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Part I. Basic Principles.........................................................

...... 18
1. The Birth of Science.........................................................
....... 20
The Constellations as Navigational Aids.................................
........... 20
The Constellations as Timekeeping Aids..................................
........... 21
The Rise of Astrology...................................................
........... 26
The Rise of Astronomy...................................................
........... 26
Modern Astronomy........................................................
........... 27
Rough Scales of the Astronomical Universe...............................
........... 28
Contents of the Universe................................................
........... 29
2. Classical Mechanics, Light, and Astronomical Telescopes......................
....... 31
Classical Mechanics.....................................................
........... 31
The Nature of Light.....................................................
........... 33
The Energy Density and Energy Flux of a Plane Wave..............
............... 34
The Response of Electric Charges to Light.......................
............... 35
Astronomical Telescopes.................................................
........... 37
Refraction......................................................
............... 37
The Principle of the Prism......................................
............... 38
The Principle of Lenses and the Refracting Telescope............
............... 39
Re ection.........................................................
............. 41
The Principle of Parabolic Mirrors and the Re ecting Telescope....
............. 42
Angular Resolution..............................................
............... 44
Astronomical Instruments and Measurements.......................
............... 49
3. The Great Laws of Microscopic Physics........................................
....... 50
Mechanics...............................................................
........... 50
The Universal Law of Gravitation................................
............... 51
Gausss Formulation of the Law of Gravitation.....................
............. 51
Conservation of Energy..........................................
............... 52
The Electric Force..............................................
............... 55
Relative Strengths of Electric and Gravitational Forces.........
............... 56
Electromagnetism................................................
............... 56

Nuclear Forces..................................................
............... 57
Quantum Mechanics.......................................................
........... 57
The Quantum-Mechanical Behavior of Light........................
............... 60
The Quantum-Mechanical Behavior of Matter.......................
............... 61
Spectrum of the Hydrogen Atom...................................
............... 62
Angular Momentum................................................
............... 64
Orbital Angular Momentum........................................
............... 65
Spin Angular Momentum...........................................
............... 66
Quantum Statistics..............................................
............... 67
The Periodic Table of the Elements..............................
............... 67
Atomic Spectroscopy.............................................
............... 69
Special Relativity......................................................
........... 70
Time Dilation...................................................
............... 71
Lorentz Contraction.............................................
............... 72
Relativistic Doppler Shift......................................
............... 74
Relativistic Increase of Mass...................................
............... 75
Equivalence of Mass and Energy..................................
............... 76
Relativistic Quantum Mechanics..................................
............... 77
Concluding Philosophical Remarks........................................
........... 78
4. The Great Laws of Macroscopic Physics........................................
....... 79
Thermodynamics..........................................................
........... 79
Alternative Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics......
............... 80
The Statistical Basis of Thermodynamics.........................
............... 80
Statistical Mechanics...................................................
........... 81
Thermodynamic Behavior of Matter........................................
........... 83
The Properties of a Perfect Gas.................................
............... 83
Acoustic Waves and Shock Waves..................................
............... 85
Real Gases, Liquids, and Solids.................................
............... 88
Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena...................................
............... 92
Thermodynamic Behavior of Radiation.....................................
........... 94

An Example..............................................................
........... 97
Philosophical Comment...................................................
........... 97
Part II. The Stars..............................................................
....... 98
5. The Sun as a Star............................................................
.......100
The Atmosphere of the Sun...............................................
...........101
The Interior of the Sun.................................................
...........103
Radiative Transfer in the Sun...................................
...............106
The Source of Energy of the Sun.................................
...............107
The Stability of the Sun........................................
...............109
Summary of the Principles of Stellar Structure..................
...............111
The Convection Zone of the Sun..................................
...............112
The Chromosphere and Corona of the Sun..................................
...........113
Magnetic Activity in the Sun....................................
...............115
The Relationship of the Sun to Other Stars and to Us....................
...........117
6. Nuclear Energy and Synthesis of the Elements.................................
.......119
Matter and the Four Forces..............................................
...........120
Protons and Neutrons............................................
...............121
Electrons and Neutrinos.........................................
...............122
Particles and Antiparticles.....................................
...............122
The Quantum-Mechanical Concept of Force.........................
...............124
Nuclear Forces and Nuclear Reactions....................................
...........125
The Strong Nuclear Force........................................
...............125
The Weak Nuclear Force..........................................
...............126
Atomic Nuclei...................................................
...............127
Thermonuclear Reactions.........................................
...............129
The Proton-Proton Chain.........................................
...............130
The CNO Cycle...................................................
...............130
Temperature Sensitivity of Thermonuclear Reactions..............
...............131
Binding Energies of Atomic Nuclei...............................
...............132
The Triple Alpha Reaction.......................................
...............134

