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GRAMMAR

ALPHABET

ena

be

ce

D d

de

efa

G g

ge

H h

hac

jota

ca

ela

M m

ema

N n

ena

O o

pe

Q q

cu

erra

essa

te

U u

V v

ve baixa

W w

ve doble

X x

ics

i grega

zeta

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GRAMMAR

SPELLING AND SOUND CORRESPONDENCE


VOWELS
EXAMPLE

POSITION

pa

Stressed syllable

SOUND

[a]

ENGLISH SOUND

dem

Stressed syllable

[a]

sat, bad

dona

Unstressed syllable

[]

element, infant

sat, bad

home

Unstressed syllable

[]

element, infant

tren

Stressed syllable

[]

said, red

telfon

Stressed syllable

[]

said, red

meu

Stressed syllable

[e]

there, pear

ms

Stressed syllable

[e]

there, pear

[i]

thief, see

mil
noia

between vowels

[j]

yes, York

nou

Stressed syllable

[]

coffe, shone

arrs

Stressed syllable

[]

coffe, shone

dos

Stressed syllable

[o]

four, more

cami

Stressed syllable

[o]

four, more

penso

Unstressed syllable

[u]

fool, moon

[u]

fool, moon

between vowels

[w]

without

[b]

beer, both

ungla
cauen

CONSONANTS

barca
tub

end of word

[p]

tip, plate

casa

ca, co, cu

[k]

car, kidnap

llac

end of word

[k]

car, kidnap

cel

ce, ci

[s]

safe, obscure

acci
caar

a, o, u

lla

end of word

dit
fred

end of word

foc

212

[ks]

accent

[s]

safe, obscure

[s]

safe, obscure

[d]

dwarf

[t]

flat

[f]

fine
give, glove

gat

ga, go, gu

[g]

psicleg

end of word

[k]

car, kidnap

boig

end of word digraph

[t]

catch

gerro

ge, gi

[Z]

vision

guerra

gue, gui

[g]

give, glove

aiges

ge, gi

[gw]

Gwendoline

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GRAMTICA

EXAMPLE

POSITION

hora

always silent

SOUND

ENGLISH SOUND

[ ]

jugar

[Z]

vision

Kafka

[k]

car, kidnap

lser

[l]

long

collegi

[l]

parallel

llapis

[]

similar to million

moble

[m]

music

noia

[n]

never

canya

digraph

pare
quatre

[]

similar to onion

[p]

plate

[kw]

quiet

quilo

que, qui

[k]

qesti

qe, qi

[kw]

quiet

rosa

beginning of the word

[rr]

strongly trilled r

cara

between vowels

[r]

trilled r

enrere

after consonant

[rr]

strongly trilled r
strongly trilled r

carrer

between vowels

[rr]

anar

often silent

[ ]

car, kidnap

sol

beginning of word

[s]

safe, obscure

pensar

after consonant

[s]

safe, obscure

cosa

between vowels

[z]

preserve

passar

between vowels

[s]

safe, obscure

[t]

table

cent

silent

[ ]

molt

silent

[ ]

taula

vida

[b]

beer

Wagner

[b]

beer

whisky

[w]

whisky

[]

cashier

xicot

at the beginning

caixa

digraph

[]

cashier

cotxe

[t]

catch

taxi

[ks]

accent

examen

[gz]

York
canya
zero

digraph

exam

[j]

yes, York

[]

similar to onion

[z]

preserve

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GRAMMAR

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

Masculine / singular

el

the

Before a vowel or h

the

Femenine / singular

la

the

Before a vowel or h

the

Masculine / plural

els

Femenine / plural

les

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE

un

una

the

uns

some

the

unes

some

DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS

Near

aquest, aquesta, aquests, aquestes,


aix

this, these,
this

Far

aquell, aquella, aquells, aquelles,


all

that, those,
that

THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS

One owner

el meu, la meva, els meus, les meves,


el teu, la teva, els teus, les teves,
el seu, la seva, els seus, les seves

my/mine,
your/yours,
its, his, her/hers

More than
one owner

el nostre, la nostra, els nostres, les nostres,


el vostre, la vostra, els vostres, les vostres,
el seu, la seva, els seus, les seves

our/ours,
your/yours,
their/theirs

QUANTITATIVE ADJECTIVES

Invariable

Variable

214

massa
fora
prou
ms
menys

too
many or very
enough
more
less

how much, how many


quant, quanta, quants, quantes
so much, so many
tant, tanta, tants, tantes
many, much
molt, molta, molts, moltes
few
poc, poca, pocs, poques
plenty of
bastant, bastants
not so many, not so much
gaire, gaires

