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Ths book and CD has been prepared to help students n ther studes of Bology. It has been desgned around the IB syllabus and the chapters correspond to the topcs n the syllabus for the Standard and Hgher Level Sectons.

Students takng the Bology exam at Standard Level need to study all the materal n Chapters 1 to 6 and choose two Optons from Chapters 12 to 18. Students takng the Bology exam at Hgher Level need to study all the materal n chapters 1 to 11 and choose two Optons from Chapters 15 to 19. For more detals, please consult the IBO Syllabus Gude.

Ths book s ntended as a framework for studyng ths course. However, please be aware that, to obtan the best possble results, t s necessary to study as wde a range of resources as possble. Ths should nclude other meda, such as nternet sources.

In partcular, your own practcal work wll assst you n developng an understandng as well as an apprecaton of the depth and rchness of Bology. Some further materals are beng developed and nformaton can be found at

It s mportant to consder both TOK and Internatonalsm when studyng any IB subject. Some TOK consderatons have been ncluded where approprate n the text but students are encouraged to explore the concepts further. Internatonalsm s woven nto the text and students are encouraged to share ther own examples wth ther class mates.

The Exercses at the end of the chapters and Answers n the back of the book are provded to help check understandng and recall of basc facts. They are not provded by the IBO and are not necessarly amed at IB level. Teachers and IB Coordnators can supply students wth past IBO papers to help them develop a sense of the level requred for the examnatons.

The Authors

Editors notE

Ths project has nvolved teachers, authors, proof readers, artsts and many other people on several contnents. It has been done wthn an extremely tght tmeframe and nvolved thousands of emals across the world and many dfferent software applcatons. We are pleased, and trust that you w ll also be pleased, wth the final product whch went to Press wth no known errors. However we know from experence that some typographc and other errors wll have escaped our proofing process and wll emerge as students and teachers start usng the books and CDs.

If you wsh, you can help us and yourself n the followng ways:

• Send us an email at with details of any errors that you notice

• Please visit for errata sheets which will be produced promptly when needed and be freely available as necessary

• Check our website and other publicity regarding our ‘Student Guides to Internal Assessment’ and ‘Volumes of Investigations’ for the Core, HL and Options in Biology, Chemistry and Physics. These materials are currently in preparation and are due for publication later this year.

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thE Authors

Minka Peeters Weem grew up n the Netherlands and started her nvolvement wth the IB at the age of 16 when she was nvted to jon UWC of the Atlantc n the UK. After her IB Dploma, she returned to the Netherlands to study Bology at the Agrcultural Unversty of Wagenngen where her studes for her Master’s degree nvolved research n Anmal Behavour, Pharmacology and a teachng degree. Mnka started to work for the Internatonal School of The Hague and has snce taught n Pars, Bahran, Hong Kong and Swtzerland. She accepted the poston of Head of School and commenced work at the European Internatonal School n Lagos, Ngera n August 2007.

Mnka strongly beleves n nternatonal educaton and supports the IBO n makng nternatonal programmes ava lable to students n many countr es, both n nternat onal and nat onal schools, ether pr vate or state. To Mnka, the last sentence of the IBO Msson Statement s the most mportant : “These programmes encourage students across the world to become active, compassionate and lifelong learners who understand that other people, with their differences, can also be right.

Christopher Talbot graduated wth honours n Bochemstry from the School of Bologcal Scences, Unversty of Sussex n the Unted Kngdom. He has a Masters Degree n Lfe Scences (Chemstry) from the Natonal Technologcal Unversty (NTU) n the Republc of Sngapore. He also holds a Certficate n Computng for Molecular Bology from Brbeck College, Unversty of London n the Unted Kngdom. He s currently teachng IB Chemstry and Theory of Knowledge n the Anglo-Chnese School (Independent), Republc of Sngapore. He prevously taught IB Chemstry, IB Bology, Computer Studes and Theory of Knowledge at the Overseas Famly School, Republc of Sngapore, where he was TOK Coordnator and subsequently Currculum Area Leader for the Scence Department.

He s the author or co-author of the Student Guides to Internal Assessment for use with the International Baccalaureate Chemistry, Biology and Physics Programmes and the Chemistry Practice Examination papers (IBID Press 2007). He has also wrtten books amed at the Sngapore Cambrdge A-level Chemstry syllabus and acted as a freelance Edtor for Oxford Unversty Press. He has moderated IB Chemstry coursework and s a qualfied IB Chemstry workshop leader.

Antony Mayrhofer graduated from the Unversty of Sydney wth a Bachelor of Degree Scence majorng n Bochemstry and a post-graduate Dploma of Educaton. He has been teachng Internatonal Baccalaureate Dploma Programme Bology snce 1990. He has been an assstant examner of Scrpts snce 1996 and has been a Senor Moderator of Bology Internal Assessment snce 2000. He was a member of the currculum revew commttee that produced IB Bology Subject Gudes ncludng the new Bology Gude for exams from 2009 onwards. He has been a Deputy Chef Examner of Bology snce 2002 and as such s nvolved n the development of IB Bology currculum and assessment materal.

Antony s the IB Dploma Programme Co-ordnator at St Paul’s Grammar School, Sydney, Australa, one of the largest IB schools n the Asa Pacfic Regon. He had prevously held the poston of Head of Scence at the School. Antony has also had substantal nvolvement n the development of the NSW State Board Of Studes Bology Syllabus for senor students n that system. He s Char of the Assocaton of Australasan IB School’s (AAIBS) standng commttee.


IBID Press wsh to acknowledge the advce and assstance of the followng people n the development and producton of these materals to support the teachng of IB Bology.

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chief author

Mnka Peteers Weem

contributing authors

Chrstopher Talbot

Antony Mayrhofer

Proof readers

Jessca Mller

Chrstopher Talbot


Jule Rogers - Desert Sun DTP

Project management

‘Scence Teachng And Resources’

Photographs, artwork & graphics

Manohar Hullan Mchael Badenoch IBID Press Scence Teachng And Resources Slapton Ley Feld Centre n Devon (UK) The authors


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