Sie sind auf Seite 1von 96

FRP Lamella

user manual
for design software
version 3

flexural and shear


strengthening
using FRP materials

Peter Onken
Wiebke vom Berg
Dirk Matzdorff

bow ingenieure gmbh

braunschweig hamburg

FRP Lamella

design program
for flexural and shear strengthening with FRP materials
according to Eurocode 2

User Manual
version 3.4

Peter Onken, Wiebke vom Berg, Dirk Matzdorff


bow ingenieure gmbh braunschweig / hamburg germany
2

Contents
Part I Design concept
1.

Introduction

2.

Notation

3.

Design program features

4.

Basic assumptions

10

5.

Safety concept

12

6.

Degree of strengthening

13

7.

8.

9.

6.1

Definition according to Eurocode 2

13

6.2

Failure of the FRP system

13

Material behaviour

14

7.1

Concrete

14

7.2

Reinforcing steel

14

7.3

Prestressing steel

14

7.4

FRP material

15

Design aspects for FRP systems

16

8.1

Externally bonded FRP laminates

16

8.2

Externally bonded carbon sheets

17

8.3

Near surface mounted CFRP laminates

17

Imposed actions

18

10. Design procedure

19

10.1

Capacity of the unstrengthened cross-section

19

10.2

Required cross-sectional area of FRP

19

10.3

Conditions of equilibrium

20

10.4

Control of strain profiles

21

10.5

Control of stresses

21

11. Bond check of the FRP system

22

11.1

Anchorage of externally bonded CFRP laminates

22

11.2

Anchorage of externally bonded carbon sheets

23

11.3

Calculation of the envelope line / verification of the anchorage

24

11.4

Anchorage of near surface mounted CFRP laminates

27

11.5

Surface tensile strength of concrete

29

12. Anchorage of bottom reinforcement at end support

30

13. Detailing provisions

31

14. Shear design

32

14.1

Shear capacity according to Eurocode 2

32

14.2

Design of the additional shear reinforcement

35

14.3

Anchorage of external stirrups

37

15. Further checkings

38

16. Fire protection

38
3

Part II Use of the program


17. Program user interface

39

17.1

Start of the program

39

17.2

Settings

39

17.3

Basic information about the FRP Lamella user interface

39

17.4

Data input

40

17.5

Output of results

41

18. Input and output windows

42

18.1

Input window project

42

18.2

Input window code

43

18.3

Input window geometry

44

18.4

Output window cross-section

45

18.5

Input window concrete

46

18.6

Input window steel

47

18.7

Input window main flexural reinforcement

48

18.8

rebar tables for the selection of reinforcement cross-sectional area

49

18.9

Input window flexural reinforcement at support

50

18.10

Input window loads in unstrengthened state

51

18.11

Input window loads in strengthened state

53

18.12

Input window FRP system

55

18.13

Input window FRP cross-section

56

18.14

Output window design

58

18.15

Output window strains in ultimate limit state

60

18.16

Output window strains / stresses in service state

61

18.17

Input window FRP end anchorage

62

18.18

Output window FRP end anchorage

64

18.19

Input window anchorage of flexural reinforcement at support

65

18.20

Output window anchorage of flexural reinforcement at support

66

18.21

Input window shear reinforcement and loads

67

18.22

Input window shear strengthening

68

18.23

Output window shear strengthening

69

18.24

Output window shear strengthening anchorage of additional external stirrups

70

19. Program menu and tool bar

72

19.1

Menu bar items

72

19.2

Tool bar symbols

74

20. Installation instructions


Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3
Appendix 4

75

example T-beam according to Eurocode 2


example two-span slab according to Eurocode 2
example prestressed concrete beam according to Eurocode 2
bow engineers experts for strengthening design
4

1.

Introduction

FRP Lamella is a design program for the strengthening of reinforced and prestressed or posttensioned concrete structural members subjected to uniaxial flexure and axial forces using FRP
materials (FRP Fibre Reinforced Polymer). This program can be used for the predesign of
strengthening measures as well as for complete calculations within the scope of structural analysis.
The program provides the user with the required FRP cross-sectional area for the strengthened state
and is performing the necessary verifications of the bond strength and the shear capacity of the
concrete member based on the assumptions of the German Guidelines for the strengthening of
concrete members using CFRP laminates [2], [3] and carbon sheets [4], (cf. [11]). The design concept
according to Eurocode 2 is explained in [10].
The program FRP Lamella is used in almost 15 other countries, adapted to the relevant regulations,
guidelines and national standards. Meanwhile different versions corresponding to the following
international codes are available:

Fig. 1

Eurocode 2

DIN 1045 (7/88) (German DIN-Norm)

British Standard 8110

BAEL 91 (Normes Franaises)

ACI (American Concrete Institute)

KCI (Korean Concrete Institute)

Opening window of the FRP Lamella software

Note
The software FRP Lamella is based on the material parameters of S&P FRP systems. If other
types of reinforcing fibres or adhesive systems will be used, the results provided by the
software will no longer be valid. Under these circumstances the system supplier S&P will
refuse any liability for the application of S&P products.
5

2.

Notation

As a rule, in this manual the standard notations derived from Eurocode 2 are used. They may differ
from notations of other national design codes and guidelines. The following list gives an overview of
the notations used in this manual and in the software.
Notation
Geometry
width of the component
web width
overall height
effective flange width of upper flange
thickness of upper flange
effective flange width of lower flange
thickness of lower flange
span
total cross-sectional area
distance of the centroid from top edge of the member
moment of inertia of concrete cross-section
section modulus above the gravity axis
section modulus below the gravity axis
Reinforcement
cross-sectional area of longitudinal rebars
pre-strain of the longitudinal reinforcement due to prestressing
cross-sectional area of internal stirrup rebars
distance from centroid of rebars to top edge of the member
diameter of rebars
anchorage length of rebars from the support front
concrete cover of the stirrups
Steel
characteristic yield strength of reinforcing steel
modulus of elasticity of reinforcing steel
strain limit of reinforcing steel
characteristic tensile strength of prestressing steel
modulus of elasticity of prestressing steel
strain limit of prestressing steel
reduction coefficient for the tensile strength of prestressing steel
partial safety factor for steel
Concrete
characteristic compressive strength of concrete (EC 2)
strain limit of concrete
strain at the axis of the parabolic curve of the stress-strain line of concrete
reduction factor for the compressive strength of concrete (long term effects)
design shear strength of concrete
average modulus of elasticity of concrete
average axial tensile strength of concrete
partial safety factor for concrete

Program
b
b0
h, h0
b1
h1
b2
h2
l
Ac
zcg
Iy
Wtop
Wbottom
As
p0
asw
zs
ds
ls,A
cw
fyk
Es
su
fpk
Ep
pu
p
s
fck
cu
c1

Rd
Ecm
fctm
c

FRP material
modulus of elasticity of FRP material
failure strain of FRP material
strain limit of FRP material
characteristic tensile strength of FRP material
partial safety factor for FRP material
reduction factor for the strain limit of FRP material
number of FRP plies one on top of each other
number of FRP strips one next to each other
spacing of FRP strips
cross-sectional area of FRP strengthening
distance from centroid of FRP strip to top edge of the member
distance of FRP strips to the lateral edge of the member
thickness of FRP reinforcement
width of FRP reinforcement
Design
characteristic bending moment at time of strengthening
characteristic axial force at time of strengthening
characteristic prestressing force
statically determinated prestressing moment
statically indeterminated part of prestressing moment
design bending moment of strengthened state
design axial force of strengthened state
characteristic bending moment of strengthened state
characteristic axial force of strengthened state
average partial safety factor for bending moments caused by loads
average partial safety factor for axial forces caused by loads
design moment of resistance of unstrengthened cross-section
characteristic moment of resistance of unstrengthened cross-section
design moment of resistance of strengthened cross-section
strengthening ratio
remaining global safety in case of loss of FRP strengthening
strain of extreme compression fibre of concrete
distance from neutral axis to extreme compression fibre
maximum strain of reinforcing steel
maximum strain of prestressing steel
maximum strain of FRP reinforcement
stress of extreme compression fibre of concrete
maximum stress of reinforcing steel
maximum stress of prestressing steel
maximum stress of FRP reinforcement
Anchorage
substrate strength of concrete (median of the population)
design value of the substrate strength of concrete
characteristic compressive strength of adhesive
characteristic tensile strength of adhesive

Ef
fu
f,limit
ffk
f
k
nf
mf
sf
Af
zf
ar
tf
bf
MSk0
NSk0
Np
Mp0
Mp
MSdf
NSdf
MSkf
NSkf
M,m
N,m
MRd0
MRk0
MRdf

c
x
s
p
f
c
s
p
f
fcsm
fcsd
fKc,k
fKt,k

characteristic shear strength of adhesive


distance from calculated axis of support to edge of support
distance from end of the FRP strip to edge of support
horizontal displacement of the envelope line of tensile force
design moment of strengthened state in point E
design axial force of strengthened state in point E
distance from point E to theoretical axis of support
tensile force of FRP reinforcement in point E
design value of the maximum bond force
required bond length of maximum bond force
recommended bond length
design value of shear force at support
design value of axial force at support
total required anchorage force at support
anchorage force covered by internal reinforcement
design bond strength of internal rebars
force covered by FRP anchorage
anchorage length of FRP reinforcement from the support front
Shear
cross-sectional area of internal stirrups
design shear force of strengthened state in relevant section X
design axial force of strengthened state in relevant section X
design bending moment of strengthened state in relevant section X
strain limit of additional shear reinforcement
characteristic modulus of elasticity of FRP Sheet
characteristic tensile strength of FRP Sheet
reduction factor for modulus of elasticity due to manual lamination
modulus of elasticity of steel plates for shear strengthening
characteristic yield strength of steel plates for shear strengthening
partial safety factor for shear strengthening steel plates
distance from resultant of concrete stress to extreme compression fibre
effective depth of internal steel rebars
effective depth of FRP reinforcement
average effective depth
average lever arm of internal forces
shear force limit of the strengthened cross-section
design shear resistance provided by concrete
design shear resistance of the concrete cross-section without web crushing
design shear resistance of concrete cross-section with internal stirrups
cross-sectional area of additional shear reinforcement
thickness of additional external stirrups
width of additional external stirrups
cross-sectional area of one additional external stirrup
spacing of additional external stirrups
stress of the internal shear reinforcement
stress of the additional shear strengthening

K,k
ai
f
aL
MSdf,E
NSdf,E
xE
Ffd,E
Fbd,max
lbd,max
lb
VSdf,A
NSdf,A
FA,req
Fs,A
fbd
Ff,A
lf,A
asw
VSdf,X
NSdf,X
MSdf,X
limit
Efk
ffk
E
Es
fyk
s
ac
ds
df
dm
zm
Vmax
VRd1
VRd2
VRd3
aw
tw
bw
Aw
sw
sw
fw

3.

Design program features

FRP Lamella is developed as a pure design program for the strengthening of reinforced and
prestressed or post-tensioned concrete elements, i.e. the program does not perform any structural
analysis. As a consequence the user has to determine the internal forces in advance with a calculation
by hand or by using structural analysis software for instance. The updated version 3.x now also
considers prestressed or post-tensioned elements or concrete structures subjected to axial forces.
The program supports 4 types of cross-section: slabs as well as rectangular beams, T-beams and
double-T-beams. These options cover almost all reinforced or pre-stressed concrete components
subjected to bending which will appear in practice.
There are 3 different FRP-systems for flexural strengthening: externally bonded CFRP laminates, near
surface mounted (slot-in) CFRP laminates and externally bonded carbon sheets (unidirectional fabric).
The program includes the complete range of S&P products for flexural and shear strengthening.
The required cross-sectional area of FRP strengthening is determined by variation of the strain profile
within the limits defined in the regulations. The implementation of non-linear stress-strain relations for
concrete as well as for reinforcing and prestressing steel and the iterative solution procedure lead to
precise results. Compared with hand calculations the program provides particularly economic amounts
of FRP strengthening. Additionally the strain and stress distributions can be controlled. The verification
of the bond strength is based on the German Guideline for the strengthening of concrete components
using CFRP laminates [2], [3] and carbon sheets [4]. The verification of anchorage lengths of the
internal rebars as well as the design of the shear strengthening follows the concept of Eurocode 2.
For structures to be strengthened the geometry, internal reinforcement, steel grades, concrete
compressive strength and bending moments can be derived from existing as-built documents. If not
available this information has to be established by on-site testing.
In addition the program offers useful tools for the definition of the relevant national concrete strength,
the reinforcing and prestressing steel grades and the selection of the existing rebar cross-sections.
The serviceability of the strengthened state cannot be proved by the program. If necessary, the user is
responsible to check the deflections and crack widths of the strengthened structure.

4.

Basic assumptions

According to the regulations it can be assumed for the design at ULS (ultimate limit state) that
externally bonded FRP reinforcement can be calculated like an additional layer of reinforcement within
the provided strain limits. The calculations are based on the well-known assumptions of concrete
design:

For bending a linear strain distribution is assumed (Bernoulli hypothesis).

For reinforced concrete elements it is assumed that concrete has no tensile strength. All
tensile forces necessary for the equilibrium of the internal forces are covered by internal
reinforcement and FRP strengthening.

For prestressed or post-tensioned concrete elements the tensile strength of the concrete
may be considered in the uncracked state.

There is no slip between FRP strengthening and concrete. All cross-section fibres with the
same distance to the neutral axis are subjected to the same strain.

The determination of the required FRP cross-sectional area and the resisting moments before and
after strengthening result from calculation of the equilibrium of internal forces.

References
[1]

Allgemeine bauaufsichtliche Zulassung fr die Verstrkung von Stahlbetonbauteilen durch


schubfest aufgeklebte S&P Kohlenfaserlamellen (Z-36.12-62); Deutschland.

[2]

Richtlinie fr das Verstrken von Betonbauteilen durch Ankleben von unidirektionalen kohlenstoffaserverstrkten Kunststofflamellen (CFK-Lamellen), Anlage 2 der Zulassung [1],
Deutsches Institut fr Bautechnik, Berlin.

[3]

Richtlinie fr das Verstrken von Betonbauteilen durch Einkleben von unidirektionalen kohlenstofffaserverstrkten Kunststofflamellen in Schlitze im Beton, Deutsches Institut fr
Bautechnik, Berlin.

[4]

Richtlinie fr das Verstrken von Betonbauteilen durch Auflaminieren von unidirektionalen


Kohlenstofffaserlaminaten (CFK-Laminate), Deutsches Institut fr Bautechnik, Berlin.

[5]

CEB-FIP Model Code 1990; EPF Lausanne 1991.

[6]

Eurocode 2: Planung von Stahlbeton- und Spannbetontragwerken; Teil 1: Grundlagen und


Anwendungsregeln fr den Hochbau; Juni 1992.

[7]

Rostsy, F.S.; Holzenkmpfer, P. und Hankers, C.: Geklebte Bewehrung fr die Verstrkung
von Betonbauteilen. Beton-Kalender 1996, T.II, Berlin: Ernst & Sohn 1996.

[8]

Holzenkmpfer, P.: Ingenieurmodelle des Verbunds geklebter Bewehrung fr Betonbauteile.


Dissertation TU Braunschweig, 1994.

[9]

Onken, P.; vom Berg, W.; Matzdorff, D.; Nolte, T.: Bemessungsprogramm fr CFK-Lamellen.
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau 95, 9/2000, S. 551 552.

10

[10]

Onken, P.; vom Berg, W.: Biegezugverstrkung mit CFK-Lamellen Neues Bemessungsmodell nach EC 2 und DIN 1045-1. Beton- und Stahlbetonbau 96, 2/2001, S. 61 70.

[11]

Rostsy, F. S.: Expert Opinion No. 98/0322; S&P Reinforcement, Eisenstadt, sterreich.

[12]

Blaschko, M. A.: Zum Tragverhalten von Betonbauteilen mit in Schlitze eingeklebten CFKLamellen, Dissertation an der TU Mnchen, 2001.

[13]

Design guidance for strengthening concrete structures using fibre composite materials,
Technical Report No. 55, The Concrete Society, Berkshire, UK, 2000.

11

5.