The General Pattern of Thermonuclear Fusion.....................


...............135
The r and s Processes...........................................
...............136
The Solar Neutrino Experiment...................................
...............138
Speculation About the Future............................................
...........140
7. The End States of Stars......................................................
.......142
White Dwarf.............................................................
...........143
Electron-Degeneracy Pressure....................................
...............143
Mass-Radius Relation of White Dwarfs............................
...............144
Source of Luminosity of a White Dwarf...........................
...............146
Neutron Stars...........................................................
...........146
Upper Mass Limit for Neutron Stars..............................
...............148
Neutron Stars Observable as Pulsars.............................
...............148
The Masses of Neutron Stars.....................................
...............151
Black Holes.............................................................
...........151
Gravitational Distortion of Spacetime...........................
...............152
Thermodynamics of Black Holes...................................
...............156
Concluding Philosophical Remarks........................................
...........160
8. Evolution of the Stars.......................................................
.......161
Theoretical HR Diagram...................................................
.........162
Properties of S tars on the Main Sequence.......................
...............162
Evolution of Low-Mass Stars.............................................
...........164
Ascending the Giant Branch......................................
...............164
The Helium Flash and Descent to the Horizontal Branch...........
...............166
Ascending the Asymptotic Giant Branch...........................
...............168
Planetary Nebulae and White Dwarfs..............................
...............169
Evolution of High-Mass Stars............................................
...........170
Approach to the Iron Catastrophe................................
...............170
Supernova of Type II............................................
...............171
Concluding Philosophical Remark.........................................
...........174
9. Star Clusters and the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram............................
.......176

The Observational HR Diagram.............................................


.........176
Luminosity......................................................
...............176
Effective Temperature...........................................
...............178
UBV Photometry and Spectral Classi cation.........................
.............178
Luminosity Class................................................
...............181
The HR Diagram of Nearby Stars...........................................
.........183
The H-R Diagram of Star Clusters........................................
...........183
Open Clusters...................................................
...............184
Distance to the H yades Cluster.................................
...............186
Cepheid Period-Luminosity Relation..............................
...............187
Globular Clusters...............................................
...............190
RR Lyrae Variables..............................................
...............190
Population II Cepheids..........................................
...............191
Dynamics of Star Clusters...............................................
...........191
Philosophical Comment...................................................
...........195
10. Binary Stars................................................................
.......196
Observational Classi cation of Binary Stars...............................
.........196
The Formation of Binary Stars...........................................
...........201
Evolution of the Orbit Because of Tidal ElTects 1.......................
...........102
Classi cation of Close Binaries Based on the Roche Model..................
.........203
Mass Transfer in Semidetached Binaries..........................
...............205
Energy Transfer in Contact Binaries.............................
...............206
Evolution of Semidetached System........................................
...........208
Detached Component = Normal Star: Algols........................
...............208
Accretion Disks.................................................
...............210
Detached Component = White Dwarf: Cataclysmic Variables.........
...............212
Detached Component = Neutron Star: Binary X -ray Sources........
...............215
Interesting Special Examples of Close Binary Stars......................
...........220
Cygnus X-I : A Black Hole.......................................
...............220
The Binary Pulsar: A Con rmation of Einsteins General Relativity...
...........221

SS433...........................................................
...............223
Concluding Remarks......................................................
...........225
Part III. Galaxies and Cosmology................................................
.......226
11. The Material Between the Stars..............................................
.......228
The Discovery of Interstellar Dust......................................
...........228
The Discovery of Interstellar Gas.......................................
...........231
Different Optical Manifestations of Gaseous Nebulae.....................
...........232
Dark Nebulae....................................................
...............233
Re ection Nebulae.................................................
.............233
Thermal Emission Nebulae: HII Regions...........................
...............233
Nonthermal Emission Nebulae: Supernova Remnants.................
...............240
Radio Manifestations of Gaseous Nebulae.................................
...........243
Radio Recombination Lines.......................................
...............243
Thermal Radio Continuum Emission................................
...............243
21-cm-Line Radiation from HI Regions............................
...............244
Radio Lines from Molecular Clouds...............................
...............248
Infrared Manifestations of Gaseous Nebulae..............................
...........251
Ultraviolet, X-ray, and Gamma-ray Observations of the Interstellar Mediu
m..........254
Cosmic Rays and the Interstellar Magnetic Field.........................
...........256
Interactions Between Stars and the Interstellar Medium..................
...........262
The Death of Stars..............................................
...............262
The Birth of Stars..............................................
...............265
Concluding Remarks......................................................
...........270
12. Our Galaxy: The Milky Way System............................................
.......272
The True Shape and Size of the Milky Way System.........................
...........274
Stellar Populations.....................................................
...........275
Stellar Motions and Galactic Shape..............................
...............276
M issing-Mass Problem...........................................
...............276
The Local Mass-to-Light Ratio...................................
...............277
Mass of the Halo................................................
...............278

Differential Rotation of the Galaxy.....................................


...........278
The Local Standard of Rest......................................
...............278
Local Di erential Motions.........................................
.............279
Crude Estimates of the Mass of the Galaxy.......................
...............281
The Insigni cance of Stellar Encounters...........................
.............281
The Theory of Epicyclic Orbits..................................
...............282
The Large-Scale Field of Di erential Rotation.....................
.............284
The Thickness of the Gas Layer..................................
...............287
Kinematic Distances.............................................
...............288
Spiral Structure........................................................
...........289
The Nature of the Spiral Arms...................................
...............291
The Density- Wave Theory of Galactic Spiral Structure...........
...............292
The Basic Reason for Spiral Structure...........................
...............298
The Birth of Stars in Spiral Arms...............................
...............298
Concluding Remarks......................................................
...........301
13. Quiet and Active Galaxies...................................................
.......303
The Shapley-Curtis Debate...............................................
...........303
The Distances to the Spirals....................................
...............303
Spirals: Stellar or Gaseous Systems.............................
...............304
The Zone ofAvoidance............................................
...............305
The Resolution of the Controversy...............................
...............308
The Classi cation of Galaxies.............................................
.........310
Hubbles Morphological Types......................................
.............310
Ellipticals.....................................................
...............310
Spirals.........................................................
...............311
Re nements of Hubbles Morphological Scheme.........................
...........313
Stellar Populations.............................................
...............313
Van den Berghs Luminosity Class..................................
.............314
The Distribution of Light and Mass in Regular Galaxies..................
...........314
Surface Photometry of Galaxies..................................
...............314

Velocity Dispersions in Ellipticals and Rotation Curves of Spira


ls.............315
The L CC V4 Law for Ellipticals and Spirals.....................
...............322
Dynamics of Barred Spirals......................................
...............322
Active Galaxies.........................................................
...........323
Seyfert Galaxies................................................
...............324
BL Lac Objects..................................................
...............326
Radio Galaxies..................................................
...............327
Quasars.........................................................
...............332
Supermassive Black-Hole Models for Active Galactic Nuclei...............
...........337
Observational Efforts to Detect Supermassive Black Holes................
...........340
The Nucleus of Our Own Galaxy...................................
...............340
The Nucleus of M87..............................................
...............344
Philosophical Comment...................................................
...........348
14. Clusters of Galaxies and the Expansion of the Universe......................
.......349
Interacting Binary Galaxies.............................................
...........349
Mergers.................................................................
...........353
Hierarchical Clustering.........................................
...............356
Rich Clusters of Galaxies.......................................
...............356
Galactic Cannibalism............................................
...............356
Hot Gas in Rich Clusters........................................
...............362
Missing Mass in Rich Clusters...................................
...............365
Unsolved Problems Concerning Small Groups and Clusters..........
...............366
The Expansion of the Universe...........................................
...........367
The Extragalactic Distance Scale........................................
...........367
Hubbles Law......................................................
.............369
Numerical Value of Hubbles Constant..............................
.............369
Naive Interpretation of the Physical Signi cance of Hubbles Law....
...........370
Philosophical Comments..................................................
...........371
15. Gravitation and Cosmology...................................................
.......372
Newtonian Cosmology.....................................................
...........372

The Cosmological Principle......................................


...............372
The Role of Gravitation in Newtonian Cosmology..................
...............375
Deceleration of the Expansion Rate..............................
...............376
The Age of the Universe.........................................
...............377
The Ultimate Fate of the Universe...............................
...............378
General Relativity and Cosmology........................................
...........380
The Foundations of General Relativity...........................
...............381
Relativistic Cosmology..........................................
...............384
The Large-Scale Geometry of Spacetime...................................
...........385
Space Curvature.................................................
...............385
Spacetime Curvature.............................................
...............387
Flat and Open Universes.........................................
...............392
Cosmological Tests by Means of the Hubble Diagram...............
...............394
Concluding Remarks......................................................
...........397
16. The Big Bang and the Creation of the Material World.........................
.......398
Big Bang vs. Steady State...............................................
...........398
Distribution of Radio Galaxies and Quasars......................
...............399
0lbers Paradox: Why is the Sky Dark at Night.....................
.............400
The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation.......................
...............401
The Hot Big Bang........................................................
...........403
The Thermal History of the Early Universe.......................
...............405
Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis........................................
...............406
The Deuterium Problem...........................................
...............408
Massive Neutrinos...............................................
...............409
The Evolution of the Universe...................................
...............410
The Creation of the Material World......................................
...........413
The Limits of Physical Knowledge................................
...............414
Mass-Energy from the Vacuum.....................................
...............415
The Quality of the Universe.....................................
...............417
The Asymmetry Between Matter and Antimatter.....................
...............417

Broken Symmetries...............................................
...............419
Local Symmetries and Forces.....................................
...............421
Supersymmetry, Supergravity, and Superunz cation..................
.............424
Philosophical Comment...................................................
...........428
Part IV. The Solar System and Life..............................................
.......430
17. The Solar System............................................................
.......432
Inventory of the Solar System...........................................
...........435
Planets and Their Satellites....................................
...............435
Minor Planets or Asteroids; Meteoroids, Meteors, and Meteorites.
...............437
Comets..........................................................
...............440
The Interiors of Planets................................................
...........442
Interior Structure..............................................
...............442
Mechanical Balance..............................................
...............442
Heat Transfer and Energy Balance................................
...............446
The Origin of Planetary Rings...........................................
...........448
The Atmospheres of Planets..............................................
...........450
Thermal Structural of the Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets....
...............450
Runaway Greenhouse Effect.......................................
...............454
The Exosphere...................................................
...............458
Planetary Circulation...........................................
...............461
Storms on Earth.................................................
...............464
Ocean Circulation...............................................
...............466
The Atmosphere of Jupiter.......................................
...............468
Magnetic Fields and Magnetospheres..............................
...............471
The Relationship of Solar-System Astronomy to the Rest of Astronomy.....
...........475
18. Origin of the Solar System and the Earth....................................
.......476
The Age of the Earth and the Solar System...............................
...........476
Radioactivity...................................................
...............476
Radioactive Dating..............................................
...............477
Exposure Ages of Meteoroids.....................................
...............479

Age of the Radioactive Elements.................................


