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BAJA SAEINDIA 2011 Design Report

Team Registration ID: 74584


Author: Kiran Patil

Co-Author: Shakti Dhende

Author E-Mail: patil.kiran02@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION
The initiative towards BAJA 2011 was taken
with an aim to have a hands-on experience
in designing an ATV keeping in view the
ease of manufacture and economy. The
design was made by use of the modeling
software CATIA V5 R18, and was analyzed
by FEM analysis software ANSYS 10.0.
The ergonomics and the theme GO GREEN
were the key points in vehicle design.

Acceleration Performance:
Speed (kmph)

Time (sec)

0-10

1.38

0-20

3.88

0-30

7.30

0-40

14.42

0-50

21.89

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Engine: Lombardini LGA340
Drive: Rear wheel direct drive
Suspension:
Unequal
double
wishbone independent suspension

Acceleration Performance in Gear:


Speed

Time in seconds

(Kmph)

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

0-10

1.38

10-20

2.50

Steering:
Manual steering with
optional four wheel steering.

20-30

3.42

30-40

7.12

Dimensions:
Max length = 2350mm
Height = 1652mm
Wheel base = 1670mm
Ground clearance = 320mm

40-50

7.47

Stopping distance: 20m for 60kmph to 0


Retardation: a=6.9445 m/s2=0.7079 g

Weights: 410 kg (Kurb Weight)

Two wheel Turning Radius = 3.92m

Wheels: BAJA TRAX 25-8-12


Brake:
Disc
brakes(Hydraulic
Diagonal Split System)

TARGET VEHICLE PERFORMANCE:


Max. Speed: 58.63 kmph
Max. Gradability: 43.43%

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Four wheel Turning Radius = 2.9m


Emission norm: Opting for BS-III
emission control norm. (CO

2.3gm/km, HC 0.2gm/km, NOx


0.15gm/km).
Fuel economy: Upto 15 kmpl
3D VIEW
VEHICLE

OF

THE

COMPLETE

FRONT VIEW

Design Considerations
Place of seat, steering
All levers, switches should be in reach of
drivers hand
sufficient Leg room, head room
Fire executor will near to the feet. Driver
and external human both should reach.
Weight of roll cage = 72 kg (approx).
Material used
The commonly used materials for
tubing are 1018 Mild Steel. The frame will
be built using MIG welding.
Material Properties:
OD: 26.9mm
ID: 21mm
Density: 7860kg/mm3
C %: 0.18

SIDE VIEW

Analysis
The user friendly ANSYS is used for
the analysis of the roll cage. The conditions
are given below.
FRONT COLLISION ANALYSIS
In this case a deceleration of 10 Gs
is the assumed loading. This is equivalent to
a 33375N load on the vehicle. In image of
the FEA, the scale shows stress distribution.

ISOMETRIC VIEW

RESULTS:
ROLL CAGE DESIGN & DRIVER
ERGONOMICS
Page | 2

Deflection: 2.244mm

Von misses stress: 260.577mm2


Side collision analysis
Side impact is analyzed with a 5 G
load. This is equivalent to a loading force of
16687.5N. The area of application of this
force is SIM and LFS.

RESULTS;
Deflection: 18.114mm
Von misses stress: 369.177 N/mm2
SHOCK
MOUNT
IMPACT
ANALYSIS
In this case, shock mounts caused by
a 5 G load on it. This is equivalent to a
loading force of 3800N on single front
wheel. The resulting stresses from this
loading are seen in Figures.

RESULTS;
Deflection: 11.646mm
Von misses stress: 363.064 N/mm2
ROLLOVER IMPACT ANALYSIS

Page | 3

In this case, the stress on the roll


cage is caused by a rollover with a 2.5 G
load on the cage. This is equivalent to a
loading force of 8343N. The Loading is
applied to the upper forward corner of the
perimeter hoop. The load is chosen to be on
a single corner as this would be a worst case
scenario rollover.

