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A S h o r t Course

in Cloud Physics
THIRD

EDITION
by

R. R. ROGERS
and

M. K. YAU
Department of Meteorology,
McGill University, Canada

U T T E R W O R T H
E I N E M A N N

i"

Contents
Introduction

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1. Thermodynamics of Dry Air


Atmospheric composition
Equation of State for dry air
The first law of thermodynamics
Special processes
Entropy
Meteorological thermodynamic Charts
Problems

Water Vapor and its Thermodynamic Effects


Equation of State for water vapor
Clausius-Clapeyron equation
Moistair: its vapor content
Thermodynamics of unsaturated moist air
Ways of reaching Saturation
Pseudoadiabatic process
Adiabatic liquid water content
Reversible saturated adiabatic process
Problems

Parcel Buoyancy and Atmospheric Stability


Hydrostatic equilibrium
Dry adiabatic lapse rate
Buoyant force on a parcel of air
Stability criteria for dry air
The pseudoadiabatic lapse rate
Stability criteria for moist air
Convective instability
Horizontal restoring forces
Geostrophic wind and geostrophic wind shear
Slantwise displacement
Symmetrie instability
Baroclinic instability
Geopotential
Problems
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Contents

Mixing and Convection


Mixing of air masses
Convective condensation level
Convection: elementary parcel theory
Modification of the elementary theory
Problems

Observed Properties of Clouds


Sizes of clouds and cloud Systems
Microstructure of cumulus clouds
Cloud droplet spectra
Microstructure ofstratus clouds
Likelihood of ice and precipitation in clouds
Microstructure of large continental storm clouds
Problems

Formation of Cloud Droplets


General aspects of cloud and precipitation formation
Nucleation of liquid water in water vapor
Atmospheric condensation nuclei
Problems

Droplet Growth by Condensation


Diffusional growth of a droplet
The growth of droplet populations
Some corrections to the diffusional growth theory
Problems

Initiation of Rain in Nonfreezing Clouds


Setting the stage for coalescence
Droplet growth by collision and coalescence
The.Bowen model
Statistical growth: the Telford model
Statistical growth: the stochastic coalescence equation
Condensation plus stochastic coalescence
The effects of turbulence on coUisions and coalescence
Concluding remarks
Problems

Formation and Growth of Ice Crystals


Nucleation of the ice phase
Experiments on heterogeneous ice nucleation
Atmospheric ice nuclei

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Contents

The ice phase in clouds


Diffusional growth of ice crystals
Further growth by accretion
The ice crystal process versus coalescence
Problems

Rain and Snow


Drop-size distribution
Drop breakup
Distribution of snowflakes with size
Aggregation and breakup of snowflakes
Precipitation rates
Problems

Weather Radar
Principles of radar
The radar equation
The weather radar equation
Relation of Z to precipitation rate
Radar displays and special techniques
Problems

Precipitation Processes
Stratiform precipitation
Showers
Precipitation theories
Mesoscale structure of rain
Precipitation efficiency
Acidic precipitation
Problems

Severe Storms and Hail


Life cycle of the thunderstorm cell
Severe thunderstorms
Precipitation production by thunderstorms
Hail growth
Problems

Weather Modifikation
Stimulation of rain and snow
Cloud dissipation
Hail suppression
Problems

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Contents

15. Numerical Cloud Models


The governing equations
One-dimensional modeis
Two-dimensional modeis
Three-dimensional modeis
Model evaluation

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References

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Appendix

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Answers to Selected Problems

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Index

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Other Titles in the Series in Natural Philosophy

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