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SHANKAR. lAS ACADEMY

Pl t

o.1742, lst lo r, 18th Main Road, rma J':'ag~, Olen'nai- 60 040.


Phone: 044-26216435, 64597JZ1,43533445, Mobile ~44416br ~
www.shankariasaca~emy.coin
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SD4!CMS richn

----

and endemiSQl as well as of agro-biodiversity, India, with only

supports~~ astounding 8.1% of the world's piodiver~ity. She also supports

a~Well.as 18%of-tlieworld's cattle popula~on. In fact, an estimated 70o/o of India's


eDlmCJaent locally on natw:al ecosystems for subsistence means of livelihood, including fuel,
J, 'att:'r, ~d_security of~ealth. Conseq~ently, the country's biodiversity faces immense pressure.

vironmental problems in India are growing rapidly. The increasing economic development and a

1b

'ing p I

ation are putting a.strain on the envirorunen t, b" o d versity, and the country's na

ral

re ourc s. IndustJ:ial pollution, soil erosion, deforestation, poachfug, rapid indust?alization,_~rbanization,


a1

uegradati~n

h <1~

re~u

are all worsening-problerns. Overexploitation of the country s resourc s, b it and or

ted n the environmental degradation .

There is so far a positive of information for the student and general public on Environm ent.
I a1n pleased to therefore ~troduce this book "ENVIRONMENT'', 1-vhich covers on Environmental
E o o gy, Bio-di ersity and Climate Change 'tNTfh reference to In d ia, a pioneering attempt by the
SHR KAR

lr...n~lwledge

lAS ACALJE~Y,

presented in a

~oncise

and awareness among the people from

and visually appealing format to raise the level of

aH _ v~?lks

of life.

This book is exclusively prepared for all aspirants who prepare for Civil Services

Ex~mination

and

other Competitive exams.

ccwe Need- Ecol~gical Grow.th-Not.Mere Economic-Gr-owth!' .-----uNature Pr~tects If She Is Protect.e dn

ALLTHEBEST
D. SHAI'iKAR

DIRECTOR
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SHANKAR lAS ACADEMY

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us Year UPSC Questi~.n paper. analysis ..............................


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PARTI

ENVIRONMENT
ECOLOGY
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1.

ECOLOGY --."...............3-9
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J!. . PY OF EC ~ LOGY ... .... .-.................... :........... :...................................................................... 3

ENVIRONMENT & ITS COMPONENTS .................................................................................. 3


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10-20
1. r1 I~"' ' s OJ: \ 1 rros 'Sl"F~ 1
-------- .......................... 10
.)> ENERGY FLOW ..........................................................................
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> fl10D CHAIN ......... .:....... :....... ....... .... .............................. ....... ............................. ..... .... ..... ......... 10
.r FOOD vVEB ...... :......................... ... .............................................................._
................. ................. 11
> ECO OGJC J...t-P"YAA~ -1 D .... .. .... .. ........................... ....... ........ ........ ........ ,~ ........ .. ... ..... ... ... .:...... . 12

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POLLUTANTS & TROPHICAL L EVEL ................... .. ................. ............ :............ .................... 14

BIOTIC JNTERACTION ........ .... ... ... ............... ....................... .. ~ ......................... ............. ............. 15

BIO-GEOCHEMICAL CYCLE ................... ~ ....................... .... :. ~:.~-- ~~~: .::~- --- ~ ....... ....................... 15

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ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION .... ....................................... ........................................................ 19

l 'ERRES"fRlAL "E COSYS EM ...................................... :.........................-................'............................ 21-30

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TUNDIZA ... ...............................=: ............. .................................................._ .................. . ................. 21

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INDIAN FOREST -ra.r'PES ....................... :............................................... .-..... ,.......... :.................... 23

)>.

DEFORES'fATION ...................... :.,._.......:............................................................... ....................... 24

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GRASSl~ AND E

DESET<T ECOSY TF 1 (TI-JAR ~.. COL )......................... ......... .'...... .. ............................. ; ......... 27

DESERTIFICATION ................. ~ ........................... ~ ................................ _....... :........... ......... :.... 30

FOREST ECOSYSTEM ......... .. .. .'.. .... ................................................................... :..~-:~.~ . .-.-: .~ ............. 2f_ ___ --

OSYSTEM .. ......................................... .......... ........ - .............. ....... .................... 26

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N.. . ..... ..... ..................................... ................................................
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..... ..... ........................ .... .~ ......................................................... :,37


"' N ERVATI N PR
RAMME ................................................ .40
l 't::t\1 ....... :. .. .. .. .....
.... _.......... .... .' ....... - ........ .................. 11
~ 1 .... ...~ ........ ........ ...... ....................... .................................... ............... 43

8..

F, ............ .................................................:.........:....:.................................................. 45
... ............................ ~.................................................................................... 46

E T
1

ASTAL ENVIRONMENT ..................................................... 48

tJTJON .................... ...... ............ .................................:.............. ............ 49-70

liT NT ................................................................................................................................ -49

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:>( _ l . 1TJ yN .. ..... ...... ... ... .... ..... .. ... ...... ....... .... ... .. ..... .. ..... ........ ... .......... ...... . - .
FL ASH ............ , .............. .................. ........................ .... ........... .'........................................... 52
..... - r~ ~: o :....... ........ ...................... ...... :: ................. ......... .. ... ....................... ....... .55

\\ATER POLLUTION .. ...... .. ..... .................. ....... ..... ............................... ,... ......... ........ ... ............... 55
....,IL . LLU .f lO ................................................ ........................................................................ 5b
ISE f>()LLliTION ........... ... .. ... ... .. ........ ,... ...... ... .... ...... ...... ........... ... ... ..... ............. .. .................. .. 60
DIO CTI E POLL TIO I ............ .. ........... ... ... .... ...... .... .... ..... .. ... ... .. ...... .... ... ................ .... .. 61
E-\ ASTE ........... .. ...... ... ... ..... .. ........ ...... ...... ..... .... ~- ... ......... ..... ......... ....... ................... ...... ............... 62
~ LID ; STE .... .............. ........ ...... ............ ....'.... ...... ... ... .. ....... ... .. .... .. .... .. ..~ .. .......... ...... .......... ... .. 65
BlO-REMEDIATlON ...... ... ........ .. ........................ ...................... ....... ....................... ..................... 67
E VIRO l'v1E TAL Hv1PACT ASSESSMENT ............ :.... :.......... ...... :.. .... ..... ... .. .. .............. ....... 69

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9.

PART-II .

BIO IVER ITY


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6. .BIODIVERSJTY ....
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B10Dl ERSI'f ............... ............
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LEVEI..S OF BIODIVERSI.TY........................................................................................................ 72
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EASUREMENT
OF
BIODNERSITY
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BIODIVERSI1"Y SERVICE$ ............................................................... ~ .......................................... 74
ODES OF CONSERVATION .. .. .. .: ..... ....................................................... ~..... - ...................... 75
BOTANICAL GARDEN&. ZOO.................. ................... ...................................... ................
7
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HICALCLASSJFICATION ............................................................ . 76

DIVERSITY ..................................... .......... ..... .... .. .........................................................: .. 80

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INDJ N WILDLIFE ................................................ ...... ................. ...... - 82

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IUCN CLASSIFICATION ...... :~ ...................... .. ...... ..... .............._..: ...... , ......... .. ............................. 85

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CRJTICALLY ENDANGERED MAMMALS ...........:.. :.............................................................. 87

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ENDANGERED MAMMALS ........................................ :_:......., ..... :.................... ........................... 88

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VlJI_NERABLE.MAMMAl5 .................................. ..... .. ...:......... ........ .._....................................... 90

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1\.fARl, E lvli\t ,1 J,IALS ... ........................................ .... ............... ..... ......... ...................................... 91

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RED BOOK DATA ......... ................................. .. .. : ... .................... ....... ............................. 85

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1ARSUPIAL .......... .-........................................ ... .... :' .... ... ................................ 92


CRJTir T.Y EJ'TDANGERED BIRDS ..... ........... .. .... ........... .............. ... ... .................................. 92

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CRJTICALLY ENDANGERED REPTILES .. ...... ... ....... ... ,...::......... ..... ....... ......... ..................... .. 94

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L 'DA1 GEJ?ED F. S : .................................. ."...................
:... 95
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CRITICALLY ENDANGERED SPIDERS & CORJ\L ..... ....... .. ........... :........ ......................... ... 9?

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BIRD. 11GRATJO

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W1LD LIFE DISEASE ...................... ........ ............ ..... ..... ... .... .... ... ...... .. ......... ...... .... .... ........... .. .... ... 97

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SPECIES EXTL ~ CTlON ... ... ........ .................... : ..... ... .......... ... .. .............. ..... ..::-:..................... ......

:;::.

:MA N- ANI viAL CONFLICT ............. .. ..... ............ .................. ........... ............ ....................... :...... 9 8

1 .. . ........ .. ... ..... .... ........... .................. .. .... ..... : .... . ...... . ....... ........ .... ..................... 96
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97

PLANT DIVERSlll' OF INDIA ............................ .............. .............................................. :............ 99-107


> PLANT CLASS!FICATION ................... .............. ......... .... ............ ....... .. .. .... .. .............................. 99
> EFFECT OF ABIOTIC COMPONENTS ON PLANTS ..................... ..... ...... .-............................ 99
r Ll\JSECTIVOROUS PLANT ............... .......... ......... ....... ........... ............ ... .. ..... ... .. ......................... 100
> INVASlVEAUEN SPECJES ,...:...................... ......................... .. ... ~.. .. ... .... ..... ............................ 102
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INVASIVE ALIEN FLORA OF INDIA .... ..... ....... ......... ................. .... . : .. .... ... .. ......... ............. .... 102
r MEDICINAL PLANTS ........ .'..... :.. :..................................
: ...: ........... .. ... ... .. :.... ... .. - ................... 104
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TREEGIARAC-r-ERS ................ ~........... .............. .... ....... _.................. ~.; ................ .................... :105

10. MARINE ORGANISM ............................ .............. .............. ........................ .-............... .. ................. 108-110

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~Kl'ON -~- ~ -- : :: .. .......................................... .......... .......................... 108


PHYTO:PLANKTON ....... ................. .. .......... .. ... .......... .:...................... ~.... ... ... ........................... 108

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ZCXJ..Pl..ANKTON ............... ............. ................................., ............... ........ .. ............................... 110

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SEA GRASS ...... -:-.................................... .. .............................. :................................................... 110

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112-126

UARY & NATIONAL PARKS ........................................................ 112


V. 11 N RESERVES & COMMUNITY RESERVES ...................................:.. 1i4
PROTEC..JED AREA$
114
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SA ED GROVES OF INDIA.......................................................................................... 115

EXPORT PROHIBI1'ED ~EMS ........................................................................................ 116


. L BAL lT<JI JIATIVE
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AN AND
......................... :...................... 117.
. BIOSPHER ...................................................
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BIOSPHERE RESERVES .................................. .'....... .-...........:............. .... ............................ 117
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NATIONAL BIOSPHERE RESl!RVE PROGRAMME :................................................. 119
WORLD.NETWORK OF BIOSPHERE RESERVES ....................................................... 121
BIODIVERSn'Y HOTSPOl"S ............................................................................................. 122
WORLD HERITAGE SITES ................... ........................................................................... 124

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12. CONSERVATION EFFO~S ......................................................................................................... 127-139


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PROJECT TJGER ........................................................... .. .............. :........:.................................... 127
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PROJECT ELEPHANT .............................. .... ....... .. ..... ........................ ,................ ....... ...... ..... ... .. 130
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VULl 'URE ............................................ :., ..................................................................... ................. 132
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oNE HOR1 ED RHJ TJCBEtms~- ~,-~-~_:~,~~~:~~~~: : ::~ :: : :~ ................................................. :............ 135
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PROJECT SNOWLEOPARD ... .. ..... ....... ... .... ... ... .. .... .... ... ... ... .... ...... ... ... ............... ........ .......... .... 136
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SEA TURTLE PROJECT .......... ................. .... ... ............... ........................ ................... ..... ....... ...... 137
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CROCODILE CON SERVATION PROJECT ... .. .. .. ..... .... ....... .. ...... .. ... .. ... .. .. ........ ...... .......... .. .... 37
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PROJECI' HANGUL ... .............. .......................... ..... ...... ...... .. .... ............. ... .................. ._.......... .. .. 138
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CAP'flVE BREEDING ....................................................... .............. ....................... ........... .... ..... 138
GA NCES DOLPHI 1 ..... ..... .. ... ...... ..... .. ..... ... ..... .......... . ... . ....... .... .... . ........ ...... ........ .. ...... ........ .. .. 138

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PART-Ill
CLIMATE CHANGE

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13 CLIMATE CHANG E ....................................................................................................................... l-:11-149

GLOBAL WARMING ........................._. ........... .......................................... ............................... .... 141


~ -6-REEN HOUSE EFFEcr.:.::.::: ..: :.:.:::::.::-..:.... ... :.:......-... ~ .. :...... ::................................................ .. 142

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GREEN HOUSE.GASES ............................. :.......................................................... :.................... 143
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CLIMATE FOR
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GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL ................. ............ ......................................... :....,... .. -, ..... 147
GLOB A EM MISSJON&........................ .... .. ... ... ..... ...... .. ... .. ... ...... ... .. .... ...... ......... .. ................... 8

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N ............................................................................................................................ 150-156

IN;~;;;;;~~;:;::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::: :::::.: :.:::.:::: ::::: ~~

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>LE...................................................- .................... ~ .................. .... ............ ..157-161

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IMPACf (
IMATE CHANGE- INDIA .............. ~ ........................ ~.................. ~ ...... ~ ....... .".... 162_167
> AG l' CUL'fURE&F~ .:................... ::............................................. :............... :162
> \VATER STRESS & WATER INSECURfi'V.........................................................

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JEVEL RJSE ....................................."........................................ .

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YSTEM & BiODIVERSITY ......................................................................................-:: ........ 165

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TECHANGE&HEALTH ..................................................................................... :.... ;.i66

17. MITIGATION STRATEGJ.ES ............................................... :--------....... ~ .....................168-1 72


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CAl.., BON SEQUESTR..t\l'lON ................................................................................................... l68
> AJ BC..)N ' 11'-lK ..................... ..... ... .... .... .................... ......... .... ................................ ...... ........ ....... 169
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CARBON CREDIT ............. :............................................. :-- 170


C.ARBGN-0 FSEmNG .. ....... ............... ... ...... ............... .. ... .... ... ..................... :... .. .. .... .:..:.... :. 70

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CARBON TAX ..................... : ............ ..........................- ..... ... .. ..................................................... :.17.1

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.:. "r- -- GEO- E:l .G:i1 ' EERI G.................. .. ............................................................................................. l7 .


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18. INDIA AND CLll\1ATE CHANGE ................................:............................................ ~................ 173-l<Jn. .