RESULTS;
Deflection: 5.77mm
Von misses stress: 157.551N/mm2
DRIVER ERGONOMICS
Driver ergonomics is one of most
important thing in ATV vehicle design. The
vehicle is designed with considering the
easy reach to all switches placed in driver
cabin, proper handling grip to steering, the
seating position is maintained to have good
grip to gear lever, hand brake lever. Cabin is
designed to easy entry and exit to vehicle.
ABC pedals are placed ergonomically and
ensured the effort less pedal activation.
Front side is maintained at low position so
that there should not be any blind spot for
driver.

SUSPENSION DESIGN

At 4g load,

A Suspension acts to provide cushioning


action to the driver by absorbing the shocks
from the road and also helps the tires to
maintain good traction.

R=49.8195/2=1878N

We are going to use independent double


wishbone suspension.

P=R1/ (sin +cos cot r) =618.7257 N

1. It gives more movement of the tires and to


the spring than Mac person strut type.
2. We can distribute forces at different point
on roll cage.
3. Desired camber angle, castor angle and
ground clearance can be achieved.

=12.783

=6.469 r=19.415

a=338.784mm b=244.247mm =25.44

Q=R1sin(r-)/ (sinrtan+cosr)
=1860.1150N
U=R1/ (sin r tan +cos r) = 1815.2107N
S=U a/b=2517.7969N
Load on spring = F = S/cos = 2788.15N
For 1g load,

Front Suspension Design


R=19.8195/2=470 N
By using Catia V5 R18 we have
found following specifications.

=20.392 =20.531 r=27.482

W=mass of vehicle with driver = 410kg

a=373.792mm b=247.133mm =20.435

Sprung mass=95kg

P =R1/ (sin +cos cot r) = 214.9452N

Max. Travel of the wheel centre: 210mm

Q=R1sin(r-)/ (sinrtan+cosr) =
495.8701N

Camber variation: 2 (at droop) to -1 (at


bump)

U=R1/ (sin r tan +cos r) =436.5934


N
S=U a/b=660.3534N
Load on spring=F=S/cos =704.7N
Therefore, Net load =2083.45N
n=14 C=7.5 d=12mm D=90mm
Spring length: 317 mm
No. of springs=2
Spring stiffness (K): 24.11 N/mm

Fig: Suspension geometry

Page | 4

Deflection = 8nFD3/Gd4=137 mm

Maximum working shear stress

=k*8*F*D/*d3=541.5 N/mm2

= k*8*F*D/*d3=516.88 N/mm

STEERING DESIGN

Rear Suspension Design

Steering system is the most basic


component of any vehicle. Here, we are
using a non assisted (manual) steering
system, governed by the Ackermans
principle, as it is the best known principle in
steering governing with a very effective
turning of the vehicle without dragging the
wheels.

Sprung mass=245kg
Max travel of the wheel centre: 150mm
Camber variation:2(at droop) to -4(at
bump)
For 4g load, R=4*9.81*295/2=4794 N
=28.091,

=5.509, r=5.329,

a=302.577mm, b=259.77mm, =9.337


P=482.78N, Q=4822.31N, S=5413.29N
Load on spring=F=S/cos =5485.97N

Rack and pinion steering system


selected for its higher stability and lower
effort. Its easier to steer and less susceptible
to failures. Steering ratio will be nearly
17.Steering
geometry
ensures
the
ACKERMANs principle at normal steering
angle 37degree.

For 1g load,

Correct steering angle calculations

R=1*9.81*295/2=1199 N

Cot()Cot()=track/base

=3.842,

Cot(25.65)Cot(36.412)=0.7267

=8.491, r=6.007,

a=379.949mm, b=280.99mm, =10.229

C/b=1210/1670=0.7245

P rear=125.49N,Q rear=1208.50N

Hence, Ackermans principle satisfied.

S rear=1617.89N
Load on spring=F=S/cos=1644N
Therefore, Net load =3841.97N
n=12 C=7.5 d=8mm D=60mm
Spring stiffness (K): 13.77 N/mm
Spring length: 217 mm
No. of springs=4
Deflection=8nFD^3/Gd^4=110mm
Fig: Ackermans principle
Maximum working shear stress
Turning radius=(b/sin )+(a-c)/2
Page | 5

=(1670/sin25.65)+(1350-1210)/2
=3.92meter

System: Hydraulic Diagonal Split


System.
TMC: KBX master cylinder.