Safety concept

The ultimate limit state design is based on the following condition (cf. EC 2, section 2.3.2):
Sdf Rdf

(1)

Sdf corresponds to the design value of internal forces or moments due to loads and Rdf to the design
resistance, for instance the moment capacity of the cross-section at strengthened state. The index f
defines the state after strengthening (with FRP). Both, Sdf and Rdf, are design values and associated
with the partial safety factors for actions and materials properties as shown in table 1.

Code

Loads
dead loads
live loads
Q
G

Resistance
concrete
reinforcing steel
C
S

Eurocode 2

1.35

1.5

1.5

1.15

DIN 1045-1 (Germany-new)

1.35

1.5

1.5

1.15

DIN 1045 (7/88) (Germany-old)

1.75 2.1

1.0

BS 8110 (UK)

1.4

1.6

1.5

1.15

BAEL 91 (France)

1.35

1.5

1.5

1.15

SIA 160 / 262 (Switzerland)

1.3

1.5

1.2

ACI 318 (USA)

1.4

1.7

1 / 0.9

KCI (Korea)

1.4

1.7

1 / 0.85

Tab. 1

Partial safety factors according to different design codes

For actions additionally the combination values for the probability of occurrence of several variable
loads have to be considered. Additional partial safety factors for the FRP systems are missing in
table 1 since different safety concepts are used according to the FRP system and the national
guideline. In many cases, e.g. for externally bonded FRP laminates, the design strain is limited instead
of introducing a partial safety factor for the tensile strength of the material. For further information see
chapter 8.

12

6.
6.1

Degree of strengthening
Definition according to Eurocode 2

In the German Guidelines for the strengthening of concrete members with external bonded FRP
laminates [2], [3] and unidirectional carbon sheets [4] it is recommended, that the flexural capacity of
the strengthened element should not exceed twice the flexural capacity of the unstrengthened
element. This is expressed by the flexural strengthening ratio.
A limitation of the strengthening ratio is only mentioned in the German guidelines [2] [4]. There exists
no such limitation in other regulations or guidelines. One reason for the limitation of the strengthening
ratio is the scant knowledge about the behaviour of highly strengthened structures. Other reasons
were the insufficient design methods for strengthening with externally bonded FRP reinforcement in
the past. Hand calculations do not allow the verification of strains and stresses at service state. On the
other hand the design software FRP Lamella provides the strain distributions and stresses at
strengthened state in all parts of the section. By this means yielding of internal reinforcement can be
avoided, strain limits can be controlled. Therefore the limitation of the strengthening ratio based on the
German guidelines [2] [4] may not be applied very strictly but it is highly recommended not to
increase the strengthening ratio far beyond the point which is twice the capacity of the unstrengthened
element. The bond behaviour of externally bonded FRP strips will be influenced unfavourably by the
increased formation of cracks in highly stressed concrete elements.
Since there is no experience with highly strengthened structures, the limitation of the strengthening
ratio is also recommended for other national guideline or standards:

B,EC =

MSdf
MRd0

2.

(2)

MSdf describes the imposed bending moment at strengthened state, MRd0 corresponds to the design
moment of resistance of the unstrengthened cross-section. For MSdf, the combination principles of
actions according to EC 2 have to be considered.
When the strengthening ratio exceeds the limit of 2, the design and detailing should be carried out with
special care. For near surface mounted laminates there exist no requirements for the limitation of the
strengthening ratio.
6.2

Failure of the FRP system

In other national regulations (e.g. ACI) there is a demand of minimum safety ( > 1,0) after loss of the
FRP strengthening under service (unfactored) loads. In this case the following equation is valid:
EC =

MRk 0
> 1
M Skf

(3)

The subscript k in the equation indicates characteristic values.

13

7.
7.1

Material behaviour
Concrete

For the determination of the concrete compressive stress a parabolic-rectangular stress-strain


relationship can be assumed, as provided by Eurocode 2, shown in figure 2a. The parabolic curve
ends at a strain value c1 = 0.2 % and the maximum compressive strain is limited to cu = 0.35 %
(cf. [5]). However, the program also offers the possibility to modify the shape of the parabolicrectangular stress-strain by adjusting the strain parameters (c1, cu). The design value of the concrete
compressive strength fcd is determined by dividing the characteristic strength fck by the appropriate
partial safety factor in table 1. The reduction factor takes into account the reduced compressive
strength under long-term loading.

f cd =

f ck
c

( = 0.85; C according to table 1)

(4)

C 20/25 f cd = 0.85 20 = 11.33 N / mm


1 .5

example:

The design shear strength can be determined from the characteristic concrete compressive strength
using the following equation:

Rd = 0.25

f ctk,0.05
c

= 0.0525

f ck2 / 3
c

(5)

The average modulus of elasticity and the axial tensile strength of concrete are calculated from the
concrete compressive strength. According to Eurocode 2 the following equations are used:
E cm = 9500 (f ck + 8 )

(6)

fctm = (0.3 fck )

(7)

1/ 3

2/3

7.2

Reinforcing steel

For the steel reinforcement, an idealised bilinear stress-strain relationship is considered with a design
yield strength fyd as shown in fig. 2b. The appropriate parameters of strength and strains depend on
the selected steel grade. For the design at strengthened state the strain of reinforcing steel is limited
to su = 1 % according to Eurocode 2, section 4.2.2. The design value of the yield strength fyd is
determined by dividing the characteristic strength fyk by the appropriate partial safety factor in table 1.
7.3

Prestressing steel

For prestressing steel the same bilinear line with a horizontal branch is applied (fig. 2b). The design
value of the tensile strength fpd is determined by dividing the characteristic strength fpk by the
appropriate partial safety factor in table 1. For the design of the member cross-section, the tensile
strength is reduced to 90 % according to Eurocode 2. Therefore the reduction factor p is introduced in
fig. 2b.

14

7.4

FRP material

The tensile stress-strain behaviour of FRP can be idealised by means of a linear response, defined in
fig. 2c. The modulus of elasticity depends on the selected FRP system. It is quoted from the relevant
national approval or guideline. At present, the characteristic values of the German General Approval
[1] are applied, as far as national approvals or guidelines are not available:
modulus of elasticity:
CFRP laminate 150/2000
CFRP laminate 200/2000
C-Sheet 240
C-Sheet 640

Ef = 164'000 [N/mm]
Ef = 205'000 [N/mm]
Ef = 240'000 [N/mm]
Ef = 640'000 [N/mm]

tensile strength:
CFRP laminate 150/2000
CFRP laminate 200/2000
C-Sheet 240
C-Sheet 640

ffk = 2'500 [N/mm]


ffk = 2'500 [N/mm]
ffk = 3'800 [N/mm]
ffk = 2'650 [N/mm]

ultimate strain:

fu = 1.40 [%]
fu = 1.30 [%]
fu = 1.55 [%]
fu = 0.40 [%]

CFRP laminate 150/2000


CFRP laminate 200/2000
C-Sheet 240
C-Sheet 640

For externally bonded FRP the ultimate tensile strength or the strain at failure are not significant for
the design of strengthened structures, because other mechanisms like bond failure are prematurely
responsible for the failure. Therefore, to determine the design moment of resistance for the
strengthened state, the design strain of the external bonded FRP system will be limited to
approximately 50 % of the ultimate elongation at failure (fu).
concrete

reinforcing / prestressing steel

FRP material

f
p fpk

fck

p fpk
s

fck
c

fyk

f fd

fyk
s

Ecm
c1
Fig. 2

cu

f fu

Es
sy py

su

E fd
s

E fk
f,lim

Stress-strain diagrams for concrete, reinforcing and prestressing steel as well as FRP Material

15

fu

8.

Design aspects for FRP systems

8.1

Externally bonded FRP laminates

Externally bonded FRP laminates cannot be stressed up to their tensile strength. Before externally
bonded FRP reinforcement will reach the tensile strength, the strengthened system is failing, e.g. due
to rupture of the anchorage or bond failure at shear or flexural cracks. For this reason, based on the
German Guideline for the strengthening of concrete components using externally bonded CFRP
laminates [2], the strain of externally bonded systems is limited. This design principle is meanwhile
adopted by many other national guidelines.
The strain limits for CFRP laminates are defined in the national approvals and guidelines. Normally,
the design strain is limited to about 50 % of the average ultimate strain in direction of the fibres. Below,
the design strain limits for flexural strengthening are given according to the German General Approval
[1]:
The lowest strain value f,limit of the two following conditions is decisive:
Depending on the type of laminate and modulus of elasticity in fibre direction:
S&P CFRP laminate 150/2000
S&P CFRP laminate 200/2000

f,limit = 0.75 [% ]
f,limit = 0.65 [% ]

Furthermore, the following condition is valid for reinforced concrete components:

f , lim it = 5
fsyk/Es

f syk

(8)

Es

yield strain of the reinforcing steel


(always refers to the outer layer of the internal reinforcement)

Given that the strains can hardly be controlled by hand calculation, the last condition indirectly helps to
prevent yielding of the internal reinforcement at service state. However, the program offers the
possibility to check the strains at service state. Anyway, this condition is only relevant for internal
reinforcement with low steel strength.
Considering the low limits of the design strain there is no need for any additional partial safety factor
( > 1.0) for externally bonded CFRP systems.

16

8.2

Externally bonded carbon sheets

For externally bonded Carbon sheets the same principles as for externally bonded CFRP laminates
are valid. The design strain at ultimate limit state is limited:
C-Sheet 240

f,limit = 0.75 [%]

Following the German Guideline for the strengthening of concrete components using unidirectional
Carbon sheets [4], the number of layers should not exceed 5 layers.
8.3

Near surface mounted CFRP laminates

CFRP laminates can also be glued into slots which will be cut into the concrete surface. Compared to
externally bonded FRP strips, near surface mounted laminates have a higher anchoring capacity,
therefore they can almost be stressed up to their tensile strength. The bond behaviour of near surface
mounted CFRP laminates is comparable to embedded steel rebars. A sufficient bond length prevents
bond failure and debonding problems will not occur. The design of near surface mounted laminates is
based on recent investigations in Germany [12].
The design value of the tensile strength ffd and the ultimate strain fd are determined by dividing the
characteristic values by the following partial safety factors f for FRP laminates:
ffd = ffk / f

(9)

fd = fu / f

(10)

The characteristic values of the tensile strength and the ultimate strain are quoted from chapter 7.4.
According to the German Guideline for the strengthening of concrete elements using unidirectional
CFRP laminates glued into slots [3] the following partial safety factors are valid:

f = 1.2

for fundamental combinations

f = 1.0

for accidental combinations

Additionally it has to be proved, that the maximum strain in the laminate does not exceed f,max at
ultimate limit state:

f,max k fd

(11)

As a contribution to the reduced ductility of CFRP strengthened elements the reduction factor k is
assumed to 0.8.

17

9.

Imposed actions

Similar to the design of new elements, the imposed actions of the reinforced concrete element to be
strengthened must be known. The easiest way is to analyse the available as-built documents of the
structure. If these documents are not available, geometry, idealised model of the structure and loads
must be established by investigations on site. The bending moment, normal and shear force diagrams
have to be determined considering the different type of loads and their combinations.
It is necessary to determine the imposed bending moment of the structure during application of the
FRP strengthening system for the evaluation of the initial state of strain. Normally this will be the
moment due to dead load of the structure and eventually to the prestressing force. In any case the
bending moment of the initial state results from service loads (load safety factor = 1.0).
Furthermore, the characteristic and design bending moment due to expected future loads are
required. The procedure of the determination of the moment curves is shown in figure 3.
The design value of the bending moment MSdf due to expected future loads must include the partial
safety factors (table 1) and the additional combination values which consider the probability of
occurrence of several variable loads. For prestressed or post-tensioned elements the statically
indeterminate part of the prestressing moment Mp has to be considered for the determination of MSdf.
The statically determinate part of the prestressing moment Mp0, which is defined by the prestressing
force and the distance to centre of gravity of the concrete section, is considered by the design
program.

Q
G
MSd0,g+q

G
MSk0,g
Q

G
Fig. 3

Load cases before, during and after


strengthening with FRP system

MSdf,g+q
18

10. Design procedure


10.1

Capacity of the unstrengthened cross-section

To check the strengthening ratio the bending capacity of the unstrengthened cross-section has to be
calculated first. The design resistance of the unstrengthened cross-section MRd0 is determined
considering the existing geometry, reinforcement, prestressing steel, concrete quality as well as the
partial safety factors for material properties listed in table 1. If as-built documents are not available this
information has to be established by investigations on site. Samples may be taken to check the
concrete compressive strength.
10.2

Required cross-sectional area of FRP

In the next step the program determines the strain distribution of the initial strain state. At this point the
FRP material is still unstressed. The required cross-sectional area of FRP Af,req is calculated for the
additional demand at strengthened state by superposition of the strain profiles. A strain state is
established, which leads to an equilibrium of the internal and external forces of the cross-section.
Figure 4 shows the superposition of the strains and the internal forces acting on a reinforced and a
prestressed or post-tensioned concrete cross-section respectively. Normally prestressed or posttensioned concrete cross-sections are uncracked in unstrengthened state, unless the prestressing
forces are very low. Commonly under additional loads at strengthened state the prestressed or posttensioned cross-section turns over into a cracked stage.

c0

c = c0 + c

Stahlbeton

s0

ds

s = s0 + s

s
f
c,o

f
c = c0 + c

+
p0

ac

c,u

Fc
dp

=
p = p0 + p

df

Fs
Ff

Spannbeton

Fig. 4

ac
Fc

Fp
f

Superposition of the strain profiles and internal forces

19

Fs
Ff

ds

df

10.3

Conditions of equilibrium

The unknown values like the capacity of the unstrengthened cross-section MRd0, the imposed initial
strain state 0, the required cross-sectional area of the FRP material Af,req and the resisting moment of
the strengthened state MRdf are derived from the conditions of equilibrium H = 0 and M = 0
considering the mechanical behaviour of each material.
Internal forces
steel

Fs = Es As s

FRP

Ff = Ef Af f

concrete

f yk
s

As

f f,limit

f ck
Fc = R b x
c

(R: parabolic form parameter)

(12)
(13)
(14)

H = 0
Fc Fs Fp Ff = 0

(15)

M = 0
Fc ac Fs ds Fp dp Ff df = 0

(16)

The solution for the equilibrium conditions in equations 15 and 16 is found by variation of the strain
profile. The strains are assumed to have linear distribution (Hypothesis of Bernoulli).The conditions for
equilibrium are checked while running through the possible strain profiles within the defined limits:
unstrengthened cross-section:

0 < s su

MRd0 is determined iteratively

S0 and C0 are determined iteratively

Af,req is determined iteratively

MRdf, and are determined iteratively

0 < c cu
initial strain state:

MSk0 is known
design:

MSdf is known
0 < s su
0 < c cu
0 < f f,limit
strengthened cross-section:

Af,prov is known
0 < s su
0 < c cu
0 < f f,limit
The system of equations always leads to an unique solution.
20

10.4

Control of strain profiles

Strains in ultimate limit state


The program provides the user with the calculated strain profiles. The determined strain values can be
compared with the strain limits of concrete and FRP (Fig. 5). Normally the design will be controlled by
highly stressed FRP material, i.e. the strain limit of CFRP. In cases where the design is limited by
failure of the compression zone the user should check if strengthening with FRP is still reasonable
The design can be checked by hand calculation using the provided strain profiles and the equilibrium
conditions in equations 15 and 16.
0

cu

cu

f,lim

design
controlled by
Lamellendehnung
laminate
strain limit
ausgenutzt
Fig. 5

f,lim

design controlled by
Betondehnung
concrete
strain limit
ausgenutzt

Strain distribution in ultimate limit state

Strains in service state


The strain distribution in service state allows to control yielding of internal reinforcement under service
loads. In addition stresses at service state are determined for concrete, reinforcing and prestressing
steel as well as the selected FRP cross-section.
10.5

Control of stresses

If the design and detailing is not in compliance with the rules given in Eurocode 2 to limit concrete and
steel stresses in service state, a verification of the stresses is necessary. In that case the following
stress limits for the rare combination of loads have to be respected.
concrete

c,limit = 0.6 fck

(17)

reinforcing steel

s,limit = 0.8 fyk

(18)

prestressing steel

p,limit = 0.75 fpk

(19)

21

11. Bond check of the FRP system


11.1

Anchorage of externally bonded CFRP laminates

The bonding characteristics of externally bonded CFRP laminates is totally different compared to
embedded steel rebars. While steel rebars can be stressed up to the yielding point by increasing the
bond length, the bond force of FRP laminates is limited. An increase in bond length above the length
lbd does not result in an increase in resisting tensile stresses (see fig. 6). Based on tests a design
model for the maximum bond failure force has been established in [8] for externally bonded steel
plates on concrete structures.

bond force

Fb

Fbd,max

bond length

lb

lbd,max
Fig. 6

Relationship between bond length and bond force

This model can also be applied to CFRP laminates in a modified form. It has become a substantial
part of the German guideline [2] and is generally accepted as being the most up-to-date and
straightforward to apply.
The maximum bond failure force Fbd,max (corresponds to Tk,max in the German guideline [2]) can be
determined using the design value of the surface tensile strength fctd of the concrete:

Fb d,max = 0.5 m f b f k b k T

with

fcsd =

fcsm
c

E f n f t f f csd

[N/mm]

[N]

(20)

(21)

The subscript d in equation 20 indicates a design value considering the partial safety factor for
concrete. Subscript f describes the properties of the FRP material while b corresponds to bond.