...............479
Motions of the Planets..................................................
...........480
Keplers Three Laws of Planetary Motion...........................
.............480
Newtons Derivation of Keplers Laws................................
...........480
Dynamical Evolution of the Solar System.........................
...............483
Resonances in the Solar System..................................
...............484
Regularities in the Solar System Caused by Initial Conditions...
...............491
Origin of the Solar System..............................................
...........491
The Nebular Hypo thesis.........................................
...............492
Di erences Be tween Terrestrial and Jovian Planets: The Condensati
on Theory....492
The Sizes of the Planets and Their Orbital Spacings.............
...............495
Moons, Rings, and Comets........................................
...............495
Condensation versus Agglomeration of Presolar Grains............
...............498
Origin and Evolution of the Earth.......................................
...........499
The Melting of the Solid Earth..................................
...............499
The Formation of the Atmosphere and the Oceans: The Big Burp....
...............500
Continental Drift and Sea-Floor Spreading.......................
...............501
The Past and Future of the Continents...........................
...............507
The Emergence of Life on Earth..........................................
...........508
The Evolution of the Earths Atmosphere...........................
.............508
The Formation of the Ozone Layer................................
...............509
The Role of Life in Changing the Earths Atmosphere...............
.............510
Historical Comment......................................................
...........514
19. The Nature of Life on Earth.................................................
.......515
Growth..................................................................
...........515
Reproduction............................................................
...........516
Natural Selection and Evolution.........................................
...........516
Evolution Is Not Directed.......................................
...............517
Darwins Accomplishment in Perspective............................
.............518
The Evidence in Favor of Darwinian Evolution....................
...............519

The Bridge Between the Macroscopic and Microscopic Theories of Evolution


...........520
The Cell as the Unit of Life....................................
...............521
The Gene as the Unit of Heredity................................
...............524
Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA.....................................
...............526
Molecular Biology and the Chemical Basis of Life........................
...........529
The Central Dogma...............................................
...............532
Protein Syn thesis..............................................
...............532
ATP and Enzymes.................................................
...............537
Cell Division...................................................
...............538
Sexual Reproduction.............................................
...............540
Cell Differentiation............................................
...............540
Viruses: The Threshold of Life..................................
...............541
Cancer, Mutations, and Biological Evolution.....................
...............543
Philosophical Comment...................................................
...........543
20. Life and Intelligence in the Universe.......................................
.......545
The Origin of Life on Earth.............................................
...........545
Pasteurs Experiments on Spontaneous Generation...................
.............547
The Hypothesis of a Chemical Origin of Life.....................
...............548
A Concise History of Life on Earth......................................
...........554
The Earliest Cells: The Prokaryotes.............................
...............554
Sex Among the Bacteria: The Appearance of Eukaryotes............
...............556
Multicellular Organization and Cell Differentiation.............
...............558
The Organization of Societies...................................
...............560
Intelligence on Earth and in the Universe...............................
...........561
The Timescale of the Emergence of Human Culture.................
...............561
Intelligent Life in the Galaxy..................................
...............563
UFOs, Ancient Astronauts, and Similar Nonsense..................
...............563
Estimates for the Number of Advanced Civilizations in the Galaxy
...............564
The Future of Life and Intelligence on Earth............................
...........567
The Neuron as the Basic Unit of the Brain.......................
...............574

The Organization of the Brain and Intelligence..................


...............561
Hardware, Software, Genetic Engineering, and Education..........
...............572
Arti cial Intelligence............................................
.............574
Silicon-Based Life on Earth.....................................
...............577
Superbeings in the Universe.....................................
...............578
A Tale of Two Civilizations.............................................
...........579
Epilogue........................................................................
.......581
Appendixes......................................................................
.......584
A. Constants............................................................
...........584
B. Euclidean Geometry...................................................
...........586
C. The Greek Alphabet...................................................
...........587
D. The Periodic Table...................................................
...........588
Index...........................................................................
.......590