Layout:

Calculations:

Rack and Pinion guided steering


system,mounted on rollcage with suitable
brackets,acting on Maruti800wheel hub.

Assuming a car at 60 kmph will stop


covering a distance of 20m,

Rear steering uses same Rack and


wheel hub.Steering effort is transmitted to
rear rack by using pair of bevel gears,
intermediate shaft and clutch arrangement
for optional engagement and disengagement
of rear rack.
Steering Effort

Retardation a=6.9445 m/s2=0.7079 g


Braking force = mass a
=4106.9445
=2847.24 N
PART 1:

Front wheel steering ratio=17:1


Weight on front wheels(m1)=115kg.
Wheel scrub radius(r)=34.5mm.
Torque to rotate front
wheels(Mtr)=(m1)x(r)x9.81=39675N-mm
We selected wheel-hub of Maruti-800,

1200mm 470mm
Fig : Forces involved in Braking

Steering armlength(l)=165mm

CG height: h=564.287mm.

Pinion dia.(d)=3mm

Lf, Lr =Reactions on respective wheel

Force on the rack(P)=Mtr/l=240.45N

In static condition:

Torque on pinion,(Mtp)=Pxd/2=3606.8Nmm

Lf + Lr = 4022.1 N

Steering wheel dia.(D)=300 mm.

Lf 1200=Lr 470

Mech.efficiency of system(m)=0.85

Thus, Lf =1131.96 N, Lr =2890.13 N

Steering Effort=Mtp/(D x m)=2.88 kg-f

In dynamic condition:
Lf 1200=2847.245564.287+ Lr 470

Brake System Design


Description:
Disc brakes: Of MARUTI-800 for all
wheels.
Page | 6

Lf =2094.043 N, Lr =1928.057 N
Accounting the weight transfer,

Torque on single front wheel:

For =0.3

Tf = (2094.043 (29.81)) 0.31756.9445

The ratio between peal force


deceleration is found to be 163g.

and

= 235.3267 Nm
Similarly, Tr =216.662 Nm
Total torque:
T=2 (235.3267 +216.662)
=904 Nm
PART2:
Force that can be applied by right foot for 5 th
percentile female is 445 N.

The deceleration increases with pedal force


and some values are,
f=80N; d= 4.83 m/s2 , f=120N; d=7.25
m/s2
d= 6.04 m/s2 , f=140N; d=8.46

f=100N;
m/s2

POWERTRAIN DESIGN
Gearbox: 4 speed constant mesh manual,
M&M Alfa champion.
Gear

Gear ratios

kmph per
1000 rpm of
engine

So pressure obtained is

1st

31.48

3.80

P= (1205)/ (0.019052/4)

2nd

18.70

6.40

=2.105106 N/m2

3rd

11.40

10.50

=21.05 bar

4th

7.35

16.28

Reverse

55.08

2.17

The pedal leverage: 1:5


TMC OD: 19.05mm

Now torque applied:


T=2PARf n

Max.

=22.105106 0.0512/40.30.09154
=944.30 Nm

Gear

Max. Speed
in Gear in
Kmpl

The required torque is 904 Nm

Gradability in %
(At Speed in
kmpl)

The applied torque will be 944.30Nm

1st

13.69

43.43 (9.89)

Hence it will be enough to stop the car.

2nd

23.04

22.51 (16.64)

Pedal force and deceleration: For max


pedal force of 445N, the deceleration of 1g
is achieved when the vehicle is fully loaded.

3rd

37.80

11.55 (27.30)

4th

58.63

5.18 (35.83)

In our case,
Page | 7

Exhaust system: With catalytic converter,


mounted to gearbox using bolting.
Fuel Tank: 5 liter capacity mounted on
right side of RRH viewed from backside.