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INDIA'S POS1TION
ON-CLIMATE CHANGE
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OBSERVED CLIMATE AND WEATHER CHANGES IN INDJA ....:......... ........... .... .... ... ....-174'

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CORRECT ACTlONSFO ADAPTATl01 A 0 l\tflTlGATIOi 1

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NATIONAL ACTION PLAN.ON CLIMATE CHANGE


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INDIAN NE1WORK ON CLIMATE CHAN6E ASSESSMENT. ............... ......................... : 181


NATIONAL COMMUNICATION (NATCOM) .................... :............................ .... ...... ... ....... 182

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J 1 DIA' S POLICY STRUCTURE RELEVANT TO GHG NIITIGATION ....... .. .. ... ....... ..... ... . 183

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GI~~EN BUILDING
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GRIHA ... ............ :........................... ....... .......... ~ ................................ , ~ ... :................ ............ ........... 185

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> NATION~L INITIATIVE ON CLIMATE RESILIENT.AGRlCULTIJRE ........ ..... ............ :.. 188
> BSE G REENEX ......................................................... ;............. .".................................................... 189
> 24 OTHER CRITICAL ENTITIES ..........
. -... :................... :.......................:: .............. .................... 190
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19. CUMATF. C'JIANGE. ORGANJSATJQNS


........ :............................................... :............... ........... 191-203
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tJ1'J c::c ........ ~................................. :.-........................... ~ ........................~.-....... .-.. :.......:.-........... .-..:.... 191
KYOTO PROTOCOL ....... :......... .... ....... _. ........................ :.:........... :......................... .... ...... :......... 191

> , BALI MEET ...:..... :..................................................... :.............. :... ~ ........._~ :::: -- : ._.......... 193
> COPENHAGEN S,lJMMl1'............. ........................... ::.~....................... ~~- ----- 194
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. ........ .. .. .......................................................... 1'J'1

.... .. .. ........ . ............. .................... ........................................................ 197


NM NT FA ILJ11
..............................................................:................ 199
T A ICULTIJRE .........................................................................................199
............................................................................................................................................. 200

TI N L GREEN HOUSE GAS INVENTORIES PROGRAMME .................................. 201


G EE1 .ECONQ~ ... ,.......... ~ ........_. ......................: ::::........ ........................ 202

PART-IV
23.

AGRICULTURE
20.

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GRICULTURE ........................................................ ~..-205-221


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CROP AND ITS CLASSIFICATJON._ ....................................................................... ............... 206


CROPPING SYSTEM AND PATTERN .................................................................................... 210
FARMING SYSfEM .................................................................................................................... 212
SUSTAINABLE
AGRICULTURE
.............................................................................................. 213
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J TEGRATED
FAR1v1ING SYSTEM .......................................
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SOIL SCIENCE ............................................ ~ ............................................................................... 217
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21. ACTS AND POLICIES. .................................................................................................................... 223~229


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"\\TJLD LIFE PROTECTION ACT 1972 ...... ...:... ..... ............. .. ............................. .... .. ...... ... ~..-2-23~

ENVIRONMENTALPROTECTION ACT 1986 ........................................................ ... ... ........ 224

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NATIONAL FOREST POLICY 1988 ............................................................. :............ ................ 225 , .

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.BIOLOGJCAL DfVERSITY ACT 2002 .............. .......... ................................ ...... .. ... .. .. ........ ...... . 225

SCHEDULE TRIBES AND OTHER FORESf DWELLERS ACT 2006 ................................ . 226
COASTAL
REGULA'nON ZONE ...........................................................................................
227
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WE'fLAND RULES 2010 .................................................. ~ ..................................... ~ ...................... 228
NATION GR-gEN l"'RIBUNAL ..... ~ ......................................................................._. .................. 228
THE OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES RULES ........................ :.: ..................... ,.............. 228

22. INSTITUnON AND MEASURES -.~ .. ............................... -..............;-;.,..~ ... ;;-;...;;-:.;~;:;.~ ....... ~ ..............229-235

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NATIONAL \VIDE LIFE ACTION PLAN ............................................................................, .. 229


NATIONAL AFFORESTATION AND.ECO-DEVELOPMENT BOARD ............................ 229

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> CAMPA ......................................... ~...............:...................................................................,a.-.:..-..,.-230 :
> , JOINT. FORESf
MANAGEMENT ..................................... -. ~................. ~ ............... .".. ... ............. 230
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S()CIAL FORESfRY ..:.............................................................................. ........................................


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NATIONAL BAMB()() ~I.SSION ...................................... ~ ......................................... :........... 232
CEPI ............................................................ H ................................................................................ 232

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LJll............ ............................................................................................
233

TIONA I. Cl.EAN ENERGY FUND ..... ~ ......................... .......... .. : ....... ~:::::::::::~::::::::~::::::::::: 233
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A ONAL MISSION FOR ELECTRIC MOB~ ..... ~ .................... ~ .................................. 234
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SCIENCti M.XPRESS- BIODIVERSITY SPECIAL ....... :............... :.....: ...'................. .-.. :-: ....... .... 234
MANGROVE FOR FUTURE ......................... -........................... ............. .................................. 235

23~NVJRONMENTA.L ORGANISATIONS ...................................~ ...................................... ~ .............. 236-239

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AN1~1AL WELFARE BOARD ............................................................................................. ...... 236

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CEN'TRAL Z()() A U~rHORITY ............. , ..................................................................... .. ........ :... 237

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NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY AUTHORITY ...................... :............ .. ..... .................... ........... . 237

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WILDLIFE CRIME CONTROL BUREAU ........................................... ........................ .'.......... 238

N TI01 TAL AKE CONSER AT ON PLAN .................. ........... ............................................ 238


NA110NAL GANGA RIVER BASINAUTHORffY ............................................................. 239

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24. INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONVENTIONS ....................... ............................. 240-255

> U. TED N_A'IJQ...:.'-::.-.~9 .!FERE CE 0 l E. .. 'TI Oil. 1E T./~ ..:c DE\.'E OP ~E: T ..... ~40
> CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY (CBD) ........................................................ 241
> RAMSAR CONVENTION ON WETLANDS.'.............................. ................. ... ............ ..... ...... 246
> CITES ............................ ................................ ... ........................ :.......... ...... ..... ................................ 247
>_. THE \IVILDLIFE TRAD E 10NITORJ rc NETIVORK {TRJ FF C, ... ................. ... ...... .. ...... 248
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CONVENTION ON THE CONSERVATION OJ~ MIGRATORY SPECJES (C 15) ............. 248


COAUTION AGAINST \1\TJLDLJFE TRAFFICKING (CAWT) ... ........................... .............. 248
INTERNATIONAL TROPICAL TIMBER ORGANIZATION (ITT0) ................~~ ............... 249

>
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UNITED NATIONS FORUM ON FORESTS (UNFF) ............................... ;...._............: ........... 249


IUCN ::.: ........... .............................. .:.. .... .............................. ............. .......... ... ........................ ........ 250

GLOBAL TIGER FORUM (GTF) ................... ............................ .. ..... ....................... .................. 251

~ - ___SI.OCK.HO.LM CONY~NTION. """ :: ""~"""'"."'"""""""""' ...................................... ... ... 252


~

...

BASELCONVENTION ......... ... ..................~ ..... ............... ....... ... :... ........ ... ........................ ....... . 252

)>

ROTTERDAM CONVENTION-....... :........................................................~ .................... ::... :.... 253

>-

UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION TO COMBATDESERTIF1CA'110N ......................... 253

}.>

INTERNATIONAL WHALING COMMISSION (lWC) ..................................: .................... 254


viENNA CONVENTION AND MONTREA~PROTOCOL
......................................
~ ......... 254
.

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..

25. ENVIRONMENT ISSUES AND HEALTH EFFECTS ..-............................................................ 256-261

GLOSSARY
A 1:UPENDlX

................................

..

.........................................................................................................-:-..... 2.62

270
....................................
- -............... - ...............................................
-

...........................

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. 2012

1.

viu statements:
it i n rm 11y greater in the lower
n1p r d to the higher latitudes.
1 ng th mountain gradients, biodiversity
i. n rmally greater in the lower altitudes as
~ mp
d to the hig}:\ r altitudes.
..
\ 1i h ~f the statem nts given above is/are correct?
1 nly
b. 29nly
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

W!'ic~- of ~he following~be threats to the


btodtverstty of a geographi~al area ?.

'

'

1_. Global warming


2. Fragmentation of habitat
3. Invasion of alien species
1.:.- .Promotio~ of vegeranan1sm

Select the correct answer using the codes given


.

below.

a. 1, 2 and 3 only
b. 2 and 3 only
c. 1 and 4 C?nly
d. 1, 2, and 4

I
~

2 ~- ~ee of the follow\ng criteria have contributed 2. ln which one among the following categories
io the recognition of Western Ghats- Sri Lanka
of protected areas in India are local people
and indo-Burma regions as hotspots .of bio.not allo'lved to col ect and use the biomass?

. e sty.

a. Biosphere Reserves
b. National Parks
c. Wetlands declared' under Ramsareunventrorr

Spet?es richness
ege a 'on ensit . . 3. Endemism
.
d. WHdlife Sanctuaries
Ethno-bolanical importance
5. Threat perception
6. .Adaptation of flora __and fauna to warm and
humid conditions
Which three of the above are cor~~.<;t__ ~Ii_tg~ia in this
context?
a. 1, 2 and 6
b. 2,4and6
c. 1, 3 and 5
d. 3,4and 6
3. Biodiversity forms tl1e basis for l1uman 3. Consider the following protected areas
J..

existence in the following ways :

~
i

'~

1. Bandipur
.,. ... 2~---"Bhitarkiml<a- ----

Soil formation
b...Ptevention of s~il erosion
Cl.

c. Recycling of waste

d. Pollination of crops
Select the correct answer using the codes given
below:
.
a . 1,2 and 3

3. Manas
4~ Sunderbans
Which of the above are declared !iger Reserves?
a. 1, 3 and 2 oruy

b.

oruy .

1~

. 2,3 and 4 only

j--

"\,

"
t

I
. t-

i
l

3 and 4 only

c. 2, ~ f1!l~ 4 only
d. 1, 2,3 ~d 4

l
l

t
I

1-

t
l

.-

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hi h r inf II that supports luxuriant


t ti growth.
nfluence of different bio geographical
otic and. inv~sive. ~c~de~ have not been
.._....,.duced m this regton.
has less human interference.

d.

12. If a tropical rain.forest is removed, it does not


regenerate quickly as compared to a tropical
deciduous forest. This is because

a. the soil of rain forest is deficient in nutrients


b. pro pagules ofthe trees in a rain forest ha e poor
viability
c. the ~ain forest species are slow-growing . .
d. exotic species invade the fertile so}l of rain forest.

a,
le

at
a!
ls.

t?

13. When the b.ark of a tree is remov ed in a


circular fashion all around near its base, it
gen~rally dries up and dies because
a. 'Vater from soil cannot rise to aerial parts.
b. Roots are starved of energy
c. Tree is infedl:d-b oil microbes
d. Roots do not receive oxygen for respiration
m

CLIMATE CHANGE

?ly
~w
!

14. c_ons!der the fo!J:~~~n_g : _ _


1. Photosynthesis
2. Respiration
3. Decay of organic matter
4.. VoJcanic action
WhJch o f the above add carbc;l dioxide t"o the carbon
cycle on Earth 1
a. 1. and 4 only
b. 2 and 3 only
c. 2,3 and 4 only
1 2 3 and 4

-ll-: _Co_nsjder - ~~e _fol1owing statemen~s :


Cholorofluorocarbons, know.n as ozonedepleting substances, are used
1. in the.production of plastic foams .
2. in the production of tubeless tyres
3. in cleaning certain electronic c0mpo~en ts
4. as pressurizing agents-in aerosol cans
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a. l, 2 and 3 only
b. 4only
1, 3 and 4 only
d. 1, 2,-3 and 4

c.

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. .

i I 1n1 s1
wr ] nts?

n~

d.

d
r th
it
t "'' t rv
n.
th ultraviolet part of th ol
U the solar radiations.
th infrared ~of the solar radiation

ion of ozone hole in the Antartic 13. lbe acidification of oceans is incre~sing. Why
ha .. 1: een a cause of concern .. .\'Vhat
is this phenomenon a cause of concern?
e the reason for the formation of this 1. The growth and survival of calcareous
phytoplankton will be adversely affected.
ole?
cs - C'.' .. ;tJm ntt oposp encturb 1 ence; 2. . The growth and survival of coral reefs w ill be
adversely affected.
d =n o .: of chlorofluoro carbons

3. The survival of some. -animals that have


p.,.. ~e"!'l e
f -r
j e t pola r f
n <lnd
hytoplanktonic arvae wjll b~ ad 'ezsely
stratospheric douds; and inflow of chl?ro
affected.
4.
he cloud seeding and formation of clouds.will
_ _ _c_
._ Absence of polar front and stw:1tospheric douds;
be adversely affected.
1
1
z d iJ .flcv.- of me ane and dlloro fluorocarbons. Which of statements given above is I are correct ?
d. Increased tempera~re at polar region due to a. 1,2 and 3 only
b, 2 only
global' ~arm_~g
c. 1 and 3 only
d . 1,2,3 and 4

17. Regarding '"'carbon credits'', which one of the


following statements is not correct?
,
a. The. carbon credit system was ratified in
conjunction with the-Kyoto Pro~ocol
b. Carbon credits are awarded to countries or .
groups that have reduced greeftheuse gas~s
below their. emission quota
.
c. The goal of the ca~bon c:redit system is to limit
the increase of carb(ln einission quota
.

arbor crcj tS are 1!a ed at a pri e f~ d from


tim to time by the United Nations Envuorunept

rogramme.

-'~-~---~

..

.' l

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c

. What is th differ::n:c:-b~tw:----=====.
ryx and Chiru?

a.

..

n the antelop

Oryx is adapted to live in h t d .


whe!eas Chiru is adapted to liove~stand areas
semi-desert areas of cold high
~pes and

ildli

tuaxy

poached for Jts musk.

c.

5. Among the following SJates,. whjch one has


the most suitable climatic conditions for the
cultivation of a l~ge variety of orchids with
minimum cost of production, and can develop
an export oriented industry in this field.?
a. Andhra Pradesh

i ..

!,"

.-

.
..

t c._ ~adhya Pr~~esh ,


d. t:

6.

radesh

Oryx e:xists in western India orJ.y whereas Cruru

5. Consi~er the following :


1.
2.
3.
4.

Black-necked crane
Cheetah
Flying squirrel
Snow leopard

'\7JUch of the abo e are n aturally found in India?


a. 1,2 and 3 only
b. 1,3 and 4 only

. rui achal Pradesh

Is

eXIsts m north-east India only.


_ .- - d. ~one of the statementsa, b, and c given abov
IS correct.
e

:-

,,

mountams.

b. Oryx IS poa0ed for its antlers whereas oiliu .

2 and 4 oJ:lly
.:.:.:.:.1,2,.;L<IDd-4....

c.

A sandy and saline area is the natural habitat


of an Indian ?nima] species. The.anima] has
no predato~s in that area but its existence
is threateneq due to the destruction of its
habitat. 1-\Thjch one of the foJJowing could

2. Bee
3. Bhd

be that animal ?

Which of the above is/are polli.nuhng agent I agents?

6.

Cpnsider the following ldnds of organisms

1.

Ba t

a. lndian wild buffu)o

a. 1 and 2 only

b. Indian wild ass

b. 2 only
c. 1 and 3 only
d.l, 2 and 3

c. Indian wild boar


d. Indian Gazelle

7. The '1 Red Data Books' published by the


International Uniov. for Cons.ervation o
Nature and Natural Resources (lUCN)
contain lists of
a. Endemic plant and animal species present in the
biodiversity hotspots.
Threaten d plant and animal species.
c. Protected sites for conservation of nature &
natural resources in various countries.
of the statement given above is I are correct?

7. Which one of the following groups of animals


_elongs to the _cate.gor.y.-of ..end-arigei:ed
species?
Great Indian Bustard, Musk Deer, Red Panda
and Asiatic WHd Ass
b. Kashmir Stag, Cheetal, Blue Bull and .Great
Indian Bustard
...
Snow Leopard, Swamp Deer, Rhesus Monkey
and Saras (Crane)

d. Lion-tai~d Macaque, Blue BuJl, Hanuman


Langur and Cheetal
a.

c:

..

