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Terminal marking of power transformers is determined by ANSI standards. Twowinding transformers have terminals designated by H and X (e.g.

H1, H2, X1, X2,), where

H is the higher voltage-rated winding and X is the lower voltage winding. As viewed
from the high-voltage side, H1 bushing terminal will be located on the right. Three-ormore-winding transformers will have winding designation H, X, Y and Z, where H is the
high-voltage winding (or, the highest kVA-rated winding in case windings have the same
voltage rating) and X, Y, and Z are for decreasing winding voltage ratings.
The size, type, and location of a transformer dictate the amount of external equipment
associated with it. A transformer may be outfitted with devices that are not to be used at
the time of installation. Even if not expected to be placed in service, all auxiliary
equipment should be checked for proper operation to assure it is not defective and could
be utilized in the future if needed. This is especially true for a new transformer, in order
to verify that what has been received is fully functional.
All wiring on the transformer should be checked and verified prior to energization.
Check control panels, terminal cabinets, and cables routed to the transformer. Torque all
screw, nut, and bolt terminals for tightness, including the wires on CTs where they
originate at the connection boxes on the high-voltage bushings. If there is an UL tap
changer, its wiring must also be checked.
Wire checking a transformers auxiliary equipment is useful for several reasons. A
thorough check might prevent damage or destruction of a unit that is difficult, expensive,
or impossible to replace. This process also provides personnel an opportunity to become
familiar with the equipment. A thorough wiring check forces personnel to look at the
equipment in detail, serves as a cross check for drawings, and verifies that documentation
and prints actually represent the physical equipment. It helps assure that wires and
components are properly sized, secure, and ready for service.
8.4 HAND MEGGERING (DC Hi-Potential Insulation Testing)
Most hand-crank Meggers have output voltages from 250 to 500 volts DC. All wiring on
transformers should be Meggered at 250 or 500 VDC.
Meggering transformer wiring is emphasized because of the numerous small terminal
boxes mounted on large power transformers. Conduit connecting them together can have
moisture accumulation or water leaks. In addition, when wiring is pulled through the
metal conduit on a transformer, occasionally the insulation is scraped down to the bare
Also note that any box mounted on a vertical surface should have a small drain hole
drilled at the bottom in case water leaks in from a loose conduit joint. Larger boxes or
cabinets usually have resistive heaters and air-vent holes covered by screens to prevent