22

The associated bond length lbd,max can be derived from the following equation (cf. [10]):
l bd,max = 0.58

Ef nf t f
f csd

(22)

[mm]

where:
mf
bf
nf
tf
Ef
fcsm
c
kT

kb

number of laminates next to each other [ - ]


laminate width [mm]
number of laminates on top of each other [ - ]
laminate thickness [mm]
modulus of elasticity of FRP laminates [N/mm]
surface tensile strength of the concrete [N/mm],
valid for: 1.5 N/mm fctm 3.0 N/mm.
partial safety factor for concrete [-]
temperature reduction factor [-],
taking into account temperature variations between -20C and +30C,
0.9 for exterior components, 1.0 for interior components.
width factor according to the German guideline [2]

k b = 1.06

2 bf / b
[-]
1 + b f / 400

beam width or laminate spacing for slabs [mm]

The factor 0.5 in equation 20 refers to the material characteristics of the adhesive bond. This
explanation is also valid for equation 22. Additional information is given in the German guideline [2] or
in the publications of Rostsy [7], [11] and Onken [10] respectively.
The bond force Fbd related to a bond length lb lbd,max can be calculated by the following equation:

Fbd = Fbd,max

11.2

lb
lbd,max

l
2 b
l
bd,max

(23)

Anchorage of externally bonded carbon sheets

The bond failure behaviour of FRP sheets is based on the same mechanical principles as CFRP
laminates. In the equation stated above the thickness of the laminate tf is replaced by the theoretical
fibre thickness of the selected sheet. The factor lf gives the number of layer glued one on top of each
other. The width factor kb is set to 1 for the calculation of the bond failure force of carbon sheets.
Compared to CFRP laminates the surface of sheets is relatively large, so the bond behaviour is much
better than for CFRP laminates.

23

11.3

Calculation of the envelope line / verification of the anchorage

The verification of the anchorage is carried out for ultimate limit state, considering the partial safety
factors listed in table 1. For the application of externally bonded FRP systems the envelope line of the
tensile forces has to be covered over the total length of the reinforced concrete element. Therefore the
CFRP laminate or sheet should be extended to the support line as close as possible. It has to be
proved that the design tensile force of the FRP material Ffd,E does not exceed the bond failure force
Fbd,max that can be transmitted by the associated length lbd,max (see fig. 6). The tensile force of the FRP
system is determined from the moment line in the same way as the force of the internal tension
rebars.
A distinction has to be made between solid slabs and beams. Since CFRP laminates applied on slabs
cannot be clasped by strap binders, the bond failure force has to be reduced. According to the
German guidelines [2], [4] a reduction factor of 1.2 is introduced for slabs.
beams:

Fbd Ff d

(24)

solid slabs:

Fbd

1.2

(25)

Ff d

Verification at an end support

To avoid the determination of the whole envelope line for the tensile forces the bond check can be
carried out for a certain point E according to the German guidelines [2], [4]. For the end support of
beams or slabs it is assumed that the first crack due to the imposed moment will appear at the point E,
which corresponds to the associated bond length lbd,max of the maximum bond failure force Fbd,max. The
maximum distance from the end of the CFRP laminates or sheets to the edge of support should not
exceed 50 mm for sagging moments (cf. [11]).

A s1
Af
ai f
aL

l bd aL
E
ME
xE

Fig. 7

M(x)

Verification of the FRP end anchorage at the end support

24

For reinforced concrete elements the definite point E for the calculation of the existing tensile force
in the FRP strengthening can be simply determined by adding up the following lengths (see fig. 7):
xE = ai + f + lbd,max + aL
xE
ai
f
lbd,max
aL

(26)

distance from point E to the theoretical support axis


distance from the support axis to the support front
distance from the end of FRP strengthening to the support front ( 50 mm)
bond length related to Fbd,max according to equations 20 and 22
horizontal displacement of the envelope line

According to Eurocode 2 the following values are valid for the horizontal displacement of the envelope
line:
beams:

aL = 0.5 zm (cot cot )


simplified for vertical stirrups and compression struts at 45:
(cot cot ) = 1

T-beams:

aL = 0.5 zm (cot cot ) + x


(28)
with x = distance of reinforcement placed in the flange outside the web

slabs:

aL = dm

(27)

(29)

The distance xE is calculated by the program. The user must determine the corresponding bending
moment MSdf,E from the moment line of the structure. The tensile force Ffd,E of the FRP material at
point E is calculated from the entered design value of the bending moment by iteration of the
equilibrium.
From the entered design value of the bending moment at point E the program calculates the tensile
force of the FRP material Ffd,E by iteration of the equilibrium.
As prestressed or post-tensioned concrete members are usually uncracked near the support line
the bond check has to be modified. Externally bonded FRP systems always have to be anchored
beyond the last flexural crack. The design program determines the cracking moment of the
prestressed or post-tensioned cross-section considering the tensile strength of the concrete. The user
then has to enter the value xE which means the distance of the cracking moment from the support line,
measured from the moment curve of the structure. Considering the selected FRP cross-section the
program is calculating the tensile force Ffd,E in the section at the point where the first crack will occur.
This force is compared to the maximum bond force Fbd,max of the selected FRP system.
Following possibilities are recommended, if the anchorage verification according to equations 24 and
25 may fail:

increase the cross-sectional are of FRP,

reduce the distance f between the end of FRP strengthening and the front of support,

verify substrate strength (pull-off-test) and increase if possible,

extend the FRP reinforcement beyond the support (e.g. slot-in end)

increase the contact pressure of FRP reinforcement using additional anchorage devices

The design program gives adequate advice.


25

Verification at an intermediate support for moment of span

Since the position of the moment zero point varies with different load combinations the FRP system
should be anchored at least 1 m beyond the zero-crossing of the horizontal displaced envelope line of
the tensile forces. However, at least the bond length lbd,max related to the maximum bond force should
be applied. According to the German guidelines [2], [4] the maximum distance from the end of FRP
strengthening to the front of support should not exceed 50 mm for sagging moments (cf. [11]).

As1
Af
ai f

lb aL
E
M(x)

xE
Fig. 8

anchoring verification for CFRP laminates and sheets at intermediate support

At the intermediate support the point E refers to the zero point of the bending moment line. From the
distance xE, the program determines the distance f between the end of the CFRP laminates or sheets
and the front line of the support (see fig. 8).
fmax = xE ai aL lbd,max
Recommendation:
f = xE ai aL lb

xE
aL
lb
f

(30)

with lb = 1 m

distance from the theoretical support line to the moment zero point
horizontal displacement of the envelope line
bond length
distance from the end of FRP strengthening to the support front

If the existing length at the intermediate support is not sufficient to anchor the external bonded FRP
system with the minimum bond length lbd,max, the program will calculate a negative value for f. In this
case the bond forces have to be proved equivalent to the bond check at the end support or the FRP
system must be extended beyond the support line.
For prestressed or post-tensioned elements the verification of the anchorage at intermediate support
can be performed by the same approach as for the end support.

26

Verification at an intermediate support for the moment at support

The verification of the anchorage for the FRP top strengthening can be carried out in a similar way as
for the FRP bottom strengthening at the intermediate support. In the German guidelines [2], [4] it is
recommended to anchor the FRP system at least 1 m beyond the zero-crossing of the displaced
envelope line. The program determines the distance from the intermediate support front line to the end
of the FRP strengthening material (see fig. 9).

aL
M(x)

xE

Af

E
aL lb
As1

ai
Fig. 9

Verification of the anchorage of FRP top strengthening at intermediate support

fmin = xE ai + aL + lbd,max
Recommendation:
f = xE ai + aL + lb

xE
aL
lb
f

11.4

(31)

with lb = 1 m

distance from point E to the theoretical support line


horizontal displacement of the envelope line
bond length
distance from the end of FRP strengthening to the support front line

Anchorage of near surface mounted CFRP laminates

As already mentioned, compared to externally bonded strips, near surface mounted laminates have a
higher anchoring capacity. Therefore they can almost be stressed up to their tensile strength with
increasing bond length. Based on the investigations in [12] a design model was established for the
anchoring of near surface mounted FRP laminates in the surrounding concrete cover. According to
[12] the bond force Fbd of the laminate depends on the bond length lb. It can be described by the
following equations:

Fbd = m f b f K,d 4 a r l b (0.4 0.0015 lb )

for l b 115 [mm]

(32)

a
Fbd = m f b f K,d 4 a r 26.2 + 0.065 tanh r (l b 115 )
70

for l b > 115 [mm]

(33)

27

where:
mf
bf
ar

number of slots
width of the FRP laminate [mm]
distance of the laminate axis to the edge of the member [mm],
(valid for ar 150 mm)
design bond strength of the epoxy adhesive [N/mm]

K,d

The characteristic bond strength K,k of the epoxy adhesive is determined with the following equation:
K,k = 2 fKt,k 2

(f

2
Kt,k

+ fKc,k fKt,k + fKc,k fKt,k

(34)

For the determination of the design bond strength K,d according to the German Guideline for the
strengthening of concrete components using unidirectional CFRP laminates glued into slots in the
concrete [3] the following partial safety factors are valid:

K,d

K,k / b

(35)

= 1.3

for fundamental combinations

= 1.05

for accidental combinations

The envelope line of the tensile forces is carried out at ultimate limit state under consideration of the
horizontal displacement in the same way as for externally bonded FRP systems. The envelope line
has to be covered by the envelope line of the resisting tensile force considering the internal steel
reinforcement and the near surface mounted FRP laminates. Unlike externally bonded FRP systems
near surface mounted laminates can be anchored from the point where they are theoretically no
longer required to cover the entire tensile force.
The required bond length for near surface mounted FRP laminates results from transformation of
equations 32 and 33:

Ffd,E
l bd = 0.4 0.16
0.000009 0.0015 b f K,k 4 a r
0.003

Ffd,E
l bd =
0.065 tanh ar b f K,k 4 a r
70

( )

26.2

0.065 tanh

28

[mm]

( )
ar
70

for l bd 115 [mm] (36)

+ 115 [mm] for l > 115 [mm] (37)


bd

11.5

Surface tensile strength of concrete

A proper execution of strengthening with externally bonded FRP systems on site will always lead to a
failure in the concrete covering layer (bond failure) and not to a failure in the adhesive substance. An
essential parameter for the adhesive bond of FRP systems is the surface tensile strength fcsm of the
existing concrete cover. The testing of the surface tensile strength has to be carried out according to
the relevant national regulation. Due to the German guidelines [2], [4], at least five tests should be
performed on each concrete element.
For the calculation of the bond failure force the surface tensile strength can be applied according to
the German guidelines [2], [4] as the median value of the population. This value can be derived from
test results under consideration of the student distribution with a statistical safety of 95%.
arithmetic median

xm =

xi
n

(38)

standard deviation

s=

1 (x x )
i
m
n 1

(39)

median of the population

fcsm = x m k s

(40)

strength of test i
number of tests
reduction factor

xi
n
k

Depending on the number of tests, the reduction factor k can be taken from the following table (see
German DIN 1048)
n

10

15

20

25

30

35

0.953

0.823

0.734

0.67

0.62

0.58

0.455

0.387

0.342

0.31

0.286

Tab. 2

Reduction factor k for the calculation of the median of the population (German DIN 1048)

Example
Test Nr.

xi [N/mm]

(xi xm)

1
2
3
4
5
6

2.0
2.2
3.5
4.0
3.1
3.5

1.1025
0.7225
0.2025
0.9025
0.0025
0.2025

Total

18.3

3.135

xm = 18.3 = 3.05
6

s=

1 3.135 = 0.792
6 1

f csm = 3.05 0.823 0.792 = 2.40 [N / mm ]

29

12. Anchorage of bottom reinforcement at end support


On account of the truss model used for the shear design the bottom reinforcement has to be properly
anchored at end and intermediate supports. The required conditions are stated in Eurocode 2. It is
necessary to
a)

retain not less than 25% (or 50% for slabs) of the required steel section present in the
span

b)

cover the tension force, which is derived from the truss analogy considering the shear
and normal force at the support
a
(41)
FsR = VSdf ,A L + NSdf ,A
dm

The maximum value of both conditions is valid for the anchorage of the bottom reinforcement.
Normally the first condition is only valid for the new design of structural concrete elements, not for
strengthening. Applied to existing concrete elements to be strengthened 25% (or 50%) of the tensional
force due to the maximum moment of span has to be anchored at the supports. For strengthened
systems the combined maximum tensile force of the internal steel reinforcement and the external FRP
system has to be considered.
As long as the existing bottom reinforcement is not curtailed, the internal rebars extended beyond
support line are normally sufficiently anchored an strengthened state. The program calculates
required anchorage force at the support from the two conditions mentioned above and determines
part of the tensile force covered by the internal rebars. It is calculated from the circumference of
bar and the bond strength fbd:
4 As
Fs,A = l s,A
ds

fbd

the
the
the
the

(42)

If the internal reinforcement is not sufficient for the anchorage an strengthened state, a part of the FRP
strengthening has to be extended beyond the support front line. The software determines the tensile
force to be anchored and the required bond length.
In practice the anchorage of FRP systems beyond the support line is very difficult and questionable.
Under slabs supported by masonry walls, externally bonded CFRP laminates can be extended to the
adjacent span by removing one brick of the wall.
At concrete walls and beams the only adequate solution is to slot-in the end of the laminate and inject
the slot with epoxy paste. If the slot is sufficiently thin (d 10 mm), a verification of the anchorage
according to chapter 11.4 is possible.
In contrast to externally bonded FRP systems, an additional anchorage of near surface mounted
laminates beyond the support front line can hardly be realised in practice.

30

13. Detailing provisions


For externally bonded FRP strengthening the spacing of the strips is limited. According to the German
guidelines [2] [4] different limits are valid for the FRP systems.

Externally bonded laminates and sheets


edge distance:

ar,min = cw

axial spacing:

sf,max = 0.2 l
sf,max = 5 h
sf,max = 0.4 l

(43)
(bearing distance)
(slabs)
(cantilevering length)

(44)
(45)

Near surface mounted laminates


edge distance:

ar,min = 2 bf
ar,min = dk

axial spacing:

sf,min = dk
sf,min = bf

slot:

(46)
(47)

(bei as > 2 ds)

ts,max = cw h
bs,min = tf + 1 [mm]
bs,max = tf + 3 [mm]

where:
cw
dk
as
ds
ts,
bs
h

concrete cover of internal stirrups


maximum diameter of aggregates in concrete
axial spacing of internal longitudinal rebars
diameter of internal longitudinal rebars
depth of the slot
width of the slot
allowance for tolerances of the concrete cover

31

(48)
(49)
(50)
(51)
(52)

14. Shear design


14.1

Shear capacity according to Eurocode 2

In most cases of flexural strengthening with FRP systems, it is necessary to check the shear capacity
of the concrete structure as well. Especially beams they also require shear strengthening. On the
other hand for concrete solid slabs it may be proven that shear reinforcement is dispensable for
expected future loads. If not, other strengthening methods have to be considered.
According to Eurocode 2 the imposed shear force VSd can either be transferred by the concrete alone
or in combination with shear reinforcement. The shear resistance is described by the design values
VRd1 to VRd3. For the calculation of the shear reinforcement the standard method is applied considering
vertical stirrups and an inclination of the compression struts of 45. The relevant equations according
to Eurocode 2 can be taken from the following flowchart (fig. 11).
VRd1

shear resistance without shear reinforcement shear force is transferred by concrete


alone,

VRd2

maximum shear resistance the capacity of the inclined compression struts is


decisive for the shear resistance,

VRd3

shear resistance with shear reinforcement the shear force transmission results from
concrete and shear reinforcement.