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_TV-I . ENVIRONMENT'~

~,

What would ~appen if phytoplankto of


oceafs completely destroyed for som~ reaso~
1. The ocean as a carb<?n sink would be ad
affected.
.
verse1y

.. :

L.JeoC'OinJ)4~r

be

i roorganisms to the surface.


ts to th surface.

2. The food chains in the ocean would ad


1
affected.
verse y
utri
Hon-dwellingorganisms to the surfare.
3. The density of ocean water would drasticall
deqease.
Y
f the sta~em~ts given above is/are correct?
Select the using codes given bel~w :
1 and ...
a. 1 and 2 only
2only
b. 2 only
2and3
c. 3 only
d. 3 nly
d. 1,2 and 3

it
;

-~

i-

,,.(
~r.

9.

The 20~ Tsunami made people realize that 9. .W ilh reference to the wetlands of India,
mangroves ~an serve as a ~eliable safety
consider the following statements;
h dge ag~st. coastal calarnit.i es. How do l .
'The country's to al geographical area under the
a gr ves fu ction ns a s .. fety e ge?
.

a.

b.

categ,oryof "\1\'et ~~. ~.record~d rnore Gujcuat


as compared to other States.

~r
~

!,

&

;
~
t

The ma.ngroves swaps separate the human


~
settlements from the sea by a wide zone in which 2. .In India, the total geographical area of coastal
~
t- l f ~ e :u: '-er Ev ~
r ,'er re o t
w tlan s s arge r than hat ehl land "'.e trnd.-<>or-t-~
..
The mangroves rovide both food and medicines W[rich of the statements gjven abov ~ is/are co ect?
w.hlch people ar~ in need of after any natural
a. . 1 only
disaster.
b. 2only
The mangroves trees are taU with dense canopies c:
Both 1 and 2
and ser.e as an excellent shelter during a cyclone
or tsunami .
d. Neither 1 nor 2
I

d.

fhe mangr.:Hes trees do T I Ot get uprooted by


storms and tides because of their extensive roots_

10. There is a concern over the increase in 10. Vnltures which used to be very common in

harmful algal blooms in the sea waters of


Indian countryside s(>me years age are rarely
India. \That could be the causative factors
seen no\ 'aday s. This is attributed to
;
;
for this phenomenon 7
a. the destruction of their nesting sites by .new
t
i
1. Discharge of nutrients from the estuaries.
inva~ve species.
1
2. Run-off. from the I~d during the monsoon.
b. a drug used..by cattle own~rs for treating their
,~.
diseased cattle.
3. Upwelling in the seas.
Select V"ae correct answer from the' codes given c. scarcity of food available to them
f
below :

d.

ili~

a.

1 only

b.

1 and 2 only
2
,2

a widespread, persistent and fatal disease among

, ,

-.

.. .

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T &: POLICIES
t I dia,
the 14. The Natipnal Green
... .b

n
unalA
ds:
enacted in consona
.
ct, 2010 w as
nee Wllh h" h
following provisions of th c
~ ':. 1~ .. ~f th e
rt ( ontrol) Act, 1947.
India?
e onshtUtion of
T.

Min~al Development (Regulation)

Right to healthy environm t


.
u t m~ et, 196.2
part ~f part of Rightto life :~de;~~;Ias a
Indi 1 For st Act, 1927
Pro":Js_ion of grants .for raising the 1 l f
a~mllll9trntiGn
in the Schedtd d A
"<=!' ~ abo:ve Acts have relevance to I bear~g on

e
reas efve
or o - I
tversrty conservation in the country ? .
_welfare of Scheduled Tnbes underA:rtide 275(1)
1 and 3 only
Which of the statements giv~n above iS/are correct?
b. 2,3 and ~ only
a. 1 only.

.
c. 1,2,3 and 4
b. 2 only
d. None of the above Acts
c. Both 1 and 2
1.
2.

d . Neither 1 nor 2
15. How does National Biodiversity Auth ority
(NBA) help in .pro t ec t i ng th e Indian

agriculture?
"NBA checks the b]opiracy and protects the
indigenous and tra~tional genetic r~sources.
2. NBA d iriTtJy monitms aJitfsapenise-rr-lte
scientific research on genetic modification of
crop plants.

1.

Application for intellectual P rope rty Rights


related to genetic I biological resources cannot
be ma de without the approval of NBA.
Which of the statements given abov e is/are correct?
a .. 1 only
b. 2 and 3 onlv
c.
1 and 3 only
d. .1 . . 2 and 3
3.

CURRENT AFFAIRS
19. Recently, "'oilzapper was in the news. What 16. Governm-en-t -of -India encourages the
is it 1. . -
cultivation of :sea buckthorn< What is the
a." It i s an eco-friendly technology for . the
importance of this plant?
rem ediation of oil sludge and. oil spilJs.
a. It helps in controlling soiJ erosion and in
tis e a test echnoJogy develope d for un der.
preven!ffig desertification.
sea oil explorati~.
b. It is a rich source of biodie5e1.
c_ 1 is a gen e ticalJy engineered high biofuel c. It has nutritional value and is well-adapted to
yielding ma~e variety.
live in cold areas of high altitudes.
s he ]a te~t tec'hno]ogy to control the d. Its timber is of greatcommerci al value.
acc::Ja4erna11y caused fl aines from o il \.ve1l._s_.__ _.li.-~- ---------~- ~------1

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y
nother, with its source
............_ . t a place only a short
o the co st of Bay of Bengal
flo ing into the sea. This is an
im rtant site of wildlife and bio-diversity
nd protected area. Which one of the
f llowing (oiil'd he this ?

7. A Particular
In d1a
ha the following
. . Stat e In
ch aractenstics :
1.

It is located on the same Latitude w hich passe


through northern Rajasthan.

lt has ovey BO% of its area under fores t cover.


<iver 12% of forest cover constitutes Protected
Area Network in this State.

W)Uch one anwng the. follq,\,,:ing Stn_ cs h;Js a

above characte ristics?

. .Bhitarkanika
Chandipur-on-sea
c. Gopalpur-on-sea
d. Simlipal

a.
b.

he

Arunachal Pradesh
Assam

c. J1imachal Piac;l~.h
d. Uttarakhand .

2011 - Answers

20i2 - Answers

ll(b),. 12(a), 13(a), 14(c), 15(d), 16(b), 17(d), 18(c),

ll(d), 12(d), 13 (a), iii(~), 15{c), 16(a), 17(a)

19ta), 20ta)

tQ.no. 7 is disputed)

UPSC MAINS

EXA~iiNATION

PA ERl.
2011

2012

Evolution of Green Benches (12 marks)

Causes and the Extent of 'Desertifi cati on' in Indi a


and Remedial Measures (25 marks)
Impact of C.C. on Indian at r resources (12 marks) Endosulphan ~25 marKS)
Phase IV of tiger monitoring programme (5 n1arks) Tiger tourism (25 n1arks)

PAPER%

2012

2011

'E-waste (5 mar.lqij

Permaculture (12 marks}

Diminishing popuJation of VuJture (5 marks)

CBD (5 marks)

Billion Acts of Green (2 marks)

En~onment Sustainability (S marks)

..

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:-ECOLOGY -o.

-.

,..

..

-- ..

Facebook Group: Indian Administrative Service ( Raz Kr)

iffr .n 1 tw

nd nt

uniti .
rth- .. at

i ~

.- vir

n n igh ttring
soo ti s. Th )yare

~,......"'n"'.,.,.l led

' ithiR a maj r community


n~ completely independent
' and nutrient dyn mi s are
t of lichen
a cow dung pad.
n

on

osystern.

Components of Ecosy$lem
TI1e omponentsof thee osy s t m is categorised
nto abiotic of non-Hv.in and o c of livin g
components. Both the components of ecosystem and
n rir 1 m e1 l re sam .

tructureof a community

ft.

:Tf

mmunity the , wnb r 9f specie~ and size


fU al\n Y <H _ -. at y. , ('( l!n "l 1 't r n a_:
C'r .everal s ecies.

1.

~ t:

t.n\i
1 e1
<
c rs
Ern i1
th
characteristic of the co1nmunity as' ell as the pattern
f
hiT!' i.1
.

". ; hi l is
' t .:. n 1 c cJ !.
played ) various population, their range, the
f rea t e~ j a it, the di 'ersity o f s ~;..: ie
in 1e mmum
the spectrum of i1 ter
bern een them.
co-

~s

c.. I

A i tic factors a re th e m o st j mpo rt ant


determinants of where and how well an organism
ex . L n
vrC' ent. Alt ou g h th e e ac o ~
intera t ith ach oth r, OJ e si n gl I tor an limi t
the range of an organism.

An ecosystem is defined as a structural and


fun ional unit of biosphere consi ting of con1muruty
of living beings and the physical environment, both
interacting and exchanging materials bet-ween them .

a)

miGro-organisms, water, soil, and people.

EcOsystems vary greatly in size and elements


but eadt is a functioning unit _of nature. Everything

b) Rainfall
.

rything else.

c) Temperature
Temp r ture-isacritical fact r f th

"yst m is healthy(~ .. sustainable)


f>
J m nt. livP in ~aJ nc~ ar d a e
tr

\. ;d b . .
C"Jrga i.' m:
l

Jves. Ecosys~m can


oraslarg asentir fo st.

--

Water is essential for all liVing beings. Majority


of bioch 'nu al reactions tak p1a .i n an aqu 0
m dillin. ~ h lps l r gul, e bu Iy len
r. i It.. .
Further, water bodies f rm th habit,pt f r many
aquatk plants and animals.

hat Jives in an ecosystem is dependent on the


r ecies and f' mt:n . that are also pa~t ,f t a
ecological community. If one part of an ecosyst m
1 damaged or disappears, it has an impact on

Energy

Energy from the sun is essential for maint~ance


of life. In the ase of plants, the SW1 ire tly supplie
the nece sary energy. ince animals cannot use solar
nergy directly they obtain it indirectly by eating
plants r animals or both. Energy determines the
djstril: uti on of organism~ in_ th_e en ironment.

ro stem s a complex set of r ] a t ion~ 1ip


among the living resources, habitats, and residents of
an area. It includes plants, trees, animals, fish, birds,

nt

Abjotic c m p onents are the inor ganic and nonliving parts of the world. The abiotic part consists of
soil, wa r, ai1, and lig~t e~ergy etc. ll also in olves
a ]ar~e number of chemical hke xvoen, rutrooen
tc. an p 1ysi al processes inc u ing volcanoes,
earthquakes, floods, eforest fi.res, climates, ~nd
w al r o nditi ns.

The characterisb pattern of the community is


: .: . ... ~ .._;: c-C:L.C

mpo

t J

i ufl

1 '

;.

n tol , t o 1ly l1 <


temp,~ratllrt' ctn i humidity.

..

..

vinmn nt
,1

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wid v ri tysmall animals


ts f pl
r pw t and nutrients. Organisms
qu ~c. Terr trial animals live
qu tic lants, animal and microbes live in
teras ell as in th s a. Some microbes live
in h water nts under the s~a.

at rials:
(i)

J J

~1

rganic compound such as proteins,


r h} drat ~, lipids, h umic subsfances
are formed fiom inorganic compound on
decomposition.
organi compound such as carpon,
carbon dioxide, water, suJphur, nitrates,
phosphates, and-ions of v_arious;neta]s are
essential fot: organisms to survive.
1
e a d a tihtde

Latitude has a strong influence on an area's


emperatur~ resulting i~ change of climates such
as polar., tropical, and temperate _ 'These climates
determine different natural biomes.
From seale;;eJto highe t peaks, wild life is
influenced by altitude. As the altitude increases,
he air becomes colder and drier, affecting wild life
accordingly.
2.

Biotic Components

rimary producers - Autot.tophs (selfn

g)

of

II
I

Consumers can be divided into two broad


groups namely micro and macro consume rs.

Macro consumers
~
They feed on plants or animals or both and are
categorised on the .b asis of th~ir food sources.
~
Herbivores are primary consumers which feed
mainly on plants e.g. cow., rabbit.
);>
Secondary consumers feed on pdrnary
consumers e.g. wolves.
);>
Carnivores which feed on secondary consumers
are ca1Jed tertiary consumers e.g. lions which
can eat wolves.
);>
011ll1iY9.~~? .i:l:r~ .~~g~isms which consume both
p~an san-d animals e.g. man.
Ci)
icro consumers - S aprotrophs (deco p sers
or osmotrophs)

(i)

They are bacteri.u anctfungi-whit:h obtain energy


and nutrients by decomposing dead organic
substances (detritus) of plant and animal origin.
);>
The products of d e composition such as inorganic
nutrients which are released in the ecosystem are
reused by producers and thus recycled .
.
.. .-~ ... Earthworm and certain soil organisms (such as
nematodes, and arthropods) are detritus feeders
and h elp in the decomposition of organic matter
and are called detrivores.
);>

Terrestrial

rimary producers are basically green plants


,
r-..+.;r.. bacteria and algae).
the ise carbohydrate from simple
Dr.tDI* rawmaterials like carbon dioxide and
pr en e sunlight by the process
PllmiD&lmtlnesis for therns Jves" and supply
r on-produ rs.

food (photosynthess).
~
They depend on organic food derived from
__
.m1ts, animals or both.

Biotic -components include living organisms


C~~ssification ,of Eco-system:
comprising plants" animals and microbes and are
classified according to their fun~tiqnal attributes into
___ . ____Natural. Ecosystem
producers and consumers.
- ----- -- - - -- - -

I t rotr ph uJ hct i oh
(other nou.rishin g)
onsumers are incapable of producing th ir wn
'on um r

Forests
Grasslands
Deserts

~-

.Aquftic
Fresh Vv t r
. Saline \-Vat rs
.Marine VV ters

The detailed stud y .of e sy. h'm will b d


th ~ubs u >nt ch. pt rs.

!t .;_.

'

I
l-

'

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HAPTE

- 1

ECOLOGY
gy is a sci ntific study of the reciprocal
r.2. ~i':fVIRONMENT
lationship_bet:Ween organisms (includiDg
microb s, plants, animals, mali) with
_Evexyt~gthatsurroundsoraffectsanorganism
vironm nt. It dea)s with .the. ways in whi~ _4ur~ng tts hfe ti:me is collectively known as. its
anis:ms are moulded by their environment, how . env)ro~e~t whi~ .comprises both living (biotic)
they make use of environmental resources including. .and n.onhvmg (abwtic) components.
energy flow and m neraJ cycling.
All organisms(from vii-us to man) are obligatorily
The term ecology was coined only as ]a teas 1868.
dep~ndent on the en ironment for food, energy
wa ter, oxygen_. shelter and for other nee s
'
lt has been derived from two Greek words namel~

m anin
me or pla e to live in and ' logos'.
The e iro men is d efin ed as ' t e su["l o a
meaning study. Litera~'y it is the study of the home
of li ing, non- i\:ing comp onents; influence an '
.
. ev~nts,. su~<?unding an organism .
of nature.
1.2. . C n ee . f e ~ro
e
Ecology is defined '' as a scientific study of the
The re1ationship and interaction behv een
relationshi of the Jiving organisms "\"lith each other
organism _and envi~onrnent are highly complex.
and with their environment."
.
.
N? _organism. c~ hve alone without iJ!teracting
1.1 .HISTOR~- OF ECOLOGY
'-n lh o tJ- e~ o rganlSrns. So each organism has other
9rganisms as a part of its environment. Each and
The roots of ecology lie in Natural History,
everyJ;hing vvith which we interact or which V.Teneed
which is as o]d as human civilization itself. Since
for
s u stenance forn s o ur e vironmenl. ..
ez : history, man has indulged in ecoJogy in a
The environment is not stat ic. Both biotic and
practical sort of way, knowingly and unknowingly.
abio:ic
factors are in a flux and keeps changing
In primitive societies .every individual was required
contlnuouslv.
.r
to have an intimate knowledge of .his environment
. -.
for their survival; i.e., about the forces of nature and
ComP.onents of Environ~ent
of plants and animal~ around him.
.Abiotic
Biotic
Our ancient Indian texts have referen ces to
'Energy
Green.plantS
ecologica) principles. The classical texts of the
Radiation
Non-green plants
_Y~ic. period such as _the Vedas, t}}e Samhi tas, the
Temperature & heat flow
D~composers
Brahmanas and the Aranyakas-Upanish~ds contain
\"later
Parasites
many re~ces to ecological concep~s . ..
Atrnosp~erjc gases and wind Symbionts.
Fire
1be Indian treatise on medicine,. the .CarakaAnimals
.
Gravity
Samhita and the surgical text Susruta-Samhi't~,
Man
Topography
s~w that people during this period had a good
. :
Soil
\U.\derstanding of plant and animal ecology.
.
Geologic substratum
'
These texts contaii) dassification of animals on
the basis of habit and habitat, land in terms of nature
of soil, climate and vegetation; and-description of
pW\ts typical to various JocaJities. Carai<a- Samhita
fnrmn n that air, land, W;)tP.r and 5<'flSOn
\CWiDEns b]e for 11fe and thnt po1Juted air and
injurjous for health.

