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QUESTION BANKWater Resources Engineering-I

UNIT-I
1. Explain Hydrological cycle with a neat sketch.
2. What are the different forms of precipitation? Explain the convective and orographic precipitations?
3. The normal annual precipitations of 5 rain gauge stations P, Q, R, S and T are respectively 125, 102,
76, 113 & 137 cm. During a particular storm the precipitations recorded by stations P, Q, R, and S are
13.2, 9.2, 6.8 and 10.2 cm respectively. Station T was inoperative during that storm. Estimate the rainfall
at station T during that storm.
4. Explain mass curve, Hyetograph and Double Mass Curve.
Objective Questions
Choose the correct answers
1 .Orographic precipitation occurs due to air masses being lifted to higher altitudes by
a)
b)
c)
d)

The density difference of air masses


A frontal action
The presence of mountain barriers
Extra tropical cyclones

2. Intensity of Drizzle
a) <2 mm/h

b) <4mm/h

c) <1mm/h d) <0.5 mm/h

3. Which of the following is non-recording rain gauge


a) Float

b) Symonss

c) Wight bucket

d) Tipping bucket

4. If a lump of Ice size is more than 8 mm, what form of precipitation it is


a) Sleet

b) Glaze

c) Hail

d) Snow

5. which of the following rain gauge, it empties when its storage reaches to preset maximum level
a) Float

b) Symonss

Fill in the blanks

c) Wight bucket

d) Tipping bucket

1.Water Budget equation.


2. Catchment area is separated from its neighboring areas by a ridge called.
3. The quantities of water going through various indivdiuial paths of the hydrologic cycle can be
expressed by a .equation
4. As per Indian Standards, One rain gauge station requires Km2 plain areas.
5.Hytograph is plot of ..vs

UNIT-II
1.What are the factors affecting the evaporation?
2. Explain Energy budget method and water budget method to determine the evaporation.
3. The mass curve coordinates of a rain fall duration 100 minutes is given below, if the catchment had
initial loss 0.6 cm and a -index of 0.6 cm /h. Calculate the total surface runoff from the catchment?
Time
0
Cumulative
0
rain fall
4. Explain the following terms

20

40

60

80

100

0.5

1.2

2.6

3.3

3.5

a) Disadvantages of infiltrometers
b) Field Capacity and PWP
c) Infiltration Capacity
d) Interception loss
5. A) what are the Infiltration indices?
B) What are the factors affecting infiltration?

Objective Questions

1.AET stands for


2.Soil moisture at ,the AET is equal to PET .
3. Class A & ISI Pans placed over a wooden platform to enable .
4. Meyers equations for evaporation.
5. Reflection coefficient (albedo r)for water surface

Choose the Correct answers


1. Expression for Daltons law of evaporation EL =
a) (ew-ea)

b) k ew ea

c ) K(ew-ea)

d) K(ew+ ea)

2. Lysimeter is used to measure


a) Infiltration

b) Evaporation

c) Evapotranspiration

d) Vapour Pressure

3. If ew<ea what will be affect


a) Infiltration

b) Evaporation

c) Condensation

d) Transpiration

4 .Pan coefficient of sunken pan


a) 0.78

b) 0.56

c) 0.92 d) 0.73

5. For up to what percentage of soil moisture can drop in clay soils even though AET= PET.
a) 45 %

b) 65 %

c) 50%

d) 55%

UNIT-III
1. What are the factors affecting the runoff?
2. Explain the following terms
a) Distinguish between Hyetograph and Hydrograph
b)Interflow
c) Unit Hydrograph
d) S-Hydrograph
3. Explain the method for Base flow separation.

4. Explain the procedure of using a Unit Hydrograph to develop the flood hydrograph due to a storm in
catchment.
5. Explain the term Rainfall Excess (ER). How is ERH of storm obtained?

Objective Questions
1. Base flow separation is performed
a) On a unit hydrograph to get the direct runoff hydrograph
b) On a flood hydrograph to obtain the magnitude of effective rainfall
c) On flood hydrograph to obtain rainfall hydrograph
d) On hydrograph of effluent stream only
2. A unit hydrograph has
a) one unit of peak discharge

b) one unit of rainfall duration

c) one unit of direct runoff

d) one unit of time base of direct runoff

3. for a given storm, other factors remains same


a) Basins having low drainage density give smaller peaks in flood hydrographs
b) Basins having larger drainage density give smaller flood peaks
c) low drainage density basins give shorter time base of hydrograph
d) the flood peak is independent of the drainage density
4. An instantaneous unit hydrograph is a direct runoff hydrograph
a) of 1 cm magnitude due to rainfall excess of 1-h hydrograph
b) that occurs instantaneously due to a unit rainfall excess of duration D h
c) of unit rainfall excess precipitating instantaneously over the catchment
d) occurring at any instant in a long storm
5. What is the Time lag
a) time interval between two inflection points
b) time interval between centre of mass of rain fall and center of mass of hydrograph
c) time interval to reach the peak flood
d) time interval to reach the recession limb inflection point.

Fill in the blanks


1. Drainage density is the ratio
2. Starting point the recession limb represents .
3. losses are to be subtracted from hyetograph to get effective rainfall
hyetograph.
4. Meaning of 6 h unit hydrograph
5. The ordinate of the IUH of a catchment at any time t is the slope of the ..of intensity 1 cm/h.

UNIT-IV
1. Explain details about Darcys law.
2. what are the forms of sub surface water and explain with neat sketch.
3. Explain the following terms.
a) Specific yield
b) Storage coefficient
c) Confined and unconfined aquifers.
4. What are the different types of wells .explain the term Specific capacity.

Objective Questions
1. A Geological Formation which may contain water but is essentially impermeable to the flow

of water through is known an


a) Aquifer

b) Aquifuge

c) Aquitard

d) Aquiclude

2. The specific storage is


a) Storage coefficient/ aquifer depth
b) Same as specific yield
c) Specific capacity per unit depth of aquifer
d) porosity-specific retention

3. Specific capacity is
a) a constant for a given soil
b) Depends on aquifer characteristics only
c) Increase with discharge rate
d) Decrease with time from the start of pumping
4. The discharge per unit draw down at a well is known as
a) Specific yield b) specific storage c) safe yield d) specific capacity
5. When there is an increase in the atmospheric pressure, the water level in a well penetrating a
confined aquifer
a) Decrease b) increase c) does not undergo any change d) depending on the nature of aquifer
Fill in the blanks
1. Darcys law for ground water movement states that the velocity is proportional to

2. An unconfined aquifer is also known as ______________________


3. The amount of pore space per unit volume of the aquifer material is called
4. stream provides water to the water table.
5. The dimensions of the storage coefficient S are..