism.

Value range:

[step by step / one shot / enhanced one shot]

Object:

bts

Default value:

one shot

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

one shot (if DCU2 boards)


enhanced one shot (otherwise)

Used in:

Power Control Algorithms

Eng. Rules:
LCAUTION!

Enhanced one shot is not supported with DCU2 boards or with a mix
of DCU2/DCU4 boards

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powerIncrStepSizeDL

Class 3

V14

Description:

Increment step size for downlink power control.

Value range:

[2, 30] dB

Object:

powerControl

Default value:

4 dB

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

4 dB

Used in:

Step by step Power control

Eng. Rules:

A high step is required to be reactive in increasing the power when


entering an area where propagation is not acceptable.
A higher step (6 dB) is recommended for specific networks or
environment (high speed trains for example).
The attribute powerIncrStepSizeDL must verify: lRxLevDLP +
powerIncrStepSizeDL uRxLevDLP

LCAUTION!

Not used in one shot power control nor in AMR power control.

powerIncrStepSizeUL

Class 3

Description:

Increment step size for uplink power control.

Value range:

[2, 30] dB

V14

Object:

powerControl

Default value:

4 dB

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

4 dB

Used in:

Step by step Power control

Eng. Rules:

A high step is required to be reactive in increasing the power when


entering an area where propagation is not acceptable.
A higher step (6 dB) is recommended for specific networks or
environment (high speed trains for example).
The attribute powerIncrStepSizeUL must verify:lRxLevULP +
powerIncrStepSizeUL uRxLevULP

LCAUTION!

Not used in one shot power control nor in AMR power control.

powerRedStepSizeDL

Class 3

V14

Description:

Decrement step size for downlink power control.

Value range:

[2, 8] dB

Object:

powerControl

Default value:

2 dB

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

2 dB

Used in:

Step by step Power control

Eng. Rules:

Small steps are enough to adapt two subsequent changes in quality


and strength. Moreover, calls become sensitive to low MS or BS
TxPower.

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The attribute powerIncrStepSizeDL must verify: uRxLevDLP
powerRedStepSizeDL lRxLevDLP
Not used in one shot power control.

LCAUTION!

powerRedStepSizeUL

Class 3

V14

Description:

Decrement step size for uplink power control.

Value range:

[2, 30] dB

Object:

powerControl

Default value:

2 dB

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

2 dB

Used in:

Step by step Power control

Eng. Rules:

Small steps are enough to adapt two subsequent changes in quality


and strength. Moreover, calls become sensitive to low MS or BS
txPower.
The attribute powerRedStepSizeUL must verify: uRxLevULP
powerRedStepSizeUL lRxLevULP

LCAUTION!

Not used in one shot power control.

runPwrControl

Class 3

V7

Description:

Number of Measurement Results messages that must be received


before the power control algorithm in a cell is triggered.

Value range:

[1 to 31] frames (1 unit = 480 ms on TCH, 470 ms on SDCCH)

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

Used in:

Power Control Algorithms


Power Control (AMR)

Eng. Rules:

The lowest is the parameter value, the best will be the reactivity;
nevertheless, it is better to wait for the effect of MS power decrease
on the uplink quality.

uplinkPowerControl

Class 3

V8

Description:

Whether power control in the MStoBTS direction is authorized at


cell level

Value range:

[enabled / disabled]

Object:

powerControl

Default value:

enabled

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

enabled

Used in:

Power Control Algorithms


Power Control (AMR)

Eng. Rules:
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uRxLevDLP

Class 3

V7

Description:

Upper strength threshold for BTS txpwr decrease for step by step
algorithm (it is greater than IRxLevDLP)

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109, ... , -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm

Object:

powerControl

Default value:

-85 to -84 dBm

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

= lRxLevDLP + Max (powerIncrStepSizeDL,


powerRedStepSizeDL) typically

Used in:

Power Control Algorithms

Eng. Rules:

Difference between the lower and upper thresholds must be greater or


equal to the maximum power step size.

LCAUTION!

Not used in one shot power control.

uRxLevULP

Class 3

V7

Description:

Upper strength threshold for MS txpwr decrease for step by step


algorithm (it is greater than lRxLevULP).

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109, ... , -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm

Object:

powerControl

Default value:

-85 to -84 dBm

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

lRxLevULP + Max (powerIncrStepSizeUL, powerRedStepSizeUL)


typically

Used in:

Power Control Algorithms

Eng. Rules:

Difference between the lower and upper threshold, must be greater or


equal to the maximum power step size.

LCAUTION!

Not used in one shot power control.

uRxQualDLP

Class 3

V7

Description:

Upper quality threshold to reduce BTS txpwr for step by step algorithm
(it is lower than or equal to lRxQualDLP).

Value range:

[less than 0.2, 0.2 to 0.4, 0.4 to 0.8, ... , 6.4 to 12.8, more than 12.8] %

Object:

powerControl

Default value:

0.2 to 0.4

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

0.8 to 1.6 % (RxQual = 3 in GSM unit) without SFH

Used in:

Power Control Algorithms

Eng. Rules:

This value must be lower than lRxQualDLH in order to maintain


priority between power control and handover.

LCAUTION!

Not used in one shot power control.

3.2 to 6.4 % (RxQual = 5 in GSM unit) with SFH

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uRxQualULP

Class 3

V7

Description:

Upper quality threshold to reduce MS txpwr for step by step algorithm


(it is lower than or equal to lRxQualULP).

Value range:

[less than 0.2, 0.2 to 0.4, 0.4 to 0.8, ... , 6.4 to 12.8, more than 12.8] %

Object:

powerControl

Default value:

0.2 to 0.4

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

0.8 to 1.6 % (RxQual = 3 in GSM unit) without SFH


1.6 to 3.2 % (RxQual = 4 in GSM unit) wtih SFH

Used in:

Power Control Algorithms

Eng. Rules:

This value must be lower than lRxQualULH in order to maintain


priority between power control and handover.
There is no reason why this value should differ from uRxQualDLP.

LCAUTION!

Not used in one shot power control.

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5.17. TCH ALLOCATION MANAGEMENT PARAMETERS


accessClassCongestion

Class 3

Description:

List of access classes that are not authorized in a cell during TCH
congestion phase (class 10 not included)

Value range:

[0 to 9] User classes
[11 to 15] Operator classes

V9

Object:

bts

Default value:

[0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

see Engineering Rules

Used in:

Dynamic barring of access class (All_4)


V15.0 Changes of dynamic barring of access class (All_4)

Eng. Rules:

Usually, in a low capacity cell (between 1 and 2 TRXs), many classes


must be forbidden in case of congestion (few resources available). In
a high capacity cell, only a few classes must be forbidden.

allocPriorityTable

Class 3

V7

Description:

Table of eighteen elements that define the internal priorities for


processing TCH queued allocation requests for each external priority
defined (among them, fourteen are GSM priorities)
TCH is always allocated using the internal priority.

Value range:

[0 to 12]. 0 defines the highest priority.

Object:

bts

Default value:

000000000000000000

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

02222222222223042
0 8 9 10 11 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 0 4 2 for WPS use

Used in:

Allocation and priority (run by the BSC) (All_1)


Queuing driven by the MSC (All_2)
Queuing driven by the BSC (All_3)
WPS Queuing management

Eng. Rules:

The default set means that all TCH allocation requests have the same
priority, which is equal to 0.
When queuing is activated, set the following parameters in order not
to disadvantage the interCell handover procedures:

LCAUTION!

Priority for interCell handover: 0


Priority for other procedures: 0
allocPriorityThreshold > 0

When WPS Queuing Management is activated, the WPS priorities (8


to 12) have to be set as recommended, otherwise WPS queues will be
managed like internal public queues.

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allocPriorityThreshold
Description:

Class 3

V7

Number of free TCHs needed for processing a TCH allocation request


with an internal priority higher than 1
These channels are reserved to allocation requests with a maximum
internal priority (priority 0).
The TCH allocation is performed according to this algorithm:
Nb of free TCH = 0

1 Nb of free TCH
allocPriorityThreshold

Nb of free TCH >


allocPriorityThreshold

TCH request
of priority 0

queuing if defined or
rejected

TCH allocated

TCH allocated

TCH request
of priority > 0

queuing if defined or
rejected

queuing if defined or
rejected

TCH allocated

For GPRS with shared PDTCH, the allocation is performed according


to this algorithm: free resources are composed of free TCH and
shared PDTCH not already used by a GSM call:
Nb of free TCH = 0

TCH request
of priority 0

queuing if defined or
rejected

1 Nb of free TCH
allocPriorityThreshold

Nb of free TCH >


allocPriorityThreshold

TCH allocated if TCH


free > 0

TCH allocated if TCH


free > 0

if preemption is
authorized and PCU
ACK, allocation of a
shared PDTCH

if preemption is
authorized and PCU
ACK, allocation of a
shared PDTCH

if preemption is not
authorized or PCU
NACK, queuing if
defined or rejected

if preemption is not
authorized or PCU
NACK, queuing if
defined or rejected
TCH allocated if TCH
free > 0

TCH request
of priority > 0

queuing if defined or
rejected

queuing if defined or
rejected

if preemption is
authorized and PCU
ACK, allocation of a
shared PDTCH
if preemption is not
authorized or PCU
NACK, queuing if
defined or rejected

Value range:

[0 to 2147483646]

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type

DP, Design

Rec. value:

n, with n TRX

Used in:

Allocation and priority (run by the BSC) (All_1)


Queuing driven by the MSC (All_2)
Queuing driven by the BSC (All_3)

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Eng. Rules:

When TCH channels are reserved and the internal priority for
assignRequest is 0, the capacity for incoming calls decreases:
Example:
1 TRX, 7 TCH, 2 % blocking rate, allocPriorityThreshold = 0,
capacity for incoming calls = 2,88 Erlang
1 TRX, 7 TCH, 2 % blocking rate, allocPriorityThreshold = 1,
capacity for incoming calls = 2,23 Erlang
Queuing spreads out the TCH allocation request. As incoming
handover requests are not queued, such requests are disadvantaged.
A solution is to reserve 1 TCH channel (for 1 or 2 TRXs) or 2 TCH
channels (for at least 2 TRX) for calls of internal priority 0, and set the
priority 0 for incoming handovers only.
Note that when TCH channels are reserved for handovers, the
capacity for incoming calls decreases.

allocPriorityTimers

Class 3

V7

Description:

Table of timers defining the maximum waiting time of TCH allocations


request (public and WPS request), according to the internal priority.

Value range:

[0 65535] for BSC3000


[0 2147483646] for BSC12000

Object:

bts

Default value:

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 28 28 28 28 28

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

5 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 28 28 28 28 28

Used in:

Queuing driven by the MSC (All_2)


Queuing driven by the BSC (All_3)
WPS Queuing management

Eng. Rules:

A high value of timer is not realistic, since a subscriber will not wait
unless the last TCH is available quickly. The last five parameters in
the table (those set to 28) define the waiting time of WPS calls
queued.
See also chapter Directed Retry Handover Benefit

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allocWaitThreshold

Class 3

V7

Description:

Table of thresholds defining the maximum number of TCH allocation


requests queued (public and WPS), according to their internal priority.
A TCH request of priority Pi, P0<Pi<P7, is queued if the total number
of requests of priority Pj, with j<i, already in the queue does not
exceed the waiting threshold of the queue i (element i of the
allocWaitThreshold table).
A WPS request priority is queued according to the rules of WPS
queuing.