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ir nt

pul ti
js .group of ory,an i.
lh same sp des, crupying
hn
" a sp cific thne.

.rn~

lly of
urm

:a

bi tic nvir nm nt consists of microscopic


all d pl fl~8ft es weli as aquatic
nt and anim ls and decomposers.

nt mal environment of fish


It is enclosed by the uter body surface.
~

The internal envir nment is relatively stable as


compared to the external environment.

However, it is not absolutely constant. Injury,


:1 e s or e. ces ive s tress upse ts the internal
\ ro e t.

For e.xample, fa marine fish is transferred to a


frE~ 1 'ater environn1ent, it il not be able to

1.

LS

SAT IO S

The JTiain levels of organisation of ecology are six


and areas fo lov s .

Population growth r a t is th percenta c


variation between the number of in dividuals
population at two different times. Therefore the
population growth rate can be p ositive or negative.

. The m_nin f~ctor: thut m ake pQptl lation grow are


b.iJttl and 1IDm1gration. The main fa ctors that make
po~ulation decrease are death and emigration.
The main limiting factors for the growth of a
population a~e abiotic and biotic componentS.
Populatio~

de!lsity is the re lation between the


number of ind_ividua]s of a popul ation and the area
they occupy.

1.3.3. Community
If we lo_o k around ourself, we will notice that
population o f p lants and animais seldom ocarr by
themselves. The reason ior this js quite obvious.
Jn order t~ survive, individuals of any one species
depen~ on indi iduars of fferent species i h
which they active]y intera ct in s e veral ways.

For eg: Animals require plants for food and trees


for shelter. PJ_an ts require an.imais for poUination,
seed dispersa l, and soil microorganism to fa cilitate
nut rient supply.
Communities in most instances are named after
the dominant plant fonn (species).
For example : A gr as s land comm unity is
dominated by grasses, though_i t m a y contain herbs,
shrubs, and trees, alongwith associated animals of
different _s pecies.

A commu nity is not fixed or rigid; communities


may be large or _small.

?.1. Jndj "d


Organism is an individual living }?eing that haS
ability toact r function independently. It maybe
~ animal, ba t =-rium, fungi, etc. It is a body made
r gans, organelles, or other parts that ~.~ork
e variou! prr Cf'. ~s of1if~.

Types of Community
On the basis oi size and d gree of relative
independence communities n'lny be divided into
two types:

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m

'lh orgCliW;ms whic


ur
.
1 ,.. r 1 : >. t
, bundantly in thi ~ 7.0n "r>
,. , n_man!
a c. . c .. p . r;
1n t 11 t rres't.
na1ceo ystl!meClg 'n
effe
1
applicable to birds.
sp eta 11 Y
;..
.
.
h l'Or
example
d h hi the
f density of birds 19 g rea t er m
t e mtxe
a tat o the ecotone between th. e f ores t
and
the deserl

i n ff
, fu I and fibr
f h It rand building materials
ti n fair and wat r
i.fi tion and d composition of wastes
ta ili:lati and moderation of the Earth's climate
Niche
>
d ration f floods, droughts, temperature
tr m sand the forces of wind.
A ~~c~e is the uniq2te fu nciional role or place of
:> - Gl'ttt!f tion and rene~al of soil fertility, including:v::---,aro-.~~p~e_aes ~ an ecosystem. It is a description of all ..
nutri nt cycling.
the biOlogtcaJ, phys1cal and chemical factors that a
~ Pollination of plants, including many crops
species needs to survive, stay healthy and reproduce.
Control of pests.and dise~ses
A niche is unique for a species, which means no
:> Maintenance of genetic resources as key inputs
two species have exact identical niches. Niche pla ys
to crop varieties and livestock breeds, medicines,
an important role in conservation of organisms.
and other products
1f we have to conserve species in its na tive
)>
Cultural and aesthetic benefits
habitat we shquld have knowledge abou t the niche
Ecotone
requiremen~ of the species and should ensure that
all requirements f ~ts rJd-e are fu lfilled .
Ecoton is a zone of junction bet-ween h vo or
more di erse ecosvstems. For e.g . the mangrove
forests represent' an ecotone between marine
an terres ria e os),stem. Other examples are gra's sland, estuary and river bank

Types of Niche
J. Habitat niche- where it ]jves
2. Food niche-what is eats or de:omposes & what
species j cc . e es .
7

3.
4.

Reproductive niche- how and when it reproduces.


Physical & chemkai n che - temperature, land
shape, land slOJ-te, humidity 8y other requ irement.

1.3.5.

B~ome

The terrestrial oart of the iosoh ere is div isible


into enormous regions called biomes, which ar e
characterized, by climate, vegetation, animal life and
general so.i] type.
re

~.1

ter
~~:-

J<."

- - - -- --
Ecotone- --- --
Characteristics of Ecotone
> It may be very narrow-or'<luite wide.
);> It has the conditions intennediate to the adJacent
ecosystems. Hence it is a zone of tension .
> It is linear as jt shows progre.ssive increase in
species composition of one in coming community
and-a simultaneous decrease in species of the.

No two biomes are alike. The climate determines


the boundaries of a biome and abundance of plants
and animals found in each. one of them . The most
important climatic factors are temperature and
precipitation.

..

COLD

other ouf going adjoining community.


A well developed ecotones contain some
organisms which.are entiz!!ly different from that
,.

of the adjoining comrn~nities.


So l:t IH<: tl c numLer of sp il:s nd tl
population d nsity of some of the _species. is
much greater in thiszonethan either commuruty,
Thi -1 all d edg effect.

WARM

NW~~-----------------------

BJQJVIE Distribution b s 1 on
~------

_______
mp ratur

and Precipitation
----.
----

..

.....

-----------------------------------------~--~--------------------------~----~--

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ic

Toi

una
Devoid of trees except stnnted shrubs in the
~outhem rart of tundra biome, ground flora
mcludes lichen, mosses and sedges.
The typical a~als are reindeer, arctic fox,
polar bear, snowy owl, lemming, arctic hare
pta~igan. Reptiles and amphibians are almos~
absent.

Northern Ell!'ope, AS!.~Bn&~-+>The dommatigg vegetation is conifero~s


North America. Moderate evergreenmosUy spruce, with some pine afid
temperatur~ than tundra. firs.

Also known as boreal forest. The f~una co~sists of small seed eating birds,
hawks, fur bearing carnivores, little mink, elks,
puma, Siberian tiger, wolverine, wolves etc.

,,

: .
.,

..
,......

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.:

'

J1te flora includes trees like beech, oak, maple


and cherry.
Most animals are the familiar vertebrates and
invertebrates.

Tropical rain Tropical areas in the


forest
equatorial regio:ns, which
is abound vvith Jde.
Temperature and_ rainfall

Tropical rainforest covers about 7o/o of the


earth's surface & 40% of the world's plant and
animal species. Multiple storey of broad-leafed
ev~rgreen tree species are in abundance. Most
animals and epiphytic plants are concentrated
in the canopy _or tree top zones .

'

Tropical region: Savannah Grasses with scattered tree~ and fire resisting
is most extensive in Africa. - thomy shrubs.

lf

high.

Savannah

. - - ~ .

North America, Ukraine,


etc. Dominated by grasses.
Temperate conditions with
rath r low rainfall.

I
I

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I

- ----- :..:..:....:..:.::.:.:;;.: ..::...:.._ ...

and

Grassland _

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I

The fauna include a great diversity of grazers


and browsers such as antelopes, buffaloes,
zebras, elephants and rhinoceros; the carnivores
include liof\ cheetah, hyena; and mongoose,
many roden.W t.- -. ----- -- -----"-

Extends over Central and


Southern Europe~ Eastern
No rth America, 'Vestern
China, Japan, New Zealand
etc. Moderate average
temperature and abundant
rainfall. These are generally
t h e ~ o s t p r o d u c.t.Lv e
~ gr i cu l tura l are as of h e
...earth

Temperate
Deciduous
Forest

Grasses dominate the vegetation. The fauna


include large herbivores li~e bison, antelope,
cattle, rodents, prairie dog, wolves, and a rich
and diverse array of ground nesting bird.
,

Continental interiors with The flora is drought resistance vegetation


very low and sporadic such as cactus, euphorbias, sag brush. Faun :
rainfall with low humidity. Reptil s, M
ls and birds.
The days ar very h t but
mghts a cold.

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. .3.6. Biosp1tere::-----_:::-~~~~!.
m ; howcvcr.
li zon s, with regions
d anim Hfe. The major
n the v rious aquatic zones are
, I v ls of dissolved nutrients, ~rater
th f sunlight penetratipn.
qua tic

Characteristics

ccosyst m

1.

2.

3.

Biosphere is a part of th
th
_
. B'
.
e ear wher lif
.
~XlSt. , l?sphere represents a highl r .
e e can
Jnteracting zone comprisi~g f Y mtegrated and

hydrosphere (water) and litho~ hatmo(lsphere (air),


.
p ere and).
It IS a narrow layer around th
f
th lf
.
.
e sur ace of the
ear I . th ~~ VlS~alise the earth _to be the size of an
app e e Iosphere would be as thick as its skin.
Life in the biosphere is ~btifiafl!ll betWeen 200
metres {660 feet) below the surface of the ocean and
about 6,000 metres (20,000 feet) above _sea level.

Fresh Water Fresh water ecosystem


Ecosystem
are dassified as ]otic
(moving. water) or len tic
(still or stagnant water).
Lotic w.ater system
includes freshwater
s fie am s, springs;
rivulets, creeks, brooks,
and rivers. Lentic water
bodies include pools,
ponds, some swamps,
bogs and lakes. They vary
considerably in physical,
----<--+~hemicai an d bi ological- --_
char~cteris tics.
Nearly three:_ quarter
1arine
Biosphere
of earth's surface is
Ecosvstein
-'
covered by ocean
----- - --Biosphere"
is
absent
at
extremes
of the orth
with an average d epth
and South poles, the highest mountains and the
of 3,750 m and with
deepest oceans, since existing hostile conditions
salinity_35 ppt, (parts pe r
there do not support life. Occasionally spores of
thousand), about 90 per
fungi and bacteria d~ occur at great height beyond
cent of which is sodium
8,000 metres, but they are not metabolically acti e,
chloride.
and hence represent onl 'dormant life .
Coastal bays, river
Estuaries
T-he energy required for the _life within the
mouths and tidal
bi_o sphere co:ines from the sun. The nutrients
. :m~r~}:les for~ _th~
estuarie-s. ln estuaries, -----necessary for iTv'lng-organismscoine from air, water
. and soil. The same chemicals are recycled over and
fresh
. water from rivers
.. .
. over again for life to continue. .
meet ocean water and
Living organisms are not uniformly distributed
the two are mixed by
throughout the biosphere. Only a few organism live
action of tides. Estuaries
,
in the polar -r-egions~ while the tr pi~~l rain f r s
are highly productive
have an exceedingly rich diversity of plants nd
as compared ;o the
:mima1s.
d'ac~t river or sea.

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FUNCTIONS OF AN ECOSYSTEM
1.:

As a resun there~~ usnmty four or fi"\\"e h hie - .


levels. ~d seldo~ more than six as beyondupthat
very ~ttle energy IS left to support any org~m.
Trophic l~vels_are numbered accord~g to'the steps .
an organism IS away from the source of food or
energy, that is the producer.

i .n of an system is a broad, vast


llnd mpl t dynamic system. It can be
tudi d under the following three heads.
flovv

utrient cycling (biogeochemical cycles)

Ec logical succession or ecosystem development

2.1

The trophic level interaction involves three


concepts namely :1. Food Olain
2. Food Web
3. Ecological Pyramids

ENERGY FLOW

En~rgy is the basic fprce responsible for .all

ic a

i ti es. Tl flow of ener gy fr on1


co -u e rR L ,J e e e rg_' flow
c 1 al.

2.2.

The study of Trophic level interaction in an


- ~

0}pes an i ea
t.hro.ugh the ecosystem.

2.1.1.

E te:r

0 1. l

ener gy

ropnic level inte~ction

Organisms in the ecosystem are related tq.each


o er Ll-tro g. !'ee j g nTe anism o tr
E s,
i.e. one organism becomes food for the other. A .
~- e ce of org<'rr sm~
at fee en one ano er, form
a food chain. A food chain starts with prod ucers and

fl ov~

ends With top carnivores.


_

The sequence of eaten and being eaten, p roduces


transfer of food energy and it is knuvvn as food chain.
The plant conver ts so]ar energy into protoplasm by
p otosynthesis .
-- - - -

T 0ph"~e-Hnteracfon de Js ith how the


r e . e rs of v ecosystem are corJlected based on
nutritional needs.

11

m
IV

OOD CHAl

Small herbivores consume the vegetable


matter and convert them into animal matter. These
. herbivores are eaten by large carnivores:

Autotrophs
Heterotrophs Herbivore
(primary consumers)
He~rotrophs Carnivores
(secondary con u m e rs)
Carnivore
Heterotrophs
(tertiary consumers)

-.

Heterotrophs

'

Energy flows through the trophic levels: fr.om


producers to subsequent trophic levels .. This"energy
always flows from lower (producer) to higher
erbiv01e, carnivore etc.) trophic level. lt never
flows in the reverse direction that is from carnivores
o
rbivores to producers.
re is a loss of oome energy in the form o{
a at each trophic lev 1 o that energy
t
I.
firr t r J j } : np . ~H 1

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rt

ins hav

. TIONS OF

-ANEosys M
two food ch ins are linked - -.-.-. ....:_:..::.:.:.:._:...
$Our~ for d tritu food .h . . .-The lnltial n rgy
,
C <Hn lS th \ ,
and dead organic matter fro th
~~ te mntc j<l
.

2.3. FOOl:> WEB


rs whi :h start th food chain, utilising
as their food, constitute the grazing
:1 d1ain b gin. from green plants at .
rimary consumer is herbivore.

e grazmg food chain

A food chain represe~ts or\J


. . . . . .
or energy flow through
Yone part of the food
an ecosystem and im li
~imple, isola't ed relationship, which s~)do ~- ~sa
m the ecosystems.
.
m occurs

An e~osyst~m ~ay consist Of sevefal interr~lated


food
chams. More typ
. icallv
the same f ood resource
.

