This is info about carbon fiber plates of lamella for strengthening concrete beams, overlaps and columns.

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This is info about carbon fiber plates of lamella for strengthening concrete beams, overlaps and columns.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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user manual

for design software

version 3

strengthening

using FRP materials

Peter Onken

Wiebke vom Berg

Dirk Matzdorff

braunschweig hamburg

FRP Lamella

design program

for flexural and shear strengthening with FRP materials

according to Eurocode 2

User Manual

version 3.4

bow ingenieure gmbh braunschweig / hamburg germany

2

Contents

Part I Design concept

1.

Introduction

2.

Notation

3.

4.

Basic assumptions

10

5.

Safety concept

12

6.

Degree of strengthening

13

7.

8.

9.

6.1

13

6.2

13

Material behaviour

14

7.1

Concrete

14

7.2

Reinforcing steel

14

7.3

Prestressing steel

14

7.4

FRP material

15

16

8.1

16

8.2

17

8.3

17

Imposed actions

18

19

10.1

19

10.2

19

10.3

Conditions of equilibrium

20

10.4

21

10.5

Control of stresses

21

22

11.1

22

11.2

23

11.3

24

11.4

27

11.5

29

30

31

32

14.1

32

14.2

35

14.3

37

38

38

3

17. Program user interface

39

17.1

39

17.2

Settings

39

17.3

39

17.4

Data input

40

17.5

Output of results

41

42

18.1

42

18.2

43

18.3

44

18.4

45

18.5

46

18.6

47

18.7

48

18.8

49

18.9

50

18.10

51

18.11

53

18.12

55

18.13

56

18.14

58

18.15

60

18.16

61

18.17

62

18.18

64

18.19

65

18.20

66

18.21

67

18.22

68

18.23

69

18.24

70

72

19.1

72

19.2

74

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

Appendix 3

Appendix 4

75

example two-span slab according to Eurocode 2

example prestressed concrete beam according to Eurocode 2

bow engineers experts for strengthening design

4

1.

Introduction

FRP Lamella is a design program for the strengthening of reinforced and prestressed or posttensioned concrete structural members subjected to uniaxial flexure and axial forces using FRP

materials (FRP Fibre Reinforced Polymer). This program can be used for the predesign of

strengthening measures as well as for complete calculations within the scope of structural analysis.

The program provides the user with the required FRP cross-sectional area for the strengthened state

and is performing the necessary verifications of the bond strength and the shear capacity of the

concrete member based on the assumptions of the German Guidelines for the strengthening of

concrete members using CFRP laminates [2], [3] and carbon sheets [4], (cf. [11]). The design concept

according to Eurocode 2 is explained in [10].

The program FRP Lamella is used in almost 15 other countries, adapted to the relevant regulations,

guidelines and national standards. Meanwhile different versions corresponding to the following

international codes are available:

Fig. 1

Eurocode 2

Note

The software FRP Lamella is based on the material parameters of S&P FRP systems. If other

types of reinforcing fibres or adhesive systems will be used, the results provided by the

software will no longer be valid. Under these circumstances the system supplier S&P will

refuse any liability for the application of S&P products.

5

2.

Notation

As a rule, in this manual the standard notations derived from Eurocode 2 are used. They may differ

from notations of other national design codes and guidelines. The following list gives an overview of

the notations used in this manual and in the software.

Notation

Geometry

width of the component

web width

overall height

effective flange width of upper flange

thickness of upper flange

effective flange width of lower flange

thickness of lower flange

span

total cross-sectional area

distance of the centroid from top edge of the member

moment of inertia of concrete cross-section

section modulus above the gravity axis

section modulus below the gravity axis

Reinforcement

cross-sectional area of longitudinal rebars

pre-strain of the longitudinal reinforcement due to prestressing

cross-sectional area of internal stirrup rebars

distance from centroid of rebars to top edge of the member

diameter of rebars

anchorage length of rebars from the support front

concrete cover of the stirrups

Steel

characteristic yield strength of reinforcing steel

modulus of elasticity of reinforcing steel

strain limit of reinforcing steel

characteristic tensile strength of prestressing steel

modulus of elasticity of prestressing steel

strain limit of prestressing steel

reduction coefficient for the tensile strength of prestressing steel

partial safety factor for steel

Concrete

characteristic compressive strength of concrete (EC 2)

strain limit of concrete

strain at the axis of the parabolic curve of the stress-strain line of concrete

reduction factor for the compressive strength of concrete (long term effects)

design shear strength of concrete

average modulus of elasticity of concrete

average axial tensile strength of concrete

partial safety factor for concrete

Program

b

b0

h, h0

b1

h1

b2

h2

l

Ac

zcg

Iy

Wtop

Wbottom

As

p0

asw

zs

ds

ls,A

cw

fyk

Es

su

fpk

Ep

pu

p

s

fck

cu

c1

Rd

Ecm

fctm

c

FRP material

modulus of elasticity of FRP material

failure strain of FRP material

strain limit of FRP material

characteristic tensile strength of FRP material

partial safety factor for FRP material

reduction factor for the strain limit of FRP material

number of FRP plies one on top of each other

number of FRP strips one next to each other

spacing of FRP strips

cross-sectional area of FRP strengthening

distance from centroid of FRP strip to top edge of the member

distance of FRP strips to the lateral edge of the member

thickness of FRP reinforcement

width of FRP reinforcement

Design

characteristic bending moment at time of strengthening

characteristic axial force at time of strengthening

characteristic prestressing force

statically determinated prestressing moment

statically indeterminated part of prestressing moment

design bending moment of strengthened state

design axial force of strengthened state

characteristic bending moment of strengthened state

characteristic axial force of strengthened state

average partial safety factor for bending moments caused by loads

average partial safety factor for axial forces caused by loads

design moment of resistance of unstrengthened cross-section

characteristic moment of resistance of unstrengthened cross-section

design moment of resistance of strengthened cross-section

strengthening ratio

remaining global safety in case of loss of FRP strengthening

strain of extreme compression fibre of concrete

distance from neutral axis to extreme compression fibre

maximum strain of reinforcing steel

maximum strain of prestressing steel

maximum strain of FRP reinforcement

stress of extreme compression fibre of concrete

maximum stress of reinforcing steel

maximum stress of prestressing steel

maximum stress of FRP reinforcement

Anchorage

substrate strength of concrete (median of the population)

design value of the substrate strength of concrete

characteristic compressive strength of adhesive

characteristic tensile strength of adhesive

Ef

fu

f,limit

ffk

f

k

nf

mf

sf

Af

zf

ar

tf

bf

MSk0

NSk0

Np

Mp0

Mp

MSdf

NSdf

MSkf

NSkf

M,m

N,m

MRd0

MRk0

MRdf

c

x

s

p

f

c

s

p

f

fcsm

fcsd

fKc,k

fKt,k

distance from calculated axis of support to edge of support

distance from end of the FRP strip to edge of support

horizontal displacement of the envelope line of tensile force

design moment of strengthened state in point E

design axial force of strengthened state in point E

distance from point E to theoretical axis of support

tensile force of FRP reinforcement in point E

design value of the maximum bond force

required bond length of maximum bond force

recommended bond length

design value of shear force at support

design value of axial force at support

total required anchorage force at support

anchorage force covered by internal reinforcement

design bond strength of internal rebars

force covered by FRP anchorage

anchorage length of FRP reinforcement from the support front

Shear

cross-sectional area of internal stirrups

design shear force of strengthened state in relevant section X

design axial force of strengthened state in relevant section X

design bending moment of strengthened state in relevant section X

strain limit of additional shear reinforcement

characteristic modulus of elasticity of FRP Sheet

characteristic tensile strength of FRP Sheet

reduction factor for modulus of elasticity due to manual lamination

modulus of elasticity of steel plates for shear strengthening

characteristic yield strength of steel plates for shear strengthening

partial safety factor for shear strengthening steel plates

distance from resultant of concrete stress to extreme compression fibre

effective depth of internal steel rebars

effective depth of FRP reinforcement

average effective depth

average lever arm of internal forces

shear force limit of the strengthened cross-section

design shear resistance provided by concrete

design shear resistance of the concrete cross-section without web crushing

design shear resistance of concrete cross-section with internal stirrups

cross-sectional area of additional shear reinforcement

thickness of additional external stirrups

width of additional external stirrups

cross-sectional area of one additional external stirrup

spacing of additional external stirrups

stress of the internal shear reinforcement

stress of the additional shear strengthening

K,k

ai

f

aL

MSdf,E

NSdf,E

xE

Ffd,E

Fbd,max

lbd,max

lb

VSdf,A

NSdf,A

FA,req

Fs,A

fbd

Ff,A

lf,A

asw

VSdf,X

NSdf,X

MSdf,X

limit

Efk

ffk

E

Es

fyk

s

ac

ds

df

dm

zm

Vmax

VRd1

VRd2

VRd3

aw

tw

bw

Aw

sw

sw

fw

3.

FRP Lamella is developed as a pure design program for the strengthening of reinforced and

prestressed or post-tensioned concrete elements, i.e. the program does not perform any structural

analysis. As a consequence the user has to determine the internal forces in advance with a calculation

by hand or by using structural analysis software for instance. The updated version 3.x now also

considers prestressed or post-tensioned elements or concrete structures subjected to axial forces.

The program supports 4 types of cross-section: slabs as well as rectangular beams, T-beams and

double-T-beams. These options cover almost all reinforced or pre-stressed concrete components

subjected to bending which will appear in practice.

There are 3 different FRP-systems for flexural strengthening: externally bonded CFRP laminates, near

surface mounted (slot-in) CFRP laminates and externally bonded carbon sheets (unidirectional fabric).

The program includes the complete range of S&P products for flexural and shear strengthening.

The required cross-sectional area of FRP strengthening is determined by variation of the strain profile

within the limits defined in the regulations. The implementation of non-linear stress-strain relations for

concrete as well as for reinforcing and prestressing steel and the iterative solution procedure lead to

precise results. Compared with hand calculations the program provides particularly economic amounts

of FRP strengthening. Additionally the strain and stress distributions can be controlled. The verification

of the bond strength is based on the German Guideline for the strengthening of concrete components

using CFRP laminates [2], [3] and carbon sheets [4]. The verification of anchorage lengths of the

internal rebars as well as the design of the shear strengthening follows the concept of Eurocode 2.

For structures to be strengthened the geometry, internal reinforcement, steel grades, concrete

compressive strength and bending moments can be derived from existing as-built documents. If not

available this information has to be established by on-site testing.

In addition the program offers useful tools for the definition of the relevant national concrete strength,

the reinforcing and prestressing steel grades and the selection of the existing rebar cross-sections.

The serviceability of the strengthened state cannot be proved by the program. If necessary, the user is

responsible to check the deflections and crack widths of the strengthened structure.

4.

Basic assumptions

According to the regulations it can be assumed for the design at ULS (ultimate limit state) that

externally bonded FRP reinforcement can be calculated like an additional layer of reinforcement within

the provided strain limits. The calculations are based on the well-known assumptions of concrete

design:

For reinforced concrete elements it is assumed that concrete has no tensile strength. All

tensile forces necessary for the equilibrium of the internal forces are covered by internal

reinforcement and FRP strengthening.

For prestressed or post-tensioned concrete elements the tensile strength of the concrete

may be considered in the uncracked state.

There is no slip between FRP strengthening and concrete. All cross-section fibres with the

same distance to the neutral axis are subjected to the same strain.

The determination of the required FRP cross-sectional area and the resisting moments before and

after strengthening result from calculation of the equilibrium of internal forces.

References

[1]

schubfest aufgeklebte S&P Kohlenfaserlamellen (Z-36.12-62); Deutschland.

[2]

Richtlinie fr das Verstrken von Betonbauteilen durch Ankleben von unidirektionalen kohlenstoffaserverstrkten Kunststofflamellen (CFK-Lamellen), Anlage 2 der Zulassung [1],

Deutsches Institut fr Bautechnik, Berlin.

[3]

Richtlinie fr das Verstrken von Betonbauteilen durch Einkleben von unidirektionalen kohlenstofffaserverstrkten Kunststofflamellen in Schlitze im Beton, Deutsches Institut fr

Bautechnik, Berlin.

[4]

Kohlenstofffaserlaminaten (CFK-Laminate), Deutsches Institut fr Bautechnik, Berlin.

[5]

[6]

Anwendungsregeln fr den Hochbau; Juni 1992.

[7]

Rostsy, F.S.; Holzenkmpfer, P. und Hankers, C.: Geklebte Bewehrung fr die Verstrkung

von Betonbauteilen. Beton-Kalender 1996, T.II, Berlin: Ernst & Sohn 1996.

[8]

Dissertation TU Braunschweig, 1994.

[9]

Onken, P.; vom Berg, W.; