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UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF LANDS AND

ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES (UCLAS)


(A Constituent College of the University of Dar Es Salaam)

PROJECT ON SEWERAGE AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM DESIGN


CASE STUDY: KIJITONYAMA MPAKANI

Year II:

Semester Two:

GROUP FOUR: MEMBERS:


1. ANNA STEPHANO
2. VERONICA JENGE
3. LUMUMBA KASHURA
4. ABISSAI MKUYE
5. OMARI BAKARI
6. DOGLAS BENJAMIN
7. LIVINUS RUGAMBWA
8. MAKUSA EMMANUEL
Date: June 2003

DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING


P. O. BOX 35176

DAR ES SALAAM

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Special thanks are firstly due to our project supervisor Dr. Kasseva in
collaboration with Mr. Zakayo for their through guidance supervision during our
project preparation.
Secondly we do thank Kijitonyama Ward Executive Officer (WEO) and DAWASA
officers who contributed much in compilation of this project.
Lastly we would like to thank our fellow students for their strong operation which
simplified our task.

ABSTRACT
The project deals with the identification of problems associated with sewerage
and drainage systems at Kijitonyama (Mpakani A and B). The project also covers
proposed solution of the problems identified, which include modification of the
existing systems and the cost estimation of the project. The total cost of the
project is estimated to T.shs.66,346,266/=

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.......................................................................................i
ABSTRACT..........................................................................................................ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS......................................................................................iii
CHAPTER ONE......................................................................................................1
1.0 INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................1
1.1 OBJECTIVE..................................................................................................1
1.2 SCOPE..........................................................................................................1
1.3 METHODOLOGY..........................................................................................2
CHAPTER TWO.....................................................................................................3
2.0

LITERATURE REVIEW...............................................................................3

2.1

BASIC CONSIDERATION IN THE DESIGN OF SEWERS.....................3

2.1.1

Flow rate determination....................................................................3

2.1.2

Size and material of sewer pipe........................................................4

2.1.3

Ventilation of sewer...........................................................................5

2.1.4

Velocity consideration (Maximum and minimum).............................5

2.1.5

Design slopes....................................................................................6

2.1

SEWER CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE..................................6

2.2.1

PIPE LAYING........................................................................................7

2.2.3

MANHOLES..........................................................................................8

2.2.4

LOCATION AND SPACING OF MANHOLES.......................................8

2.2.5

COMPONENT PARTS OF A MANHOLE............................................10

2.3

STORM WATER DRAINAGE.................................................................13

2.3.1

STORM RUNOFF...............................................................................13

2.3.2

ESTIMATION OF QUANTITY OF STORWATER...............................15

CHAPTER THREE...............................................................................................17
3.0

EXISTING SITUATION OF THE STUDY AREA.......................................17


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3.1

LOCATION............................................................................................17

3.1.1

CLIMATIC CONDITIONS....................................................................17

3.1.2

POPULATION.....................................................................................17

3.1.3

SOCIAL SERVICES............................................................................19

3.1.4

SOCIAL ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES.....................................................19

3.1.5

Accessibility.....................................................................................20

3.2 WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION..........................................................20


3.3.1

EXISTING SANITATION SYSTEMS..................................................21

3.4

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT............................................................22

3.6

PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED AND PROPOSED SOLUTIONS..................23

3.6.1

Problems Identified.........................................................................23

3.6.2

Proposed solutions.........................................................................26

CHAPTER FOUR.................................................................................................27
4.0

DESIGN OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM.........................................................27

4.2

Basic Considerations..............................................................................27

4.2

Hydraulic design.....................................................................................28

CHAPTER FIVE....................................................................................................30
5.0

STORM WATER DRAINAGE....................................................................30

5.1

FACTORS AFFECTING STORM WATER QUALITY.............................30

5.2

DESIGN OF STORM WATER CHANNELS...........................................31

5.2.1
5.3

Determination of storm water Quality.............................................32

DESIGN OF CULVERTS........................................................................33

CHAPTER SIX......................................................................................................36
6.0

COST ESTIMATION..................................................................................36

6.1

COST ESTIMATE FOR EXCAVATION OF TRENCHES......................36

6.2

`COST ESTIMATION FOR PIPES.........................................................36

6.3

COST ESTIMATE FOR MANHOLES.....................................................37

6.4

COST ESTIMATION FOR STORM WATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM......38

6.4.1

Cost Estimate For Trapezoidal Channels...........................................38

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CHAPTER SEVEN...............................................................................................41
7.0

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS...........................................41