J'
lS part of ~ore than one Chain, especially when that
resource ~sat the lower trophic levels.

uA food web illustrates, all possjble transfers of


energy and nutrients among the organisms in an
ecosystem, whereas a food chain traces :only one
pathway of the food".
,._

Grazing Food Chain

For example, In terestriat-ecosystem, grass is


ea en up by caterpillar, which is eaten by lizard and
Jizard is eaten _by snake. .
~l ..-:.qu~tic tcosystezn pry to Janktons {p rimary
p. oducers) is eaten by zoo plank tons which is ~a ten
by fishes and fishes are eaten by pelicans.

If any of the intermediate food chain is removed,

the succeeding Hnks of the ch?in will be affected


largely. The .. food web provides more than one_
alternative for food to most of the organisms in an
ecosystem and therefore increases their chance of
survivaJ.
------------.. --- - -.-ii. Detritus food chain
For example, grasses _m ay serve food for rabbit or
.
grasshopper or goat o:r;- cow. Similarly a herbivore may
'The food chain starts from dead organic matter
be food SQurce for many different carnivorous species_.
ci decaying animals and plant bodies to the mlcrcr
Also food availability and pre'ferences of food
g
and U n to detritus feeding organism ~ed
of the organisms may shift seasonally e :g: p ~ "'a'f .
r an to ot er prPch-Itor~ .
watermelon in summ~r an_q peaches in the 'Wint r.
Thus there are interconne~ed networks off eding
relaUonships that take the fo~ of food webs.
If any of th in rmedi~te food chainis r t;n ved,
the ~u cc ling Iinke; of th :hain.~ 1be afkded lar ly.
, ot r f' nf f Tl('f y
'l ht f()()d w l> proviJ s mur, U\
1 e d l:1
ihl f od chaiii
food to rn s~ of tl1 >rg ni ms in n
n td
matt i or d tritu .
th r for in 11 :1h ar :h.
f u

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1 glc I
r f n s th b of the
miv r f nn th tip. Oth r
1
in b twc n.
nsi ts of a number of horizontal
Hie tr phic levels which are_
uenti Ily from primary producer level
rbi
runivoreon'\ 'cltds; -:fhe lt:llglh
ret>re:;ents the t tal number of individuals
vel in an ~ osystem.
nun;ber, bion~ass and energy of organisms
duall decrease with each step from ~e producer
1 1 to the c nsumer level an~ the- diag~ammatic
representation assumes a pyramid:shape..
T e LO] gic;:~l pyr n i s are of three categories.

of

["

xt high r tr phic l _v
n m r- h ~bivor ( ampl grasshopper).
Til individ.u 1 numb r f grn!:shoppcr i~ less
than thnt of grass. The n x "ncrgy 1 v 1 is
primary carnivore (example - rat)..

>
>

The number of rats are less than grasshopper


because, they feed on gras~hopper. The nex;
higher trophic level is secondary carnivore
(example -snakes). They feed on rats.
The next higher trophic level is the top c<lrnivore.
(Ex.Hawk).
..

. )>

)> ..

)>

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With ea.ch higher trophic level, the number of


indiviaual decreases.
::"" . I

(b) Pyramid of numbers - inverted

. .1

In this pyramid, the number of individuals is

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Hyper-p;or~

)Tami of .. urn ers.

:::.- . ..

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-~

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\---..-~--~-~~~~~-

11tis deals with the relationship b~tween the


_ ; t- rim<:.I) t' 1::: t: cers
d - S '.JJJ us of
d ifferent levels. It is a graphic represen~~tion of the
,
... . j, : . ~ t.r
i1 ue:.ls cf i(ertr s_p:cie::;,
be onging to each trophic level in an ecosystem.
Dep end ing upon th e s ize and bjom ass, the
p_ a id of numbers may not always be upright,
and may even be completely inverted .
y:-amid o f

.. c

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.1'... :. ~

z..

: .. . <

increas ed from lower level to higher trophlc


level.

1. P)-ram d of numbers,
Pyramid f biomass. and
3. Pyramid of energy or productivity.

. (

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1m ers- -prigh

In this pyramid, the number of individuals is


decreased hom lower level to higher trophic level.
This type of pyramid can pe seen in grassland
ecosystem.

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)>

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A count in a forest would have a small numberof-- --large producers, for e.g. few number of big trees.
This is because the tree (Primary producer) being
few in number and would repr~sent the base
of the pyramid and the dependent herbivores
(Example- Birds) in the next higher trophic level
and jt is followed by parasitesin thenexttmphlc
leveL Hyper parasites being at hlgher trophic
level represen~ higher fu number.
And the resulting pyramid is in inverted f>hape.
A pyramid of nu~bers does not take into.
~ccount the fact that the si:t.t:: of rgani ms being
(' tf>d in c>ach trophic lP 't~ l C;> '" n'

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In cont~ast, in many aqua'tk -:-eco.,._

~stern~ the
o f b 10m ass may assume
an ver te d .f,orm.
.
m

r t

rcome the shortcomings of


f nwnber , the pyramid of biomass is used.
rr ch individuals in each trophic level are
i
instead of b ing counted. 1bis give$ us a
n"U"'~n'ld f biomass, i.e., the total dry weight of an
anisms at each trophic level at particular time~

Pyramid of biomass is usually .determined by


col1ecting all organisms occupying each trophic level
separately and measuring their ,dry weight. This.
overcomes the size difference problem because all '
.kin s of org"anisn1s ~t a trophic level are weighed.
Biomass is measure~ in glm2.
(a) Upward pyramid

...-. .,..

For most ecosystems. on land, L'"le pyramid of


ma. , has a ;:n e ba. e oJ prjmary producer with
a ~maller trophic level perched bn top.
1

This is because the producers are t iny


phytoplanktons that grow ~d . z:eproduc~ rapidly.
ere, he p ramid of bomass has a srna
ase,
with th~ consumer biomass at _any instant actually
ex ~ced ing ti1e p roducet biv.:J:ass anct--the-pyrarni<Y- :..._:_ .. :...
assumes in~erted shape.
2.4.3. Pyramid of Energy

an

Pmnory C cmtvorf!

Producers

Upright Pyramid of Biomass


The biomass of producers (autotrophs) is at the
maximum .. The biomass of next trophic level i.e
primary .consumers is less than. the producers. Th~
biomass of next high_er trophic level i.e secondary
consumers i~ less than the primary consumers. The
top, high uuphjc le. el has vtry less amount ofbiomass.

To compare the functional roles 6 the trophic


levels in an ecosystem, energy pyramid is most
su j t~ble. An en e rgy pyram d, reflecls t e la\. s of
thermodynamics, with conversion of solar energy
to_chem.ic:al energy and heat energy at each trophic
level and with loss of energy being depicted at each
transfer to another trophic level. Henc~ the pyramid
is always upward, with a Jar-ge energy .hase at the
bottom.
Let us explain this with an example. Supposean
ecosystem receives 1000 calories-of-light enetgy-rn-a-- - - given day_Most of the energy is not absorbed; some
is reflected back to space; of the energy absorbed
only a small portion is utilised by green plants, out
of whkh the plant use~ up some for respiration and
f the 1000 calories, the~efore only 100 cjl}ories are
stored as energy rich materials:

..

--

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Biomagnific

Biomagnification r f rs to th t d
. rnJlutantstocon (>nfrilt a tJpym n frn(y Of
.
ov
rn n
trophic 1 vel to th n x .

);:-

Thus in biomagnification
ther 1s an mer
.
.
.
as ln
co[ ~dcentr~tion of a pollutant from one link in a
oo cham to anoth r.

Pyramid of energy

suppose an animal, say a deer, eats the plant


containing 100 cal of food energy. The deer uses some of
u rits "rn etabo ~ . and stQr s only 10 cal as food
..
on at eats the deer gets an even smaller
amount of energy. Thus--usable energy decreases
1 sunJight t produ er t -n eroi ore to cam.i ore.
Therefore, the energy pyramid will always be upright.
Energy pyramid concept helps tc) explain the
phen menon of bio og)cal magnification-the tenancy
or OY. c ~ ~tances o crease i co ce ation
progressively at higher levels of the food chain.
'\.V

2.5

POLLUTA TS Al D TR PH C

LEVEL

Biomagnification

Po1lutants espedaJ!y n eg a a Je o es mo e
thro gh t e Yarious trophic e vels in an ecosystem.
Nondegradabale pollutants mean materials,
hich cannot be metzbolized by the living organi ms.
Example: chlorinated hydro~arbons.
We ~re concerned about these phenomena
because, ogether hey enable even small
concentrations of chemicals in the environment
to find their way into org_arusins in high enough
dosages to -cause problems.

1ovement of these pollutants involves two main

processes:
Bioaccumulation
B iornagnification.

..

2 .1.

Bioaccn.mulation

lt el rs to how pollutants cntet a food chain.


n ioaccumulation there is an increase in
tt
oiapoJJutant fr m th nvirorun nt
r ani min ' f od f'hain .

In rder for biomngn ifica =o o o ui, he


pollutant t:JlUSt be: long-lived, mobile, soluble in fats,
biologically active.
If a pollutant is short-lived, ]t will be broken
down ~clore_ it can become dangerous. If it is not
moJ:>ile, it will st~y in one p lace and is unlikely to be
taken up by orga.Jiism~. If the pollutant is soluble in
water, it will be excreted by the organi m . Pollutants
that dissolve
fats, however, may be retained for
a long time.
It is traditional to measure the amount of
. pollutants. in fatty tissues of organisms such as
fish. In mammals, we ofte test the n
r tl
y fern es, ince t e n1i ~
s o of fa t i1 i nre
often more .susc ptible to damage fr rri t ins
(poisons). If~ p Uutant is not activ bi 1
ally, it
may biomagnify, but we really don't vorry
ut it
inu , since it probabl w n't cnn , y r bl m

~xarn

1 ; DT.

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NCTIONS

Biotic Interaction
Spices 1

Species 2

(+)

(+)

.(+) .

. (0) ..

Competition

(-)

(-)

Predation.

(+)

(-}

5.

Paras.l~ism

(+)

(-)

6.

A.mensalisni

7.

Neutralism

(-)
(0)

(0)
(0)

s..No..
J..._

.
3.

Type

Mutualism
Commensalism

( +) Benefited

. .

..

(-) Hanned

(0). T,;: . .er B- 1ef.t d c: .c. n e .

2.6.1. Types of b~o~c intera~on


r

>

>

2.
7. BIOGEo
cH EMICAL
cYCLE
.
. ,.
.
.

The living world depends upon the energy .


f.low and the hutdents circulation that occurs
through ecosyst~m. Both influence the abundance
of organisms, the metabolic ra ~e at w hich they liv e,
and th,~ e<:>mplexity of the ecosystem.

Energy flows through ecosystems enabling the


organisms to perform various kind s of w ork and
this energy is ~ timately lost as heat fore e r in tenns
of the usefulness-of the system . On the other h an d,
nutrients of food matter never get used up. They can .
..,e re -yc e rtgai, arid - g2in indefinitely.

a 'sm: o ,speci~s be efi .


F o r e.g. when we breath e w e ~ay be inhalin.g~--
T: Y3 .
Je: in -poll" a ti o m u t ua sm s,
e
sever al .million atoms of elem ents tha t may h av e
pollinator gets -food (pollen, nectar), and the
plant has its poJ}en transferred to other flowers been inhaled by our ancestors or o th er organisms.
C a rbon , hydrogen, o x ygen , nit r ogen an d
or cre ss-fertilization (~eprod uction).
p h osphorus as elements and compounds make u p
Commensalism: one species benefits, the other
97% _9f the m ass of our bod ies an d ar.e more th an
1s unaffected .
9 ~ o of the ma~s of all li ing organisms. ln addition
Example: cow d ung provides food and shelter.
to these about 15 to 25 other elements are n eeded in
to dung beetles. The beetles have no effect on
some form for the survival an d go_Qg_heaJth .of plants
the-cow
s.
.
.
..
and animals.

.
Competition: both species are harmed by the
These elements or ririneral nutrients are always
interaction.
in circulation moving from non-living t<? Hving
Exarr. ple: if h\'O .pedes eat the same food, and
and then back to the non-living con1ponenfs of the
there isn't enough for both, both may have access
ecosystem in a more or less circular fashion. TIUs
to Jess food than they would if alone. They both
circular fashion is known as biogeochemiCal cycling
suffer a shortage of food
(bioj o,; living; geo for atmosphere).
Predation and parasitism: one species benefits,
2.7.1. Nutrient Cycling
the other is harmed. .
.
The. nutrient cycle is a concept that describes
Example : predation- one fish kills and eats
arasitism: tick gains benefit py suck]n . blood ; how nutrient;S move from the physical environm ent
to th e li in g rganisffi:S,. and subs u 1 tly recy 1
t is harmed' by losing blood.
back to the phY.,sical environment.
AIIRCJIIAI m :One species is harmed, the other
This movement of nutrients fr o m th
aHected.
enviro:unent into plants and anima ls and again
shades a small plant,
back to th environment is ess ntial fo r life and it is
of the smalJ plant. The
th vit ' l fun ti n of thf> ec l ~v of anv reo ion. In
1 rg : t1 (.
p rtiru' .r nvironment, t n1aint lJl .it ~~
u
fit or h a rm
a
su
.
ta
ed
m
ann
r,
theIm
tri
n
t
I
n
u
;t
r
1 t rsp
ala
d a d st bl .
.l.a

Y T M
t ra tions, the CQsts and ben fit s expen. n c d
b y efl cl1 Ra~er are. ex_a ctly th e same s tha t
they su~ to zero. It is not. deai how often this
happensmnature. Neutralism is alsosom ti.
. .b d
h
e m s
d esc:1 : as~~ e relati<:>nship between two .
speoes inhabl~g the same space and using the
same resources, but that have no effet.--t on each
othe;- _In !his _case, one could argue tha t they
aren t mteracting at alL

'l

...

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2.7.2.
L t u fir t study som
f th rn . t iU\port n
g s us cyd s; na~ely - wat ' orb nan nitr g~n.
(a) Water Cycle (Hydrologi )

Water as ~ important ecological


factor detennmes the struchue a d
fu
.
n
nchon of the ecosystem. Cycling of
all other nutrients is also dependent
upon water as it provides their
transportation during the vad~us
steps. It acts as a solvent medium for
their ~take. of nutrients b_y or_g_anisms.

son.
1\umu.!
and
miMrols
.
:.
..

OECOMt~

f ungl nnd _be; ttt'lll

The hydr<?logiccycleis the continuousciiculation


of water in the Earth-atmosphere s),stem. which is
driven by solar energy. Water on our plan~t is stored
in major reservoirs like atmosphere, ocearu, lakes,
rivers, soils, glaciers, snowfields, and groundwater.
Water moves from one reservoir lo another
by the pr ocesses of evap o ration , transpirati on ,
conden.s a ti on, p ecipit a f o n , .ep os i i0n , n o , .
infi ltra ion, and gro nd1 -ater fl ow.

Nutrient cycling_

T'_rpes of
}>

. ..

'

lI
\

.:

,. .. , J

\
t

~ .: ..:

I
I

I
I

~~
.,J":

..8

.' .

..

utr ent Cycfe


'

I
i

Based on the replacement period a nutrient cycle

is rt!ferre d to as Perfect or Imperfect cy cle.

A perfect nutrient cycle is one in which nutrients


are replaced as fast as they are utilised. Most
gasec s cy cles ar e generally consi dere d as
perfect cycles.
In contrast sedilnentary cycles are considered
relatively imperfect, as some nutrients are lost
from the cycle and get locked into sediments and
so become unavaila.ble for immedi_a te cycling.

~-

..
.