Value range:

[0 to 63] MMI Range

Object:

bts

Default value:

0000000055555

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

n 0 n n 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5 5, with n = integer part of (number of


SDCCH subchannels / 2)

Used in:

Queuing driven by the MSC (All_2)


Queuing driven by the BSC (All_3)
WPS Queuing management

Eng. Rules:

The maximum size in each queue must be lower than the number of
SDCCH channels in the cell.
For an incoming call, when the assignRequest is queued, it remains
on the SDCCH subchannel.
The last five parameters in the table are determining the maximum
number of WPS calls of the same priority that can be queued.

allOtherCasesPriority

Class 3

V7

Description:

Index in the allocPriorityTable that defines the processing priority of


TCH allocation requests with cause other cases
This priority is used in primoallocations or when an SDDCH cannot
be allocated for overload reasons.

Value range:

[0 to 17]

Object:

bts

Default value:

17

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

16

Used in:

Allocation and priority (run by the BSC) (All_1)


Queuing driven by the MSC (All_2)
Queuing driven by the BSC (All_3)

Eng. Rules:

The associated internal priority is > 0.


A TCH allocation request (in signaling mode) whose cause is other
case is acknowledged when at least allocPriorityThreshold + 1
channels are free.
Refer also to the allocPriorityTable parameter.

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answerPagingPriority

Class 3

V7

Description:

Index in the allocPriorityTable that defines the processing priority of


TCH allocation requests with cause reply to paging
This priority is used in signaling mode on TCH only.

Value range:

[0 to 17]

Object:

bts

Default value:

17

Type:

DP, System

Rec. valueb

16

Used in:

Allocation and priority (run by the BSC) (All_1)


Queuing driven by the MSC (All_2)
Queuing driven by the BSC (All_3)

Eng. Rules:

The associated internal priority is > 0.


A TCH allocation request (in signaling mode) whose cause is other
case is acknowledged when at least allocPriorityThreshold + 1
channels are free.
Refer also to the allocPriorityTable parameter.

assignRequestPriority

Class 3

V7

Description:

Index in the allocPriorityTable that defines the processing priority of


TCH allocation requests with cause immediate assignment
This priority is used when radio resource allocation queuing is not
requested by the MSC or not authorized in the BSS (refer to the
bscQueuingOption parameter).

Value range:

[0 to 17]

Object:

bts

Default value:

17

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

17

Used in:

Allocation and priority (run by the BSC) (All_1)


Queuing driven by the MSC (All_2)
Queuing driven by the BSC (All_3)

Eng. Rules:

When queuing driven by the MSC is used, this parameter is not


significant.
It is recommended not to associate an internal priority equal to 0.
There is no queuing for TCH in signaling mode.
Refer also to the allocPriorityTable parameter.

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bscMSAccessClassBarringFunction

Class 3

V9

Description:

Enable or disable dynamic barring of access class at the bsc level

Value range:

[enabled / disabled]

Object:

bsc

Default value:

disabled

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

enabled, see Engineering Rules

Used in:

Dynamic barring of access class (All_4)


V15.0 Changes of dynamic barring of access class (All_4)

Eng. Rules:

Set to disabled, this parameter allows to inhibit the dynamic barring of


access class feature for the whole BSC whatever the values of the
other parameters related to All_4 are.
If queuing or directed retry is activated, the following parameters must
be used:

numberOfTCHQueuedBeforeCongestion
numberOfTCHQueuedToEndCongestion

bscQueuingOption
Description:

Class 1

V7

Whether radio resource allocation requests are queued in the BSC


when no resources are available

If no resource is available when an allocation request is received and queuing is not


allowed, the allocation request is refused immediately.
Value range:

[allowed (MSC driven) / forced (O&M driven) / not allowed]


allowed: resource allocation request queuing depends on the type
of operation and indicative items provided with the messages
received from the MSC.
forced: resource allocation request queuing depends on the type of
operation only.
not allowed: resource allocation request queuing is forbidden.

Object:

signallingPoint

Default value:

forced

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

forced (O&M driven)


allowed (MSC driven) for WPS use

Used in:

Queuing driven by the MSC (All_2)


Queuing driven by the BSC (All_3)
WPS Queuing management

Eng. Rules:

When queuing is activated, the queued procedures (assignRequest


and intraCellHO if OMC driven) statistically take advantage on the
other procedures. If all the TCH channels are already allocated, the
queued procedures stay in the queue during a defined time (see
allocPriorityTimers), when the others are rejected.

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Suppose the operator expects to enable the queuing later. Due to the
class of the parameter bscQueuingOption, it is recommended not to
set not allowed. Otherwise, the BSC will need to be switched off to
implement the feature.
See also chapter Directed Retry Handover Benefit
LCAUTION!

WPS Queuing Management can be activated only if


bscQueuingOption is set to allowed, i.e if MSC can handle different
priorities of assignement request.

btsMSAccessClassBarringFunction

Class 3

V9

Description:

Enable or disable dynamic barring of access class at the bts level

Value range:

[enabled / disabled]

Object

bts

Default value:

disabled

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

See Engineering Rules

Used in:

Dynamic barring of access class (All_4)


V15.0 Changes of dynamic barring of access class (All_4)

Eng. Rules:

To enable dynamic barring of access class at the bts level, this


parameter and the bscMSAccessClassBarringFunction parameter of
the corresponding bsc must be set to enabled.
This feature globally reduces the cell capacity.
The fewer the number of TRXs on the cell, the more the capacity is
reduced.

callReestablishmentPriority

Class 3

V7

Description:

Index in the allocPriorityTable that defines the processing priority of


TCH allocation requests with cause call reestablishment
This priority is used in primoallocations or when an SDDCH cannot
be allocated for overload reasons.

Value range:

[0 to 17]

Objectb

bts

Default value:

17

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

15

Used in:

Allocation and priority (run by the BSC) (All_1)


Queuing driven by the MSC (All_2)
Queuing driven by the BSC (All_3)

Eng. Rules:

The value that must be given should correspond to a priority 0.


Refer to the allocPriorityTable parameter.

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cellBarQualify

Class 3

V8

Description:

Cell selection priority used in the C2 algorithm in Phase II


The information is broadcast to the mobiles at regular intervals on the
cell BCCH.

Value range:

[true (low priority) / false (normal priority)]

Object:

bts

Default value:

False

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

False

Used in:

Selection or reselection between cells of current Location Area


(Sel_1)
Additional reselection criterion (for phase 2) (Sel_3)
New SYS INFO messages

Eng. Rules:

refer to Sel_3 algorithm, see also chapter DualBand Networks.

cellBarred

Class 3

V7

Description:

Whether direct cell access are barred to mobiles


The information is broadcast to the mobiles at regular intervals on the
cell BCCH.During a call, it is transmitted on a signaling link.
If the attribute value is changed to barred, all inprogress calls can
continue but the BSC will direct further mobile calls to another cell.

Value range:

[barred / not barred]

Object:

bts

Default value:

not barred

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

not barred

Used in:

Selection or reselection between cells of current Location Area


(Sel_1)
Additional reselection criterion (for phase 2) (Sel_3)

Eng. Rules:

refer to Sel_3 algorithm, see also chapter DualBand Networks.

channelType

Class 2

Description:

Type of logical channel supported by a radio TS

Value range:

[tCHFull / sDCCH / mainBCCH / mainBCCHCombined /


bcchsdcch4CBCH / sdcch8CBCH / cCH (V12) / pDTCH (V12)]

Object:

channel

Default value:

None

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

None.

V7

No recommended value is specified since this parameter


depends on the strategy of the operator.
Used in:
Eng. Rules:

In the case of GSM, refer to chapter SDCCH Dimensioning an TDMA


Models for the rules with SDCCH.
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emergencyCallPriority

Class 3

V7

Description:

Index in the table allocPriorityTable for a TCH allocation request


whose cause is emergency call
This priority is used in primoallocations or when an SDDCH cannot
be allocated for overload reasons.

Value range:

[0 to 17]

Object:

bts

Default value:

17

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

15

Used in:

Allocation and priority (run by the BSC) (All_1)


Queuing driven by the MSC (All_2)
Queuing driven by the BSC (All_3)

Eng. Rules:

The internal priority associated is 0. A TCH allocation request (in


signaling mode) whose cause is emergency call is acknowledged
when at least 1 channel is free.
Refer also to the allocPriorityTable parameter.

interCellHOExtPriority

Class 3

V7

Description:

Index in the allocPriorityTable that defines the processing priority of


incoming interbss handovers in a cell
This priority is used when radio resource allocation queuing is not
requested by the MSC or not authorized in the BSS (refer to the
bscQueuingOption parameter).

Value range:

[0 to 17]

Object:

bts

Default value:

17

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

15

Used in:

Allocation and priority (run by the BSC) (All_1)


Queuing driven by the MSC (All_2)
Queuing driven by the BSC (All_3)

Eng. Rules:

The internal priority associated is 0. A TCH allocation request (in


signaling mode) on interBSC handover is aknowledged when at least
1 channel is free.
When queuing is used, it is recommended to give the priority 0 and
reserve the TCH channels (allocPriorityThreshold) since it
disadvantages requests that cannot be queued.
Refer also to the allocPriorityTable parameter.

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interCellHOIntPriority

Class 3

V7

Description:

Index in the allocPriorityTable that defines the processing priority of


incoming intrabss handovers in a cell
This priority is always used, whether radio resource allocation queuing
is authorized in the BSS or not.

Value range:

[0 to 17]

Object:

bts

Default value:

17

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

15

Used in:

Allocation and priority (run by the BSC) (All_1)


Queuing driven by the MSC (All_2)
Queuing driven by the BSC (All_3)

Eng. Rules:

The internal priority associated is 0.


A TCH allocation request (in signaling mode) on intraBSC handover is
aknowledged when at least 1 TCH is free.
When queuing is used, it is recommended to give the priority 0 and
reserve the TCH channels (allocPriorityThreshold) since it
disadvantages requests that cannot be queued.
Refer also to the allocPriorityTable parameter.

intraCellHOIntPriority

Class 3

V7

Description:

Index in the allocPriorityTable that defines the processing priority of an


intrabts handover in a cell
This priority is always used, whether radio resource allocation queuing
is authorized in the BSS or not.

Value range:

[0 to 17]

Object:

bts

Default value:

17

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

14

Used in:

Allocation and priority (run by the BSC) (All_1)


Queuing driven by the MSC (All_2)
Queuing driven by the BSC (All_3)

Eng. Rules:

Refer also to the allocPriorityTable parameter.

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directedRetryPrio

V12

Description:

Index in the allocPriorityTable that defines the processing priority for


directed retry handovers

Value range:

[0 to 17]

Object:

bts

Default value:
Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

17

Used in:

TCH Allocation Management

Eng. Rules:

Refer also to the allocPriorityTable parameter.

intraCellQueuing

Class 3

V8

Description:

Whether intrabts handover requests are queued for a cell. This


parameter is significant only when queuing radio resource allocation
requests is allowed in the BSS.
Refer to the bscQueuingOption parameter.

Value range:

[enabled / disabled]

Object:

bts

Default value:

disabled

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Enabled

Used in:

Queuing driven by the MSC (All_2)


Queuing driven by the BSC (All_3)

Eng. Rules:

None.

minNbOfTDMA

Class 2

V7

Description:

Minimum number of TDMA frames that must be working in order for


the cell itself to be working.
The frame carrying the cell BCCH must be among them and is
successfully configured.

Value range:

[1 to 16]

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

None.

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notAllowedAccessClasses

Class 3

V7

Description:

List of mobile access classes that are forbidden in the cell, except
case of congestion.
This attribute, together with the emergencyCallRestricted attribute,
allows to control access to a cell according to the service classes
authorized.