Shaft angularities:
Suspension Left Axel
positions
Angle

Right Axel
Angle

Top

1.80

2.93

Normal

9.87

15.84

Bottom

13.86

21.80

Engine Mounting:
Engine is mounted on two C section
of 4507030 welded to roll cage. Rubber
pads are inserted between engine bottom and
C section for vibration isolation. Engine,
rubber pads and C section are assembled
through bolting.
Gearbox Mounting:
Gearbox is attached to engine
through bolting at one side. Other side of
gearbox is mounted on elastic support
member
having
lower
vibration
transmissibility. The mounting of elastic
support member has been done using square
sections and pipe section. Elastic support
member is attached to square section
through bolting and square section is
attached to roll cage through welding.
Drive line:
Power from Alpha Gearbox to
Maruti 800 hub is transmitted thorough
propeller shaft. Propeller shaft is made up of
two shafts connected together by Muff
coupling. Driveline layout is shown below

Total Weight of Drive Line= 45 Kg.


BODY PANELS
Body panels are used to restrict the
entrance of foreign particles to driver cabin
while driving.
Material Mild Steel
Thickness- 0.508mm (min)
Fire wall, lower body panels, side panels all
are of same material and thickness as above,
and all panels are supported by space frame
trusses. All body panels are welded to space
frame to remove gaps & not to allow any
type of contact between driver compartment
and engine compartment. Welding type used
is MIG to ensure maximum weld strength
and to remove all unwanted gaps.
SAFETY EQUIPMENT
Safety equipments used are of SFI rating.
There are following equipments
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Page | 8

5 point seat belt


Hand restrain
Neck support
Kill switches
Motocross helmet
Fire resistant driver suit
Fire extinguisher.

Safety equipments are selected on the basis


of rule book and the safety ratings and to
minimize the occurrence and consequences
of automobile accidents. Active safeties are
well designed truss body to absorb energy
and passive safeties are all mentioned above.
All passive safety equipments are mounted
on vehicle with taking care of the rules and
regulations.
COST & BILL OF MATERIALS

Weight on rear wheels (both) m2=294 kg.


Rear wheel scrub radius(r) = 34.3mm.
Torque to rotate rear wheels, (Mtr) =m2 x r x
9.81=100842N-mm
For selected steering assembly,
Steering arm length (l)=165mm
Pinion dia.(d)=30mm
Steering wheel dia. (D) =300mm.
Force on the rack (P) = Mtr/l=611.2N

The cost report is based on Bill of


Materials concept.
Sr.
no.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

System

Torque on pinion (Mtp) = P x d/2=9167.4Nmm

No. of Total
parts
cost(Rs)
Engine
12
31030.25
Transmission 16
22989.19
Suspension
23
24999.62
Wheels
7
38881.64
Brake
23
9899.98
Steering
38
12720.87
Body
12
41762.74
Electrical
13
15050.00

Mech. efficiency of the system (m)=0.9

Material procurement cost = Rs.


160929.18
Manufacturing cost = Rs. 36414.11
Total cost = Rs. 197343.29

GO GREEN COMPLIANCE

INNOVATIONS
Optional four wheel steering:
We have designed optional 4W
steering. The driver can use front wheel or
four wheels steering to turn the vehicle. Use
of four wheel steering gives turning radius
of 2.9m.
4W Steering Effort

Page | 9

Steering Effort=Mtp / (D x m) =6.9 kg-f


Effective Torque = (Mtpf + Mtpr)/3=6662.6Nmm
4WS effort=5.03 kg-f
We will be using split braking for
rear wheels as present in tractor for
more turning.

Today the emissions from


vehicles are the major concern to the
environment degradation. So the emission
control is an important aspect in automobile
industry.
We are opting for BS-III norms of emission.
(CO 2.3gm/km, HC 0.2gm/km, NOx
0.15gm/km).
Three way catalytic converter is
used to reduce CO, HC, NOx emissions. The
maximum use of recyclable and eco-friendly
materials is considered in vehicle designing.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We are very thankful to Society of
Automotive Engineers for organizing BAJA
SAEINDIA event. This event is a great
opportunity providing a platform for
students to explore their talent.
We are also thankful to our college
faculties:
Dr. S. P. Chavan (HOD Mechanical Dept.)
Dr. K. H. Inamdar (Senior Faculty Advisor)
Prof. A. U. Paranjpe (Faculty Advisor)

REFERENCES
Fundamental of Vehicle Dynamics By
Thomas Gillespie.
Automobile Mechanics By Dr. N. K. Giri.
Automobile
Singh.

Engineering

By

Kirpal

Production Engineering By P.C Sharma.

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