Based on the nature of the reservoir, there


are two types of cycles namely Gaseous and
sedimentary cycle
. . . -eou Cvc1e - where the reservoir is the
phere' or the hydrosphere, and
.

l
I

l
t

Water Cycle

..L__ _~------~---:----'

(b) Th~ Car~on Cycle


Carbon is a minor constituent of the
atmosphere as compared to oxyge~ ~d
nitrogen. However, without ca:rb. n ~mode
l.i.fi
u}dnotexist,
ca
1t1s 'l.al r
the production of carb hyd:at s thr gh_
phot synthesis by pl_an . lt 1 th 1 m t
that... dK,>rsallcrgam.r sul.:-t.m
- d oil t NA (d oxyri
u d

,._............ entary Cycle- where the reservoir is the


.
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bn

~oveslo

of photosynthesis, and then

of respiration and_decomposition
.nr.~-v-_ matter it returns back to atmosphere. It
art term cycl .
llft)re;:s

Nitrogen fixation on earth is accomplished in


three different ways:
(i) By microorganisms (bacteria and blue-greenalgae)
(ii) B rr.a. - c-in g L. d"uE- t1iz.l T':c-E.sses
factories) and

Carbon Cycle

'fe:~:Iizer

(~ii} To a limited extent by

atmospheric phenom en n
such as thunder and lighting

Some carbon also enters a long term cycle. It


The amount of Nitrogen fixed by man
accumu ates as u..'l- ecomposed orga.J c matter i
e
thro gl- in t:st:rial rocess as far e. ce ed ed
peaty layers of marshy soil or as insoluble carbonates
the amount fixed by the Natural Cycle. As
in bottom sediments of aquatic systems which take
a result Nitrogen has become a po11utant
a long time to be released.
..-.
which can disrupt the balance of nitrogen.
In deep oceans such carbon can remained buried
ltmay lead to Acid rain, Eutrophication and
for millions of years till geological movement may
Harmful Algal Blooms.
1ift these tocks abo e ~ea ]e';el. These rocks ma} be
exposed to erosion, releasing their carbon dioxide,
Certain microorganisms are capable of fixing
carbonatesandbicarbonatesintostreams.and rivers.~ atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium ions. These
_ Fossil ~such as coals, oil and natural gas etc. are _ include free living nitrifying bacteria (e.g. aerobic
Azotobacter and ana~r-eb-ic- Clo.sttidium) and
organic compounds that were buried before they could
be deoomposed and were subsequently transformed by -~ymbiotic rutrifying bacteria living in association
with legumi"nous plants and symbiotic bacteria
tiJ.ne and geofogical processes into fossil fUels. Whe-n
living in non leguminous root nodu le p1a ts
they are burned the catbon stored in them is released
( .g. .izobiui s ">'e I as 1~ e gr e algae
ack into tr..!! a ospl cr~ as carbon:dioxide.
Anabaena, Spirulina):
e ilrogen Cycle
Ammonium ions can be directly tak n up
itrogen is an essential constituent of protein
as a source of nitrogen by orne plan'ts, or are
a basic building block of all living tis~ue. It
oxidized to nitrites . or nitratPs by two groups of
CGDIIIIII.tuft!!&
y 16% by weight of all the proteins.
specialised bacteria: Nitro om na ba t ria pr m te
st~lt.: ~
l-'1} uf l ilHJ~t.'J
traJ fom''' iuH Jt i.l.ll~H J.
1 m nt 1 fonn c~ 1 not
th nfurther trnn form dint
t of the Jiving organisrns .
Nit rob ct r. -

...

-.

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'

i
I.
I

li~ of soil nitrates, being highly

I
i

rr

Iants.

.. ...

The main storage for phosphorus is in the earth's


crust. On land phosphorus is usual1y found in the
form of ~hosphates. By ~e proe~ss-of-~eathering
and eros10n pho~ph a e enter rivers and stre 2 ms
that transport them to the ocean.

(b} SulphurCyde

Sedimentary Cycle

Phosphorus; calcium and magnesium circulate


by means of the sedimentary cycle. Th~ element
involved in the sedimentary cycle normally does
et c_:de through the atmosphere but foJlows a
basic patte~f..flow ihrough erosion, sedimentation,
mountain building, volcanic activity and biological
transport through
of
bi!ds~ -

theexcreta marine

The sulphur rese1 :oir is L'l the soil and sed imeJ ts
where it is locked in organic (coal, oil and peat) and
inorganic deposits (py rite rock and sulphu r rock ) in
th_e formofsulphates, sulphides and organic sulphur.

It is released by weathering of rocks, erosion a 1


runoff and decomposition of organic matter and is
carried to terrestrial_and aquatic ecosystems in salt
solution.


Tilesulp ufcyc1e 1s mostly sedimentary exc~pt
two of its compounds hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) and
sulphur dioxide (S02) add a gaseous component to

(a) Phosphorus Cycle


Phosphorus plays a central role in aquatic its normal sed!mentary
.
.. cycle.
ecosystems and ater quality. Unlike carbon and
Sulphur enters. the atmosphere from se eral
g
i
xocpriman1y from l1 e atmosphere,
s ources !ike volcanic eruptions, combustion of fossi l.
- ---phorus occurs in large am0unts as a ~eral in
hat rocks and enters the cycle from erosion
g activities. This is the nutrient considered
Of excessive growth of rooted
oscopic plants in lakes. .

. .

,.. ..

In the ocean once-the . os ho s CI CC1Jm1 1a t?-~ 0


con?nental shelves in the form of insoluble deposi ts.
(\ ~~ r m. illi ons of ye<ns, th e c- u ~t a plat es 1i~ e freT.!-. lh e
r-..u
sea floor and expose the phosphates on land . After
m o re time, weathering '\'\~ill release them fr o rock - and the cycle's geochemical phase b e~s again.

2.7.3.

: :

lost to the 'ystem by being


y by stiff~ e run-off or ground
s
swell as oceans there are special
~ cteria ( .g. ;pseudomonas), which
.
.
nitrates/nitrites to elemental nitrogen.
llu n1tr g n escapes into the atmosphere, thus
mf 1 ting th cycle.
r,

. The ~eriodic thunderstorms convert the gaseous


rutr gen m the atmosphere to ammonia and nitrates
hi . 1. _ntu lly reach the earth's surface through
lf 1 a
n a d then into the soil to be utilized by

.J

fuels, from surface of ocean and from gases released


l?Y de.composition.Atmospherichydrogen sulprude
also gets oxidised into sulphur dioxide. A tmo ph ric
su1 phur dioxide is carried back lo th
r~ rth fter
being dissolved in rainwat r as weak u1phuric cid .

'.

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Sulphur Cy~Je
h source, sulph r i1 the form of
e u by r a t and inco porated
trOt: .. 3
ri of m e~ a r Cp OCESSeS in O S 1lphu r
b aring ?mino acid which is incorp01;ated in the
roteins of autotroph tissues. It then-passes through
e-g z.j, . g ood am.
.
bo nd in r j g 0
sm jc:; carrie
back to the soil, to the bottom of ponds and lakes
and seas through_- excretion and decomposition of
ea organic material.
The Bio-geochemical cycles d iscussed h ere
are only a few of the many cycles present in the
eco ys tem . Tnese cycle usually do not per ate
mdefe:tdent]y bu t interact with E.'ilCh other a some
point or the other.
1

. ~~
~:

...

Tlme -----~t..-

Ecol ogi cal Succession

2.8.1.. Primary Success i on


Jn primary succession on a terrestrial site he
new _si te is first colonized by a f~w hardy pio eer
species that are often m icrobes, lichens and mosses.
T e p ioneers over a f ev,r genera io .s <1 ter:l.e .. ab ita!
conditions by their. grow th and development.
These new conditions may be conducive to the
estab1ishrnent of ad ditional organisms that may
subsequently arrive at the site. The pioneers through
.d ecay leave patches of organic matter
their death
in which small animals can Hve.

The organic matter~ produced by these pioneer


species produce organic acids during decomposition
that dissolve and etch lhe substratum releasing
nutrients to the substra_tum. Organic d~bris
accumulates in pockets and crevices, providing soil
m hich seeds can become lodg d and gxow.
As the cmnmtmity of or-ganisms continue to
develop, it becomes more diverse and compe_tition
increases, but at the s am e time n ew ni h e
opportunities de elopE.-.
The pioneer sp des di nppear as th habi~
, t 1 di tim ~: c <P t;t.. ~.- n d i'J 'o~~iu d l
' F ' :c

~
d'
lh
1..,.,.
mnn
t
of the
r o g - s c.6, It, a . 111 g t o
r p en.
"
pr ceding c mn unity.

any

2.8. SUCCESSION
Succession is a universal process of directional
argc in \ C;g<:t aliun, u an ecologi al time ' 1
Succession oc~rs when a series of co~ unities
replace one another due to large scale des~ction
ei
r natural or manmade. This process continue~
one community replacing another community,_ tmtil
bl , matur community develops.
:, I s '- psugrc~s1v~ ~ t:!1cs of c l.allg~.::s
t l}, !>tJbli!:.hrn nt of a relatively stable
omr u ity.

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bet~m prim ry and secondarf
secondary successi n starts n a
,.,.,IP@.nped i1 alieady formed a t th ...ite.Thus
secondary succession is relatively fo ster as compared
to primary succession which m a y ft ej1 requite
hundreds of years.

lljlielldfm, th

s i n is the sequentiAl
f i ti
ommunities after the
2.8.2. Autogenic and Allogenic Succession
J
p rti I d struction of the existing
unity. Am tur or.intermediate community
When succession is brought about by living
d troyed by natura) ev*:?nts such as floods,
inhabitants of that community itself, the pioa?Ssis c:alled
h~ fires, O!,. storm~r by human intervent!_ons
au~c su~cession, while chnnge brought about by
outm'ae forces is known as allogenic Succession. _____ _
defoxcstation, agriculture, overgrazing, etc
abandoned farmland is first invaded by
2.8.3. Autotrophic a~d Heterotrophic
h a rdy species of grasses ~at can survive in bare, sun~cr~~oo

baked soil. These grasses may be soon joined _by tall


Succession in which, initially the green plants
grasses and herbaceous plants. These dominate the
ecosystem for some years along with mice, rabbits, - are much greater is ~antity is known as autotrpphi~
Succession; and the ones in whi the heterotrophs are
insects and seed-eating birds. .
greater in quantity is known as heterotrophic succession.
Eventually, some trees come up in this area,
Succession would occur faster in area e~sting
seeds of which may be brought by wind or animals.
in the middle of the large continen t. This is because,
0\'cr the year s, a forest community de_velop s.
here all propagules or seeds of plants b elongjng to
Th g an abandoned farmland over.a period .l?~comes
the different seres would reach much faster, establish
~ n- u.at
'y trees an is transformed mto a fores t
and ultimately result in climax community.

This

_. ::. :: ..:. ::.::.

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CHAPTER-3

TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS
he interrelations between organi_sms
and environment on the land constitute
~Terrestrial Ecology". Dl}e to variation in
the topographic features of valleys, mountains arid
sl pes, ertain differences occur. These differences are
reflected in both the material and biotic diversities.
Altitudinal and Jati tudinal vaFiations cause shh'is and
differ nces in the climatic patterns. Due to varied
c1i 2 e, the plant and anmal life existing in different
t r cstri 1 xeas ary .vhich result in differentiation
of ecosystem as segments within the large biosphere.
The mo~t m portan t Hm tingfactors of the terrestriaJ
. ecosystems are moisture and temperature.

is covered wilh fur for insulation. Insects have short


life cycles which are completed during _favourable
p _e riod of the year.

3.2. FOREST ECOSYSTEM


.

The forest ecosystem includes a complex


assemblage of different kinds of biotic communities.
Optimum conditions such as temperature and grolll!d .
moisture are responsibl e for thE esl List e of
forest communities.
The.natur.e.of soil, dimate and local topbgraphy
determine the distribution of trees an their
abundance in the forest vegetation. Forests mav-be
.
.
evergreen or deciduous. They are distinguished on
the 9asis of leaf into broad-leafed or needle leafed ..
coniferous forests in the case of temperate areas.
~

.. _...

.... .
.-

The v;ord hmdra means a "barren land" since


U1ey are found where environmental conditions are
. very severe. There are two types of hllldra- arctic
<!.fld a~pme.
> Di5tribution: Arctic tundra extends as a
continuous belt below the polar ice cap and
above the tree line in the northern hemisphere. It
occupies the northern fringe of Canada, Alaska,
European ~ussia, Siberia and island group of
Arctic Ocean. On the south pole, tundra is very
small since most of it is covered by ocean.
Alpine tundra occurs at high mountains above
the tree line:-Since mountains are7ou_n_d af"all latitudes therefore-alpine tundra shows day and
night temperature variations.
.
) Flora and fauna: Typical vegetation o(arctic
tundra is cotton grass, sedges, dwarf heath,
~illows~ birches and lid1ens. Animals of tundra
are reindeer, musk ox, arctic hare~ caribo~s,
lemmings and squirrel.
Most of themhave1ong life e.g. Salix arctica (i.e)
arctic willow has a life.sp~ of 150 to 300 years. They
are protectPd from chi11nes~ by the presence of thick
qmde and epic:lermal hair. Mammals of the tundra
region have large body size and small tail and ear
~ to avoid the loss of heat from the surface. The body

The forest ecosvstems


have been Classified into
.r
three major categories: coniferous forest, ter.1pera e
forest and tropical forest. All these f rest biomes are
generally arranged on a gradient from north to south
latitude or from high to lower altitude.

3.2.1. Coniferous forest (boreal forest):


~

)>

Cold regions with high rainfall, strong seasonal


climates with long winters and short s-ummers
aie characterised by boreal coniferous f~rest
characterised by -evergreen plant species _
such as Spruce, fir and pine trees, etc and by
aJli.mal::; ucl1 Js t 1 Jyn: , 'c lf, 1 , !'
f ,
porcupin~ squirrel, nnd am1 h.ibi;u\5 like Hyla,
Rana, et(!

. This is

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)i
ffiDo.!IH?Q
.nutri nts.
d r min ral deficient.
nt of large amou~t of
ugh th
il, without a significant
r-upward movement of ~''aro:l!t~
luble nutri nts lik calcmm, mtrogen
tas~ium which are leached sometimes
h<l>'~d the reach of roots. This process leav~s
n alkaline oriented cations _to encounter the
r anic acids of the accumulating litter.
The producti ity. and community stability of a
real f rest are 1 'ver than those of any other
forest ecosystem.
. 2..2. Temperate deciduous forest:

The

.
Temr era e e rer g r een forest:

3 . ~.3 .

~ummer,

r-

)>

3.2.5. Tropkal rain forests:


')>

Tropical rain forests occur near the equator.-

}>

Tropical rain forests are among the most diverse


and rich commun i ties on the earth .
Both temperature an d humidity remain hlgh
and more or less uniform . . .

)>
)>
)>

----- --

Tnese are commonly inhabitated by low broad


Jeafed evergreen trees.
Fire is an important hazar9ous factor in this
ecosystem and the adaptation of the plants enable
them to regenerate quickly after being burnt.

')>

The annual rain fall exceeds 200 em and is


generally d istributed throughout the year.
The fl~ 1y ~ed- .., .. ..";_:: ~:.: .. .....
The extreme dense vegetation of the tropical
rain fores s remains ertically stratified \Vith tall
trees often covered w ith vin es, creepers, lianas,
epiphytic orchids and bromeliads.
The lo west layer is an un d e ~s tory of trees,
shrubs, herbs, like ferns and palms.
tropical rainforests are red latosols, and
they are very thick.
The high ra te of leaching m akes the~e soils
virtuaily useless for agnrultural purposes, bu t'
w hen left undisturbed,. the rapid cycling of
nutrients wi thin the litter layer, formed due to
decomposition can compensate for the n atural
poverty oi the soil.
Undergrowth is restricted in many areas by-th-e--- lack of sunlight at ground level.

; -- sor-ot
)>_

)>

3.2.6. Tropical seaso!'al forests:


)>

3.2.4. Temperate rain forests:

- ~

The temperate rain forests exhibit a ma~ked


easonality with regard to temperature_ar.::l

-.

..

Tropical seasonal forests also _!<nown as monsoon


forest occur in n~gions where total annual rainfaJJ
is very hlgh but segregated into pron01mced wet
and dry perf'ods.
.
.
This ki.n.d of f01est is found in South East Asia,
central and south America; northern Australia,
we5tem.Africa artd tropical islands of the eaci.fic
s '-''] . ~ ;n Jndia .

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f.

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and coo}. moi t winters.

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> Farts of the :W.orld that have Med iterranean


type of climate are characterised by warm, dry

..
.

t~pera le lor~sts

are characterised by a
ra t ll'1 ~ -n ro d-le fe deciduo 1s
trees, which shed their leaves in fall; are bare
over winter and grow new .foliage in the spring.
t: p
c'p1 aivll s a riy unilom ll rou ghout.
~0 1c:
'T e ate
. r e~ s ilre p 0d ozo1ic a d
fairly deep.

Y.

biotic div rsity of t mpcrat rain fore ts


i~ high as comparerl tooth r t 'rnperate fon:.-st.
Howev r, the diversity of plants and animals is
much low as compared to the tropiCal rainforest .

--

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- i al.r~ for~sts
u tro
f fairly high rainfall b~at
iff r nce5 belween winter

__

...,

iph
are common h~re.
nimaJ life of subtropical forest is very similar
to that of tropical rainforests.

.3 . .INDIAN FOREST

TYPES

Indja has a diverse range of forests from the


rainforest of Kerala in the south to the alpine pastures
f Ladakh in the north, f~om the deserts of Rajasthan
in the west to the ev.ergreen forests in the north-east.
Climate. soil type, topography, and ele~ti?n_~re th~
main factors that determine the type of forest. Forests
aried according to their nature and composition,
"le _-pe of climate in which they thrive, and its
relationship with the surrounding environment.
Forest types in-India are classified by-Olampion
and .eth into sixteen type~.
-- 1 u r t
. . . (XU>.f>Jl-ferests '
.~. ~~ . . . rr.
+J:&}plc~ ",'e ~r --0

\ et evergreeniorests are folllld along the Western


Ghats, the Nicobar and Andaman lshmds and all
along the north-eastern region.lt is characterized by
tall,. straight evergreen trees. The more common trees
hat are fou:1d here are the jackfruit, betel nut palm,
jamun, mango, and hollock. The trees in this forest
form a tier pattern: shrubs cover the layer closer to
-n\e ground, followed by the short structured trees
and then the tall variety. Beautiful fern of various
colours and different varieties of orchids grow on
the trunks of the trees.
3.3.2. Tropical Semi-evergreen forests

> TEJilRESTRIAL E OSYSTEM -:.


3.3.3. Tropicall\loist deciduous forest - -

lv1oist d.eciduous forests are founr~ th


gh
cl'
. t.h
.
4
rou out
1
:.r.'.. ~~ ~ --~xc.e.e~. m ~ western and the lJ.9rt.h-western

regxon~. The trees are tall, have broad trunks;

branching trunks and roots to hold them firmly to


the ground. Some of the taller trees shed their leaves
in the dry season. There is a layer of shorter trees and
evergreenshrubs in the undergrowth. Th~se forests
are domina Led by sal sod te,ak, .along wH:h mango,
baxpboo, and rosewood .

3.3:4. Littoral and ~wa:mp


Littc:>ral an~ swamp foreSts.are found aio~g the
Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the delta area of
the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. They have roots
..t~at consist of soft tissue so that the plant can breathe
in the water.

3.3.5. Tropical Dry_deciduous forest

Dry deciduous forests are found throughout t1 e


northern part of the country except in the North-East.
It is alsofound in M adhya Pradesh, Gu a rat, An"dnra
Pradesh, Kamataka, and Tamil Nadu. The canopy
of the trees does not- oorma11y excee-d 2~ me res.
The common trees are t)le sal, a variety of acacia,
.and bamboo.

3.3.6. Tropical Thorn forests


. This type is found in ar-eas-:wi-thi:IJ.ack soil: North,
Wes , Central, ;md South lnd ja. The trees do not
grow beyond 10 metres. Spurge, caper, and cactus
are typical of this regjon.
3.3.7. Tropical Dry evergreen forest
Dry evergreens are found. a}ong Tamil Nadu,
Andhra Pradesh and Kama taka -coast. It is mainly
hard-leaved evergr~en trees with fragrant flowers,
along with a few deciduous ~rees.

are

Semi-evergreen forests
folind in the Westem--~.3.8. sub hoplcitl-Broad: leaved forest-s
Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and the
Broad-leav~d forests .are found in the Eastern
Eastern Himalayas. Such forests have a mixture of
Himalayas and the Western Ghats, along the Silent
the wet evergreen trees and the moist dedd"uous
Valley. There is a marked difference in th~ forin of
trees. The for~t is dense and is filled with a large . vegetation in the .two areas. In the Silent VaHey, the
ariety of trees of both types.
poonspar, cinnamon, rhododendron, and fragrant
grass are predominant". _In the Eastern Himalayas,
the flora has been badly affected by the shifting
cultivation and forest fires. These wet forests
consist miliuy of ev~~green trees witha sprinkling
of deciduous here and there. There ur oak, ~ er,
chestnut, birch, and cherry trees. There ~re a la.q;e
variety of orchids, bamboo and creepers.
~---~-----------------------

----- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

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im I Y n ry temp rate rest

chir,
- , amla,

ons.
ev.~!l"t ft.rtSts no

y have a prolonged

cold winter. It generally


.UII.-!.-...n.
s ith shining leaves that have
Th
forests are round in the
...,.,V111.,~r Hills and foothillsof the Himalayas up to a
.
.
.....u~t of 1000 metres.-

Joo .

ontane Wet temperate forests


In _the North, Montane wet temperate forests
ound in the region tQ the east of Nepal into
. 1
a a Pra ~ - , recei ing a minimum rainfall
of 2000 mm. Jn the Nort.h, there are three ]ayers of
st : t.I- c: higher ayer as mainly conifero s, lhe
middle layer has deciduous trees such as the oak
. d h~ le> e~t a ?er s c0ve ed bv r ododend on
and ch~_mpa.
. .: .e - d 1 i 1 . Q
ir 2f 5 C
wgiri
Hills, he higher reaches of Kerala. The forests in
he
r _hern region are denser than in the South.
Rho9odendrons and a variety of ground flora can
be found here.

e:

3.3.1 . 1-Iimalayan 1oist ernperate ores1


This type spreads from the Western Himalayas
to the Eastern Himalayas. The trees found in the
western section are broad-leaved oak, brown
oak, alnut, rhododendron, etc. In the Eastern
imalayas, the-rainfa.l is much heavier and therefore
the vegetation is also more lush and dense. Thereare a large _variery of broad-leaved trees, ferns, and
bamboo. Coniferous trees are also found here, some
of the varieties being differE;Ilt from the ones ~ound

th.

. typ j found in Lahul, I<innaur sa.L:_ d


th rp
ftheHim
.
, IAI'.Uil, an
. .
alayas. fhere ar pn~c.lonlinantl
omf rous treeFJ; illong with broad-) aved trees s
s t;he oak, mapJe, and ash. At higher elevation fir
junlper, ~ odar, and chilgoza are found.
, '
3.3.14. Sub alpine forest

J:

Sub alpine forests extend from Kashmir to


Arunachal Pradesh between .2900 to 3500 metres.
In ~ Wef ~~~ Hithataya-s,-the veget~tion CUilSists~al Y o JUmper, rhododendron, willow, and black
currant. In the eastern p<rrts; red -fir, black juniper
bi~ch, ~d
are the COI_nmon trees-:-bue to heav;
rainfall and high humidity the timberline in this part
is higher than that in the West.-Rhododendron of
manyspecies covers the hills in these parts.

.Iar0

Moist alpines are found all alo;ng the Himalayas


an d on the h igher hills near t.l e Myanmar border. It
}las. a low scrupt dense evergreen fores( consjsting m ainly of rhod odendron and bircn.Mosses and ferns
cover the ground in patches. Tills region receives
heavy snowfall.

.. ,

: .-.

-;-:- -.
~-: '.

...

3.3.16. Dry alpine scrub


Dry alpines are found from about 3000 metres
to abotn 4900 metres. I:h..varf plants predominate,
mainly the black juniper, the drooping ju n iper,
honeysuckle, and willow.
Importance of Forest
From air we breathe, the food we eat to the paper
and wood we use; we depend on forest directly or
indirectly. With~ut forests rnc:>st of the are~ woul d
have been deserts

}>
Forests keep up the naturaJ balance.
}>
Forests purify the air
}>
Forests provide micro climate
}>
Forests indirectly play a role in precipitation_
}>
Forests prevent floods
r Forests prevent soil erosion
}> Forests provide inedidrial properties
}>
Forests provide us fuel ~d timber
> Forests provide raw materials for industries

Indiscriminate felfing of trees as a result of


urbanization, industri~tion, mi~g operations,
and use of wood fo, domestic and ~~er purposes,
hav~ caused heavy depletion of forests .

~-

3.3.15. Moist Alpine scrub

. 3.4. DEFORESTATION

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quirements

4)
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Causes of Deforestation

3.4.1: Causes

Wood is used as a raw materialby various


industries for making paper, plywood, fuiniture,
tp@Lch stids, box~s-, crates, packi.I)g cases, et~~....- - lnd~stries also obtain1:their raw IJ?.alerials. from
plants such as drugs, scents a.nd perfumes,
resin, gums; waxes, tuwentine, latex and rubber,
t~s, alkaloids,__bees wax.
This exerted tremendous pressure on forest
ecosystem and theirunreshicted exploitation for
various other raw materials is the main cause of
degradation of the forest ecosystem.

5) Other Causes

J S i P g cu fiv- tion.:

>

The in ~lf.eas~g demand !or fire\..,ood with ever


growing populatiqn inqeases greater pressure
on the forests, which results in increased
intensity o deforestation.
Raw Materials

In this practic~ a p~tch of. land is cleared, _


, . e SEI LJtio~. i~ ::nped an' L~ e ash L nixed w ith
the soil thus-adding nutrients to the soil.
1rus patch of lanci is used for raising crops for
- two to three.y~ars, and the yield is modest.

Deforestation also results from overgrazing,


agriculture, mining, urbanization, flood , fire,
pest, d_iseases, defence and communication
actiirites.._.... ...,_._._ .... .. .
--=-=-

)>

3.4.2.

How it affects?

)>
Closed forests (based on canopy level ) hav e
Then this area is C'l andoned and is )eft to recover
being diminished due to deforestation leading
.
.
its fertility, and the same practice IS repeated __ __ __ _t9 increase in degraded forests.
eJsev~ here on a fresh pece of )and .
"
r
Fores ts recycle moist u re from soil into their
All that is required for this method of cultivation
immediate abnosphere by transpiration where
is a set of simple tools, not high level of
it again precipitates as rain.
mechanisation.
> Deforestation results in an immediate lowering
2) development project:
of ground water level and in long-tenn reduction
..
.
.
..
.
.
of
precipitation.
The human population have increased
considerably, so with their requirements.
>:- Due to deforestation, this natural reuse cycle is
broken and water is lost through rapid run off.
Development projects like the hydroelectric
)>
Much- of the minlng acfiVlty
]ndia"is
projects, large dams and reservoirs, laying down
carried out in forest ~egions. The obvious result
of railway lines and ~oads are_not only extremely
is deforestation and erosion.
beneficial, but they are also linked with several
envirorunerital problems.
)>
UndergrO\mdmining also significantly den:udes
forests because timber is used for supporting the
Many of t11ese projects require 1mmen~e
roofs of mine galleries.
:.

dt:lvrt:5lation.

bem_g_

A large number of abandoned mines are l~g in


bad shape and are under extensive gully erosion
leading to degradation of the habitat.

Deforestation affects th~ biota and neighbo~g


ecosystems, soil (>rosion, land degradation,
alteration of ground wat~r cha.Jlnels_, polluti n
and scarce.

..

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.,

t NOt A

Vfla,....ation f r
lion
in
r t limat
, th y
f und mainly in th high
r st oflndi 's grasslands are mainly
f t pp
d savannas.
:"))t''Dt:l~ forznati 11 O~CupyJarge rea~ Of Sandy
oil; in west rn Rajasthan, where tl:te
is mi-arid, average rainfall is less than 200
.
. SEBIMA,DlCH1rN.
year with a dry seas~n oflO to 11 months, an~
bt6kAN;..CENC.t.ASI.
variation in rainfall.
_.
PHR~G ..sACCH.tMP.
1he soil is always exposed~ so~etimes rocky b.ut
more often s. dy' ith fi'<ed or mobile dunes . Forage
, A~ 1'HEM.A~l.Jrm.
is available only during the brief wet season. The
~o
TEII.Ar-ERATE. ALPIN
grass layer is sparse and consists ma~uy of annual
~:
~~EO ZON; OF
3-3
nss s cie~.
Grassii
n t . cc.:1tra nnd a~ tern p r.ts of .Rajas han,
where the rainfall is about scm rnrn-per year and the
1) .dry ~~b humid zone m1e Sehima-clichanthiunl
dry season is of six to eight . mon~hs, dry sav~a
type)
&r~:d. & co~ steJ:. ha;e ue.'e qp' . '?"h e Jig.
shade cast by the sparse population of trees like
):>
It covers the whole of peninsular India (except
W1t ri rosvfis t.j e ari ) fuvvurs the gro -.L
f
f'il g,ill).
the grasses.
):>
The thorny bushes are Acacia catechu, mimosa,
Zi:z.yphus (ber) and sometimes Deshy Euphorbia,
The major difference between steppes and
along
with low trees of Anogeissu labfolia,
sa 'annas is that all the fo nge in the steppe is
soymida febri.h.iga and other deciduousspe.cies.
provided only during the brief wet season.whereas
:-the sa an as forage is largely from grac::ses that no
,. Str irna (grass)is more p t:':;: cnt on grtl el an d th
only grow during the wet season but also from the
cover may be 27%. Dichanth.ium (grass) flourishes
smaJler amount of regrowth in the dry season.
on level soils and mr:~y co er 80% 0f the grou d.
3.5.1. Types of Grasslands .
2) semi-arid zone (The Dichanthium-cenchruslasi trrus type)
Based Ot:\ climatic conditions th~re are six types

.
'=-.,...

4)

~~

'_

. f.f
~

f.: ~

of grasslands found in the different regions of .the


Indian subcontinent. Four major types of grasslands
are discussed here.

):>

~ ~

~~
.

, ...

..

.r

lt co er the nor! ern portion of Guj;na t,


Rajasthan (excluding Aravallis), westem-H ttar
Pradesh, Deihl and Punjab.
The topography 'is broken up by h.ilJ spurs and
sand dunes.

.....~:

senegal, Calotropis gigantia, Cassia auriculata,


Prosopis cineraria, Salvadora oloides and
ziz.yphits NummuJar a wh ch make the sa anna
rartgeland look like .~crub .
3) moist subhumid zone(The Phragmitiessacchrum.::imperata type)
):>

'

'

..

It cov rs the Ganga alluvial plain in Northern


Jndia .

-.

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: TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM ~

produces pud~ling of the surface layer. In -t um


Jt reduces the J~fi]tration of water in~n:!he ~il
and accelerates 1ts run off, producing drought.

>
t'OiuaanastnCIh,....tk!llareAcada arabica,Qnlpa, Bu a monospenna. Phoenic
Zizyphus nummularia. Some of

tris

h
cue iepJaced by Borassus sp in the palm
vann~ especially near Sunderbans.
. The Themeda- ArundineiJa type .
)-

};>

This extends to the humid montan~ regions and


moist sub-humid axeas of Assam, M~ipur,
West Benga~ Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Himachal
Prade'Sh and Jammu and Kashmir.
The savanna is derived from the humid forests
on aero 1t f, hifting cultivation and sheep
grazing.

3.5.2. .Economic impor ance of grasslands


}>

India teems with arUmals of a11 shapes and sizes


fr
J1 -~a - Ll.ff 1 es ~o s~ eEp's and tJ ere ar
millions of them.

)>

The livestock wealth plays a crucial role jn


Indian life_ [t-is major source of ftrel, draught
power, nutrition and raw material for village
indushies.

~ Water and :Wind erosioncompletely deteriorates


~i}'assland mi-sH~chmate.}>

Intensive gra2.ing results in increased areas


of ba re soil, which creates a new habitat for
burrowing animals sucJ:t. as mice, jack-rabbits,
gophers, prairie dogs, locusts etc., which rendei
large areas of forage lands sterile.

3.5.4. Role of fire


r

fire plays an important role in the management


of grasslands.

>

n er moist conditions fire favours grass over


trees, whereas in dry conditions fire is often
necessary to maintai grasslands agains t l~ e
invasion of desert shrubs.

-; -B1Hr.ing irrc:reases the forage-yi e tds, e :g .:-


. Cynodon daotylon.

3.6. DESERT ECOSYSTEM


>- Deserts are formed in regions with

less than
25 em of annual rainfall , or sometimes in
hot regions where there is more rainfall, but
unevenly distributed in the annual cycle.

This huge mas~f-l~tock needs fodder for


s ~stenance ul ere is not e1 ough of it.

}>

Only about 13 million hectares in the_country


are dassified as permar1ent grazing lands. On
top of it, they exist in a highly degraded state.

>

Grassland biomes are important to maintain


the population of many domesticated and
wild herbivores such as horse, mule, ass, .CQW,
pig, sheep, goat, buffalo, camel, deer, zebra,
etc. which provide food, milk, wool, hide or
u:ansportation to man .

Lack of ram mthe mid latitude is often due to


stable high -pressure zones; deserts in temperate
regions often lie in "rain shadows'~ ;-that is, where
gh mountpins block off moisture from the seas . .

>

The climate of these biomes is modified by


altitude and latitude.At high altitudes__~d _?t .
greater distance from the equator the deserts are
.cofd ~dhot near equator and tropics.

};>

I.

These changes contribute to lhe reductiun of


energy flow, and the disruption of the stratification
and periodicity of the primary producers. It
results in a breakdown of the biogeochemkal
cycles of water, carbon and nHrogen.

>

Indian Grasslanps and Fodder Research


Institute1 jhansi and Central Arid Zone Research
institute, Jodhpur.

3.5.3. Impact of grazing


> Due to heavy grazing pressure, the quality of

}>

The perennial plant species like creosote bush,


cactus, fetrocactus are scattered throughout the
desert biomes.

>

In shallow depressed areas with s alt geposits


sarcobatus, geesewood, seepwood ~nd s,alt
grasses are common.

grasslands deteriorates rapidly, the mulch cover


of the soil reduces, microclimate become:; more
dry and~ radiJy invaded by xerophytic plants.
Due tu absencE: of humu!> co-..-~.:I, wi.J&era] soil
surface is Jie~vily trampled when we!~e.;s

-.

..

The winter rains of northern 1ndia ra~ely


penetrate into the region.

)> The cold season starts from about the middle of


. .. No~ember to the middle of. March.
)> This season is characterized by ~xtreme
varia t.ions of temperature and th e te peratur e
is frequently below freezing point at night.
)> Dudng Apdi to June . the heat .are _intense,
frequent sco rch ing winds preva il W i th grea t
desiccating.
)>
The rela ti ve humidity of th e atmosphere is
alw.ays low.
J.> The climate is hostile to all vegetahon, only plants
and .<! imals r()~se . s n. ~ ,ec:!3L nr:L"r a t i0. ~
being able to establish themselves.

.)>.

3.6.1. AdaptationsDesert plants are und~r hot and City conditions.


(") These Jants on sene wa r y fo J owi ng
m thods:
..... . c a:e. s y _h n.lvS.
> Leaves are absent or reduced in size.
Leaves and stem are succulent and water storing.
some plants even the s em conta ins chlorophyll
fer p otosynthesis.
Root system is well developed and spread over
:~rge

ar a.

The annuals wherever present germina te, bloom


and reproduce only _during the short rainy season,
and not in summer and winter. This is an ada ptiqn
to desert condition.
(ii) The animals are physiologica1Jy and
behaviorally adapted to desert conditi ons.
,.. lbey are fast nm.ners.
> They are nocturnal in habit to avoid the sun's
h~al during day time.
> They conserve water by excreting concentrated
urine.

>

Anjma}s ang birds usually have long legs to keep


tile body away from the hot ground.

Lizards are mostly insectivorous and can live


without drinking water for several days.
Herbivorous animals get sufficient water from
whkh they eat.

(a

"":-. '

'

' .

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Fl ora

These ada.pl a tions in general are of two types,


having two dis.tinct objects in view: to enable the
plant to obtainvat r, and to retain it vl.~n obtain d.
)>
The bulk of the vegetation consists of a kind of
scrub made up of shrubs and perennial herbs,
capable of great drought resistance.
)> There are "f ew trees and these are stunted and
generally thorny or prkkly, thus protecting
tl emsel 1es ag insl plan t feed ing anin a1 .
The proper desert. plants may be divided into
two main groups.
i) depending directly upon on rain and .

~ .

~[
(_;..:,~
-

ii) those depending on the presence of subterranean


water.

Tne first group consists of two types:


)>

depending dire!=lly upon on the rain are of two


types- the ephernerals' and the ram perennials'.
The ~phemerals C!re delicate annuals, apparent!Jr
ftee from any. xerophilous adaptations, havfug
slender stems and root-systems and often Jarg
J

)>

.,._ .. ..

..

::_Tl~ RRE .

TI<JAl. : '() y TEM .:,

--

ari<l ar as ur
t aff t d y nw
c, u c th y li inth r:lin-~;h< 1 low
>f th l tim oli1yan m o~rn t ai n sy t ms. .

allcl Pikkim. Th ('.


lnd i;m mon: n

'hara ct ri sed by x tr m cold w ath r and


d nud d terrain th y a r e n o t suj table for p lant
g r w th . Jso.l ated, s att e r d and ov r grazed
h e rbaceous shrubs ar found . mzing period is Jess
than 3-4 rri. rnths.
T he fl ora and fauna is unique to the are11 . Oak
p i n e, deodar, biich ana rh o Ooaendrori a"re~
importa nt trees and ~u s h es found there. M ajor
ani,m al indude yaks, dwa rf cows, and goats:

3.6.4. Cbar.a cters

>

Severe arid conditions - Dry Atmosphere


Temperatu re Jess
an 00 C for most o f the
period,' drops to - SOoC d u ring winter.

. to sOme of India's most magnificent


I :
, ~.!> - J S<ild ry :or a arisn\ c ir ,
0
e Great 1nd i~ Bustard .
n.m ng-th mammal fauna, the b lackbuck, wild
ass, chinkara, ca r~cal, and grou e and de ert fox
inhabit the open plains, grasslands, and saline
ciep .e~- on~.
r
The nesting ground of Flamingoes and the only
o 'Tl p_spulation of Asatic wild Ass lies in the
remot e pa rt of Great Rann, Gujarat.
,. lt is the mi gration flyway u~ed by cranes and
flamingos.
_orne endemic flo ra species of Th ar Desert
inc udes Calligonum Polyg onoides, Prosopis
cineraria, Tecomella undulate, Cenchrus billorus
and Sueda fruticosa, etc.

>

insigruficant m onsoonal- Mean annual r ainfall


Jess tJ-,an 400mm

>

Heavy snowfall occurs etween Io ember and


march.

>
~

o il type- sandy to sandy loam


i . I ;lt t J<! 1 : .. ~ : it:,h t a L.a ::1E.

~~

~---

Soil nutrient- Poor organic matter<:antent


Soil has low water r ten bon capncity.

>

Vind erosion is more comnton.

Jil r0 ~ gro\ n g peri o d ;


: JJnmer.

>

m o~ t

}"

wri : b fhe

Due to aforesaid e~ t reme cold conditions


grow th of veget a tion is slow and- of-stunted
nature.

Bi o-diversity
'old desert is the om of highly adaptive, rare
endangered fauna, such as Asiatic Ibex Tibetan
Arg_ali, Lad_akh Ud y al, Bh aral, Tibetan Antelope
( h nu ), Tibe tan Gazelle, Wi ld Ya k, Snow
Leop~d, Bro~ Bear, Tibetan Wolf, Wild Dog
-and Ttbetan Wtld A ss ('J(jang' a close relative of
~e Indian w_ild ass) , W o olly-hare, Black Necked
rane, etc.
.
'old deser~comprises o! alpine mesophytes an d
desert vegetation.
_

.D~ t mp rature z one : B tula utilis, Sali ~pp.


Juruperus recurva.
.
Alphine zone": Junipers, Birch, Rhododendron

3.6.3. Cold Desert/Temperate Desert


.

llu.

I
. ; d ladi.tk, ld1
nd" it i a lley of Him'<I'Chal
1..

I I tUrur
ra..._...,. and some part$ of northern Uttaranchal

. j Jl

r:,. . . ,"( ~

Pf'rpehHll snow :1 rw No ,rg t. ti n d.u


pennan ntly frozEn s il.

. . .., .

-.

. -.

f1

Int ';t It- J W. 1

(IWMI ),

nti.1l
dt f>t'rl
t

t t i n tnw r, rnr e (NAP),

Nnli

N<ti narMic: ion f r Cr .

aus s
'
)>

ulation pressure
1cr a ~e in attle poJ ulation
J
a~d a riculture
\elopment activities
f re tation

)>

Th

)>

Soil onservation in the a tchm nt of River


Vnlley Pr ject and Flood Prone Riv r,

)>

National Watershed D v "e }opment Project for


Rainfed Areas (NWDPKA),

)>

Desert Development Progr amme (DDP)

)>

Fodder and Feed Development Schemecomponent of Grassland D evelopment including


GrassReseives, Command Ai-ea Dev~ppment and
Water Management (CADWl\1) programme etc.

r e- _ en :0 an ... an D eg a
0
tlas of India, 2007, the perc.e ntage of country under
_ ry -, 's !s 69.6%. Th ~ te>tal re<l lll"!cleT going the
process of }and degradation in India is 105.48 million
~ec ares, w ich cons itutes 32.07 percentage of
Jndia's total land area.

)>

)>

)>

81.45 million hectares area of the country is


nc!u d~: sertification I and d eg r a d a I io n \ i II in
drylands). The details of drylands und e rgoing
desertification are given below:
~id
34.89 million hectares
Semi-Arid
31 .99 mil1ion hectares
Dry sub-humid
14.57 million hectares

Control measures
India as a signatory to United Nations
Convention to Combat f)esertification (UNCCD)
has c:ubmitted four National Reports to UNCCD
in the years 2000, 2002, 2006 and 2010. The fourth
report was submitted in the year 2010. The National
Action Programme for combating..desertification'
wa prepared in 200l_to take appropriate action in.
addressing the problems of desertific~tion.
Some of the major programmes currently
implemented that address issues related to land
plK-btion and desertification are-

Me h a tma
an hi National Rur I
Employment ~arant
S hem (M NR S),

3.7.2. Afforestation

.7.1. Status of Ind.ian desertification


~

ia ( ,JM ,

)>

The d ese rt region s of Rajastl <l n, Gujarat,


Haryana, Punjab and Trans-Hirrial ayan regions
are in scarce of vegetation.
Peo le equ re fj r e wood , ti . er and fe>dder
for their domestic consumptions nna livestock
Presence of vegetation revents the soiJ erosion
and modifies the hostile climate.
!' esf.' ~
f o es t a io is i:1c.: ~l-:.r i 0n c
to modify the climate, desertification and to meet
the demands of people living in that reg on .

Problems for Afforestation


)>
)>
)>
)>

)>
)>

Hostile climate.
Shallow, sandy and ston, soil
poor moisture holding capacity
Poor nutrient s tatus.
Wind erosion.
Grazing pressure.

Unless swift to conservationm asur s are tak n


apd proper employment opportunities are found ..
for the.Jocal people, the increasing density of the
human and cattle population in trust:lesert area will
inexorably lead to further desertification.

CHAPTft .. 4

AQ~ATIC ECOSYSTEM

cosyst ms onsistlng<?fwateras the.main

habitat are .kno~ as aquatic ~c?systems.


Aquatic ecosystems are class1fied based
n their salt content.
.

i)

Fresh water ecosystems~ The salt_content of fresh


bC' es is very low, a lways less than 5 ppt (parts
per thousand). E.g lakes, ponds, pools, springs,
streams, and rivers

Marine ecosv terns- the water bodies containing


salt concent~ation equal to or above -that of sea
-v.rater (i.e., 35 ppt or above). E.g shallow seas
ai 0 en 0 ean
at:J<is water ~cos_ stems- these 7ater bodP~
have salt c-<>ntent in between 5 to 35 ppt-. e .g.
estuaries, salt marshes, mangrove swamps and
forests.

emerging above the b9ttom mud such as se;sile


algae and their associated group of animals.

iii) Plankton:
This gr oup include bo th microscopic plants
like. algae (phytoplankton) and animals like
cr u staceans and protozo ans (zoop ankton)
foun d in all aquatic ecosystems, excep t certajn
swift moving waters.
T h _loco m otory ower f th 1 nK o s :s
limite d so that their distribution is controlled,
Ia .ely. b C1 ents the aq 1a ic eco.. :~ te s
iv) Nekton:
T his group contain$ anima s which are
swimmers.
'The nektons are relati\e y large and powerfu l
as they have to overcome th e w ater currents.

4.1. AQUATIC ORGANISMS


The aquatic o rganism s are classified on ihe basis
of their zone of occurrence and their ability to cross
these zones.
.
The organisms (both flora and fauna) i n the
aquatic ecosystem are unevenly distributed but can
be classified on the basis of their life form or ]oration
into five groups
i)

Neuston:

);>

These are unattached org~Tl1sms which Jive at


the air-water interface such as floating plants,
etc.

>

Some organisms spend most of their li,es on


top of the air-water in_terface .s uch as . : ~ er
striders, while others spend most of theu hme
just beneath the air-water interface and obtain
most of their food within the wat~r E._g., beetles. and back-swimmers.

The an imals ange in size fwm e s ': ming


inse cts (about 2.mm long) to the largest animals,
the bJue whale.

v)

Benthos:

The benthic organisms are those found living in


the bottom of the water mass.

~ Practi ally e ery aquatic e osystem con tains

well developed benthos.

4.1.1. Factors limiting the Productivity of


Aquatic Habitats
Sunlight and oxygen are most important
limiting factors of the aquatic ecosystems wh!as
moisture and temperature are the main limiting
factors of terrestrial ecosystem.
Sunlight:
~

P~riphyton:

1bese are u.)!an.isms which remain ~ttach~d to


tans . .nd le;ves of rooted plants ot substances

);>

Stinlight penetration rapidly diminishes as it


passes down the column of water. Th~ dep~
to which light Pf'netrates a lnke det rmmes the
extent of plant distribution.
Based on light penetration and plant distribution
they are dassi~e~ as photic and a_photic iones

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