Value range:

List of mobile access class:


[0 to 9]: user classes
[11 to 15]: operator classes

Object:

bts

Default value:

Leave the field empty

Type:

DP,Operation

Rec. value:

null (empty list)

Used in:

Dynamic barring of access class (All_4)


Changes of dynamic barring of access class (All_4)

Eng. Rules:

This parameter contains the list of forbidden access classes. Usually


all users are authorized, in this case, the list must be empty.

numberOfTCHFreeBeforeCongestion

Class 3

V9

Description:

Minimum number of free TCHs which triggers the beginning of the


TCH congestion phase and the beginning of the traffic overload
condition

Value range:

[0 to infinite]

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

1 for cells with 1-2 TRXs


2 or 3 for cells with more than 3 TRXs

Used in:

Dynamic barring of access class (All_4)


Changes of dynamic barring of access class (All_4)
Handover for traffic reasons

Eng. Rules:

Note that the congestion feature does not distinguish between


reserved or unreserved TCHs. A reserved TCH is a TCH booked for a
priority 0 procedure. Setting this parameter must consider the number
of reserved TCHs.

numberOfTCHFreeToEndCongestion

Class 3

V9

Description:

Threshold that gives the number of free TCHs, which triggers the end
of TCH congestion phase and the end of the traffic overload condition.

Value range:

[0 to infinite]

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

2 for cells with 1-2 TRXs


3 or 4 cells with more than 3 TRXs

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Used in:

Dynamic barring of access class (All_4)


Changes of dynamic barring of access class (All_4)
Handover for traffic reasons

Eng. Rules:

numberOfTCHFreeToEndCongestion >
numberOfTCHFreeBeforeCongestion
Note, this inequality is not checked at the OMC.

numberOfTCHQueuedBeforeCongestion

Class 3

V9

Description:

Maximum number of TCH allocation requests queued which triggers


the beginning of the TCH congestion phase and the beginning of the
traffic overload condition

Value range:

[0 to infinite]

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

2 for cells with 1-2 TRXs


3 or 4 cells with more than 3 TRXs

Used in:

Dynamic barring of access class (All_4)


Changes of dynamic barring of access class (All_4)
Handover for traffic reasons

Eng. Rules:

numberOfTCHQueuedToEndCongestion

Class 3

V9

Description:

Maximum number of TCH allocation requests queued which triggers


the end of TCH congestion phase and the end of the traffic overload
condition

Value range:

[0 to infinite]

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

1 for cells with 1-2 TRXs


2 or 3 for cells with more than 3 TRXs

Used in:

Dynamic barring of access class (All_4)


Changes of dynamic barring of access class (All_4)
Handover for traffic reasons

Eng. Rules:

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otherServicesPriority
Description:

Class 3

V7

Index in the table allocPriorityTable for a TCH allocation request (in


signaling mode) whose cause is other services

This priority is used in primoallocations or when an SDDCH cannot be allocated for


overload reasons.
Value range:

[0 to 17]

Object:

bts

Default value:

17

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

16

Used in:

Allocation and priority (run by the BSC) (All_1)


Queuing driven by the MSC (All_2)
Queuing driven by the BSC (All_3)

Eng. Rules:

The internal priority associated is > 0. A TCH allocation request (in


signaling mode) whose cause is other services is acknowledged
when at least allocPriorityThreshold + 1 channels are free.
Refer also to the allocPriorityTable parameter.

priority

Class 2

V7

Description:

Priority level of a TDMA frame for mapping TDMA onto TRXs.


At least minNbOfTDMA TDMA frames related to a cell must be
successfully configured for the cell to be working.
They include the TDMA frame carrying the cell BCCH and those with
the other priority(ies).

Value range:

[0 to 255]

Object:

transceiver

Default value:
Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

See Engineering Rules

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

Refer to section SDCCH Dimensioning and TDMA priorities.

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5.18. EMLPP RADIO RESOURCE PREEMPTION PARAMETER


Note that other parameters related to eMLPP Radio Resource Preemption
(emergencyThreshold and eMLPPThreshold) are only meaningful in GSM-R, therefore they
are not described in this document.

preemptionAuthor
Description:

Class 3

V15

This parameter activates or deactivates radio resource preemption


capability in the BSS (used in the context of eMLPP supplementary
service).
This parameter is available for both GSM-R and public GSM.

Value range:

[forbidden, authorizedWithRelease, authorizedForcedHO]

Object:

signallingPoint

Default value:

forbidden

Type:

DP

Rec. value:

see Eng Rules

Used in:

eMLPP Preemption

Eng. Rules:

preemptionAuthor = forbidden means that the BSC never performs


radio resource preemption, whatever the priority and PCI/PVI flags
values.
preemptionAuthor = authorizedWithRelease means that the BSC is
allowed to perform radio resource preemption if necessary and if
authorised by the MSC.A successful preemption results in the
preempted call being released.
preemptionAuthor = authorizedWithForcedHO means the same thing
as preemptionAuthor = authorizedWithRelease in the current
implementation, despite the different name

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5.19. DIRECTED RETRY HANDOVER PARAMETERS


adjacent cell umbrella ref

Class 3

V9

Description:

Identifier of the adjacentCelHandOver object that describes the


neighbor cell towards which a directed retry will be triggered in BSC
mode

Value range:

[0 to 31]

Object:

bts

Default value:
Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

Identifier of the adjacentCellHandOver of the macrocell which


totally covers the micro cell.

Used in:

Directed Retry Handover: BSC (or local) mode

Eng. Rules:

BSC mode is especially used in a two layer network. For micro cells,
directed retry needs to be triggered towards the macro cell. However,
if the recovering of each micro cell is good enough,
adjacentUmbrellaRef can identify a micro cell.
To facilitate the procedure, the BCCH frequency of the target neighbor
cell must be in the reselection list.
See also chapter Directed Retry Handover Benefit.

directedRetry

Class 3

V9

Description:

Minimum signal strength level received by the mobiles to be granted


access to the neighbor cell, used in processing directed retry
handovers in BTS mode

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109, ... , -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

Default value:

more than -48 dBm

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

= rxLevMinCell + 3 to 25 dB

Used in:

Directed Retry Handover: BTS (or distant) mode

Eng. Rules:

The choice of recommended value has to be done regarding the


general design of the network. A 3 dB margin must be considered as
a minimum on a network to eliminate field strength bumps effect due
to multipath. However, this margin must be increased in an urban
environment or with the use of reuse pattern (overall for a 1X1
pattern) because of the generated interference when the MS is not on
the best server cell.
See also chapter Directed Retry Handover Benefit.

LCAUTION!

Directed retry is not allowed between 2 zones of a concentric cell.


For a dual Band Network where one frequency band is privileged, it is
possible to set this parameter to a higher value in neighbour cells
belonging to the low priority frequency band. Thus, this band will be
underprivileged. However, it will impact the directed retry for
monoband MS on this band (less directed retry).

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directedRetryModeUsed

Class 3

V9

Description:

Specify how directed retry handovers are processed in a cell either


directly by the BSC (microcells only) or by querying the BTS first

Value range:

[bsc / bts]

Object:

bts

Default value:

bts

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

bts

Used in:

Directed Retry Handover: BSC (or local) mode


Directed Retry Handover: BTS (or distant) mode

Eng. Rules:

The micro cell should be entirely covered by the macro cell in order to
use efficiently the bsc mode.
The use of the bts mode is recommended in a hot spot when there are
several micro cells under the umbrella. The bts mode allows the use
of micro cells to rescue the umbrella cell and also avoids a saturation
of the umbrella cell.
See also chapter Directed Retry Handover Benefit.

interBscDirectedRetry

Class 3

Description:

Whether interbss directed retry handovers are allowed in a BSS

Value range:

[allowed / not allowed]

Object:

bsc

Default value:

allowed

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

allowed

Used in:

Directed Retry Handover: BSC (or local) mode


Directed Retry Handover: BTS (or distant) mode

Eng. Rules:

See also chapter Directed Retry Handover Benefit.

LCAUTION!

Directed retry is not allowed between 2 zones of a concentric cell.

interBscDirectedRetryFromCell

Class 3

V9

V9

Description:

Whether interbss directed retry handovers are allowed in a cell

Value range:

[allowed / not allowed]

Object:

bts

Default value:

allowed

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

allowed

Used in:

Directed Retry Handover: BSC (or local) mode


Directed Retry Handover: BTS (or distant) mode

Eng. Rules:

If the value is not allowed then, the value of


interBscDirectedRetryFromCell must be set to not allowed for the
concerned cells.
See also chapter Directed Retry Handover Benefit.

LCAUTION!

Directed retry is not allowed between 2 zones of a concentric cell.


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intraBscDirectedRetry

Class 3

Description:

Whether intrabss directed retry handovers are allowed in a BSS

Value range:

[allowed / not allowed]

Object:

bsc

Default value:

allowed

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

allowed

Used in:

Directed Retry Handover: BSC (or local) mode


Directed Retry Handover: BTS (or distant) mode

Eng. Rules:

See also chapter Directed Retry Handover Benefit.

LCAUTION!

Directed retry is not allowed between 2 zones of a concentric cell.

intraBscDirectedRetryFromCell

Class 3

V9

V9

Description:

Whether intrabss directed retry handovers are allowed in a cell

Value range:

[allowed / not allowed]

Object:

bts

Default value:

allowed

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

allowed

Used in:

Directed Retry Handover: BSC (or local) mode


Directed Retry Handover: BTS (or distant) mode

Eng. Rules:

If the value is not allowed then, the value of


intraBscDirectedRetryFromCell must be set to not allowed for the
concerned cells.
See also chapter Directed Retry Handover Benefit.

LCAUTION!

Directed retry is not allowed between 2 zones of a concentric cell.

modeModifyMandatory

Class 3

V9

Description:

Whether a CHANNEL MODE MODIFY message should be sent to the


mobile after a directed retry handover in the BSS

Value range:

[used (yes) / not used (no)]

Object:

bsc

Default value:

not used

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

not used

Used in:

Directed Retry Handover

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Eng. Rules:

In the early days of GSM, this parameter was useful for mobiles
belonging to specific brands, that used not to be able to switch directly
from signaling (SDCCH) to speech (TCH) when executing a Directed
retry procedure. For that reason, this parameter used to be set to
"used" so that a Channel Mode Modify procedure could be done,
forcing an explicit change of channel upon the mobile. However,
today, as these mobile bugs have now presumably been corrected,
with few or no faulty mobiles remaining in the field today, the
systematic invokation of the CMM procedure is no longer required.
Setting to "used" may, in addition, have detrimental side-effects for
some kinds of inter-cell handovers (problem noted on instances of
intercell 3G-2G Handovers) which will systematically invoke a
Channel Mode Modify. Therefore it is recommended to set this
parameter systematically to value not used.

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5.20. CONCENTRIC CELL PARAMETERS


biZonePowerOffset

Class 3

V12

Description:

Offset added in calculation formula to draw up the list of eligible cells


for handover towards a dualband, dualcoupling, or concentric cell
inner zone to take into account the difference of propagation models
between the two bands of the cells and the difference of transmission
power between TRXs of the two zones due to either BTS
configuration or coupling.

Value range:

[-63 to 63] dB

Object:

adjacentCellHandOver

Default value:

if main band = 850 MHz biZonePowerOffset = 3 dB


if main band = 1900 MHz biZonePowerOffset = -3 dB

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

See Engineering Rules

Used in:

General formulas
Direct TCH allocation
Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell Handover

Eng. Rules:

Used for intercell handover to control whether the inner zone is


eligible or not.
to inhibit Direct TCH Allocation on an adjacent cell (when the
adjacent cell is declared as monozone / concentric / dualband /
dualcoupling) biZonePowerOffset(n) = 63
to allow Direct TCH Allocation on an adjacent cell (when the
adjacent cell is declared as concentric / dualband / dualcoupling)
biZonePowerOffset(n) =concentAlgoExtRxLev(n) - rxLevMinCell(n)

Note:

Shall be 63 for a monozone adjacent cell.