The lower design value VRd1 is the relevant value for slabs which are usually constructed without any
shear reinforcement. Presenting the uppermost limit, VRd2 must not be exceeded by the imposed shear
force.
Following the conditions given in the German guidelines [2] [4] and according to Eurocode 2, a
distinction has to be made between four different cases with regard to the shear force capacity of a
strengthened concrete structure (see [10]):
1. In case that the existing shear force VSdf of the structure at strengthened state is lower than the
shear resistance VRd1 of the concrete alone, no shear strengthening is necessary. This case
generally applies to slabs.
VSdf VRd1

(53)

VSdf and VRd1 are determined considering the partial safety factors in Table 1.

2. If the shear force at strengthened state can be completely covered by the existing internal stirrups,
minimum shear strengthening is necessary to complete the mechanical truss model
VSdf VRd3

(54)

The additional shear reinforcement has to clasp the flexural strengthening and is designed for the
shear force difference V depending on the strengthening ratio.

V =

1
VSdf

(55)

In this case, anchorage of the shear strengthening in the compression zone can be omitted (see
Fig. 11).
32

The fact that additional shear reinforcement in the form of external bonded stirrups is necessary
despite sufficient internal shear reinforcement is justified by the concrete beam design truss
analogy. The additional tension chord of the external flexural strengthening must be connected to
the tension struts of the internal stirrups for completion of the truss model (fig. 10, see [10]).

shear strengthening

compression chord

concrete compression strut

internal stirrups

As1
Af
sw
Fig. 10

tension chords

Connection of the FRP flexural strengthening to the internal truss structure

3. If the shear force demand at strengthened state exceeds the shear capacity of the existing crosssection, the shear strengthening has to be designed for the remaining amount of shear force.
VSdf > VRd3
V =

VSdf VRd3

(56)
or

V =

1
VSdf

(57)

The higher value V of both conditions in equation 57 is valid for the design. Since the additional
shear reinforcement is necessary to cover the total shear force of the cross-section, the external
stirrups have to be anchored in the compression zone (see fig. 11).
4. The maximum shear resistance VRd2 provides the upper limit of the shear force also for
strengthened state. However, the German guidelines [2] [4] do not permit shear strengthening of
high stressed beams. Therefore in the program it is recommended to limit the maximum shear
capacity in the design concept of Eurocode 2 as well. Reducing the maximum shear capacity to
50 % (Vmax = 0.5 VRd2) corresponds approximately to the limitation given in the German guidelines
[2] [4]
VSdf Vmax

(58)

VSdf 0.5 VRd2

(59)

33

V Sdf < VRd3

VSdf > VRd3

Fig. 11 Anchorage of the additional shear reinforcement depending on the imposed shear force

Fig. 12 Flowchart for the shear check of strengthened beams according to Eurocode 2

34

Even if additional external stirrups are not required to cover the imposed shear force (case 1), it is
recommended for beams to clasp the FRP flexural strengthening system at least with 2 external
stirrups at the end of the beam. For strengthening the moment of span these external stirrups should
be anchored in the compression zone. For moments of support an additional anchorage of the flexural
strengthening with external stirrups can be omitted.

14.2

Design of the additional shear reinforcement

As additional shear reinforcement, steel plates as well as high modulus carbon sheets (unidirectional
fabrics) can be used. The sheets have a modulus of elasticity of about 640'000 N/mm (C-Sheet 640),
they are easier to handle than steel plates and therefore the application is more economical despite
the price of the material.
The required cross-section of the additional shear reinforcement in form of steel plates or sheets has
to be determined for the remaining shear force difference V (eq. 55 and 57).
The internal steel stirrups and the external stirrups made of steel plates or carbon sheets are
considered as parallel connected elastic or elastic-plastic elements. The strain conformity of these
elements must be ensured also at strengthened state. Therefore the same strain limit of limit = 0.2 %
according to [7] will be taken as a basis for the design.
The stress of the internal stirrups to determine the shear capacity VRd3 must be limited according to
equation 60:

sw =

lim it E s

f yd

(60)

The required cross-sectional area of the additional external shear reinforcement results from the
following equation:
a w,req =

V
z f fw

(61)

where:
V
zf

fw

shear force difference covered by the additional external shear reinforcement


internal lever arm between the concrete compressive force and the flexural strengthening
is iteratively determined by the program
stress of the additional external shear reinforcement (at limit = 0.2 %)

Steel plates:

fw =

lim it E s

f yd

(62)

Carbon sheets:
fw =

lim it E fd

(63)

Since the carbon sheets are rather weak during handling and are applied by hand lamination at
building site conditions, it is doubtful that the high modulus of elasticity of about 640'000 N/mm will be
35

achieved in practice. Therefore the modulus of elasticity in equation 63 should be reduced for carbon
sheets as shown in figure 13. For this a reduction factor of E = 1.2 is recommended in [10]:

fd

Ef

lim

fu

Efd = Efk / E

(64)

Fig. 13 Reduction of the modulus of elasticity of carbon sheets (design value)

Spacing of external stirrups


Steel plates:

The maximum spacing of the plates sw,max results from the truss analogy and is approximately equal to
the effective depth of the FRP flexural strengthening (see fig. 10) which corresponds to the overall
height of the beam.
sw,max = h

(65)

Carbon sheets:

When strengthening with carbon sheets C-Sheets 640, a maximum strip spacing of 80 % of the overall
height of the beam is recommended.
sw,max = 0.8 h

(66)

36

14.3

Anchorage of external stirrups

If only minimum external stirrups are required without anchorage in the compression zone, (case 2:
Vsdf VRd3), it has to be proved, that the adhesive bond of the external stirrups provides a sufficient
anchorage. For this check the bond behaviour as stated in chapter 11 can be applied, where the
material properties of steel plates or carbon sheets have to be considered.
As the form an the location of shear cracks can not be predicted, according to the German guideline
[2] it has to be proved, that the tensile force of the additional external stirrups does not exceed 50 % of
the bond force Fbd as given in equation 23:
Fwd 0.5 Fbd

(67)

The external stirrups always have to be bonded over the whole height of the web. But only half of the
existing bond length lbw at the side of the web can be considered for lb in equation 23 (see fig. 14):
lb 0.5 lbw

(68)

external stirrup
Laschenbgel

shear
crack
Schubri

h1
h

lb

sw

bw

sw

lbw
FRP
FRPLamelle
laminate

sw

sw,max = 0,5 h

lb = 0,5 lbw

Fig. 14 Adhesive bond anchorage of minimum external stirrups

The tensile force of the external stirrups is determined according to Eurocode 2 using the following
equations:
f wd = 0.5

Vwd
z

per meter for one side of the web

(69)

Fwd = 0.5

Vwd s w
z

each leg of a stirrup

(70)

For external stirrups that are only anchored by adhesive bond, differing from equations 65 and 66 the
following is valid:
sw,max = 0.5 h

(71)

37

15. Further checkings


In addition to the calculations which can be carried out with the program FRP Lamella, the structural
engineer should also check cracks and deformations of the strengthened structure if necessary.
According to the most national regulations or guidelines, the control of crack widths at strengthened
state is not required. Nevertheless, in a special case where it may be necessary, you should make
sure that durability and serviceability of the strengthened concrete structure are ensured. Please note
that strengthening with FRP products has no significant influence on the deformations of a
strengthened concrete structure. In case of deflection problems, preference should be given to other
strengthening methods like for instance sprayed concrete.

16. Fire protection


If fire protection is required, the program enables the user to check the remaining safety for service
loads under the condition that the external bonded FRP system and the external stirrups will
completely fail. Please note that epoxy resins may loose their load bearing capacity when the
temperature approaches 80 C. If necessary it has to be proved in special cases by an approval or an
expert opinion that the FRP system and the external stirrups are sufficiently protected against fire,
using additional protective measures as for instance fire protection plates.

38

17. Program user interface


17.1

Start of the program

The program is developed for the following Windows operating systems: Win 9x, 2000, NT.
After successful installation of FRP Lamella you start the program by either clicking the FRP Lamella
icon on the Desktop or choosing the option FRP Lamella in the Windows start menu of your computer.
First the disclaimer will appear. You have to accept to start the FRP Lamella program window.
To exit the program FRP Lamella and close the window, click the cross in the title bar at the upper
right corner of the program window. Instead you can either choose the option exit of the file menu.
17.2

Settings

To ensure optimum display performance of the FRP Lamella program on your screen a minimum
screen resolution of 800 x 600 pixel is assumed.
The display font size is also essential for a proper display of the program window. In the Windows
menu Start point to Settings, click Control Panel, and then double click Display. On the Settings tab,
click Advanced, then you will find the Font Size list on the General tab. Small fonts (standard) should
be selected, otherwise several items might not be completely displayed.
17.3

Basic information about the FRP Lamella user interface

You will find general information about Windows user interfaces in your Windows manual or in the
online help function of your Windows operating system.
Title bar

The uppermost line of the FRP Lamella program window shows information
about program, data file and path.

Menu bar

The items File, Calculation, Extras and Info on the menu bar lead to different
submenus. You will find a detailed list of all menu items in chapter 19.1.

Tool bar

The most frequently required functions can easily be called from the toolbar by
clicking one of the symbols. You will find a detailed list of all tool bar symbols
in chapter 19.2.

Tree view

The tree views in the left part of the program window enable you to call the
different input and output windows directly. Click the + symbol in front of a
heading to display the subordinated items. A click on the symbol hides the
subordinated items again.

Quick info

Positioning the mouse pointer on one of the input or output fields an


explanation (tooltiptext) will appear after a few seconds. Proceed in the same
way to get explanations for the functions of the tool bar.

39

17.4

Data input

The required data is entered on several input windows shown in the upper part of the program user
interface. The titles of the different windows are listed in the opposite tree view. They are classified
according to the topics general information, cross-section, loads, strengthening and proofs. Every
input window shows a graphic to illustrate the essential data.
To show the different input windows click the related title in the tree view. If one heading includes
several subordinated windows, the first window will be displayed automatically. Input windows that
are not accessible yet are displayed in light grey.
Use the button
on the right below the picture box of each input window to display the next
window. It is recommended to follow the sequence of the windows to make sure that no window is
left out. The button on the left below the picture box leads to the previous input window.
Enter the required data in the provided text boxes of each window. If necessary overwrite the
entry 0. Text boxes with a grey font are locked and cannot be modified. Disabled text boxes
having a dark background are not considered in the calculations.
The key button in the toolbar enables you to unlock input fields having a grey font and modify the
preselected values.
For some items you can choose from a list of different values.
After you have entered all required data you can start the calculation either by clicking the
calculation button below the graphic of the input window FRP cross-section or by clicking the
calculator symbol in the toolbar.
Start the proofs of anchorage and shear capacity by clicking the proof button below the graphic
of the corresponding input window. A click on the tick symbol in the toolbar will carry out all
proofs successively. This function is useful after reopening an existing input data file.

40

17.5

Output of results

The results are displayed in additional windows located in the lower part of the program user interface.
The titles of the different windows are listed in the opposite tree view. They are classified according to
the topics general information, strengthening and proofs.
To show the different output windows click the related title in the tree view. If one heading
includes several subordinated windows, the first window will be displayed automatically. Output
windows that are not accessible yet are displayed in light grey
The result values are displayed in text fields having a light grey or coloured background. These
values cannot be modified.
Pay attention to the output fields highlighted in blue or red colour. They will show you if the proof
conditions are met and if special details of construction have to be followed.
The output windows of strains in ultimate limit state and strains in service state additionally show a
graphical representation of the strain distribution (s. chap. 18.15 and 18.16). You can change
the scale by clicking the picture.
After the calculation of certain proofs you have to design a sufficient strengthening. The required
input data is entered in the white text boxes of the output window (s. chap. 18.20 and 18.23).
The performed calculations can be printed on any printer installed under Windows operating systems.
You can modify the content of the heading line in the menu Extras >> company letterhead. It is
possible to print each page individually.
pages 1 4
page 5
page 6
page 7

design of flexural strengthening


proof of FRP end anchorage
proof of anchorage of flexural reinforcement at support
design of shear strengthening

41

18. Input and output windows


18.1

Input window project

When you start the program the first window project opens. It offers the possibility to enter some
general project and structural element data. This information appears on each page of the printout and
will help you administrating your projects.
Enter the project number and the project name.
For each structural element you can enter a number and an appropriate description.

tip
Use the button

on the right below the picture box to display the next window.

42

18.2

Input window code

In this window you can choose the underlying code and guideline for the design. Additionally you
determine the material properties as well as the unit measurement for the input and output.
Choose the code according to which standard you want to perform the design of the
strengthening measure simply by clicking the related option button (not every version offers the
possibility to choose the code).
Afterwards choose the guideline on which the design of FRP strengthening shall base.
Select a country for the available steel and concrete grades based on the national standard that
will appear on the steel and concrete window, respectively. The appropriate national flag appears
next to the selection box.
You have the choice from different units of measurement: the unit of lengths and forces as well as
the unit of strains.

43

18.3

Input window geometry

FRP Lamella offers the possibility to strengthen the most frequent types of cross-section: slabs,
rectangular beams, T-beams and I-beams. According to your choice FRP Lamella will present an
appropriate illustrating graphic.

Click the geometry list and choose the type of cross-section.


Enter the dimensions of the cross-section in the corresponding data fields.
note
After entering all data the graphic turns into a true to scale graphic to allow a visual control of the
values.
Please indicate whether you want to strengthen an exterior or interior structural member.
According to the German guidelines [2], [3] for external concrete members the program will
consider a temperature reduction factor kT for the bond strength of externally bonded FRP strips
due to temperature variations from 20 C to 30 C (s. chap. 11.1, 11.2).
For slabs please indicate the span or the cantilever length. This input data field will be displayed
when you select a slab. The length is required to calculate the maximum spacing of FRP strips.
(s. chap. 18.13).

44

18.4

Output window cross-section

After entering the size of the structural member the cross-section values are calculated and shown in
the lower part of the user interface.
The upper field shows the gross cross-sectional area Ag of the structural member.
The gravity axis zcg of the cross-section is related to the top of the member.
Furthermore the moment of inertia Iy of the cross-section is given.
The section modulus Wtop and Wbottom apply to the top and the button of the cross-section.

note
The cross-section values are related to the gross cross-section of the member.

45

18.5

Input window concrete

The window concrete indicates the material properties of the concrete. You can select the concrete
classes according to the chosen code.
Select the existing concrete class of the member from the list. The appropriate characteristic
compressive strength fck will be displayed in the next field. If the required concrete class is not
available in the list, select the option other, this enables you to define the characteristic strength
(s. chap. 7.1).
The concrete maximum strain cu is limited to 0.35 [%] according to Eurocode 2.
The strain at the axis of the parabolic curve c1 is assumed to be 0.2 [%] according to
Eurocode 2 (Model Code).
The reduction factor is a coefficient taking into account long term effects on the compressive
strength. It is generally assumed to be = 0.85.
The basic value of the design shear strength Rd is calculated from the characteristic cylinder
compressive strength (s. chap. 7.1).
The average modulus of elasticity of concrete Ecm is necessary for the calculation of the
uncracked state of the structural member.
The characteristic tensile strength of the concrete fctm defines the transition between the
uncracked and the cracked state of the cross-section.
The partial safety factor c for concrete is preselected as c = 1.5 according to Eurocode 2.
(s. chap. [1])

note
You can modify the proposed values by using the key button in the tool bar.