7.1

CONCLUSION.......................................................................................41

7.2

RECOMMENDATIONS..........................................................................41

LIST OF TABLES

Table-1 : Available Sizes Ranges Commonly Used Pipe For Gravity Flow
Sewers.........................................................................................................4
Table 2:

Materials For Sewer Construction.............................................7

Table 3:Manhole spacing as per IS 1742 - 1960........................................9


Table 4:The minimum internal dimensions of manhole chambers, as per
IS 1742 - 1960 are also given below.........................................................10
Table 05: Age distribution in the study area...............................................19
Table 06: Income Distributions...................................................................20
Table 07: Sanitation facilities used in the study area.................................21
Table 8: Method of disposing solid wastes practised in the study area.....22
Table 09: Cost Estimates for pipe works...................................................37
Table 10: Cost Estimates for Manholes.....................................................38
Table 11: Cost Estimates for storm water Trenches..................................39
Table 12:Concrete tiles for storm water trenches......................................39

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The major problem associated with sanitary sewage and storm water in many
developing communities is lack of proper drainage and sewerage system, and
this is due to poor planning of residential areas, lack of technical and engineering
construction.
As we know this sanitary sewage and storm water imposes great danger for our
health and environment, so we need to collect, treat and safely dispose.
Therefore lack of these systems for collection, treatment and disposal is a
problem because overflow may occur to the ground surface and cause
contamination of the environment.
Generally proper designing of sewerage and drainage system is required in order
to reduce these problems to extent that will not cause public disaster.

1.1 OBJECTIVE
The general objective of this project is to enable the students to practice the
knowledge obtained from the subject taught in the semester, especially sewerage
and drainage engineering fluid mechanics.

1.2 SCOPE

The scope of this project is to study the existing situation of wastewater


generation and collection system as general at Kijitonyama.
Also to identify the problems, proposing the solution to the problems and
designing solution of wastewater collection system for the case study area of
Kijitonyama.

1.3 METHODOLOGY
Different methods were set to collect various information and data, so that
methods used were
literature review
questionnaire interview
site visit and physical observation of the case study

CHAPTER TWO
2.0

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 BASIC CONSIDERATION IN THE DESIGN


OF SEWERS
In planning and designing sanitary sewers, there are actors which must be
considered separately for each installation.

2.1.1 Flow rate determination


The total wastewater in sanitary sewers is made up of three components.
Residential, commercial, and institutional waste water
Industrial wastewater
Infiltration
Sanitary sewers are designed for the following flows
Peak flows from residential, commercial, institutional, and individual
sources for the entire service areas
Peak infiltration allowance for the entire service area
Hydraulic design equation

Currently the manning equation is used most commonly for the design of
sanitary sewers. The manning equation is

Where,

1 2 3 12
R S
n
v

velocity, (m/s)

friction factor

hydraulic radius

cross-sectional wear of flow, m2


wetted perimeter, m

slope of energy grade line m/m

The recommended n value for the design of new and existing well
-constructed sewers is 0.0013. An n value of 0.015 is recommended for
the analysis of older sewers.

2.1.2 Size and material of sewer pipe


the principal materials used in the manufacture of sewer pipe are asbestos
cement, ductile iron, reinforced concrete, pre stressed concrete, polyvinyl
chloride, and vitrified clay.
The sizes of pipes made with these materials are presented in the table
below.

Table-1 : Available Sizes Ranges Commonly Used Pipe For Gravity Flow Sewers
Type of Pipe
Asbestos cement AC

Available size range mm (in)


(100 - 900_ (4 - 36)

Ductile iron (DI)


Reinforced concrete (RC)
Pre stressed concrete (PC)
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
Vitrified (VC)

(100 - 135) (4 - 54)


(300 - 3600) (12 - 144)
(400 - 3600) (12 - 144)
(100 - 375) (4 - 15)
(100 - 900) (4 - 36)

Minimum sewer sizes are usually specified in local building codes. The
smallest sewer used should be larger than the building sewer connection
so that objects passed through the building sewer will not clog the
municipal sewer.

Building sewer connection vary inside from 100 to

150mm (4 to 6 in). The minimum size recommended for gravity sewers is


200mm( 8 in) although 150mm (6 in) connections have been used in some
communities.