The higher (in positive) is the value, the more difficult it will be to
handover in the inner zone of the adjacent cell.
It is advised to set a value higher than the max offset (in rxLevDL
band 0) corresponding to the biggest difference of coverages between
the 2 bands (for the adjacent cell) otherwise an intercell handover to
the inner zone would be wrongly decided.

LCAUTION!

If HO decision is made toward the inner zone of a multizone cell, then


related EXP1XX(n) is computed with biZonePowerOffset(n).
See also chapters Concentric Cells and DualBand Networks.

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biZonePowerOffset

Class 3

V12

Description:

Power offset between inner and outer TRXs of the handOverControl


object of a dualband, dualcoupling, or concentric cell.

Value range:

[-63 to 63] dB

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

if main band = 850 MHz, biZonePowerOffset = 3 dB


if main band = 1900 MHz, biZonePowerOffset = -3 dB

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

See Engineering Rules

Used in:

General formulas
Direct TCH allocation
Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell Handover

Eng. Rules:
monozone cell:
biZonePowerOffset = 63

concentric cell:
biZonePowerOffset = zone Tx powermax reduction

concentric cell with HePA only on outer zone:


biZonePowerOffset = 3

dualband cell (main band = 850 or 900 MHz):


biZonePowerOffset = 6

dualband cell (main band = 1800 or 1900 MHz):


biZonePowerOffset = - 6

dualcoupling cell:
biZonePowerOffset = zone Tx powermax reduction = coupling losses
difference between inner and outer zone

dualband + dualcoupling cell combination:


biZonePowerOffset = coupling losses + propagation losses

LCAUTION!

When using dualcoupling cell DLU attenuation should be NULL and


compensated by the zone Tx power max reduction, see concentric
cell parameter

Note:

Shall be 63 for a monozone adjacent cell.

LCAUTION!

If HO decision is made in the small zone of a multizone cell then


related EXP2xx(n) = hoMarginxx(n) + biZonePowerOffset.
See also chapters Concentric Cells and DualBand Networks.

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concentAlgoExtMsRange

Class 3

V9

Description:

MS to BTS distance below which a handover is requested from the


large zone to the small zone if the level criteria is verified

Value range:

[1 to 34] km (non-extended mode)


[1 to 120] km (extended mode)

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

34

Used in:

Direct TCH Allocation


Concentric cell / dualcoupling cell intracell handovers

Eng. Rules:

The calculated distance between the MS and the BTS is based on


timing advance (TA), which has an accuracy of 3 bits (corresponding
to more than 1,5 km), thus not very useful in urban areas where the
cell size is relatively small and multipath affect the MS_BS distance.
However this parameter can be useful in rural areas or suburban
areas, and concentAlgoExtMsRange should respect following rules:

Note:

concentAlgoExtMsRange = concentAlgoIntMsRange - 1 km
concentAlgoExtMsRange < concentAlgointMsRange
concentAlgoExtMsRange < msRangeMax

34 disable the parameter since condition is always fullfilled.


See also chapters Concentric Cells and DualBand Networks.

concentAlgoIntMsRange

Class 3

V9

Description:

MS to BTS distance from which a handover from the small zone to the
large zone will be requested

Value range:

[1 to 34] km (non-extended mode)


[1 to 120] km (extended mode)

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

34

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

34

Used in:

Concentric cell / dualcoupling cell intracell handovers

Eng. Rules:

The calculated distance between the MS and the BTS is based on


timing advance (TA), which has an accuracy of 3 bits (corresponding
to more than 1,5 km), thus not very useful in urban areas where the
cell size is relatively small and multipath affect the MS_BS distance.
However this parameter can be useful in rural areas or suburban
areas, and concentAlgoIntMsRange should respect following rules:

Note:

concentAlgoIntMsRange > concentAlgoExtMsRange


concentAlgoIntMsRange < msRangeMax

34 disable the parameter since condition is always fullfilled.


See also chapters Concentric Cells and DualBand Networks.

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concentAlgoExtRxLev

Class 3

V9

Description:

The Downlink level of the MS signal strength above which a handover


is requested from the large zone to the small zone

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109, ... , -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

- 95 to - 94

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

See Engineering Rules

Used in:

Direct TCH Allocation


Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell Handover
Concentric cell / dualcoupling cell intracell handovers

Eng. Rules:

The recommended value depends on the network design. Depending


on capacity distribution between inner and outer zone, CPT can be
used to match the RxLev DL number of samples to
concentAlgoExtRxLev, which defines when users interzone handover
from outer to inner zone, i.e. inner zone traffic load.
The following rules shall be respected:
concentAlgoExtRxLev > concentAlgoIntRxLev
concentAlgoExtRxLev rxLevMinCell + biZonePowerOffset
See also chapters Concentric Cells and DualBand Networks.

concentAlgoExtRxLevUL

Class 3

V18

Description:

The uplink level of the MS signal strength above which a handover is


requested from the large zone to the small zone

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109, ... , -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

- 95 to - 94

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

See Engineering Rules

Used in:

Direct TCH Allocation


Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell Handover
Concentric cell / dualcoupling cell intracell handovers

Eng. Rules:

The recommended value depends on the network design. Depending


on capacity distribution between inner and outer zone, CPT can be
used to match the RxLev DL number of samples to
concentAlgoExtRxLev, which defines when users interzone handover
from outer to inner zone, i.e. inner zone traffic load.
The following rules shall be respected:
concentAlgoExtRxLevUL > concentAlgoIntRxLevUL
See also chapters Concentric Cells and DualBand Networks.

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concentAlgoIntRxLev

Class 3

V9

Description:

Downlink Level of the MS signal strength below which a handover is


requested from the small zone to the large zone

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109, ... , -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

less than -110

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

See Engineering Rules

Used in:

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell Handover


Concentric cell / dualcoupling cell intracell handovers

Eng. Rules:

In order to avoid unnecessary ping-pong interzone HO a Hysteresis


Margin should be added:
concentAlgoIntRxLev = concentAlgoExtRxLev - biZonePowerOffset
- Hysteresis Margin
where recommended Hysteresis Margin = 4 dB
See also chapters Concentric Cells and DualBand Networks.

concentAlgoIntRxLevUL

Class 3

V18

Description:

Uplink Level of the MS signal strength below which a handover is


requested from the small zone to the large zone

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109, ... , -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

less than -110

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

See Engineering Rules

Used in:

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell Handover


Concentric cell / dualcoupling cell intracell handovers

Eng. Rules:

In order to avoid unnecessary ping-pong interzone HO a Hysteresis


Margin should be added:
concentAlgoIntRxLevUL=concentAlgoExtRxLevULbiZonePowerOffset
- Hysteresis Margin
where recommended Hysteresis Margin = 4 dB
In addition concentAlgoIntRxLevUL has to be set regarding
concentAlgoIntRxLev and the path balance of the cell
Example concentAlgoIntRxLev = -85 path balance =4, therefore
concentAlgoIntRxLevUL = -89
See also chapters Concentric Cells and DualBand Networks.

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directAllocIntFrRxLevUL

Class 3

V18

Description:

uplink RxLev threshold above which a TCH-FR could be allocated in


the small zone of a multi-zone cell (in conjunction with
directAllocIntFrRxLevDL).

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109, ... , -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

-84 to -83

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

See Engineering Rules

Used in:

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell Handover


Concentric cell / dualcoupling cell intracell handovers

Eng. Rules:

directAllocIntFrRxLevDL

Class 3

V18

Description:

downlink RxLev threshold above which a TCH-FR could be allocated


in the small zone of a multi-zone cell (in conjunction with
directAllocIntFrRxLevUL).

Value range:

[less than -110, -110 to -109, ... , -49 to -48, more than -48] dBm

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

-79 to -78

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

See Engineering Rules

Used in:

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell Handover


Concentric cell / dualcoupling cell intracell handovers

Eng. Rules:

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concentric cell

Class 2

V9

Description:

Whether the cell is monozone, concentric, dualband or dualcoupling


A concentric, dualband, or dualcoupling cell describes a combination
of two transmission zones, the outer (or large) zone and the inner (or
small) zone. The inner zone is entirely included in the outer zone.
A dualband cell is a particular type of concentric cell for which GSM
900 and GSM1800 (or GSM 850 and GSM1900) TRXs/DRXs coexist
and share the same BCCH.
A dualcoupling cell is a particular type of concentric cell for which the
TRXs/DRXs are combined with two types of combiners.
For concentric configurations (concentric, dualband or dualcoupling),
a TDMA frame belongs to one zone or the other, but never to both.

Value range:

[monozone / concentric / dualband / dualcoupling]


monozone: normal cell
concentric: two concentric transmission zones
dualband: two concentric transmissions zones with GSM 900
TRXs/DRXs for the one and GSM 1800 TRXs/DRXs for the other
dualcoupling: two concentric transmission zones with TRXs/DRXs
combined with one type of combiner for the one and with another
type of combiner for the other

Object:

bts

Default value:

monozone

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

See Engineering Rules

Used in:

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell Handover

Eng. Rules:
concentric cell:
It is possible to allocate directly a TCH in the innerzone for call set-up
or HO and to reuse the same frequency in both zones, and hopping
concerns the total available number of frequencies.
A cell configuration with HePA only on outer zone is concentric cell,
not a dualcoupling cell.

dualband cell:
The dualband combining into one cell allows to save up to one
SDCCH in particular configurations, the combining of GSM 900 / GSM
1800 (or GSM 850 / GSM 1900) resources into one pool allows to
increase the traffic capacity.

LCAUTION!

dualband is not supported on S4000 with DCU2/DCU4, S4000 with


DCU2, S4000 with DCU4
dualcoupling cell:
The DLU attenuation shall be used: so configure the attenuation
parameter (btsSiteManager object) to null, configure the max power
for the cell to the desired max power (power for the outer zone) and
configure zone Tx power max reduction for the inner zone to the delta
value.

LCAUTION!

dualcoupling is not supported on mixed DCU4 or DRX transceiver


architecture.
See also chapters Concentric Cells and DualBand Networks.

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small to large zone HO priority

Class 3

V12

Description:

External priority of inter-zone handovers from the inner zone to the


outer zone in a concentric cell. This attribute is defined if the
associated bts object describes a concentric cell.

Value range:

[0 to 17]

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

17

Type:

DP

Rec. value:

14

Used in:

Allocation and priority (run by the BSC) (All_1)


Queuing driven by the MSC (All_2)
Queuing driven by the BSC (All_3)
Concentric cell / dualcoupling cell intracell handovers

Eng. Rules:

Refer also to the allocPriorityTable parameter.

transceiver equipment class


Description:

Class 2

V9

Class of a TRX/DRX.
The class of a TRX/DRX sets, among others, its maximum
transmission power. The attribute possible values have the following
meaning:

Class 1 corresponds to GSM 850/900 class 5 or GSM 1800/1900


class 1 (20W to 40W transmitters)
Class 2 corresponds to GSM 900 class 6 which is not supported or
GSM 1800/1900 class 2 (10W to 20W transmitters)

Value range:

[0 (reserved) / 1 / 2]

Object:

transceiverEquipment

Type:

DP

Rec. value:

monozone: 1
concentric cell: outer=1, inner=1
dualband cell: outer=1, inner=2
dualbcoupling cell: outer=1, inner=2

Used in:

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell Handover

Eng. Rules:

When dual band is used, the class of a TRX/DRX enables to


distinguish which DRX and which TDMA are used in the outer zone or
inner zone.
Class 1 corresponds to to a TDMA in the frequency band carrying
BCCH so belonging to transceiverZone = 0 (large/outer zone).
Class 2 corresponds to a TDMA in the frequency band not carrying
BCCH so belonging to transceiverZone = 1 (small/inner zone).
If the TRX/DRX is partnered with a TDMA frame, its class matches the
TRX/DRX class allotted to the zone to which the TDMA frame belongs
(refer to the next parameter).

Note:

In case of concentric cell configuration, setting inner and outer class to


1 allows a reconfiguration of TRX/DRX from the inner to the outer if
needed.

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transceiver equipment class

V9

Description:

Class of the TRX/DRXs partnered with the TDMA frames of the zone.
The class of a TRX/DRX sets, among others, its maximum
transmission power. Refer to the previous parameter.

Value range:

[1 / 2]

Object:

transceiverZone

Type:

DP

Rec. value:

monozone: 1
concentric cell: outer=1, inner=1
dualband cell: outer=1, inner=2
dualbcoupling cell: outer=1, inner=2

Used in:

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell Handover

Eng. Rules:

When dual band is used, the class of a TRX/DRX enables to


distinguish which DRX and which TDMA are used in the outer zone or
inner zone.
Class 1 corresponds to to a TDMA in the frequency band carrying
BCCH so belonging to transceiverZone = 0 (large/outer zone).
Class 2 corresponds to a TDMA in the frequency band not carrying
BCCH so belonging to transceiverZone = 1 (small/inner zone).

Note:

In case of concentric cell configuration, setting inner and outer class to


1 allows a reconfiguration of TRX/DRX from the inner to the outer if
needed.

transceiverZone

Class 2

V12

Description:

Identifier of the transceiverZone object that defines the zone to which


a TDMA frame belongs in a concentric cell.
The transceiverZone objects are only significant for the bts objects
that describe concentric cells. Two transceiverZone objects are
created for each created concentric bts object; one describes the
large or outer transmission zone, and the other describes the smallor
inner transmission zone.

Value range:

[0 (large outer zone) / 1 (small or inner zone)]

Object:

transceiverZone

Type:

DP

Rec. value:

0 for outer zone


1 for inner zone

Used in:

Concentric/DualCoupling/DualBand Cell Handover

Eng. Rules:

When a concentric/dualband/dualcoupling cell is created the


transceiverZone outer zone must set to 0 and the transceiverZone
inner zone must be set to 1.
It is not applicable for monozone cells.

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zone Tx power max reduction

Class 2

Description:

Attenuation vs bsTxPwrMax that defines the maximum TRX/DRX


transmission power in the zone

Value range:

large zone = [0] dB, small zone = [1 to 55] dB

Object:

transceiverZone

Default value:

0 dB

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

see Engineering Rules

Used in:

Concentric cell / dualcoupling cell intracell handovers

V9

Eng. Rules:
concentric cell:
zone Tx Power Max Reduction(outer) = 0
zone Tx Power Max Reduction(inner) zone Tx Power Max
Reduction(outer)
(zone Tx Power Max Reduction(inner) = 0 is recommanded)

dualband cell (homogeneous coupling):


zone Tx Power Max Reduction(outer) = 0
zone Tx Power Max Reduction(inner) = 1

dualcoupling cell:
zone Tx Power Max Reduction(outer)=0
zone Tx Power Max Reduction(inner)=3 simulates the D/H2D
configuration
zone Tx Power Max Reduction(inner)=4 simulates the H2D/H4D
configuration

LCAUTION!

when using dualcoupling cell DLU attenuation should be NULL and


compensated by the zone Tx power max reduction, see concentric
cell parameter
See also chapters Concentric Cells and DualBand Networks.

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5.21. INTERFERENCE LEVEL PARAMETERS


averagingPeriod

Class 2

V7

Description:

Number of SACCH multiframes over which the interference levels are


averaged. This averaging will be performed immediately before the
transmission of the RESOURCE INDICATION message.
This attribute, together with the thresholdInterference attribute,
allows users to manage interferences in radio cells. Refer to this entry
in the Dictionary.

Value range:

[0 to 255] SACCH frame (1 unit = 480 ms on TCH, 470 ms on


SDCCH)

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

20

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

20

Used in:

Radio channel allocation


Interference Management (BTS and BSC) (If)

Eng. Rules:

Performing this message broadcast has a great impact on the system


load and should not be done too often.
Reducing this value speeds-up the channel allocation algorithm, since
it checks temporary channel interference non frequently. However, the
main purpose of this algorithm is to take into account long term
interference and not short term interference which do not have a
statistically large impact on call quality.

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radChanSelIntThreshold
Description:

Class 3

V8

Maximum interference level on free radio channels, below which the


channels are ranged in the group of allocation priority channels
The information is used to first allocate the free channels with the
lowest
interference
level.
The
levels
depend
on
the
thresholdInterference attribute value defined for the cell. Refer to this
entry in the Dictionary.
The BSC distributes the free radio channels among two groups:

The first group contains the list of channels with a measured


averaged interference level equal to or lower than the defined
level.
The second group contains the list of channels with a measured
averaged interference level higher than the defined level, and
recently released channels for which no measurement is available.

Four resource pools are defined for each SDCCH or TCH type of
channel:

low interference level radio channels that are authorized to hop


low interference level radio channels that are not authorized to hop
high interference level radio channels that are authorized to hop
high interference level radio channels that are not authorized to
hop

Value range:

[0 to 4]

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

3
1 (for 1X1 & 1X3)

Used in:

Interference Management (BTS and BSC) (If)

Eng. Rules:

A high value for this parameter means a tolerant interference sorting.


It is easier to change the value of this pointer than to tune the
thresholds themselves since the thresholds are used in the lower layer
of signal processing at the BTS.
The radChanSellIntThreshold counter can be set after interference
counters monitoring. Ideally, it should depend on the average traffic
load expected on the cell and on the interference distribution.
With low Traffic per TCH, radChanSellIntThreshold can be set to 1.
This means that the selection of the non interefered channels is very
selective. The few TCH selected are sufficient for the traffic to be
carried. RadChanSellIntThreshold can be decreased to 1 when using
1X1 or 1X3 reuse pattern in order to use as more BCCH resources as
possible.
With high Traffic per TCH, radChanSellIntThreshold can be set to 4.
This means MS will get allocated to a channel regardless of the
interference as long as there are resources available.

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thresholdInterference
Description:

Class 2

V7

List of four thresholds defined in ascending order, used to sort idle


channels on the basis of measured interference levels
This attribute, together with the averagingPeriod attribute, allows
managing interferences in a radio cell. The classification is used by
the radio resource allocator.
For each idle radio channel, the BTS permanently measures the
signal strength level RXLEV.
When averagingPeriod Measurement results messages have been
received, the L1M function in the BTS calculates interference level
averages, sorts the idle channels according to the five defined
interference levels, and sends the information to the BSC.

Level 0 corresponds to: RXLEV < threshold 1


Level 1 corresponds to: threshold 1 < RXLEV < threshold 2
Level 2 corresponds to: threshold 2 < RXLEV < threshold 3
Level 3 corresponds to: threshold 3 < RXLEV < threshold 4
Level 4 corresponds to: threshold 4 < RXLEV

Value range:

[-128 to 0] dBm

Object:

handOverControl

Default value:

-100 -90 -80 -70

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

-114, -112, -108, -100

Used in:

Radio channel allocation


Interference Management (BTS and BSC) (If)

Eng. Rules:

Those values define 5 interference level ranges, so free channel


classification can be displayed at the OMC-R level. The setting of the
threshold Interference level should be linked to the interference level
distribution in the cell. As a first definition, thresholds can be evenly
distributed over the defined range.

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5.22. RADIO RESSOURCES CONTROL AT CELL LEVEL


radResSupBusyTimer

Class 3

V8

Description:

Maximum time that SDCCH or TCH can be continuously occupied


without generating an alarm

Value range:

[1 to 18] hours

Object:

bsc

Default value:

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

10 or 3 (see Engineering Rules)

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

Useful, for example, to see problems of resource deallocation.


10 during busy day for high traffic area
3 for other cases (at night, in rural areas).

radResSupervision

Class 3

V8

Description:

Indicates whether radio resources are controlled at the cell level (both
busy resources and free resources)
When no control is performed, no alarm related to the use or nonuse
of an SDCCH or TCH is generated. Refer to the
radResSupBusyTimer and radResSupFreeTimer parameters.

Value range:

[true / false]

Object:

bts

Default value:

True

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

True

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

It is recommended to use this control mainly after a frequency plan


update, to regularly supervise the network.

radResSupFreeTimer

Class 3

V8

Description:

Maximum time an SDCCH or TCH can be continuously free without


generating an alarm

Value range:

[1 to 18] hours

Object:

bsc

Default value:

18

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

10 or 3 (see Eng. Rules)

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

Useful, for example, to see problems of design at busy hours or if


some channels are jammed.
10 during busy day for high traffic area
3 for other cases (at night, in rural areas).

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5.23. BSS TIMERS


bssMapT1

Class 1

V7

Description:

A interface timer triggered by the BSC in the BSSMAP management


procedure.
It is started on transmission of BLOCK or UNBLOCK by the BSC and
cancelled on receipt of BLOCK ACKNOWLEDGE or UNBLOCK
ACKNOWLEDGE sent by the MSC.

Value range:

[2 to 300] seconds

Object:

bsc

Default value:

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

5, 60 (if using DMS switch)

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

bssMapT12

Class 1

V7

Description:

A interface timer triggered by the BSC in the BSSMAP management


procedure.
This timer is used with a Phase I MSC only. It is started on
transmission of RESET CIRCUIT by the BSC and cancelled on receipt
of RESET CIRCUIT ACKNOWLEDGE sent by the MSC.

Value range:

[2 to 300] seconds

Object:

bsc

Default value:

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

5, 60 (if using DMS switch)

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

bssMapT13

Class 1

V7

Description:

An interface timer triggered by the BSC in the BSSMAP management


procedure.
It is started on receipt of RESET sent by the MSC. On elapse, the
BSC sends RESET ACKNOWLEDGE to the MSC.

Value range:

[2 to 300] seconds

Object:

bsc

Default value:

32

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

32

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

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bssMapT19

Class 1

V8

Description:

A interface timer triggered by the BSC in the BSSMAP management


procedure.
This timer is used with a Phase II MSC only. It is started on
transmission of RESET CIRCUIT by the BSC and cancelled on receipt
of RESET CIRCUIT ACKNOWLEDGE sent by the MSC.

Value range:

[2 to 300] seconds

Object:

bsc

Default value:

32

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

32

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

bssMapT20

Class 1

V8

Description:

A interface timer triggered by the BSC in the BSSMAP management


procedure.
It is started on transmission of CIRCUIT GROUP BLOCK or CIRCUIT
GROUP UNBLOCK by the BSC and cancelled on receipt of CIRCUIT
GROUP BLOCK ACKNOWLEDGE or CIRCUIT GROUP UNBLOCK
ACKNOWLEDGE sent by the MSC.

Value range:

[2 to 300] seconds

Object:

bsc

Default value:

32

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

32

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

bssMapT4

Class 1

V7

Description:

A interface timer triggered by the BSC in the BSSMAP management


procedure.
It is started on transmission of RESET and cancelled on receipt of
RESET ACKNOWLEDGE sent by the MSC. On elapse, the BSC
sends RESET.

Value range:

[5 to 600] seconds

Object:

bsc

Default value:

60

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

60

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

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bssMapT7

Class 1

V7

Description:

A interface timer triggered by the BSC in the BSSMAP management


procedure.
It is started on transmission of HANDOVER REQUIRED and
cancelled on receipt of HANDOVER COMMAND, RESET, RESET
CIRCUIT, CLEAR COMMAND or HANDOVER REQUIRED REJECT.

Value range:

[2 to 120] seconds

Object:

bsc

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

bssMapT8

Class 1

V7

Description:

A interface timer triggered by the BSC in the BSSMAP management


procedure.
It is greater than t3103 for each cell managed by the BSC. It is started
on transmission of HANDOVER COMMAND and cancelled on receipt
of CLEAR COMMAND sent by the MSC or HANDOVER FAILURE
sent by MS.

Value range:

[0 to 255] seconds

Object:

bsc

Default value:

15

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

15

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

It is greater than t3103 for each cell managed by the BSC.

bssMapTchoke

Class 1

V7

Description:

A interface timer triggered by the BSC in the handover management


procedure.
It is started by the BSC when the last neighbour cell in the list is
rejected. On timer elapse, the BSC asks the BTS to provide a new list
of eligible cells.

Value range:

[1 to 255] seconds

Object:

bsc

Default value:

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

It is strongly recommended to keep this value.

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bssSccpConnEst

Class 1

V7

Description:

A interface timer triggered by the BSC in the handover management


procedure.
It is set on transmission of CONNECTION REQUEST and cancelled
on receipt of CONNECTION CONFIRM or CONNECTION REFUSED.

Value rang:

[5 to 360, by steps of 5] seconds

Object:

signallingPoint

Default value:

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

A high value is dangerous in case of slowing down on A interface.


Then, the minimum value (5 s) must be chosen for this parameter; it is
strongly recommended not to modify this value.

t3101

Class 3

V7

Description:

BSC timer triggered during the immediate assignment procedure. Use


the suggested system value.
It is set on transmission of CHANNEL ACTIVATION by the BSC and
cancelled on receipt of ESTABLISH INDICATION sent by the BTS.

Value range:

[1 to 255] seconds

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

Most of the time, the timer expires in the case of double allocation (i.e,
when two RACHs are sent by the same mobile to the network). The
higher the timer is the longer unnecessary signaling resources are
reserved. Up to 30% of signaling resources are allocated for a second
RACH for phase 1 MS according to numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans (32).
To optimize signaling resources (especially in case of Queuing), it
could be useful to decrease the timer value. The minimum time
between the two messages is 600 ms and the maximum for a lightly
loaded BSS is almost 1.8 seconds when MS is answering.

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t3103

Class 3

V7

Description:

BSC timer triggered during the handover procedure. Use the


suggested system value.
It is set on transmission of HANDOVER COMMAND by the BSC and
cancelled on receipt of either HANDOVER COMPLETE or
HANDOVER FAILURE sent by the MS (intrabss handover), or
CLEAR COMMAND sent by the MSC (interbss handover). At expiry
of T3103, the channel is released.

Value range:

[2 to 255] seconds (t3103 < bssMapT8)

Object:

bts

Default value:

5 seconds

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

9 seconds

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

The longest procedure (inter BSS handover) is taken as an example.


The timer is set on receipt of the HO command and reset on clear
complete. It means that as long as the timer runs, 2 channels are
kept: one on the originating BSC and one on the target BSC. If the
timer is too long, two resources are used which can be a bad in case
of capacity problems.
Tests showed that t3103 set to 9 seconds offers the best compromise
between the execution of the procedure and the hold of ressources.

t3107

Class 3

V7

Description:

BSC timer triggered during the assignment command procedure. Use


the suggested system value.
It is set on transmission of ASSIGN COMMAND by the BSC and
cancelled on receipt of either ASSIGN COMPLETE or ASSIGN
FAILURE sent by MS.

Value range:

[2 to 255] seconds

Object:

bts

Default value:

10 seconds

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

10 seconds in a network without any capacity problems.


If not, the value can be decreased. The minimum theoretical
value is 5 seconds.

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

At expiry of the timer, the mobile is assumed to be lost and its


resource can be used by another mobile. Mobile on SDCCH is a
constraining case: the timer T200 leads to a 230 ms wait instead of
180 ms on TCH, before repeating a message. If no message is
repeated, this procedure lasts about 1 second. However, if the radio
link is bad, it is necessary to repeat some messages. The maximum
time before resetting t3107 is approximately 5 seconds: after this time,
the timer will expires: no new message will be received to reset t3107.
The default value of 10 seconds is then a good value to ensure that
the link is not cut too early.

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t3109

Class 3

V7

Description:

BSC timer triggered during the SACCH deactivation procedure. Use


the suggested system value.
It is set on receipt of DEACTIVATE SACCH ACKNOWLEDGE sent by
the BTS and cancelled on receipt of RELEASE INDICATION sent by
the BTS. If the timer expires, a RF CHANNEL RELEASE message is
sent to the BTS and a RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK is expected.
Mobiles comply with system operating conditions when the counter
(S) associated with SACCH messages is assigned a value below or
equal to t3109.

Value range:

[2 to 255] seconds (t3109 radioLinkTimeout)

Object:

bts

Default value:

12 seconds

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

12 seconds (related to radioLinkTimeOut value)

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

On receipt of the Deactivate SACCH message, the radio link control


algorithm will lead to a decrease on the value of the
radioLinkTimeOut timer and this on MS side or on BTS side
according to the situation. t3109 added to t3111 must be greater than
radioLinkTimeOut and greater than the time corresponding to rlf1:
t3109 radioLinkTimeOut
If t3109 is too small, the ressources could be allocated even if
radiolinkTimeOut did not reach zero yet.

LCAUTION!

When AMR is activated that parameter should be set to 17.

t3111

Class 3

V7

Description:

BSC timer triggered during the radio resource clearing procedure. Use
the suggested system value.
It is set on receipt of RELEASE INDICATION sent by the BTS. On
elapse, the BSC sends RF CHANNEL RELEASE.

Value range:

[1 to 255] seconds

Object:

bts

Default value:

2 seconds

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

2 seconds

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

This timer is used to delay the channel deactivation after


disconnection of the main signalling link. Its purpose is to allow time
for the possible repetition of the disconnection by the BTS to the MS.
After Release Indication, resources are kept until t3111 expires. In
case of capacity problems, t3111 must be as little as possible. The
smallest possible value is 2 seconds (range 2-255 seconds).The
minimum theoretic value is 5 times the repetition time which is less
than 2 seconds No advantage has been found to have a higher value
than the smallest possible one.
This timer is also used in the formula to compute the preemtion timer :
Tpreempt = Tdeactack + 4* T3111

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t3122

Class 3

V7

Description:

Minimum time that mobiles must wait before issuing a channel


allocation request when an immediate assignment has failed. In a
similar way, in GPRS mode, this value is indicated in the Packet
Access Reject (PAREJ) to inform the MS with the waiting time before
sending a new Channel Request. The timer is called T3172 in GPRS
mode, with T3172 = T3122.

Value range:

[0 to 255] seconds

Object:

bts

Default value:

10 seconds

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

10 seconds

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

This value is broadcast to the mobile stations. When an immediate


assignment reject command is received (when no SDCCH and no
TCH in signalling mode is available or when the A-interface is down),
mobile stations wait t3122 seconds before sending the request again.
In case of BSC Overload, t3122 is automatically increased or
decreased between its value set by O&M and 30s according to a
specific algorithm.
This parameter can be used to solve a problem of a load pick. By
increasing the value, the access to the network is regulated.

timerPeriodicUpdateMS

Class 3

V7

Description:

Time between two location update requests

Value range:

[0 to 255] 1/10th of hour. 0 means that no periodic location update is


requested.

Object:

bts

Default value:

60

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

10 (not loaded network)


20 (loaded network)

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

Location updatings are performed when initiating a call or when


entering a new location area in idle mode. When those events do not
occur, timerPeriodicUpdateMS is used to ensure a maximum time
between two location update requests. The value of this timer should
be set regarding the value of the same timer used in the switch
(attach mobile audit for a DMS)
If the value chosen is low, the load of the BSC is severely increased.
On the contrary, a too high value would lead to a smaller reactivity of
the mobile (e.g. if a mobile is in a hole of coverage and a short
message is sent to it, it will be aware of it only at the next location
update which could be several hours later). A good trade-off is 2
hours.

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5.24. PAGING PARAMETERS


delayBetweenRetrans

Class 2

V8

Description:

Number of occurences of a paging subgroup that separates two


transmissions of the same paging message.

Value range:

[0 to 22]

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Used in:

Paging command repetition process (run by BTS) (Pag_rep)

Eng. Rules:

The recommended value is 0 because the time between two paging


commands broadcast must not be too long, otherwise there is a risk of
double allocation. This phenomenon occurs when the suscriber
answers and hangs up very quickly. In that case, the mobile is ready
to receive a new paging message, for example the previous one if it is
resent. The value of this parameter is linked to the values of the
nbOfRepeat and retransDuration parameters. Furthermore, the
following inequality, that is not checked by the system, must be true:
retransDuration (delayBetweenRetrans + 1) x nbOfRepeat
See also chapter GSM Paging Repetition Process Tuning.

maxNumberRetransmission

Class 3

V8

Description:

Maximum number of RACH burst retransmissions allowed in a call in


case of non-system response. The information is broadcast to the
mobiles at regular intervals on the cell BCCH. It defines the maximum
number of times a mobile can renew access requests to the BTS on
RACH.

Value range:

[one / two / four / seven]

Object:

bts

Default value:

two

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

two in non-interfered areas


four in interfered areas

Used in:

Request access command repetition process (RA_rep)

Eng. Rules:

In interfered areas, it is necessary to repeat RACHs because of bad


conditions. Even if it increases a little overall noise, the gain in
decreasing the number of RACHs not received should be significant
(under study). In non-interfered areas, the value of two is sufficient.
one is not advised because mobile stations can be in holes of
coverage due to multipath fading and, in these cases, at least one
retransmission is necessary.
See also chapter GSM Paging Repetition Process Tuning.

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nbOfRepeat

Class 2

V8

Description:

Maximum number of times that paging messages are repeated to


mobiles that belong to the same paging sub-group
It is set to 3 in former BSS versions (static configuration parameter).
The following inequality, that is not checked by the system, must be
true (refer to these entries in the Dictionary):
retransDuration (delayBetweenRetrans + 1) x nbOfRepeat

Value range:

[0 to 22]

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

See Engineering Rules

Used in:

Paging command repetition process (run by BTS) (Pag_rep)

Eng. Rules:

The value of 3 ensures a good quality of service. With less repetition,


paging messages can be lost, and, as the repetitions are performed
systematically, a signicantly higher value would increase the load of
the system and the risk to page a mobile twice. The value of this
parameter is linked to the values of the delayBetweenRetrans and
retransDuration parameters.
That parameter can be tuned regarding the paging parameters and
the TDMA configuration, but very cautiously with some metric
monitoring (see chapter GSM Paging Repetition Process Tuning)

noOfBlocksForAccessGrant

Class 2

V7

Description:

Number of CCCH blocks not used for paging


A BCCH is combined when it shares the same radio time slot with four
SDCCHs, which can include a CBCH (refer to the channelType entry
in the Dictionary). In that case, the attribute value is no greater than to
2 (the value must be checked by users).

Value range:

[0 to 2] if the cell uses a combined BCCH,


[1 to 7] otherwise.
0 means that PCH blocks are used for sending immediate
assignment messages as and when needed.

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, System

Rec. value:

0 if no SMS-CB or SMS-CB with combined BCCH


1 if SMS-CB with non-combined BCCH
> 0 if SI2Quater or/and SI13 on ext BCCH are activated

Used in:

Paging command Process (Pag)


Effects of SMS-Cell Broadcast Use on noOfBlocksForAccessGrant
SI2Quater & SI13 on Extended or Normal BCCH

Eng. Rules:

See also chapter GSM Paging Repetition Process Tuning.

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noOfMultiframesBetweenPaging

Class 2

V7

Description:

Number of occurrences of a paging subgroup


The greater this number, the greater the number of paging sub
groups.

Value range:

[2 to 9] multiframe of fifty-one frames

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

6 for rural environments


2 or 4 for urban environments

Used in:

Paging command Process (Pag)

Eng. Rules:

This parameter has an impact on the use of mobile batteries


(determine when an MS needs to listen to paging channels) and on
reselection selectivity. For this operation, frequency of measurements
performed on idle neighbours thanks to the formula: mesurements
done every Max (5 seconds, ((5*nb of idle neighbors + 6) DIV 7) *
noOfMultiframesBetweenPaging /4).
Regarding mobile batteries, a value of 6 is sufficient to have a tradeoff between the saving of energy and effective paging. In rural
environments, the maximum size of reselection list is usually 4/5. 5
seconds is then the maximum in the formula, so it does not slow down
the reselection mechanism. The value of 6 is then advised.
In urban environments, the size of the list is a bit higher. Furthermore,
in this kind of environment, reselection reactivity is a key issue. The
way to avoid having more than 5 seconds in the formula is to
decrease noOfMultiframesBetweenPaging to 2 or 4 even if it
increases battery consumption. Some studies are in progress to
determine the value with more accuracy.
See also chapter Effects of noOfMultiFramesBetweenPaging on
Mobile Batteries and Reselection Reactivity.

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numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans
Description:

Class 3

V7

Number of radio time slots over which RACH transmission access are
spread in a random way to avoid collisions
The information is broadcast to the mobiles at regular intervals on the
cell BCCH. In the event of non-system response, the mobile will
renew the RACH bursts after a randomly defined period that varies
with numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans.
MS Phase 1
The time T between two transmissions of the same RACH burst is the
following:
T= [D + (N+1) x 4.615]ms
D is the maximum system response pending time:
D= 250 ms for BCCH not combined (i.e. 55 time slots)
D= 350 ms for BCCH combined (i.e. 77 time slots)

N is the randomly number generated by the mobile in the range [0


to numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans-1]

4.615 ms is the time occupied by a time slot.


MS Phase 2
The time T between two transmissions of the same RACH burst is the
following (whatever the BCCH is combined or not):
T= 4.615 x [S+(N + 1)] ms where

S is a parameter depending on the BCCH configuration and on the


value of numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans (see table hereafter)
N is the randomly number generated by the mobile in the range [0
to numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans-1]
4.615 ms is the time occupied by a time slot.
numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans

S on non-combined
BCCH

S on combined
BCCH

3, 8, 14, 50

55

41

4, 9, 16

76

52

5, 10, 20

109

58

6, 11, 25

163

86

7, 12, 32

217

115

Value range:

[3 to 12, 14, 16, 20, 25, 32, 50] time slots

Object:

bts

Default value:

32

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

32

Used in:

Request access command repetition process (RA_rep)

Eng. Rules:

From Rec 04.08, numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans has a different meaning


for phase 1 and phase 2 mobiles. For phase 1 mobiles, if the value is
too small, two resources may be allocated to the same mobile (double
allocation). For phase 2 mobiles, it is different. The best trade-off is to
take 32 which is very good for phase 2 mobiles and not too bad for
phase 1 mobiles.
The choice will depend on the quantities of GSM phase 1 and GSM
phase 2 mobiles.
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For Mobile phase 1, numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans = 50 leads to the
lower double allocation rate.
For Mobile phase 2, numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans = 6, 7, 11, 12, 25, 32
(respectively 5, 10, 20) for BCCH combined (respectively BCCH not
combined) leads to the lower double allocation rate.
Therefore, for a network that handles a combination of both types of
mobiles, numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans should be set to 32 (default
value).
See also chapter GSM Paging Repetition Process Tuning.

pagingOnCell

Class 3

V9

Description:

Enable or disable paging requests in a cell

Value range:

[enabled / disabled]

Object:

bts

Default value:

enabled

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

enabled but can be disabled on special occasions (see


Engineering Rules)

Used in:

PCH and RACH channel control

Eng. Rules:

When pagingOnCell is set to disabled, the BSC does not send any
PAGING_COMMAND to the cell. This feature is used when operators
want to forbid mobile terminated call set-up in specific cells. It can be
useful during special events or in places like cinemas, theaters...

retransDuration

Class 2

V8

Description:

Maximum number of occurrences of a same paging sub-group that


separates the first and the last transmissions of the same paging
message.

Value range:

[0 to 22]

Object:

bts

Default value:

10

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

10

Used in:

Paging command repetition process (run by BTS) (Pag_rep)

Eng. Rules:

If many paging commands must be broadcast, repetitions of old


paging messages are delayed because fresh paging has a higher
priority. Therefore, repetitions could be so delayed that it leads to
double paging. By setting this parameter to an accurate value
retransDuration , the risk of sending very old paging messages is
limited. Anyway, the value of this parameter is linked to the ones of
nbOfRepeat and retransDuration. Furthermore, the following
inequality, that is not checked by the system, must be true:
retransDuration (delayBetweenRetrans + 1) x nbOfRepeat
See also chapter GSM Paging Repetition Process Tuning.

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5.25. FREQUENCY HOPPING PARAMETERS


bscHopReconfUse

Class 1

V8

Description:

Whether frequency hopping reconfiguration is authorized in BTSs that


use cavity coupling
When frequency reconfiguration is authorized, it allows to
automatically reconfigure the hopping sequence whenever a
frequency is lost or recovered in the BTS.
This parameter is only useful if there is at least one BTS with cavity
coupling in the BSS. Otherwise its effect is neutral regardless of the
value.

Value range:

[true / false]

Object:

bsc

Default value:

true

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

true for a BSC that manages at least one BTS using cavity
coupling
The value (true or false) is indifferent for a BSC that manages
only BTS with hybrid coupling

Used in:

Reconfiguration procedure

Eng. Rules:

If the value is True then the value of btsHopReconfRestart (bts


object) must be true in case of cavity coupling in the BTS.
However, when enabling frequency hopping, it is advised to use
hybrid coupling and synthesized frequency hopping.
In order to facilitate the further use of frequency hopping in the
network, the parameter bscHopReconfUse can be set to True,
even if frequency hopping is not used yet.

btsHopReconfRestart

Class 2

Description:

Whether hopping frequency reconfiguration is authorized on TX


restarts in a cell

Value range:

[true / false]

Object:

bts

Default value:

true

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

true (for a BTS using cavity coupling)

V8

false (for a BTS using hybrid coupling)


Used in:

Reconfiguration procedure

Eng. Rules:

If the value is True then the value of bscHopReconfUse must be true.


However, when enabling frequency hopping, it is advised to use
hybrid coupling and synthesized frequency hopping.
With cavity coupling, in order to facilitate the further use of
frequency hopping in the network, the parameter
btsHopReconfRestart can be set to True, even if frequency
hopping is not used yet.

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btsIsHopping

Class 2

V7

Description:

Whether frequency hopping is allowed in a cell

Value range:

[hopping / noHopping / hoppingWithCarrierFilling /


noHoppingWithCarrierFilling]

Object:

bts

Default value:

Hopping

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

Hopping

Used in:

Frequency Hopping

Eng. Rules:

The two main advantages of using Frequency Hopping are interferer


and frequency diversities. Enabling frequency hopping allows to adapt
and maximize the frequency reuse efficiency by maximizing the
capacity in terms of offered Erlang/MHz/km. Moreover, enabling
frequency hopping makes easier the task of frequency planning and
TRXs addition. Although when using DTX there is a few number of
RxQual measurements, there is no need to disable handovers on
quality criteria, as no degradation was observed.

LCAUTION!

When TRX are hopping, it is highly recommended to modify some


TDMA configuration. Channel SDCCH must be set on time slot 1 of
the concerned TDMA. Moreover this modification can be introduced
before enabling frequency hopping.

LCAUTION!

It is also recommended not to use Power Control with Frequency


Hopping in case of cavity couplers. Indeed, with cavity couplers, the
BCCH frequency can be part of the Mobile Allocation List (that is not
possible in case of Hybrid couplers) and then the gap between the
emitted power of two adjacent bursts could be at its maximum.

Remark:

Except this particular case (cavity coupler + FH + PWC) there is no


restriction in combining Frequency hopping with Power Control.

btsThresholdHopReconf

Class 2

V8

Description:

Minimum number of frequencies that must be working in a cell to allow


frequency hopping reconfiguration. If this attribute defines the nominal
number of cell frequencies, the reconfiguration process is deactivated.
Refer to the btsHopReconfRestart parameter.

Value range:

[1 to 64]

Object:

bts

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Used in:

Reconfiguration procedure

Eng. Rules:

This parameter is checked before reconfiguration is started, for cavity


coupling. If there are less remaining frequencies than the value of this
parameter, the cell is deconfigured. The minimum value (1) allows a
cell to be reconfigured even if there is only one frequency still
available.

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cellAllocation

Class 2

V7

Description:

List of no more than 64 frequencies allocated to a cell in the network


frequency band.
Normally, the maximum number of frequencies that can be set up with
this parameter is 64 per frequency band. However, due to SI13 size
constraints, when GPRS or EDGE is activated in the cell and there is
at least one hopping data TDMA, the limitation becomes a maximum
of 55 frequencies (in V15.0 and V15.0.1) ,52 frequencies (in V15.1
and V15.1.1), 49 frequencies (from V16).
By definition, all cells covered by a given radio site use the same
frequency band defined by the type of the network (standardIndicator).
All cells declared as neighbor cells of a serving cell use the same
frequency band as the serving cell.

Value range:

[1 to 124] (GSM 900 network),


[975 to 1023] & [0 to 124] (E-GSM network),
[955 to 1023] & [0 to 124] (GSM-R network),
[512 to 885] (GSM 1800 network),
[512 to 810] (GSM 1900 network)
[128 to 251] (GSM 850 network)

Object:

bts

Default value:
Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

see Engineering Rules

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

This list must include all the frequencies used by TRX of the cell, even
the BCCH frequency and shall respect following rules:
With cavity couplers, two (2) consecutive frequencies must be
spaced of at least 600 kHz in order to avoid interference
With hybrid couplers, considering UL power control activated:
in case of intra cell and intrasite configuration Nortel recommends
400kHz frequency spacing between TRX with or without frequency
hopping.
in case of intersite configuration, 200kHz frequency spacing are
necessary between TRX with or without frequency hopping.
These frequency spacings (400kHz in intrasite and intracell, 200kHz
in intersite) guarantee a minimum of 12dB in C/I. This can provide
certain quality of service. With particular applications (e.g. EDGE), an
upper frequency spacing is needed (600kHz for EDGE).
It is recommended to declare only 1 hopping frequency list by band
(the use of the frequency band is optimal with all hopping
frequencies in the same list and it is much easier for OAM).
If at least one of the cell allocation ARFCN is in the range [975;
1023] & [0], the BCCH should be in that range also (this monoband
EGSM cell does not support monoband PGSM MS nor dualband
PGSM/DCS1800 MS), else BCCH should be a PGSM one.

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LCAUTION!

When setting CellAllocation, a check is performed at OMCR in order to


verify the number of frequencies. This number is limited by the spread
of frequencies

if 1 =< spread of frequencies =< 112


Then max number of frequencies = 64

if 113 =< spread of frequencies =< 128


Then max number of frequencies = 29

if 129 =< spread of frequencies =< 256


Then max number of frequencies = 22

if 257 =< spread of frequencies =< 512


Then max number of frequencies = 18

The spread of frequencies is the maximal distance between the value


of frequence calculed as (Fmax Fmin +1).This spread of frequencies
verification is performed for each band separately. For standard
indicators like e-gsm and r-gsm, which have 2 ranged bands, the
following must be taken into account:
For E-GSM the range is [0..124]U[975..1023] ; so by realigning the
frequence the result is [9751022, 1023, 1,..124]. the distance for
example100 and 1000 is 125 (not 901) because:
100 belongs to [0...124] spread of frequencies is 101
1000 belong to [9751023] spread of frequencies is 24

fhsRef

Class 2

V7

Description:

Identifier of the frequencyHoppingSystem object that defines the


frequency hopping management parameters for the radio time slot
Setting this attribute and the maio attribute allows the time slot to obey
frequency hopping laws.

Value range:

[0 to 63]

Object:

channel

Default value:
Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

see Engineering Rules

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

It is advised to use only one (1) fhsRef per cell (when the Mobile
Allocation is the same for all its TRX), because it is time saving for
creation at the OMC.

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hoppingSequenceNumber

Class 2

V7

Description:

Hopping sequence number used by a radio time slot which obeys


frequency hopping laws.
Select different HSNs for nearby cells that use the same set of
frequencies.

Value range:

[0 to 63]

Object:

frequencyHoppingSystem

Default value:
Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

see Engineering Rules

Used in:

Synthesised frequency hopping

Eng. Rules:

In case of synthesized frequency hopping, whatever the fractional


reuse pattern for TCH, using a unique HSN per site allows to avoid
frequency collisions. However, it leads to a specific MAIO plan, more
restricting than with the use of different HSN in cells (needs more
frequencies). Indeed, the frequency load would be higher with
different HSN. But it is possible to reach the maximum fractional load
(value limited by RF constraints to 16,6 % for 1X1 pattern and 50 %
for 1X3 pattern in case of no intra-site collision). When intra-site
collision is allowed, field experience has shown that with an
appropriate tuning of the parameters, 1X1 can go up to 20% fractional
load and 1X3 up to 58% while keeping a very good quality for the
offered capacity.) with a unique HSN per site and then systematically
avoiding frequency adjacencies.
See also chapter General Rules For Synthesised Frequency Hopping

maio

Class 2

V7

Description:

Index in the list of frequencies allotted to a radio time slot, which


obeys frequency hopping laws.
Setting this attribute, together with the fhsRef attribute, allows the time
slot to obey frequency hopping laws.

Value range:

[0 to N-1] N is the number of frequencies allotted to the time slot.

Object:

channel

Default value:
Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

see Engineering Rules

Used in:

Synthesised frequency hopping

Eng. Rules:

The MAIO must be different for each TRX within a cell in order to
avoid frequency collision. If the Mobile Allocation contains adjacent
frequencies, the difference between two TRX MAIO within a cell must
be greater or equal than two (2).
However, for a 1X3 pattern, it is possible to use the same MAIO
sequence in all cells of a same site. Moreover, for such a pattern, if
each list of MA frequencies does not contain adjacent frequencies,
adjacent MAIO can be used.
For a 1X1 pattern, different MAIO for each TRX must be used and no
adjacent MAIO if there are adjacent frequencies in the MA list.
See also chapter General Rules For Synthesised Frequency Hopping
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mobileAllocation

Class 2

V7

Description:

List of frequencies allocated in the network frequency band to a radio


time slot which obeys frequency hopping laws.
Normally, the maximum number of frequencies that can be set up with
this parameter is 63 i.e. 64 BCCH frequency. However, due to SI13
size constraints, when GPRS or EDGE is activated in the cell and
there is at least one hopping data TDMA (carrying at least one
PDTCH), the limitation becomes a maximum of 55 n frequencies (for
V15.0 and V15.0.1) or 52 n frequencies (for V15.1 and V15.1.1),or
49 n frequencies (from V16) where n is the number of non-hopping
frequencies in the cell.

Value range:

[1 to 124] (GSM 900 network),


[975 to 1023] & [0 to 124] (E-GSM network),
[955 to 1023] & [0 to 124] (GSM-R),
[512 to 885] (GSM 1800 network),
[512 to 810] (GSM 1900 network)
[128 to 251] (GSM 850 network).

Object:

frequencyHoppingSystem

Type:

DP, Optimization

Used in:

Synthesised frequency hopping


Baseband Frequency Hopping

Rec. value:

see Engineering Rules

Eng. Rules:

This list must include all the hopping frequencies used by a TRX. As
the first TRX of a cell does not hop, it is not related to a MA (TRX
channels frequency is BCCH).
The following TRXs may have a common MA containing all the
hopping frequencies (not including the BCCH frequency).
With cavity couplers, two (2) consecutive frequencies must be
spaced of at least 600 kHz in order to avoid interference, because
of material constraints.
With hybrid couplers, considering UL power control activated:
in case of intra cell and intrasite configuration Nortel recommends
400kHz frequency spacing between TRX with or without frequency
hopping.
in case of intersite configuration, 200 kHz frequency spacing are
necessary between TRX with or without frequency hopping.
These frequency spacings (400kHz in intrasite and intracell, 200kHz
in intersite) guarantee a minimum of 12dB in C/I. This can provide
certain quality of service. With particular applications (e.g. EDGE), an
upper frequency spacing is needed (600kHz for EDGE).
It is recommended to declare only 1 hopping frequency list by band
(the use of the frequency band is optimal with all hopping
frequencies in the same list and it is much easier for OAM).

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trafficPCMAllocationPriority

Class 2

Description:

Allocation priority of a TDMA frame on the covering site PCMs


This attribute is used in case of Abis PCM reconfiguration.

Value range:

[0 to 255]

Object:

transceiver

V9

Default value:
Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

255 for the TDMA supporting the BCCH


0 for the others

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

see chapter SDCCH Dimensioning and TDMA priorities.

zoneFrequencyHopping

Class 2

V9

Description:

Whether frequency hopping is authorised in the zone.


If frequency hopping is not allowed in a zone, a channel objects that
describe the radio time slots of the TDMA frames used in the zone
cannot be allowed to hop.

Value range:

[hopping / not hopping]

Object:

transceiverZone

Default value:

not hopping

Type:

DP

Rec. value:

see Engineering Rules

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

In case of a dualband cell and if PDTCHs are configured on the inner


zone, that parameter must be set to not hopping on the
transceiverZone corresponding to the inner zone.
In any other case that parameter must be set to hopping.

zoneFrequencyThreshold

Class 2

Description:

Minimum number of frequencies needed to allow frequency


reconfiguration in the zone.

Value range:

[1 to 64]

Object:

transceiverZone

Default value:

Type:

DP

Rec. value:

TBD

V9

Used in:
Eng. Rules:

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5.26. BSC LOAD MANAGEMENT PARAMETERS


processorLoadSupConf

Class 3

Description:

Threshold used in the load control algorithm by the BSC

Value range:

[0] The only accepted value is 0 (outOfRangeError).

Object:

bsc

Default value:

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

Used in:

Mechanism defined

V8

Eng. Rules:
LCAUTION!

This parameter is valid for BSC12000 only.

estimatedSiteLoad

Class 3

V15

Description:

This parameter is used:


at site creation, in order to preset the erlang consumption of the
new Cell Group
ortherwise, in order to set the erlang consumption

Value range:

[0 to 1100] erlangs. 1100 is the internal erlang capacity of a TMU2.

Object:

btsSiteManager

Default value:

Type:

DP

Rec. value:

see Engineering Rules

Used in:

Evolution of Load Balancing

Eng. Rules:

It is usually recommended to try to set the estimatedSiteLoad of a site


at the creation of this site (with the maximum configuration wanted for
this site) to be sure that at this time the global dimensioning of the
BSC is correct.
It may also help in handling exceptional events on some parts of
the network.

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5.27. DUALBAND CELL PARAMETERS


early classmark sending

Class 3

V10

Description:

Whether Early classmark sending procedure initiated by a multiband


mobile and/or a 2G-3G mobile is allowed.
The information is broadcast to the mobiles at regular intervals on the
cell BCCH (SYSTEM INFORMATION n3).

Value range:

[Not Allowed, Allowed]

Object:

bts

Default value:

Not Allowed

Type:

DP, Design

Rec. value:

Allowed

Used in:

Modified SYS INFO 3


Location Services
GSM to UMTS handover (v17)

Eng. Rules:

When this parameter is set to allowed, the mobile sends the


Classmark_Change message just after the SABM and UA frames
exchanged during the Immediate_Assignment procedure. This
message enables interband handover procedures (handovers on TCH
and SDCCH, Directed Retry); Morever this parameter allows the
mobile to send its capacity downlink Advanced Receiver performance.
In GSM cells where handover to UTRAN is possible, or UTRAN
measurement reporting is expected from the mobile, the "early
classmark sending" must also be requested from the mobile.
Therefore, if the operator is interested to have the SAIC mobile
penetration, it is recommended to set this parameter to Allowed
In single band networks where no handover to 3G is required, early
classmark sending will be set to not allowed.
In dual-band networks and in networks where handover to 3G may be
requested, then early classmark sending will be set to allowed.

multi band reporting

Class 3

V10

Description:

Indication of the number of cells to be reported for each GSM


frequency band in multiband operation. This parameter is used both
for normal and enhanced measurement reporting.

Value range:

[0 : no outband cell is favoured / 1 : 1 strongest outband cell is


favoured / 2 : 2 strongest outband cells are favoured / 3 : 3
strongest outband cells are favoured

Object:

bts

Default value:

0 : no outband cell is favoured

Type:

DP, Optimization

Rec. value:

two strongest outband cells are favoured (case of privileged


band)
no outband cell is favoured (case of no privileged band)

Used in:

Multiband reporting
Enhanced Measurement Reporting (EMR)
UTRAN cell reporting using legacy measurement reports (V17)

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Eng. Rules:

For values indicating the one (1), two (2) or three (3) strongest cells
out band, the multiband MS respectively reports the one, two or three
strongest allowed cells outside the current frequency band. The
remaining space in the report (at least 5, 4 or 3 cells) is used to give
information about cells in the current frequency band. If there are still
some remaining positions, they are used to report cells outside the
current frequency band.
When the operator wants to privilege one of the frequency band, it is
advised to report two (2) cells outside the current frequency band, for
cells in the privileged frequency band. Then, neighbour cells in the
priority frequency band will be privileged.
Actually, if multibandReporting is set to 1, the risk is to report five (5)
priority frequency band neighbour cells with a bad quality or signal
strength (near priority frequency band boundaries for example) and
one (1) good neighbour cell in the low priority frequency band, but
under congestion. Thus the MS will not make a handover toward a
good neighbour cell and the quality of service may be impacted.
For cells outside the privileged frequency band, it is advised to report
three (3) cells outside the current frequency band. Thus, it ensures the
report of all (if less than 3) or at least three (3) neighours in the priority
frequency band.
In case no frequency band is preferred, the report of the the six
strongest cells allows to make a handover toward the best neighbour
cell, whatever the current cell is.
In case of 2G-3G handover being enabled, and EMR disabled (use of
normal measurement reporting), it is necessary to exercise caution
fDDMultiRatReporting
and
when
setting
the
parameters
multiBandReporting . These parameters define the number of UTRAN
cells and non-serving band GSM cells, respectively, that must be
included by the mobile in the list of strongest cells in the measurement
report. Therefore it leaves (6 - fDDMultiRatReporting multiBandReporting ) spaces for the serving band GSM cells.
Therefore, if EMR is disabled, it is recommended not to exceed
fDDMultiRatReporting = 2 and multiBandReporting = 2.

standard indicator AdjC

Class 3

V10

Description:

Type of network in which this neighbour cell is working

Value range:

[gsm / extended gsm / dcs1800 / pcs1900 / R gsm / gsmdcs / dcsgsm


/ gsm850 /