46

18.6

Input window steel

The material properties of the reinforcing steel are entered in the window steel. The program offers the
possibility to define 2 types of reinforcing steel as well as 2 types of prestressing steel. The graphic
shows both stress-strain diagrams.
Select the steel grade of the reinforcing steel and of the prestressing steel from the steel list. The
appropriate characteristic yield stress fyk and the appropriate characteristic tensile strength
fpk of the prestressing steel will be displayed in the field next to the steel list. If the required steel
grade is not available in the list, select the entry other, which enables you to define the
characteristic strength.
note
The available steel grades in the list depend on the country selected in the window code.
For rebars select between plain and ribbed sections, for prestressing steel it is to distinguish
between strands and wires. The choice has an effect on the bond of the rebars or the modulus of
elasticity of the prestressing steel, respectively.
The modulus of elasticity Es for reinforcing steel is preselected as Es = 200'000 [N/mm] in
accordance to Eurocode 2. For prestressing steel the modulus of elasticity Ep is preselected
depending on the chosen section in accordance to Eurocode 2.
The maximum steel strain su and pu is assumed as 2 [%] according to Eurocode 2. It is only
needed for the termination of the iteration. Before this strain limit will be reached, the design will
be controlled by the strain limit of the FRP material.
For the calculation of the prestressing force the horizontal line of the design stress-strain diagram
is used. According to Eurocode 2 the characteristic tensile strength of the prestressing steel is
reduced by p = 0.9.
The partial safety factor s for reinforcing steel is preselected to 1.15 according to Eurocode 2
(s chap. [1]).
note
You can modify the proposed values by using the key button in the tool bar.
47

18.7

Input window main flexural reinforcement

Details about the existing rebars of the concrete member at the position of the maximum bending
moment can be entered in the window main flexural reinforcement. FRP Lamella allows the input of
six reinforcement layers in the tension or compression zone. You must at least enter one layer of
internal reinforcement since the program does not design unreinforced members.
Enter the cross-sectional area As of the existing tension rebars.
tip
Click the number button at the beginning of each line and an additional window shows a table of
rebars diameters. You can select the number and the cross-section for groups of rebars and copy
the total sum of the cross-sectional area of reinforcement to the input window (s. chap. 18.8).
The position of the reinforcement is given by the depth zs measured from the top edge of the
structural member to the axis of the rebars.
Afterwards you choose the steel grade. The list shows the four grades defined in the previous
window steel. For unclassified steel grades the defined yield strength or tensile strength will be
displayed.
For prestressed steel you have to enter the prestress after creep and shrinkage p0. The resulting
prestressing force is shown in the input window loads in unstrengthened state (s. chap. 18.10).
The option bonded is only enabled for prestressing steel. You can define if the tendon is fixed to
the surrounding concrete or if it slides without bond through a sheath. Rebars are always bonded
to the concrete.
The input of a concrete cover cw is optionally and just serves to if the arrangement of FRP strips
fits to the width of the member. The minimum distance between the lateral edge of the FRP strips
and the edge of the concrete member is equivalent to the concrete cover.

48

18.8

rebar tables for the selection of reinforcement cross-sectional area

The cross-sectional area of reinforcement can be copied from a table which offers a wide selection of
rebar diameters. The cross-sectional area is depending on the number of rebars in a beam or the
spacing of rebars in a slab. To open the rebar table just click the number button in the input windows
main reinforcement and reinforcement at support, respectively.
Choose a cross-sectional area by clicking a white field in the table. The background of a selected
field turns into blue. For beams, a multiple choice is possible. The sum of the cross-sectional
area As of the selected rebars is displayed below the table.
You cancel the selection by clicking the blue field again.
You can copy the selection to the reinforcement window by clicking the copy button. The rebar
table will be closed.
Close the table without copying the value by clicking the cancel button.

49

18.9

Input window flexural reinforcement at support

Details about the existing rebars at support can be entered in the window flexural reinforcement at
support. Additional information is needed for the proof of anchorage at support.
Enter the cross-sectional area As for every layer of reinforcement. The value is automatically
copied from the previous input window main reinforcement.
tip
Click the number button at the beginning of each line and an additional window shows a table of
rebars diameters. You can select the number and the cross-section for groups of rebars and copy
the total sum of the cross-sectional area of reinforcement to the input window (s. chap. 18.8).
The position of the reinforcement is given by the depth zs measured from the top edge of the
structural member to the axis of the rebars. The default values are copied from the previous input
window main flexural reinforcement.
For prestressed steel layers the prestress p0 at the region of support is needed. The default
values are copied from the previous input window main flexural reinforcement.
Enter the diameter ds of the rebars.
For determination of the anchorage force the anchorage length ls,A from the support front is
needed.
Choose the coefficient for effectiveness of anchorage a. According to Eurocode 2 the value is
1.0 for straight bars. For hooks, bends, loops and welded transverse bars in the anchorage zone
the value can be reduced to 0.7.

50

18.10

Input window loads in unstrengthened state

The window loads in unstrengthened state defines the imposed actions just before strengthening with
FRP. The resulting strains in the concrete member are taken into consideration for the strengthening
design. The graphic schematically presents the initial state as a bridge girder, which is closed for
traffic during application of the FRP strengthening and only loaded by the dead load of the structure.
Choose the design for a positive (moment of span) or negative moment (moment at support).
note
This choice is linked with the type of moment in the window loads in strengthened state. It is not
possible to choose different types of moments in both windows.
Enter the characteristic bending moment MSk0 which is imposed to the structure during the
application of the FRP strengthening. Commonly this will be the dead load moment. This value
defines the initial state of strain in the cross-section. For statically indeterminated systems you
may have to add the secondary moment from prestressing Mp'.
If the member is subjected to an external axial force, e.g. the dead load of an inclined beam, you
have to choose between compressive and tensile force.
Enter the characteristic axial force NSk0 resulting from the imposed load. Compressive forces
have a positive effect and can be ignored.
For prestressed members the program displays the prestressing force NP as well as the
prestressing moment Mp0' that are considered in the design. The values result from the crosssectional area, prestress and position of the prestressing steel entered in the window main flexural
reinforcement (s. chap. 18.7).
note
The program considers only the statically determinated prestressing moment. If the support
conditions of the prestressed member are statically indeterminated, add the secondary moment
Mp' to MSk0, MSdf and MSkf.

51

To define the transition between the uncracked and the cracked state of the cross-section, decide
if the bending tension zone of the cross-section is already cracked under service loads.
Reinforced concrete members are usually always cracked, for prestressing members it depends
on the degree of prestress and the history of loading. As a rule the cross-section is uncracked for
maximum prestress (no tensile forces in service state).

52

18.11

Input window loads in strengthened state

The window loads in strengthened state defines the future actions. You have to enter the bending
moments which are imposed to the concrete member after strengthening with FRP (s. chap. 9). The
graphic schematically presents the strengthened state as a bridge girder, which is loaded by dead
load of the structure and an additional high live load.
Choose the design for a positive (moment of span) or negative moment (moment at support).
note
This choice is linked with the type of moment in the window loads in strengthened state. It is not
possible to choose different types of moments in both windows.
If the member is subjected to an external axial force, e.g. the dead load of an inclined beam, you
have to choose between compressive and tensile force.
Enter the design bending moment MSdf for the expected loads considering the partial safety
factors for permanent and variable loads as well as the combination value . For statically
indeterminated systems you may have to add the secondary moment from prestressing Mp'. (s.
chap. 18.10).
Proceed in the same way for the design axial force NSdf. Take also into consideration the
different partial safety factors and the combination value .
You can either enter the exact values of imposed actions in service state or choose the option
approximate. In this case the characteristic values of the bending moment and axial force are
calculated from the given design values as follows:

MSkf =

MSdf
M,m

N Skf =

NSdf
N,m

note
The use of the option approximate is especially recommended if the design actions are
determined by a complicated structural analysis (e.g. finite elements). Using the average safety
factors you can avoid another analysis applying characteristic loads without partial safety factors.
53

If you have chosen the option exact, enter the characteristic (service) moment of strengthened
state MSkf. Use the load combination applicable for the proof of the service limit state. For
statically indeterminated systems you may have to add the secondary moment from
prestressing Mp' (s. chap. 18.10).
If the member is subjected to an external axial force, enter the characteristic axial force NSkf.
If you have chosen the option approximate, enter an average partial safety factor M,m for
bending moments. The characteristic moment MSkf is then calculated with above-mentioned
equation from the design moment MSdf. The valid range for the average partial safety factors is 1.0
to 2.0 (1.35 to 1.5 according to Eurocode 2).
Is the member loaded with an axial force, also enter the average partial safety factor N,m.

54

18.12

Input window FRP system

The window FRP system shows the material properties of the CFRP laminates and sheets. The
displayed safety and reduction factors as well as the limited design strain are preselected according to
the guideline you have chosen in the window code.
Select the FRP product from the list. There are two types of prefabricated S&P FRP laminates
and one hand lay-up S&P C-Sheet in different grammages available.
For prefabricated laminates choose the type of bonding. While externally bonded laminates
provide a larger cross-sectional area, near surface mounted (slot-in) laminates show a higher
bond resistance (s. chap. 11).
Below the FRP material list the appropriate adhesive is mentioned. For some systems a selection
of different adhesives is available. S&P Resin 50 is used for pouring slots in negative moment
regions of slabs.
Depending on the chosen type of FRP the modulus of elasticity Efk, the tensile strength ffk and
the ultimate strain fu of the material will be displayed (s. chap. 7.4). For FRP linear-elastic
material behaviour is assumed.
The partial safety factor f depends on the guideline. The reduction factor for strain limit k
enables an additional reduction of the design strain limit f,limit (s. chap. 8.3).
For carbon sheets a reduction factor E for the characteristic modulus of elasticity is
recommended (s. chap. 14.2). The value is preselected to E = 1.2.
Some guidelines prescribe a strain limit f,limit for the design of FRP (s. chap. 8.1, 8.2).

note
You cannot modify the material properties of FRP. But you can change the preselected partial safety
and reduction factors by using the key button in the tool bar.

55

18.13

Input window FRP cross-section

On the window FRP cross-section you are asked to choose the number and arrangement of the FRP
products. Observe the minimum and maximum spacing respectively. You can choose up to three
layers with different cross-sectional areas as well as different effective depths.
Before selecting the FRP cross-section, start the iteration either by clicking the calculation
button on the bottom right of the window or by clicking the calculator symbol in the toolbar. The
required FRP cross-sectional area will be calculated and displayed in the output window design
below.
note
To carry out the design calculation, in this window only the depth zf1 of the FRP layer 1 from the
top edge of the concrete member has to be given. As the design iteration can only determine the
cross-sectional area of one FRP layer (one unknown), FRP layers 2 and 3 are initially locked, but
they are enabled after the design calculation.
For each layer choose an FRP cross-section. The available selection depends on the chosen
FRP product in the window FRP System. For sheets the theoretical fibre thickness tf is given
and you can choose the width bf of the sheet. The delivery width of the sheet is preselected.
Enter the number of FRP plies nf lying on top of each other. One single ply is preselected. The
maximum is two plies of laminates or five plies of sheets.
For beams enter the number mf of FRP strips lying next to each other. The spacing sf of the strips
is calculated.
For slabs of a standard width (1 [m] or 12 [in]), enter the spacing sf of the strips. The number mf
of FRP strips lying next to each other is calculated. The limit spacing sf,max or sf,min respectively, is
calculated according to the German guidelines [2] [4] with following conditions (s. chap. 13):
sf,max
sf,max
sf,max
sf,min

=
=
=
=

0,2- times span


5- times slab thickness
0,4- times cantilevering length
maximum size of aggregate 32 mm
56

(near surface mounted laminates)

For each layer the cross-sectional area Af is calculated. The total sum of FRP strips in one layer
is calculated from the number of plies lf multiplied by the number of strips nf.
For each layer determine the depth zf of the FRP reinforcement from the top edge of the concrete
member. To guarantee the position of the bonded FRP system in the tension zone, keep the limit
zf,min and zf,max respectively. The depth of the tension zone corresponds approximately to a fifth of
the member height.
The lateral distance ar of FRP strips to the edge of the member is only required for the
calculation of the bond force of near surface mounted laminates (s. chap. 11.4).
For all types of FRP keep the minimum distance ar,min (s. chap. 13).
tip
The program checks if the arrangement of FRP strips fits to the tension face of the member, taking
into consideration the lateral distance to the edge. A message will appear if the strengthening
does not fit.

note
After the determination of the required FRP cross-section the outstanding information can be given to
ensure the sufficient moment capacity of the strengthened member (s. chap. 18.14). All 3 FRP layers
are taken into account for the determination of the resisting moment in strengthened state.

57

18.14

Output window design

After the design calculation the result window design will appear in the lower part of the user interface.
The chosen cross-sectional area of the FRP system can be compared to the required cross-sectional
area and the flexural capacity of the strengthened member is checked.
The required cross-sectional area A f,req is calculated based on the previously entered data. It
considers the imposed bending moment Mu of the strengthened state and the depth zf of FRP
layer 1 from the top edge of the member.
The provided cross-sectional area A f,prov is displayed. The total cross-sectional area results
from the sum of all three layers entered on the window FRP cross-section.
note
If you have entered several FRP layers with different depths zf, the bending moment proof can fail
in spite of sufficient cross-sectional area of FRP, because the required cross-sectional area only
considers the depth of FRP layer 1.
The design capacity of the strengthened section MRdf is determined by an additional iteration
taking into account the chosen cross-sectional area of FRP strengthening.
In the proof line the load capacity is compared to the imposed bending moment
tip
If the proof condition is met, the result fields will be highlighted in blue and you can access the
results of the service limit state and all additional proofs.
On the right side of the window MRd0 describes the design capacity of the unstrengthened
member, taking into account the partial safety factors for concrete and reinforcing steel. The
determination of the moment capacity considers the design value of the axial force NSdf.
MRk0 is the characteristic capacity of the unstrengthened member. The calculation is based on
characteristic strengths of the materials without partial safety factors. The determination of the
moment capacity considers the characteristic value of the axial force NSkf.

The degree of strengthening indicates the ratio between the applied design moment MSdf of
the strengthened state and the design resistance MRd0 of the unstrengthened section. According to
the German guidelines [2], [4] the degree of strengthening should not exceed 2.0 for externally
bonded FRP strips.
58

The program indicates the remaining global safety factor in case of loss of FRP
strengthening. The characteristic capacity of the unstrengthened section MRk0 will be determined
without any partial safety factors (c = s = 1.0). It is then compared to the imposed characteristic
(service) moment MSkf (s. chap. 6.2, 16)

59

18.15

Output window strains in ultimate limit state

The output window strains in ultimate limit state (ULS) shows the strain diagram as superposition of
the initial strain and an additional strain (s. chap.10.2). The strain diagram is displayed true to scale.
The left part of the window shows the strain distribution of the initial state resulting from the initial
bending moment MSk0 .
tip
Click the graphic and the strain diagram will be scaled up.
The right part of the window shows the strain profile at the ultimate limit state (ULS) considering
the required cross-sectional area of FRP strengthening Af,req .
The strain of the extreme compressive fibre c and the height of the compression zone x are
displayed.

p is the total strain of the prestressing steel including the initial strain due to prestressing.
The strains of the reinforcing steel and the strains of the FRP material are displayed as
and f respectively.

note
Positive values describe expansion of the material, negative values indicate compression.

Control the design with a hand calculation


The compressive force of the concrete as well as the forces of the steel reinforcement and the CFRP
strengthening can be determined using the corresponding strain of each material given by the
program. For the cross-sectional area of CFRP you should apply the required cross-sectional area
provided by the program in the design window. Then establish the sum of horizontal forces and the
sum of bending moments taking into account the imposed bending moment MSdf in strengthened state
(s. chap. 10.3).

60

18.16

Output window strains / stresses in service state

The output window strain / stresses in service state (SLS) shows the strain diagram and the maximum
stresses of the different materials at service state. The strain diagram is displayed true to scale
The left part of the window presents the strain distribution at service limit state (SLS) as a result
of the characteristic load considering the provided cross-section of FRP Af,prov. The output of the
strain distribution at service state serves particularly to control steel strains, which should not
exceed the yielding point. Otherwise the program will give a warning and the selected FRP crosssection must be increased until no yielding of the reinforcement occurs at service state.
(s. chap. 10.4).
tip
The strain profile is displayed in the same scale as the strains in ultimate limit state. Click the
graphic and the strain diagram will be scaled up.
The strain of the extreme compressive fibre c and the height of the compression zone x are
displayed.

p is the total strain of the prestressing steel including the initial strain due to prestressing.
The strains of the reinforcing steel and the strains of the FRP material are displayed as
and f respectively.
The right part of the window shows the corresponding maximum stresses
materials at service state.

max

of the different

The maximum stresses are compared with the stress limits limit of Eurocode 2. They are
according to rare combination of loads. Limit values of other load combinations have to be proofed
separately.
note
If it is not necessary to check the stress limits (s. chap. 10.5), you can delete them by deselecting
the check box consider stress limits.

note
Positive values describe expansion of the material, negative values indicate compression.
61

18.17

Input window FRP end anchorage

The window FRP end anchorage enables you to carry out the required checking for bond anchorage
of the tensile force at the end of the FRP strips.
When strengthening a moment of span you have to choose the appropriate situation between the
options end support and interior support. The graphic schematically displays the situation at
support and the corresponding moment line.
For the bond check at an end support, enter the distance f between the end of the FRP strips
and the front edge of the support. To prevent delamination this distance shall not exceed 50 mm
(s. chap. 11.3).
Enter the distance ai between the theoretical support line and the support front.
Additionally the horizontal displacement of the tensile force line aL is given, which normally
corresponds to the average effective depth of the internal reinforcement and the external FRP
layer. (s. chap.11.3)
note
You can modify the proposed value by using the key button in the tool bar.
For externally bonded FRP systems, enter the concrete surface tensile strength fcsm. This value
has to be determined from several pull-off tests. The minimum value for prefabricated CFRP
laminates is 1.5 N/mm, for carbon sheets 1.0 N/mm. For the calculation of the bond force a
maximum of 3.0 N/mm should be considered (s. chap. 11.5).
Near surface mounted laminates consider the characteristic shear strength of the adhesive
This value is determined in
respect of the specific material
properties of the adhesive
(s.
chap.
11.4)
system.

K,k.

62

The bond check will be carried out at the point E as shown in the graphic. For the bond check at
an end support the program will calculate the distance xE from point E to the support axis. For
the bond check at an interior support the point E corresponds to the moment zero point. Now you
have to enter the distance xE, which results from the moment line you have determined prior to the
design of the FRP strengthening during the structural analysis (s. chap. 11.3).
For the bond check at an end support enter the corresponding design bending moment MSdf,E of
the strengthened state at point E. This value results from the moment line in strengthened state,
which has to be determined by structural analysis prior to the FRP design. For the bond check at
an interior support the point E is equivalent to the moment zero point and the program
automatically sets MSdf,E = 0.
The internal rebars at point E are only relevant for the anchorage at an end support. Specify
whether or not the bending reinforcement is curtailed. The program will calculate the forces at
point E considering the reduced reinforcement area entered in the window flexural reinforcement
at support. Otherwise the program will apply the area of reinforcement at midspan.
tip
If you click the button curtailed bending reinforcement, the window flexural reinforcement at
support will be opened. You can check the position and the cross-sectional area of reinforcement
at support. Use the button back below the graphic to return to the anchorage check.
After you have entered all required values, you can start the bond check either by clicking the
proof button on the bottom right of the window or by clicking the tick symbol in the tool bar.

63

18.18

Output window FRP end anchorage

On the left part of the result window FRP end anchorage the bond forces are compared. The right side
of the window gives further information about the bond length and the recommendations of the
German guidelines [2] [1] [4].
At point E the remaining tensile force of the FRP strips is called Ffd,E. It is determined iteratively
from the bending moment MSdf,E at point E. For the bond check at an interior support Ffd,E = 0 is
applies, since point E is the moment zero point.
Fbd,max indicates the design value of the maximum bond failure force at point E. This value
results from the material properties of the provided FRP product and the substrate strength of the
concrete and the shear strength of the adhesive respectively. For slabs additionally a reduction
factor of 1.2 is taken into account (s. chap. 11.1, 11.2, 11.5).

For the anchorage check of externally bonded FRP systems the bond length lbd,max related to the
maximum bond force Fbd,max is applied (s. chap. 11.1, 11.2). This value is calculated for each layer
of FRP strengthening depending on the chosen cross-section. The value lbd,max should always be
considered as the minimum bond length.
According to the German guidelines [2] Fehler! Verweisquelle konnte nicht gefunden
werden. in some cases is a higher bond length lb should be applied. For the anchorage at a
moment zero point a bond length of at least 1 m is recommended (s. chap.11.3).
The values fmax, fmin and f define the distance from the end of the FRP strips to the edge of the
support. They are calculated taking into account the appropriate bond length and enable you to
determine the position of the FRP strengthening and the required length. For underside
strengthening of beams and slabs, the distance f from the support front to the starting point of the
FRP strengthening should not exceed 50 mm. (s. chap.11.3)
note
The distance f may also be a negative value. In this case the FRP strengthening must be
extended beyond the support line. Additionally the field is highlighted in red colour.
Short information terms about the checking are displayed in the two text boxes at the bottom of
the window. If the end anchorage check is ok, the background of the bottom lines will be
highlighted in blue. A bond failure will be indicated by a red background and further information
how to improve the anchorage will be given.
64

18.19

Input window anchorage of flexural reinforcement at support

The window anchorage at support enables you to enter the required data, to prove a sufficient
anchorage of the total bending reinforcement at support. This proof is only necessary for
strengthening of a positive moment (moment of span).
Choose direct or indirect support by clicking the option field. The illustrated graphic
schematically shows the selected support condition.
For indirect support the calculation considers the distance ai between the theoretical support
line and the support front. This value is copied from the input window FRP end anchorage
(s. chap. 0).
For prefabricated laminates at a direct support, additionally choose the type of bonding at the
end of the laminates. Slot-in laminate ends must be completely surrounded by adhesive in a
narrow slot (s. chap. 12).
The concrete surface tensile strength fcsm is required for the calculation of an externally bonded
FRP strengthening. This value is taken from the window FRP end anchorage (s. chap. 0).
Enter the design shear force at support VSdf,A.
Enter the design axial force at support NSdf,A.
To check the given reinforcement at support click the corresponding button at the bottom of the
window. The window reinforcement at support will be opened. Use the button back below the
graphic to return to the anchorage check.
After you have entered all required values, you can start the anchorage check either by clicking
the proof button on the bottom right of the window or by clicking the tick symbol in the tool bar.

65

18.20

Output window anchorage of flexural reinforcement at support

The left part of the window anchorage of flexural reinforcement at support shows the different bond
forces. On the right part of the window you can enter the bond length for each strengthening layer at
support. The anchorage at support is schematically represented in the graphic of the input window.
According to Eurocode 2 a specific part of the bending tensile force has to be anchored at support.
This is the total required tension force FA,erf (s. chap. 12).
The part of the tensile force Fs,A already covered by the internal reinforcement is calculated in
dependence of the rebar diameter ds and bond length ls,A entered in the window rebars at support
(s. chap. 12)
Ff,A,req is the additionally required anchorage force at support. This value is the difference of
FA,req and Fs,A and must be covered by FRP.

Below, the provided anchorage force Ff,A,prov is compared to the required FRP reinforcement at
support. This value depends on the provided bond length lf,A entered on the right part of the
window.
In the check line at the bottom left of the window, the provided and the required anchorage force
are compared.
note
If the anchorage check is ok, the background of the bottom lines will be highlighted in blue. An
anchorage failure will be indicated by a red background.
On the right side of the output window enter the bond length lf,A of each strengthening layer
measured from the support front.
For each strengthening layer, the bond force Ffd,A at support is calculated depending on the given
bond length. The sum of these forces is displayed on the left side of the window in the field Ff,A,prov.
For information the maximum design bond force Fbd,max as well as the maximum bond length
lbd,max are displayed (s. chap. 11.1, 11.2).
Short information terms about the anchorage of FRP are displayed in the right text box at the
bottom of the window. If the flexural strengthening can end in front of the support the background
of the text box is highlighted in blue.

66

18.21

Input window shear reinforcement and loads

In the window shear reinforcement and loads you enter the existing internal shear reinforcement as
well as the imposed loads at strengthened state.
For beams and T-beams enter the cross-sectional area of the internal stirrups asw per meter.
tip
Click the button table and an additional window will appear. Here you can select from a table of
rebar diameters the cross-sectional area of double-shear stirrups per meter and you can take over
the selected value.
Choose the steel grade of the existing shear reinforcement from the list. The list shows the two
grades of reinforcing steel defined in the window steel. For unclassified steel grades the defined
yield strength will be displayed. The field next to the list shows the appropriate yield strength fyk.
Specify whether or not the bending reinforcement is curtailed. The program will calculate the
reinforcement ratio of the longitudinal internal rebars considering the reduced reinforcement
entered in the window flexural reinforcement at support. Otherwise the program will calculate the
reinforcement ratio at midspan. The longitudinal reinforcement ratio is needed to evaluate VRd1.
tip
If you click the button curtailed bending reinforcement, the window flexural reinforcement at
support will be opened. You can check the position and the cross-sectional area of reinforcement
at support. Use the button back below the graphic to return to the shear check.
Enter the design shear force VSdf in strengthened state at the point X. According to Eurocode 2
you can evaluate VSdf at the distance d (effective depth of reinforcement) from the front of a direct
support on beams with continuously distributed loading.
Determine the axial force NSdf,X at the same position X. An axial compressive force increases the
shear capacity of the concrete.
The bending moment MSdf,X is needed to determine the lever z of the internal forces.
67

18.22

Input window shear strengthening

In the window shear strengthening the material properties of the strengthening material are defined.
You can choose between S&P C-Sheets and steel plates.
Select the shear strengthening material from the list. According to your choice, input fields for
the material parameters will appear.
Below the FRP material list the appropriate adhesive is mentioned.
Enter the appropriate modulus of elasticity Es of the structural steel. For C-Sheets 640 the
characteristic modulus of elasticity Efk is a fixed value.
Enter the characteristic strength fyk according to the structural steel you want to apply. For CSheets 640 the characteristic strength ffk is a fixed value.
For carbon sheets the ultimate strain fu of the fibres is shown. The ultimate limit strain of the
steel is not relevant for the shear design.
For steel plates as additional shear reinforcement the partial safety factor s is preselected to
s = 1.15. It is the same value as for reinforcing steel which is also used for internal stirrup
reinforcement.
For the design of hand lay-up carbon sheets a reduction factor E for the modulus of elasticity is
recommended (s. chap. 14.2). The value is preselected to 1.2. The factor takes into account the
softening effects of the hand lay-up on construction site.
According to [1] the design will be carried out with a strain limit limit of 0.2 %. (s. chap. 14.2)
After you have entered all required data, you can start the shear check either by clicking the
proof button on the bottom right of the window or by clicking the tick symbol in the tool bar.

note
You cannot modify the material properties of FRP. But you can change the preselected partial safety
and reduction factors by using the key button in the tool bar.
68

18.23

Output window shear strengthening

The calculation of the shear capacity is derived from the standard method described in Eurocode 2
assuming vertical stirrups and a compression strut inclination of 45. On the left part of the result
window shear, the imposed shear force is compared to the design values of the shear capacity. The
right part of the result window shear shows the required additional shear reinforcement and gives the
recommendation for the anchorage of the external shear reinforcement.
The recommended maximum shear resistance Vmax shall not exceed 50 % of the shear capacity
VRd2 corresponding to the failure of the concrete compression struts (s. chap. 14.1).
The shear resistance provided just by concrete VRd1 is calculated taking into account the
design shear strength Rd and the longitudinal reinforcement ratio. In case the imposed shear
force is inferior to this value, shear strengthening is not necessary (s. chap. 14.1).
The shear capacity of the section with internal shear reinforcement VRd3 indicates whether
external shear strengthening is required or not to cover the whole imposed shear force. If the
imposed shear force VSdf does not exceed the shear capacity VRd3 of the unstrengthened crosssection, additional shear reinforcement is only needed to link the flexural strengthening with the
internal stirrups. In this case the external shear reinforcement has not to be anchored in the
compression zone (s. chap. 14.1).
The proof conditions of the shear check are displayed in the left bottom line
note
If the shear check is ok, the background of the bottom line will be highlighted blue. If the shear
force exceeds the maximum permissible value the line will change to red.
Choose the thickness tw of the additional external stirrups. If you apply carbon sheets you can
choose up to 5 layers.
Decide the width bw of the additional external stirrups. Select a value from the list or enter a value
into the field.
The cross-sectional area Aw of one stirrup leg is calculated and shown in the field next to the list.
Enter the spacing sw of the additional external stirrups. The maximum spacing sw,max is
displayed below (s. chap. 14.2).

69

The provided cross-sectional area aw,prov of the additional shear reinforcement is calculated per
meter. As the shear strengthening is usually attached to both sides of the web, the dimensioning
of the external strap binder considers two-leg stirrups.
The required cross-sectional area aw,req is compared to the selected shear strengthening
(s. chap. 14.2).
The right bottom line of the window gives additional recommendations for the anchorage of the
external shear strengthening. If the external stirrups have to be anchored in the compression
zone, you can use the height of the compression zone x shown in the output window strains in
ultimate limit state as a reference.
note
If shear strengthening is necessary, the bottom line will be highlighted in red. If no external shear
strengthening is required, it will be highlighted in blue.

18.24

Output window shear strengthening anchorage of additional external stirrups

If an external shear strengthening is required, the anchorage of the additional stirrups in the
compression zone or the adhesive bond on the side of the web has to be proved. The left part of the
result window shows the tensile force of the external stirrups, the right part displays the bond force of
the adhesive bond. The right part of the output window is only enabled if an adhesive bond anchorage
is admissible.
The shear resistance of shear strengthening Vwd is the difference of VSdf and VRd3 of the
previous window or a minimum value according to the German guidelines [2] [1] [4] (s. chap.
14.1).
The calculation considers two-leg stirrups (both sides of the web). The tensile force of one
stirrup leg Fwd is shown (s. chap. 14.3).
Additionally the tension force per meter fwd is displayed. This value is related to one side of the
web.
The left bottom line of the window gives additional recommendations for the anchorage of the
external shear strengthening.
70

On the right part of the window the bond length lbw of the additional external stirrups has to be
entered as shown in the graphic of the corresponding input window shear strengthening.
According to the German guidelines [2] [4] the bond length should tally with the height of the
web. (s. chap. 14.3). The appropriate value is preselected.
note
This value can be modified using the key button in the toolbar.
The program calculates the design bond force Fbd of the adhesive bond, applying the properties
of the external stirrups and the concrete surface. According to the German guideline [2] the
calculation only considers half of the adhesive length lbw (s. chap. 14.3).
The maximum bond force Fbd,max as well as the related bond length lbd,max are displayed
(s. chap. 11.1, 11.2).
In the right bottom line the tensile force to be anchored is compared to the bond force. According
to the German guideline [2][1] only half of the bond force is allowed to be considered (s. chap.
14.3).
note
If the check is ok, the background of the results and the bottom line will be highlighted in blue,
otherwise it will change to red.

71

19. Program menu and tool bar


19.1

Menu bar items

Menu File
open
Open an existing data file or search for a file. The windows dialogue open is displayed. Select the
folder where the required data file is located.
save
Save the opened data file using the existing file name. If no file is opened the menu save as will
be called.
save as
Save entered data by indicating a file name, the folder and the drive.
print
Print the currently displayed input data and results. If no calculation has been carried out yet, only
the pages containing the input data will be printed. The windows dialogue print is called. You have
the possibility to select and print each page individually.
end
Terminate the program FRP Lamella and close the program window. If you made changes in the
opened data file, a corresponding inquiry appears which enables you to save those changes.
last files
A list of the last 4 files you have been working on is displayed in the lower part of the menu
window. It is possible to call one of these files by a simple mouse click.
Menu Calculation
dimensioning
Starts the FRP design, after you have entered all relevant values required for the calculation or
after opening an input data file.
strains
After you have selected the required FRP cross-section, you can control the strain distributions at
ultimate limit state and at service state.
anchorage
Once you carried out a flexural strengthening design, you can move to the check of the anchorage
with this menu level. When all required data is entered, you can start the calculation using the
submenu proof.
shear
Once you carried out a flexural strengthening design, you can move to the shear check with this
menu level. When all required data is entered, you can start the calculation using the submenu
proof.
Menu Extras
company letterhead
Displays a window where you can enter and save the name and address of your company. This
information will appear in the head line of the program printout. It will still be available at the next
program start. The default name and address is S&P Clever Reinforcement Company.

72

always on top
If you are working on several windows at the same time, you can predefine that FRP Lamella
should always appear in the foreground. A tick symbol next to this menu level indicates the current
state of this option.
Menu Info
info
Indicates the number of the program version as well as the name of the program authors and
information about your computer and your operating system.
contact
Shows the address of S&P Clever Reinforcement Company, Switzerland.
?
Opens the FRP Lamella online help function (not available yet).