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GRAMTICA

INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES

Before
a noun

algun, alguna, alguns, algunes, cada


cada un, cada una
cadascun, cadascuna
tot, tota, tots, totes
altre, altra, altres
tal, tals
qualsevol, qualssevol
mateix, mateixa, mateixos, mateixes
cert, certa, certs, certes

some, any
each, every
all
another
such
any
same
some, a certain

Referring
to people

alg
ning
cadasc
tothom

someone
nobody
each of us, you,
everybody

Referring
to objects

alguna cosa
res
tot

something
nothing
everything

Pronouns

INTERROGATIVE PARTICLES

Before
a noun
Pronouns

quin, quina, quins, quines

What / Which

Referring to people

qui

Who

Referring to people

qu

Which

NUMBERS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

u (un, una)
dos, dues
tres
quatre
cinc
sis
set
vuit
nou
deu
onze
dotze
tretze
catorze

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
30
31
34
39
40

quinze
setze
disset
divuit
dinou
vint
vint-i-u
vint-i-dos
vint-i-tres
trenta
trenta-u
trenta-quatre
trenta-nou
quaranta

45
50
60
70
80
90
100
107
128
176
259
298
733
821

quaranta-cinc
cinquanta
seixanta
setanta
vuitanta
noranta
cent
cent set
cent vint-i-vuit
cent setanta-sis
dos-cents cinquanta-nou
dos-cents noranta-vuit
set-cents trenta-tres
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vuit-cents vint-i-u

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GRAMMAR

1,000
1,974
4,000
17,363
28,616
52,040
100,000
200,000
1,000,000
14,000,000

mil
mil nou-cents setanta-quatre
quatre mil
disset mil tres-cents seixanta-tres
vint-i-vuit mil sis-cents setze
cinquanta-dos mil quaranta
cent mil
dos-cents mil
un mili
catorze milions

ORDINALS NUMBERS
primer, primera
segon, segona
tercer, tercera
quart, quarta
cinqu, cinquena
sis, sisena

1r 1a
2n 2a
3r 3a
4t 4a
5 5a
6 6a

set, setena
vuit, vuitena
nov, novena
des, desena
onz, onzena
dotz, dotzena

7 7a
8 8a
9 9a
10 10a
11 11a
12 12a

NOUN AND ADJECTIVE NUMBERS


Plural is made by adding the following suffixes to a singular form
-s
-es
-os
-ns

pare, pares; petit, petits (father, parents, little)


casa, cases; alta, altes (house, houses, tall)
disc, discos; angls, anglesos (disk, disks, English)
germ, germans; catal, catalans (brother, brothers, Catalan)

Adjectives are placed after nouns


Example: una casa blanca (a white house)
Adjectives agree with nouns in gender and number
Example: un amic itali / una amiga italiana (an Italian friend)
uns amics italians / unes amigues italianes (some Italian friends)

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

216

singular
First
person plural

jo

nosaltres

we

Second singular
person plural

tu

you

vosaltres

you

singular

ell, ella, vost

he, she, you (courtesy form)

plural

ells, elles, vosts

they, you (courtesy form)

Third
person

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GRAMTICA

VERBS

FIRST CONJUGATION MODEL


INFINITIVE

PRESENT TENSE

GERUND

PARTICIPLE

trobar

trobo
trobes
troba
trobem
trobeu
troben

trobant

trobat

(to find)

SECOND CONJUGATION MODEL


INFINITIVE

PRESENT TENSE

GERUND

PARTICIPLE

perdre

perdo
perds
perd
perdem
perdeu
perden

perdent

perdut

(to lose)

INFINITIVE

PRESENT TENSE

GERUND

PARTICIPLE

prendre

prenc
prens
pren
prenem
preneu
prenen

prenent

pres

(to take)

THIRD CONJUGATION MODEL


INFINITIVE

PRESENT TENSE

GERUND

PARTICIPLE

dormir

dormo
dorms
dorm
dormim
dormiu
dormen

dormint

dormit

INFINITIVE

PRESENT TENSE

GERUND

PARTICIPLE

servir

serveixo
serveixes
serveix
servim
serviu
serveixen

servint

servit

(to sleep)

(to serve)

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GRAMMAR

IRREGULARS VERBS
INFINITIVE

PRESENT TENSE

GERUND

PARTICIPLE

anar

vaig
vas
va
anem
aneu
van

anant

anat

INFINITIVE

PRESENT TENSE

GERUND

PARTICIPLE

estar

estic
ests
est
estem
esteu
estan

estant

estat

INFINITIVE

PRESENT TENSE

GERUND

PARTICIPLE

ser

sc
ets
s
som
sou
sn

sent

estat

INFINITIVE

PRESENT TENSE

GERUND

PARTICIPLE

haver

he
has
ha
hem
heu
han

havent

hagut

INFINITIVE

PRESENT TENSE

GERUND

PARTICIPLE

poder

puc
pots
pot
podem
podeu
poden

podent

pogut

INFINITIVE

PRESENT TENSE

GERUND

PARTICIPLE

voler

vull
vols
vol
volem
voleu
volen

volent

volgut

(to go)

(to be)

(to be)

(to have)

(can)

(to want)

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GRAMTICA

IRREGULARS VERBS
INFINITIVE

PRESENT TENSE

GERUND

PARTICIPLE

saber

s
saps
sap
sabem
sabeu
saben

sabent

sabut

INFINITIVE

PRESENT TENSE

GERUND

PARTICIPLE

fer

faig
fas
fa
fem
feu
fan

fent

fet

INFINITIVE

PRESENT TENSE

GERUND

PARTICIPLE

dir

dic
dius
diu
diem
dieu
diuen

dient

dit

INFINITIVE

PRESENT TENSE

GERUND

PARTICIPLE

tenir

tinc
tens
t
tenim
teniu
tenen

tenint

tingut

INFINITIVE

PRESENT TENSE

GERUND

PARTICIPLE

venir

vinc
vns
ve
venim
veniu
vnen

venint

vingut

INFINITIVE

PRESENT TENSE

GERUND

PARTICIPLE

viure

visc
vius
viu
vivim
viviu
viuen

vivint

viscut

(to know)

(to do)

(to say)

(to have)

(to come)

(to live)

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GRAMMAR

PAST TENSES
PAST TENSE

PRESENT PERFECT

vaig
vas
va
vam
vau
van

he
has
ha
hem
heu
han

+
+
+
+
+
+

infinitive
infinitive
infinitive
infinitive
infinitive
infinitive

Examples:

+
+
+
+
+
+

participle
participle
participle
participle
participle
participle

Examples:

Ahir vaig anar a classe de catal.

Avui he arribat tard.

(Yesterday I attended Catalan class.)

(Today I have arrived late.)

Vam trobar la professora.

Aquest mat he jugat a futbol.

(We came accross our teacher.)

(This morning I have


played football.)

PREPOSITIONS
to
with
of
for
against
between, among
despite
as
without
toward
from
up until
under

a
amb
de
per, per a
contra
entre
malgrat
segons
sense
cap a
des de
fins a
sota

The prepositions a, de, per followed


by the articles el, els are shortened
a + el = al
a + els = als
de + el = del
de + els = dels
per + el = pel
per + els = pels

ADVERBS AND ADVERBIAL PHRASES


MANNER

220

as / like
well
bad
better
worse
this way
at the same time
at least
rapidly
nearly
only

com
b, ben (before a verb)
malament, mal (before a verb)
millor
pitjor
aix
alhora
almenys, pel cap baix
corrents
gaireb
sols, solament, noms

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GRAMTICA

above all
in the dark
on foot
from start to finish
suddenly
truly
free
quickly
earlier
gradually

sobretot
a les fosques
a peu
de cap a cap
de cop i volta
de deb
de franc
de pressa
ms aviat
de mica en mica

QUANTITY

too much / too many


a lot of
many
plenty of
enough
not very much
not much
not at all
not a thing
so much
so

massa
molt
fora
bastant
prou
gaire
poc
gens
gens ni mica
tant
tan

PLACE

where
here
there
up here
up there
in
into
behind
in front of
onto
on
under
upwards
downwards
up
down
near
far
around
on the right
on the left
on the right-hand side
on the left-hand side

on
aqu, ac
all, all
cap aqu
cap all
dins
dintre
darrere
davant
damunt
sobre
sota
amunt
avall
a dalt
a baix
a prop
lluny
al voltant
a la dreta
a l'esquerra
a m dreta
a m esquerra

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GRAMMAR

TIME

when
now
then
always
never
often
from time to time
sometimes
meanwhile
before
afterwards
soon
early
late
already
still
at the same time
the sooner the better

quan
ara
llavors, aleshores
sempre
mai
sovint
de tant en tant
a vegades
mentrestant
abans
desprs
de seguida
aviat, d'hora
tard
ja
encara
alhora
com ms aviat millor

AFIRMATION

yes
also
even
of course
really
truly

s
tamb
fins i tot
i tant
de veritat
de deb

DOUBT

maybe
perhaps

potser
qui sap

NEGATION

no, not
neither
not at all

no, no pas
tampoc
de cap manera

and
nor
that
or
but
then, so
because
as
if
as, like
although

i
ni
que
o
per, sin
doncs
perqu
ja que
si
com
encara que

CONJUCTIONS

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