2.1.3 Ventilation of sewer


Ventilation in sewer is needed to avoid;
(i)

the danger of asphyxiation of sewer maintenance employees

(ii)

The build up of odours gases, and

(iii)

The development of explosive mixtures of sewer gases, principally


methane and oxygen

2.1.4 Velocity consideration (Maximum and minimum)


When the velocity of flow in a sewer is low, these is a tendering for the
solids present in waste to settle out. Because the deposited solids may
accumulate and ultimately block the flow, sufficient velocity should be
developed on a regular basis to flush out any deposited solids.
Based on past experience, current practice is to design sanitary sewers
with appropriate scope to maintain a minimum flow velocity of 0.6m/s (2.0

fts) when the sewer is flowing full or half full. To prevent the deposition of
sand and gravel a velocity of 0.75 m/s (2.5 ft/s) is recommended. To avoid
damaging sewers it is recommended that the maximum flow velocities be
limited to values equal to or less than 3.0m/s (10 fts).

2.1.5 Design slopes


Minimum slopes are often used to avoid extensive excavation where the
scope of the ground surface is flat. Minimum slopes based on Mannings
equation have proved to be adequate of small diameter sewers.
As the pipe sizes increase beyond 600mm (24 in) the minimum
practicable slope for construction is about 0.0008m/m. In warm areas
hydrogen sulphide will often developed as wastewater is transported in
sewers laid at minimum slopes. The development of hydrogen sulphide.
(i)

Cause odour problems

(ii)

Lead to deterioration of material containing cement

(iii)

Result in precipitation and sulphides of trace metals needed for


proper bacterial growth in biological treatment systems.

2.1 SEWER

CONSTRUCTION

AND

MAINTENANCE
Leakage from sewers as the result of the failure or blockage of a pipe can
lead to sewers health hazards and costly repairs. Care is essential
In the handling, bedding and backfilling of pipes and fittings
Jointing to minimize leakage and infiltration
Horizontal and vertical alignment, to minimize the risk of clogging and

Regular inspection and maintenance.


Trenches

Small mechanical excavators readily excavate pipe trenches up to 4.5m in


depth in solid. For greater depths, unveiling between shafts spaced at
intervals of 1.5 to times the depth may be cheaper than open trenching.
Excessive depths of small sewers can be avoided if the design provides
for a low cost subversive pump to be installed in a manhole to raise the
incoming flow to a shallower outflow sewer.

2.2.1

PIPE LAYING

A tree - like system of pipes in which numerous small diameter lateral


converge the flows from the building service lines into larger branch
sewers, which discharge into a main or trunk sewer. Pipes are laid at the
certain calculation slope so that the sewerage flows by gravity (Fig. 3.1.
pg.52.

Table 2: Materials For Sewer Construction

Type

Range

of

(mm)
cement 100 - 900

Asbestos
pipe

diameter Remarks
Gravity and pressure
types (autoclave

Clay (Vitrified)

100 - 900

covered)
Glazed and unglazed

Concrete (reinforced) 300 - 3600

gravity type
Circular, elliptical

pipe
Concrete

For special site condition

cast

in -

place
Iron (cast) pipe
Plastic

(solid

100 - 1200

treatment works
wall) For service lines and For service lines and

pipe

2.2.3

For pressure lines and

laterals

laterals

MANHOLES

The manholes help in joining sewer length, and also help in their
inspection, cleaning and maintenance. If the manhole covers are
perforated, they may also assist in ventilating the sewers.

2.2.4

LOCATION

AND

SPACING

OF

MANHOLES
The manholes are generally provided at every bend junction, change of
gradient, or line between two manholes is laid straight with even gradient.
Even when the sewer line runs straight, the manholes are provided at
regular intervals. The spacing of the manholes depends mainly upon the
size of sewer line. The large is the diameter of sewer, the greater will be
spacing between the manholes. The manhole spacing, generally adopted,
on straight sewer reaches, are given below:-

Table 3:Manhole spacing as per IS 1742 - 1960


Size of Sewer

Recommended spacing of manholes

on straight reaches of sewer lines as


per IS 1942 - 1960
45m
75m
90m
1230m
250m
300m

Diameter up to 0.3m
Diameter up to 0.6m
Diameter up to 0.9m
Diameter up to 1.2m
Diameter up to 1.5m
Diameter greater than 1.5m

Table 4:The minimum internal dimensions of manhole chambers, as per IS 1742


- 1960 are also given below
S/No
1
2.
3.

Depth
0.8m or less
0.8m and 2.1m
>2.1m

Min Size specified


0.75m x 0.75m
1.2m x 0.9m
Circular chambers with
min dia. of 1.4m, or
rectangular

chambers

with min. dimensions of


Min wall

1.2m x 0.9m
Circular chambers with

thickness up

min dia. of 1.4m; or

to

rectangular

(a) 1.5m

with min. dimensions of

depth

chambers

1.2m x 0.9m 20cm

(b) >1.5m

30cm

depth

2.2.5

COMPONENT PARTS OF A MANHOLE

The typical details of a manhole are explained here below:(i)

Access Shaft
The upper portion of a deep manhole is called access shaft,. Its
minimum size for a rectangular manhole is about 0.75 x 0.6m and
for a circular manhole, the minimum diameter is about 0.6 to 0.75m.
Its depth depends upon the depth of the manhole and the height
required for the working diameter.

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This upper portion (i.e. access shaft) is expanded in the lower


portion (i.e. working chamber) by providing an offset.
(ii)

Working Chamber
The lower portion of the manhole is known as the working chamber,
as it provides a working space for inspecting and cleaning
operations. Its minimum size for rectangular manhole is about 1.2m
x 0.9m and for a circular manhole, the minimum diameter is about
1.2m The height of this chamber should generally be not less than
1.8m or so.

(iii)

The Benching
I.e. the bottom or invest portion of manhole
the button portion of the manhole is constructed in cement
concrete.

A semi circular or a U-shaped

channel is generally

constructed, and the sides are made to slope towards it, as shown
in section A-A. The concreting is know as benching, and facilitates
the entry of sewage into the main sewer. If the branch as well as
the sewer meets at the same level at the bottom of the manhole,
channels connected with each other will have to be constructed.
Such constructions are made with easy causes.
(iv)

The Side Walls


The side walls of the manhole are made of bricks or stone masonry
or R.C.C. the brick masonry walls are simple to construct, and are
common adopted. The minimum thickness of the brick walls should
be 22.5cm (9"). The approximate thickness may however, be
computed by using the empirical thumb rule

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T=10+4d (for brick walls)


Where t = thickness of wall in cm
D= depth of excavation in meters
The thickness of R.C.C. walls will, however, be much less as
compared to that of brick walls, and can be designed by the used
structure methods of analysis. The R.C.C. walls, however, prove
costlier and require skilled labour, and as such, adopted only under
special circumstances.
(v)

Steps or Ladders
Steps are generally provided for descending into the manhole. The
steps are made of cast iron, and are placed staggered at a
horizontal distance of about 20cm and at a vertical centre to centre
distance of about 30cm. If the steps are made of double width,
staggering is not required. The steps should be fully in bedded in
walls.

(vi)

Cover and Frame


The manhole is provided with a cast iron cover and cat iron frame
at its top. The thickness of the frame is about 20 to 25cm and its
base is about 10cm wide. It is firmly embedded in the power and
the cover rests in the groove which is kept inside the frame.
The manhole cover may be rectangular or circular the circular
areas being very common. The size of the rectangular cover is
about 0.6m x 0.45m and that of circular cover being 0.5 to 0.6m in
diameter. The top surface of the cover is roughened, so as to avoid

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slipping of the persons working over it. The top of the cover carriers
an arrow marks that shows the direction of sewerage flow.
The weight of the cover and the frame varies between 90 to 270kg.
The lighter cover is adopted to carry lighter traffic, and heavier one
is adopted to carry heavier traffic.

2.3 STORM WATER DRAINAGE


Storm

water

drainage

include

street

gutters,

formed

channels,

underground pipes and storages, for collection, transmission and disposal


of storm water from residential business, commercial, industrial and open
land.
They are distinct from flood control works which are intended to mitigate
the damaging effects of rivers over flowing their banks.

2.3.1

STORM RUNOFF

Rain drops, are retained on vegetation or on the ground in natural or


artificial depressions, at a rate that depends on the prior wetness of the
ground. When the capacity of the surface to retain water is reached, the
rainwater that does not percolate into the ground flows across the surface
as run off. This collected in gutters via inlets to underground drains.
The peak flow rate at a point in the drainage system depends on the size
and other characteristics of the tributary areas, the average intensity of the
rainfall burst over a critical period (time of concentration).

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2.3.1 DESIGN OF STORM WATER SEWERS


The design procedures for storm water sewers are the same as that used
to design of sanitary sewers. The major difference is that the quantity of
storm water to be removed from a service area is determined on the basis
of a hydrological analysis.
The pipe drainage system follows the general fall of the ground to the
disposal area.
The drainage pipes are designed to flow just full for the peak run off rate.
Heavy storm run off carries grit and debris into the system, the minimum
pipe diameter is normally 300mm to reduce the risk of blockages. The
minimum design velocity is 0.75 m/s to transport the grit materials.
The requirements regarding depth of cover, manhole details and the
stepping down of inverts where the pipe diameter increases are as for
sanitary sewers.
Street inlets
The street inlets are called gullies or openings on the road surface at the
lowest point for drainage rainwater from roads and admitting it into the
underground storm water sewers or combined sewers.
These inlets are located along roadsides on straight roads at intervals of
30m to 60m. At the intersection points they are usually located in such a
way that the cross walks will not be flooded. Placing of inlets at the
corners not only requires the pedestrians to step across flooded gutters,
but also subjects the inlets to considerable traffic wear and damage.

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The inlets are connected t o the nearby manholes by pipelines (branches).


A street inlet is a simple concrete box having gratings or openings in
vertical or horizontal direction.
The inlet having vertical opening is known as the vertical inlet or the curb
inlet.
The inlet having horizontal openings is known as the horizontal inlet
(typical details are shown in figure below).

2.3.2

ESTIMATION

OF

QUANTITY

OF

STORWATER
When rain falls over the ground surface, a part of it percolates into ground, a part
if evaporated and the remaining part overflows as storm water or floodwater. The
quality of storm water is determined by using empirical formula. Rational method
is mostly used now days in small area. This method is recommended to a
maximum of 3 square kilometres.

Factors affecting storm water run off


Area of catchment
Slope and shape of catchment area
Nature of soil and its degree of porosity
Initial state of catchment with respect to wetness
Intensity and duration of rainfall
Atmospheric temperature, wind and humidity
Number and size of ditches present in the area.
Rational method
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The quantity of water is given by


Q

CiA

Where Q

storm water

Coefficient of run off

rainfall intensity (mm/hr)

Catchment areas size

A
tB

time of concentration

return period (in years)

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CHAPTER THREE
3.0

EXISTING SITUATION OF
THE STUDY AREA

3.1 LOCATION
Kijitonyama is one of the words in Kinondoni District , which is one among
the three Municipality of Dar es Salaam City.
To the north, it is bordered by Mikocheni ward, to the East it is bordered by
Mwananyamala ward. To the South there is Sinza and Mwenge is on the
western side. The place has no any industries.

3.1.1

CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

The area experiences tropical climatic conditions with temperature ranges


from 27oC up to 34oC. The highest temperature occurs in February where
as the lowest temperature occurs in July.
The rainfall pattern in characteristics of the whole Dar es Salaam city with
range from 80mm up to 1200mm. The mean annual rainfall is about
780mm.

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3.1.2

POPULATION

In our study area which covered Mpakani A and B, the population is


23,406 with age distribution as shown in the table below.

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Table 05: Age distribution in the study area


Age (yrs)
0 17
18 - 35
36 - 45
Above 45
Total

3.1.3

Males
3,312
2,872
2,733
2,383
11,200

Females
3502
3207
2889
2608
12206

Total
6714
5940
5761
4991
23,406

Percentage
28.7%
25.4%
24.6%
21.3%
100%

SOCIAL SERVICES

Kijitonyama ward is a planned area commonly used as a residential area.


The area is supplied with piped water supply and electricity. There is only
one market, 1 private hospital and one government dispensary. There are
also two primary schools in our study area.

3.1.4

SOCIAL ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

In our study area there is a total of 1903 residential plots in which some
of them include shops (as commercial buildings). The majority of residents
in our study area are employed 70% while the rest 30% are not. The
income distribution for the households in the study area is as shown in the
table below.

19

Table 06: Income Distributions.


S/no.
1
2.
3.
4.

Income per month (T.shs)


0 - 30,000/=
30,000 - 70,000/=
70,000 - 100,000/=
Above 100,000/=
Total

% of householders
10%
13%
41%
36/=
100/=

3.1.5 Accessibility
Since the area is well planned, access roads are available making the
area readily accessible from the old Bagamoyo road and other minor
roads present in the area.

3.2 WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION


A large percentage of households in our study area are connected with
piped water supply. However, the water flows on an intermittent basis.
Usually the water flows during the night.
The major source of is from Ruvu River. In our study area, water is mainly
used for domestic activities, commercial purposes and gardening. These
are no industries in the area

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Pipe Layout

The network of water supply pipes in the area is of looped. Network type.
This is facilitated by the fact that the area is well planned allowing for
proper pipe network to be laid.

3.3.1

EXISTING SANITATION SYSTEMS

The sanitation system of the area is offsite sanitation where by the


wastewater geared conveyed through the municipal sewerage system to
the disposal site.
The area is planned so that the accessibility to the area give the
availability of usual services like water supply, sewerage system and
proper space for refuse disposal.

The area has storm drainage open

channels of trapezoidal shape along the street roads. Sanitation facilities


include WC's with septic tanks system of about 80% and the rest 20% of
the households have pit latrines.
The solid wastes produced are of domestic type and large number of
households dispose their wastes to the community dumping sites which
later taken by municipal tracks to the solid wastes disposal site.