73

19.2

Tool bar symbols

new: Delete the results and clear the input data fields. The program automatically switches to
the first window.
open : Open an existing data file or search for a file. The windows dialogue open is displayed.
Select the folder where the required data file is located.
save : Save the open data file using the existing file name. If no file is opened the menu save as
will be called.
print: Print the currently displayed input data and results. If no calculation has been carried out
yet, only the first page with the input data will be printed. The windows dialogue print is called.
You have the possibility to select and print each page individually.
unlock: Modify the preselected values. Attention: when you change the preselected values,
the calculation is no longer based on the chosen design code and guideline.
calculate: Start the FRP design, after you have entered all relevant values required for the
calculation or after opening an input data file.
stop iteration: Stop the running iteration. A dialog box opens to ask again if you really want to
stop the calculation.
checkings: Carry out the checkings for anchorage and shear. This button is only enabled after
the design of the flexural strengthening.
info: Indicates the number of the program version as well as the name of the program authors
and information about your computer and your operating system.
contact: Shows the address of S&P Clever Reinforcement Company, Switzerland
help: Opens the FRP Lamella online help function (not available yet).

74

20. Installation instructions


Make sure that you are provided with administrative rights under Windows NT or Windows 2000 and
close all current applications. Uninstall older versions of FRP Lamella (Start >> Settings >> Operating
system >> Software >> FRP Lamella >> Delete)
Insert the CD in your CD-ROM drive. Click Start, then select Execute.
Enter the following under Open : D:\SETUP\SETUP.EXE
(when the letter D corresponds to your CD-ROM drive)
Welcome: Click Next.
Select Installation Folder: Click Next to install FRP Lamella in the indicated folder or Browse to choose
or create another folder.
Confirm Installation: Click Next to start the installation.
Installation complete: Click Close.
Installation of the required components
FRP Lamella requires special Microsoft components to be perfectly installed on your Windows
operating system. The FRP Lamella installation routine searches for those components in your
system. In case these components do not exist you will get an error message and the FRP Lamella
installation will abort.

Components:
Microsoft Data Access Component 2.5:

Mdac_typ.exe

Database Communication:

DCOM95 fr Windows 95
DCOM98 fr Windows 98

The required data can be found in the components folder of the CD-Rom. It is possible for you to
download the Data Access Components SDK Version 2.5 (Mdac_typ.exe) file in any language from
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads.
To install these files:
1.

Insert the FRP Lamella CD in your CD-ROM drive. Double click Windows-Explorer.

Double click your CD-ROM drive.


Double click the FRP Lamella directory, then the components folder. You will see three files: Dcom95,
Dcom98 and Mdac_typ
Double click the required file to execute it:
Once the required components have been installed on your operating system, restart the FRP Lamella
installation.
75

DESIGN EXAMPLE

T-beam according to Eurocode 2

1. Idealised structure and loads


For the T-beam shown in fig. 2 an increase of live loads from 17.5 kN/m to 50 kN/m is planed.

pk,new = 50 kN/m
pk,old = 17.5 kN/m
gk = 35 kN/m

10 m
Fig. 1: Idealised structure and loads

2. Cross-section and materials

2000
180
2 16
8 / 200

900 720

2 28
5 28

45
50

C 20/25
S 500

600
Fig. 2: Cross-section of unstrengthened state

As1
As2
As3
Asw

=
=
=
=

3080 [mm]
1230 [mm]
402 [mm]
502 [mm]

concrete:
reinforcing steel:
FRP laminate:
external stirrups:

(bottom)
(bottom)
(top)
(stirrups)
C 20/25
S 500 (swiss)
S&P CFK 150/2000
S&P C-Sheet 640

adhesive:
adhesive:

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

S&P Resin 220


S&P Resin 55

3. Imposed moments
initial strain state

(at time of application of the FRP strengthening)

gk = 35 kN/m

10 m

MSk0 = 437.5 kNm


Fig. 3: Load and internal moments of initial strain state

During the application of the FRP strengthening only the dead load of the T-beam and the slab
have an effect on the cross-section. The resulting bending moment in service state leads to an
initial state of strain that has to be considered in the design.

strengthened state

qd = 1.35 g + 1.5 p = 122.25 kN/m

1.5 p = 75 kN/m

1.35 g = 47.25 kN/m

10 m
xE

611 kN

xE = 0.87 m

611 kN
MSdf,E = 483 kNm

MSdf = 1528 kNm


Fig. 4: Loads and internal moments of strengthened state

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

For the design of the FRP strengthening the bending moments of ultimate limit state and service
state can be determined using a structural analysis program or by a hand calculation.
Considering the partial safety factors for actions, the maximum design moment amounts to
MSdf = 1528 [kNm].
The maximum bending moment in service state results to
MSkf = 1062.5 [kNm].

4. Design
flexural resistance of the unstrengthened cross-section:
MRd0 = 1376.5 [kNm]
imposed design moment in strengthened state (see above):
MSdf = 1528 [kNm]
strengthening ratio:
= MSdf / MRd0 = 1528 / 1376.5 = 1.11 [-]
remaining global safety in case of loss of the FRP strengthening:

= MRk0 / MSdf = 1596.9 / 1062.5 = 1.5 [-]


required cross-sectional area of FRP strengthening:
Af,req = 166 [mm]

5. Selection of the FRP cross-section


Two prefabricated laminates of type CFK 150/2000 are chosen.
number = 2
cross-section:

bf / tf = 80 / 1.2 [mm/mm]

Af,prov = 192 [mm]

>

MRdf = 1553.9 [kNm]

Af,req = 166 [mm]


>

1528 [kNm] = MSdf

design ok !

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

6. Strain profiles
Ultimate limit state
In ultimate limit state the FRP material reaches its strain limit. Due to the high strain of the FRP
strengthening and the internal steel reinforcement the ductility of the member is ensured.
f = 7.5 [] = f,limit
s = 7.674 [] >> sy = 2.3 []
However, the compression zone is not stressed up to the limit
c = 1.543 [] < cu = 3.5 []
service limit state
To avoid uncontrollable high deformations in service state, it must be ensured that the internal
steel reinforcement does not yield under characteristic loads.
s = 1.584 [] > 2.3 [] = sy

strain check ok !

7. Stresses
If the design and detailing rules given in EC 2 to restrict concrete and steel stresses in service
state are not satisfied, the following stress limits for the rare combination of loads are valid:
c,limit = 0.6 fck = 0.6 20 = 12 [N/mm]
s,limit = 0.8 fyk = 0.8 460 = 368 [N/mm]
c,max = 6.83 [N/mm] < 12 [N/mm] = c,limit
s,max = 316.89 [N/mm] < 368 [N/mm] = s,limit

stress check ok !
stress check ok !

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

8. FRP end anchorage


geometry of support:
f
ai
aL

=
=
=

50
150
408

[mm]
[mm]
[mm]

distance from end of FRP strengthening to edge of support


distance from support axis to edge of support
horizontal displacement of tensile force line

The mimimum value of the substrate strength is assumed. This value must be proved by
sampling on site.
f
1,5
f csd = csm
c = 1,5 = 1,0

fcsm = 1.5 [N/mm]

[N / mm ]

The maximum bond force and the required bond length can be derived from the formulas given
in the German guideline. The modified coefficients result from the adaption to the partial safety
factor concept of EC 2.

lbd,max = 0.58

Ef t f
= 0.58 164000 1.2 = 257.3 [mm]
1.0
f csd

Fbd,max = 0.5 b f k b k T E f t f f ctd = 0.5 2 80 1.179 1 164000 1.2 1.0 = 41859 [N] = 41.86 [kN]
k b = 1.06

2 bf / bw
= 1.06 2 2 80 / 600 = 1.179
1 + b f / 400
1 + 2 80 / 400

The anchorage check is carried out in point E, which is determined from the geometry of
support and the bond length of Fbd.
xE = ai + f + lbd,max + aL = 150 + 50 + 257 + 408 = 865 [mm]
Considering a distance xE = 0.865 m and a reaction at support of A = 611 kN the bending
moment in point E in ultimate limit state amounts to:
MSdf,E = 483 [kNm]

(from structural analysis)

The strain of the FRP strips in point E is determined by iteration of the static equilibrium and the
resulting force of the FRP strips is calculated.
f,E = 0.7729

(determined by iteration)

Ffd,E = Ef Af f,E = 164000 2 80 1.2 0.0007729 = 24337 [N] = 24.34 [kN]


Fbd,max = 41.86 [kN]

>

24.34 [kN] = Ffd,E

anchorage check ok !

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

curtailed bending reinforcement


If the bending reinforcement is curtailed, so that only an area of 30.8 cm is retained near the
support, the resulting tensile forces of the FRP strips are higher.
f = 1.0159 []

(determined by iteration)

Ffd,E = 164000 2 80 1.2 0.0010159 = 31989 [N] = 31.99 [kN]


Fbd,max = 41.86 [kN]

>

31.99 [kN] = Ffd,E

bond check ok !

9. Anchorage of flexural reinforcement at the support


According to EC 2 at least 25 % of the bottom reinforcement has to be retained over the
support. Additionally, the anchorage of the reinforcement should be capable of resisting the
tensile force FsR.
The total tensile force at midspan amounts to:
Fmax = 1928.4 [kN]

(determined by iteration)

The proportion that has to be anchored at the supports results to:


25 % Fmax = 25 % 1928.4 = 482.1 [kN]

decisive

The tensile force of the reinforcement is calculated from the design shear and axial force as
follows:
FsR = VSdf,A (aL / dm) + NSdf,A = 611 (408 / 848) + 0 = 293.98 [kN]
Ferf,A = 482.1 [kN]
The proportion of the tensile force covered by the internal reinforcement is calculated from the
surface shell of the rebar and the bond stress fbd.
fbd = 2.32 [N/mm]

(bond stress and bond conditions according to EC 2)

Due to the high lateral pressure in a direct support, the bond strength is increased by the factor
3/2 according to EC 2.
Fs,A = ls,A (4 As / ds) fbd 3/2 = 40 (4 30.8 / 2.8) 0.232 3/2 = 612.73 [kN]
Fs,A = 612.7 [kN]

>

482.1 [kN] = Ferf,A

anchorage check ok !

The internal reinforcement ensures a sufficient anchorage at the support. An extension of the
FRP strengthening beyond the support line is consequently not required and the FRP strips can
be cut-off at most 50 mm in front of the support front.

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

10. Shear strengthening design


The design shear force is assumed at a distace dm from the edge of support according to EC 2:
xX = ai + dm = 150 + (900 + 850) / 2 = 1025 [mm]
VSdf,X = 486.0 [kN]
MSdf,X = 562.0 [kNm]

(from structural analysis)


(from structural analysis)

The program uses the exact lever arms of the internal forces, which are iteratively determined
from the given moment in point X.
zs = ds ac = 837.8 72.7 = 765.1 [mm]
zf = df ac = 900 72.7 = 827.3 [mm]
zm = 768.2 [mm]
dm = 840.2 [mm]
The maximum shear resistance amounts to 0.5 VRd2. This value corresponds to the limit given
in the German guideline.
f
VRd2 = 0.5 fcd b w z m = 0.5 0.6 20 600 768.2 = 1843.7 [kN]
with = 0.7 ck = 0.6
200
1.5
Vmax = 0.5 VRd2 = 0.5 1843.7 = 921.8 [kN]
VSdf = 486.0 [kN]

<

921.8 [kN] = Vmax

shear check ok !

The part of the shear force transmitted by the concrete alone can be derived from the following
equations:
VRd1 = Rd k (1.2 + 40 1 ) b w dm

VRd1 = 0.26 1 (1.2 + 40 0.00855 ) 600 840 = 202.25 [kN]


1 =

A sl
= 3080 + 1230 = 0.00858
b w ds
600 837

VSdf = 486 [kN]

>

202 [kN] = VRd1

external shear reinforcement required

Considering the existing internal stirrups the cross-section can transfer the shear force VRd3,
which is the sum of the concrete shear capacity and the resistance of the stirrups.

Vwd = a sw f yd z s = 0.503 460 765 = 153.92 [kN]


1.15
VRd3 = VRd1 + Vwd = 202.2 + 153.9 = 356.2 [kN]

VSdf = 486 [kN] > 356 [kN] = VRd3

anchorage of external stirrups in compression


zone required

The shear strengthening is designed for the remaining shear force proportion V, however the
value given in the German guideline is assumed as minimum.

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

Vmin =

1
VSdf = 1.11 1 486 = 48.16 [kN]

1.11

V = VSdf - VRd3 = 486.0 356.2 = 129.8 [kN]

>

Vmin

The strain in the cross-section is limited to limit = 0.2 % to ensure an even deformation of the
cross-section and to avoid shear offset.
The lower stiffness of the sheets due to manual lamination on-site is considered by the
reduction factor E = 1.2 for the modulus of elasticity.

E fd =

E fk 640000
=
= 533333 [N / mm ]
E
1.2

The stress of the carbon sheets at a strain of 0.2 % amounts to:


fw = lim it E fd = 0.002 533333 = 1066 .67 [N / mm ]

The theoretical fibre section of the required shear strengthening is determined as follows:

a w,req =

129800
V =
= 0.147 [mm / mm ] = 147 [mm / m]
fw z f 1066 .67 827

Carbon sheets of 300 mm width are selected (delivery width). To achieve the required crosssection, single-ply FRP stirrups are chosen. Each leg of a stirrup provides the following crosssectional area:
Aw = tf bf = 1 0.19 300 = 57 [mm]
For two-leg stirrups with a spacing of sw = 700 mm the resulting cross-sectional area per
running meter results to:
aw,prov = 2 Aw 1 m / sw = 2 57 1000 / 700 = 163 [mm/m]
The maximum spacing comes to:
sw,max = 0.8 h0 = 0.8 900 = 720 [mm]
aw,prov = 163 [mm/m] > aw,req = 147 [mm/m]

shear design ok !

As the internal shear reinforcement is not sufficient to transfer the imposed shear force, the
external FRP stirrups have to be anchored in the concrete compression zone.
The tensile force of the stirrups to be anchored on one side of the web per running meter
amounts to:
f wd = 0.5

Vwd
= 0.5 129 .8 = 78.44 [kN / m]
zf
0.8273

The force of each stirrup leg results to:


Fwd = f wd s w = 78.44 0.7 = 54.91 [kN]
curtailed bending reinforcement
bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

If the bending reinforcement is curtailed, so that only an area of 3080 mm is retained near the
support, this must be considered in the calculation of VRd1
1 =

A sl
= 3080 = 0.00604
b w d s 600 850

Additionally a slight alteration of the internal lever arms will result.


VRd1 = 0.26 1 (1.2 + 40 0.00604 ) 600 852 .6 = 191 .7 [kN]

Vwd = asw fyd zs = 0.503 460/1.15 784 = 157.8 [kN]


VRd3 = VRd1 + Vwd = 191.7 + 157.8 = 349.5 [kN]

V = VSdf - VRd3 = 486 - 349.5 = 136.5 [kN]

>

Vmin

The theoretical fibre section of the required shear strengthening then amounts to:
aw,req = 153 [mm/m]
The same shear strengthening as before is sufficient.
aw,prov = 163 [mm/m] > aw,req = 153 [mm/m]

shear design ok !

As the internal shear reinforcement is not sufficient to transfer the imposed shear force, the
external FRP stirrups have to be anchored in the concrete compression zone.
The tensile force of the stirrups to be anchored on one side of the web per running meter
amounts to:
f wd = 0.5

Vwd
= 0.5 136 .51 = 81.83 [kN / m]
zf
0.8341

The force of each stirrup leg results to:


Fwd = f wd s w = 81.83 0.7 = 57.28 [kN]

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

DESIGN EXAMPLE

two-span slab according to Eurocode 2

1. Idealised structure and loads


For the floor slab shown in fig. 2 an increase of live loads from 3.5 kN/m to 7.5 kN/m is planed.

qk = gk + pk = 12.5 kN/m

pk,new = 7.5 kN/m


pk,old = 3.5 kN/m
gk = 5 kN/m

5m

5m

Fig. 1: Idealised structure and loads

2. Cross-section and materials

1000
R 589
200
R 513
C 20/25

S 500

Fig. 2: Cross-section of unstrengthened state

bottom reinforcement:
top reinforcement:

As1
As2

concrete:
reinforcing steel:
FRP laminate:
adhesive:

C 20/25
S 500
S&P CFK 150/2000
S&P Resin 220

=
=

513 [mm]
589 [mm]

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

3. Imposed moments
(at time of application of the FRP strengthening)

initial strain state

gk = 5 kN/m

5m

5m

MSk0,support = 13.79 kNm/m

MSk0,span = 8.8 kNm/m


Fig. 3: Load and internal moments of initial strain state

During the application of the FRP strengthening only the dead load of the slab acts on the
cross-section. The resulting bending moment in service state leads to an initial state of strain
that has to be considered in the design.

strengthened state

qd = gd + pd = 18 kN/m

pd = 1.5 7.5 = 11.25 kN/m

gd = 1.35 5 = 6.75 kN/m

5m

5m
MSdf,support = 41.4 kNm/m
xE

xE = 0.54 m

MSdf,E = 17.52 kNm/m


MSdf,span = 38.6 kNm/m
Fig. 4: Loads and internal moments of strengthened state

For the design of the FRP strengthening the bending moments of ultimate limit state and service
state can be determined using a structural analysis program or by a hand calculation.