Table 07: Sanitation facilities used in the study area


Type of Sanitation
Septic tanks and soak away
Connected to sewerage
Pit latrines
Total

Percentage
70%
25%
5%
100%

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3.4 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


The methods used for waste management in Kijitonyama Mpakani A and
B are disposing of the solid wastes in the dumping places near by houses.
The most of solid waste generated in the area are rubbish like pieces of
glass, paper, plastics, piece of cloths and food remains. These result from
residential areas.
The refuse being generated if remain for a long time soon cause problems
like odour, flies, rats cockroaches, etc. The collection is not done
frequently hence there is poor hygienic condition in the Area. After being
collected wastes are taken to the site ready for transportation to the
disposal site. There are various methods of disposing the solid wastes
such as burning and direct to the surrounding. But most of residents use
dump.

Table 8: Method of disposing solid wastes practised in the study area


Method of Disposal
Percentage
Burning
1%
Burying
1%
Controlled Dumping
10%
Crude dumping
88%
Total
100%

3.6 PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED AND PROPOSED


SOLUTIONS
Problems Identified
-Intermittent water supply

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The water supply in our study area is intermittent leading to shortage of


water supply.

- Improperly Managed public stand pipes

Figure showing defective stand pipes.

23

-Improper management of storm water Drainage channels


The storm water channels are not property managed leading to stagnation
of wastewater from households. There is no regular cleaning of the
channels, which creates breeding sites for flies, mosquitoes and other
insects.

24

Illegal discharge of sullage to the open Storm water drainage channels. As


shown in figure above
-Poor solid waste management

The solid wastes in the study area are not properly managed. Crude
dumping is practiced leading to clusters of solid wastes at various places
not specifically designated for solid waste disposal.

3.6.2 Proposed solutions


(i)

Increase water supply to the area

(ii)

Proper management of storm water drainage channels

(iii)

Illegal discharge of sullage to the storm water channels should be


prohibited

(iv)

Establishment of local by laws governing the general sanitation in


the area

(v)

Proper handling of solid wastes in the area should be insisted.

25

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0

DESIGN OF SEWERAGE
SYSTEM

4.2 Basic Considerations.


Design lives are usually long (50 years).Such a long design life require
careful planning and strong control over the future development. In our
case, also have used design life of 50 years.
Sources of wastewater
Residential flow
The residential flow usually is based on 70-80 percentage of water
supply. Our area of study has industries or specific commercial
areas, therefore we opt the design flow for residential areas of 75%
of water supply.
Population
Our study are is about 20ha with houses this gives an average of
houses/hectare which lies within the range of mixed general
housing. Therefore the water consumption used is
litre/person/day.
-Population forecasting
The following formula is used:P Po (1 r ) n

26

120

Where,

Po

Present population

growth rate

time (in years)


50

4 .3

P 23406 1

100

future population

192106

But our area has 3806 plots.


This gives an average of 50 people per plot, which is not practically
feasible in country like Tanzania with a lot of spaces. Therefore we have
opted one maximum of 25 people per plot.
-Infiltration
This is sometimes fixed as a percentage of the dry weather flow in the
sewer (25 -40%). In our case c have opted 30%.
-Peak flows
The peak flow factor varies according to local conditions and number of
properties connected. Sometimes graphs are used. In our case we have
used the following formula.

Peak factor =

Where P

5
p

= population served in 100's.

4.2 Hydraulic design


Click at the Link Here To open the Hydraulic Design Tables
27

Open Design Table Two


-Velocity
A minimum velocity of 0.6m/s is usually acceptable but if the silt load is
very high, the minimum velocity may have to be higher. The maximum
velocity of 3.0m/s is suggested, but is not as critical as the minimum
velocity provided the flow does not become critical.
-Pipe size
This is commonly 100mm for domestic connections (occasionally 75mm)
and 150mm or 200mm for public sewers.
-Slope
Pipe slope should follow the ground slope so that excavation kept to a
minimum in larger pipes a

minimum slope is usually set at about

0.008m/m.
-Invert level
Lower invert level =

Upper invert slope of Length of

x
elevation
lower
sewer

Chamber depth
Upper and =
Chamber depth

upper ground= Upper


level
invert level

Upper and =
Chamber depth

upper ground= Upper


level
invert level

28

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0

STORM WATER DRAINAGE

The aim of storm water drainage system is to collect surface runoff and
discharge it in a sanitary manner, which cannot lead to health as well as
environmental hazards. In urban areas, this is particularly important since
most areas are paved leading to accumulation of storm water due to
reduced ground infiltration.

5.1 FACTORS AFFECTING STORM WATER


QUALITY
The amount of storm water is influenced by a number of factors, which are
therefore important in designing the system. These are:(a)

Rainfall intensity
The amount of storm water in an area depends upon the rainfall
intensity, the higher the amount of rainfall the larger the amount of
storm water discharge. This in turn affects the size of drainage
channel required for a given area.

(b)

Ground Water Table


Higher ground water table reduces infiltration and therefore the
amount of storm water for a given rainfall intensity will be large.
Hence the higher the ground water table the large the quantity of
storm drainage

(c)

The Nature of Soil


29

Different types of soils have different soil porosity. Porous soils


have higher infiltration capacity and therefore will have low quantity
of storm drainage.
(d)

Catchments area
The storm drainage system required will depend on the area
served. Larger area will require large drainages system where as
smaller area will need a smaller drainage system.

(e)

Ground obstruction
Obstruction to the ground prevent water from reacting the ground
so that ground infiltration will be low leading to accumulation of
storm drainage.

(f)

Atmospheric condition
The rate of storm water production can also be affected by
atmospheric conditions. Areas with higher temperature will have
higher evaporation rates and therefore considerably reduce the
amount of storm discharge.

5.2 DESIGN OF STORM WATER CHANNELS


Storm water is collected from the streets and admitted into the link drain
through inlets, which in turn discharge into the main drains. The main
drains are laid on each side of the roads. Water is conveyed by gravity
and taken in these channels which discharge into large water bodies such
as rivers or ocean.
In our study area, the maps were obtained and the contours were used to
obtained the level at various points of the drainage channel. This helped

30

to estimate the ground slope and therefore design the channel, which can
allow gravity flow of storm water.
The Mannings formula was used to determine the size and velocity of flow
for each estimated discharge.
From Q
But

AV

storm discharge (m3/s)

Cross sectional area of channel

Velocity of flow (m/s)

Hydraulic mean radius

Wetted perimeter

Slope of the channel

Mannings coefficient (in our case n = 0/0/3)

1 2 3 12
R S
n

Where

A
P

The type of channel used in our design is trapezoidal open channel.

5.2.1 Determination of storm water Quality


The Rational method was used to estimate the quantity of storm for each
sub area in which the quantity of storm was determined using the formula
Q

CiA

where;

storm water quality (m3/s)

Runoff coefficient (0.8 in SI units)

Catchment area (m2)

rainfall intensity (mm/hr)

31

(2)

The rainfall intensity i was determined by the empirical formula.

where

N
ti

Number of determined experimentally

Te

Time of concentration (min)

Retention period (in years)

The empirical formula (3) above varies depending on the allocation the
return period used and the rainfall duration used in designing. In our case
we used

76.2
for smaller channesl and
tc 10

101.6
te 20

for larger channels


the details for storm drainage system are as shown in Table (storm water
design)

5.3 DESIGN OF CULVERTS


Culverts are the conduits for passage of water under embankments of
highway roads or railways. The common problem, which faces culverts, is
clogging which can arise from silting and other materials, which are
normally bought about by the channels. This problem can be minimized by
provision of traps at the entrance to the invert.

32

The slope of culvert is determined by the topography of the site. It should


be however not less than the slope of the incoming channel.
In our design circular culverts have been adopted. The formular used is:-

Ax(2gh)

Cd

Where Q

The discharge (m3/s)

Cd

coefficient of discharge (0.64 for square aged

Cross sectional area (m2)

hydrostatic head above the centre of orifice (in m)

gravitational acceleration (9.81)

entrance)

For partially full culverts H>1.2D


Let the maximum available head
H=1.25D the
Hydrostatic head,
H

D
2

1.25

D
2

0.75D

From the discharge equation


Q

Cd

33

2 gh

D 2
4

Cd

but

Cd= 0.62

D 2
4

0.62

2 g .0.75 D

2 g .0.75 D

4Q
x0.62 x 14.715
D (Qx .53535)

1
.
87

or D

Hydraulic mean radius R =

A
P

D 2
4 x 0.81 D

The velocity of flow, V, is determined from Mannings formula

1 2 3 12
R S
n

(1)

For concrete culverts the self-cleansing velocity needed is 0.45m/s and


coring velocity is 5.0m/sec.

34

CHAPTER SIX
6.0
6.1

COST ESTIMATION.

COST ESTIMATE FOR EXCAVATION OF

TRENCHES
Excavation cost estimation is based on the actual volume of soil from one
manhole to another for each like.
The following formula is used for volume of earth, V,
V

(h1+h2)LW

h1

h2

Lower ground level - lower invert level

Horizontal distance between two manholes

Width

Where,

Upper ground level, - Upper invert level

Table 5 : shows calculations involved in cost estimation and the total cost.

6.2 `COST ESTIMATION FOR PIPES


Pipe cost estimation
The table below shows the pipe length and their diameter and their
respective cost estimation.

35

Table 09: Cost Estimates for pipe works.


Diameter
Total Length
(mm)
(m)
150
2855
200
1180
250
600
300
115
375
60
525
80
600
235
675
150
750
65

Unit
(T.shs)

Cost Total Cost

5,500.00
6,500.00
7,500.00
8,500.00
9,500.00
10,000.00
11,000.00
11,500.00
12,000.00

15,702,500
767,000
4,500,000
977,500
570,000
800,000
2,585,000
1,725,000
480,000

6.3 COST ESTIMATE FOR MANHOLES


Estimation of manhole construction cost is based on excavation of pit,
concrete base of manhole and manhole covers.
The average size of manhole
=

100 x 1000mm

Excavation cost for one manhole


=

500/=

Cost of manhole cover and frame


=

250,000/=

Cost for concrete base


=

10,000/=

Average cost for one light duty


Manhole

260500/=

36

Table 10: Cost Estimates for Manholes


TYPE
NO OF
OF MANHOLE MANHOLE
Light Duty
12
Medium Duty
34
Heavy Duty
10
Total

DEPTH
<1m
1<h<1.5m
>1.5m

UNIT COST
T.SHS.
260,000
350,000
450,000

TOTAL
COST
3,126,000
1,190,000
450,000
19,526,000

6.4 COST ESTIMATION FOR STORM WATER


DRAINAGE SYSTEM
6.4.1

Cost Estimate For Trapezoidal Channels

Cost estimation for this type of channel is based on the following formula
Cross sectional area of the channel, A is
A

1 d (b+b+nd+nd)
2

1 d (2b+2nd)
2

d(b+nd)

d=

depth of channel

Where,
B=

base of the channel

A=d(b+d)
Where n=1 for =45
But the volume of earth to be excavated is give by

37

X=d(b+d)L where L, length of channel

Table 11: Cost Estimates for storm water Trenches


TYPE OF CROSS
LENGTH
VOLUME
CHANNEL SECTION
OF
M3
(M2)
CHANNEL
A
0.28
2235
625.8
B
0.18
451
81.18
C
0.38
2919
1009.22
D
1.80
830
1494
Total Cost of Storm water is 3,210,200/=

Table 12:Concrete tiles for storm water trenches


Type of
Cross
Length (m)
Volume m3
channel
section
(m2)
A
0.0716
451
32.27
B
0.05695
2235
127.28
C
0.08286
2919
241.88
D
0.18144
830
150.595

38

RATES M3 TOTAL
(T.SHS)
AMOUNT
1000
1000
1000
1000

625800
81180
1009220
1494000

Unit Cost

Total
Cost

10000
10000
10000
10000
Total

322,700
1,272,800
2,418,800
1,505,950

55202250

CHAPTER SEVEN
7.0

CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATIONS
7.1 CONCLUSION
The proper sewerage system and storm water drainage system is an
important parameter for hygienic environment and is one of the basic need
for improving human health.
The provision of the system ensures a reliable hygienic Environment to
the Area to which the system have been designed.
Kijitonyama Mpakani A and B has been facing some problems of floods
during rain seasons and streets and roads are let open draining to the
streets during this period by some people to avoid the desludging costs.

7.2 RECOMMENDATIONS
In order that the designed system function at efficient level the following
are our recommendations.
To minimize the problem of people throwing solid wastes into the open
channels, people should be made aware the blockage which would result into
difficult of the system.
For long run operation and maintenance organization should be
encouraged in the neighbourhood in order to provide some funds, equipment

39

and manpower. However maintenance schedules should be prepared in order


to monitor and have the record of the cleaning and maintenance of the
system.
The schedule prepared should have a name of inspector, date, area
inspected some remedies suggested.
Increase water supply to the area so that to avoid blockage of system
Illegal discharge of sullage to the storm water channels should be
prohibited
Establishment of local by laws governing the general sanitation in area
Proper handling of solid wastes in the area should be instead
These are some of the things to be observed to make system run properly
and efficiently.
Regular cleaning of the channel should be observed
The streets should be paved and swept or cleaned daily to avoid the
accumulation of sand.

40