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

Considering the partial safety factors for actions, the maximum design moments at midspan and
at the middle support amount to:
MSdf,span = 38.6 [kNm]
MSdf,support = 41.4 [kNm].
The maximum bending moments in service state result to
MSkf,span = 24.9 [kNm]
MSkf,support = 28.75 [kNm].
4. Design for the moment of span
flexural resistance of the unstrengthened cross-section:
MRd0 = 30.9 [kNm]
imposed design moment in strengthened state (see above):
MSdf = 38.6 [kNm]
strengthening ratio:
= MSdf / MRd0 = 38.6 / 30.9 = 1.25 [-]
remaining global safety in case of loss of the FRP strengthening:
= MRk0 / MSkf = 36.0 / 24.9 = 1.45 [-]
required cross-sectional area of FRP strengthening:
Af,req = 37 [mm/m]

5. Selection of the bottom FRP strengthening


Prefabricated laminates of type CFK 150/2000 with a spacing of 800 mm are chosen
cross-section:

bf / tf = 80 / 1.2 [mm/mm]

spacing:

sf = 800 [mm]
smax = 0.2 time span
= 0.2 5000 = 1000 [mm]
smax = 5 time slab thickness = 5 200 = 1000 [mm]

Af,prov = 75 [mm/m]
MRdf = 46.9 [kNm ]

>
>

37 [mm/m] = Af,req
38.6 [kNm] = MSdf

design ok !

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

6. Design for the moment of support


flexural resistance of the unstrengthened cross-section:
MRd0 = 35.2 [kNm]
imposed design moment in strengthened state (see above):
MSdf = 41.4 [kNm]
strengthening ratio:
= MSdf / MRd0 = 41.4 / 35.2 = 1.18 [-]
remaining global safety in case of loss of the FRP strengthening:
= MRk0 / MSkf = 41.1 / 28.8 = 1.43 [-]
required cross-sectional area of FRP strengthening:
Af,req = 30 [mm/m]

7. Selection of the top FRP strengthening


The same type of prefabricated laminates CFK 150/2000 with a spacing of 1 m is chosen.
cross-section:

bf / tf = 50 / 1.2 [mm/mm]

spacing:

sf = 1000 [mm]
smax = 0.2 time span
= 0.2 5000 = 1000 [mm]
smax = 5 time slab thickness = 5 200 = 1000 [mm]

Af,prov = 60 [mm/m]
MRdf = 47.8 [kNm ]

>
>

Af,req = 30 [mm/m]
41.4 [kNm] = MSdf

design ok !

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

8. FRP end anchorage

2830
780

xE = 505

MSdf,E = 16.8 kNm/m


37.3 kN/m

Fig. 5: Position of the moment zero point and point E

Bottom reinforcement at end support


geometry of support:
f
ai
aL

=
=
=

30
[mm]
80
[mm]
172.4 [mm]

distance from end of FRP strengthening to edge of support


distance from support axis to edge of support
horizontal displacement of tensile force line (aL = dm EC 2)

In this case the mimimum value of the substrate strength is not sufficient. A greater value is
assumed. This value must be proved by sampling on site.
f
2 .0
f csd = csm
c = 1.5 = 1.33 [N / mm ]
The maximum bond force and the required bond length can be derived from the formulas given
in the German guideline. The modified coefficients result from the adaption to the partial safety
concept of EC 2.

fcsm

lbd,max = 0.58

2.0

[N/mm]

Ef t f
= 0.58 164000 1.2 = 222.9 [mm]
1.33
f csd

Fbd,max = 0.5 n f b f k b k T E f t f f csd


1.2
= 0.5 1000 50 1.391 1 164000 1.2 1.33 = 18556 [N] = 18.56 [kN]
1.2 800
2 bf / sf
= 1.06 2 50 / 800 = 1.391
k b = 1.06
1 + b f / 400
1 + 50 / 400
The anchorage check is carried out in point E, which is determined from the geometry of
support and the bond length of Fbd.
xE = ai + f + lbd,max + aL = 80 + 30 + 222.9 + 172.4 = 505.3 [mm]

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

Considering a distance xE = 0.505 m the bending moment in point E in ultimate limit state
amounts to:
MSdf,E = 16.8 [kNm]

(from structural analysis)

The strain of the FRP strips in point E is determined by iteration of the static equilibrium and the
resulting force of the FRP strips is calculated.
f,E = 0.1656 [%]

(determined by iteration)

Ffd,E = Ef Af f = 164000 50 1.2 0.001656 = 16298 [N] = 16.30 [kN]


Fbd,max = 18.56 [kN]

>

16.30 [kN] = Ffd,E

anchorage check ok !

Bottom reinforcement at intermediate support


At the intermediate support the anchorage length of the bottom laminates is measured from the
zero point of the horizontally displaced moment line. According to the German guidelines the
distance between the laminates' end and the support front should not exceed 50 mm.
geometry of support:
xE
ai
aL

=
=
=

780
[mm]
120
[mm]
172.4 [mm]

lbd,max = 22,29 [cm]

distance of the moment zero point (from structural analysis)


distance from support axis to edge of support
horizontal displacement of tensile force line (aL = dm EC 2)
design anchorage length (see above)

maximum distance between the end of laminate and the support front:
fmax = xE - ai - lbd,max- aL = 780 12 222.9 172.4 = 264.7 [mm]
according to the guideline:
f = 50 [mm]

Top reinforcement at intermediate support


At the intermediate support the anchorage length of the top laminates is measured from the
zero point of the horizontally displaced moment line. According to the German guidelines the
minimum anchorage length is 1 m.
geometry of support:
xE
ai
aL

=
=
=

2380
[mm]
120
[mm]
169.5 [mm]

distance of the moment zero point (from structural analysis)


distance from support axis to edge of support
horizontal displacement of tensile force line (aL = dm EC 2)

minimum distance between the end of laminate and the support front:
bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

fmin = xE + aL + lbd,max - ai = 2830 + 169.5 + 222.9 - 120 = 3102.4 [mm]


according to the guideline:
f = xE + aL + lb - ai = 2830 + 169.5 + 1000 - 120 = 3879.5 [mm]

9. Anchorage of flexural reinforcement at the support


Bottom reinforcement at the end support
According to EC 2 at least 25 % of the bottom reinforcement has to be retained over the
support. Additionally, the anchorage of the reinforcement should be capable of resisting the
tensile force FsR.
The total tensile force at midspan amounts to:
Fmax = 500.68 [kN]

(determined by iteration)

The proportion that has to be anchored at the supports results to:


25 % Fmax = 25 % 500.68 = 125.17 [kN]

decisive

The tensile force of the reinforcement is calculated from the design shear and axial force as
follows:
FsR = VSdf,A (aL / dm) + NSdf,A = 37.8 (172.4 / 172.4) + 0 = 37.8 [kN]
Freq,A = 125.17 [kN]
The proportion of the tensile force covered by the internal reinforcement is calculated from the
surface shell of the rebar and the bond stress fbd.
fbd = 2.32 [N/mm]

(bond stress and bond conditions according to EC 2)

Due to the high lateral pressure in a direct support, the bond strength is increased by the factor
3/2 according to EC 2.
Fs,A = ls,A (4 As / ds) fbd 3/2 = 100 (4 513 / 6.5) 2.32 3/2 = 109.91 [kN]
The required additional anchorage force, that has to be covered by the FRP reinforcement
results to:
Freq,A = Freq,A Fs,A = 123.14 109.91 = 15.27 [kN]
The FRP strengthening must be anchored beyond the support front. At each position of a
laminate one brick is of the supporting wall is taken out. The end of the laminates is assumed as
externally bonded. The required anchorage length is determined by trial and error.
lf,A 130 [mm]
bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

Ff ,A = Fbd,max

lb
l bd,max

Ff,A = 15.34 [kN]

>

l
2 b
lbd,max

= 18.56 130 2 130 = 15.34 [kN]


223
223

15.27 [kN] = Freq,A

anchorage check ok !

Bottom reinforcement at the intermediate support


According to EC 2 at intermediate supports the same conditions as for end supports are valid.
The calculation of required anchorage forces is presented above.
As the internal bottom reinforcement is continuous, the bars are anchored up to the yield
strength with the basic anchorage length lb.

l s,A lb =

d s f yd 6.5 460 / 1.15

= 186.8 [mm]
4 fbd
4 2.32 3 / 2

ls,A = 200 [mm]

The proportion of the tensile force covered by the internal reinforcement is calculated from the
cross-sectional area and the yield strength:
Fs,A = As fyd = 513 460/1.15 = 205.2 [kN]
Fs,A = 205.2 [kN]

>

125.17 [kN] = Freq,A

anchorage check ok !

The internal reinforcement ensures a sufficient anchorage at the support. An extension of the
FRP strengthening beyond the support line is consequently not required and the FRP strips can
be cut-off at most 50 mm in front of the support front.

10. Shear check


The design shear force is assumed at a distace dm from the edge of support according to EC 2.
In this case the shear force near the intermediate support is decisive.
xX = ai + dm = 120 + 164 = 284 [mm]
VSdf,X = 51.94 [kN]
MSdf,X = 15.48 [kN]

(from structural analysis)


(from structural analysis)

The part of the shear force transmitted by the concrete alone results to:
VRd1 = Rd k (1,. + 40 1 ) b w dm
1 =

A sl
589
=
= 0.00368
b w d s 1000 160

k = 1.6 dm [m] = 1.6 0.164 = 1.436

VRd1 = 0.26 1.436 (1.2 + 40 0.00368) 1000 164 = 82.54 [kN]


VSdf = 51.94 [kN]

<

82.54 [kN] = VRd1

shear check ok !

The shear force does not exceed the limit of EC 2given for slabs without shear reinforcement.

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

DESIGN EXAMPLE

Prestressed concrete beam according to Eurocode 2

1. Idealised structure and loads


The superstructure of a three-span footbridge required bottom strengthening at the end spans.
The T-beam is prestressed with 5 parabolic tendons. The internal forces from the structural
analysis are given.

2. Cross-section and materials

3000
175
850 770

C 35/45
SSt 1420/1570
850

5 stranded tendons

Fig. 1: Cross-section of unstrengthened state (at midspan)

Ap

5 980 [mm] = 4900 [mm]

Ac
zcg

=
=

1'098'750 [mm]
309 [mm]

concrete:
prestressing steel:
FRP laminate:
adhesive:

Woben =
Wunten =

234'762'516 [mm]
134'380'281 [mm]

C 35/45
SSt 1420/1570
S&P CFK 150/2000
S&P Resin 220

3. Internal forces
The bending moments of ultimate limit state and service state are determined using a structural
analysis program. The maximum characteristic values of the end span moment are given below:
dead load + additional load (surfacing):

Mgk = 1'637.5 [kNm]

live load:

Mqk = 1'253.7 [kNm]

prestress (after shrinkage and creep):

Mpk = -1'266.8 [kNm]

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

4. Prestress
To consider the prestress of the cross-section you have to give the pre-strain of each layer of
prestressing steel. The admissible stress results from the admissible prestressing force of each
tendon:

p,max = Fp,zdm / Ap = 954 / 980 = 973.5 [N/mm]


The loss of friction (ca. 10 %) as well as creep and shrinkage (ca. 15 %) are considered:

p = 0.9 0.85 pmax = 0.9 0.85 973.5 = 744.7 [N/mm]


Subsequently the pre-strain of the tendons is determined and to be entered in the software:

p0 = p / Ep = 744.7 / 190'000 = 0.00392 = 0.392 %


The program calculates the entire prestressing force:
PSk0 = 3'649.52 [kN]
The pre-strain of the tendons already considers the prestressing force and the statically
determinated part of the prestressing moment, calculated from the prestressing force and the
lever arm of each tendon.
Mp0 = PSk0 (zp zcg) = 3'649.52 (0.77 0.3094) = 1'680.8 [kNm]
The secondary moment of prestress, resulting from the statically undeterminated supporting is
not included. It always has to be added to the imposed moments.
Mp' = Mpk Mp0 = 1'266.8 (1'680.8) = 414 [kNm]

5. Imposed moments
initial strain state

(at time of application of the FRP strengthening)

During the application of the FRP strengthening only the dead loads of the cross-section and
the surfacing act on the cross-section. The resulting bending moment in service state leads to
an initial state of strain that has to be considered in the design. The secondary moment from
prestressing has to be added.
MSk0 = Mgk + Mp' = 1'637.5 + 414 = 2'051.5 [kNm]
As the cross-section is prestressed, the tension zone is assumed to be uncracked.
ultimate limit state
For the design of the strengthening, the partial safety factors for actions according to EC 2 have
to be considered. Also the secondary moment from prestressing has to be added.
MSdf = 1.35 Mgk + 1.5 Mqk + 1.0 Mp'
= 1.35 1'637.5 + 1.5 1'253.7 + 1.0 414 = 4'505.2 [kNm]
service state
In service state the following load combination is considered:
MSkf = 1.0 Mgk + 1.0 Mqk + 1.0 Mp' = 1'637.5 + 1'253.7 + 414 = 3'305.2 [kNm]

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

6. Design
flexural resistance of the unstrengthened cross-section:
MRd0 = 4'320.7 [kNm]
MRk0 = 5'045.7 [kNm]
imposed design moment in strengthened state (see above):
MSdf = 4'505.2 [kNm]
strengthening ratio:
= MSdf / MRd0 = 4'505.2 / 4'320.7 = 1.04 []
remaining global safety in case of loss of the FRP strengthening:
= MRk0 / MSkf = 5'045.7 / 3'305.2 = 1.53 []
required cross-sectional area of FRP strengthening:
Af,req = 244 [mm]

7. Selection of the FRP strengthening


Two prefabricated laminates of type CFK 150/2000 are chosen.
Af,prov = nf bf tf = 2 100 1.4 = 280 [mm]
flexural resistance of the strengthened cross-section:
MRdf = 4'533.4 [kNm]
MRdf = 4'533.4 [kNm] > MSdf = 4'505.2 [kNm]

design ok !

8. Service limit state


In service state the following stress limits are given according to EC 2:
c,limit = 0.6 fck = 0.6 35 = 21 [N/mm]
p,limit = 0.75 fpk = 0.75 1570 = 1'177.5 [N/mm]
The software calculates the maximum service stresses of the materials as follows:
c,max = 13.27 [N/mm] < c,limit = 21 [N/mm]
p,max = 957.37 [N/mm] < p,limit 1'177.5 [N/mm]

stress check ok !
stress check ok !

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

experts for
strengthening
design
bow engineers are leading consultants
for the application of FRP systems for
strengthening and rehabiliation.
Based on long time and intensive
cooperation with universities and
material testing institutes bow
engineers are able to provide special
know-how and scientific background
for the use of FRP.
bow engineers have developed design
software for strengthening of
reinforced concrete members using
sprayed concrete or FRP.
bow engineers will assist you in the
assessment and development of
strengthening concepts for structures
and will ensure proper design
procedures and effective detailing of
special FRP applications.
bow engineers have been engaged as
expert consultants for strengthening
with FRP systems in a large number
of projects worldwide.
Please ask for further information.

bow ingenieure ltd breite strae 15 D-38100 braunschweig germany www.bow-engineers.com


fon +49 531 / 2 43 59 -0 fax +49 531 / 2 43 59 -51 mail@bow-engineers.de

bow engineers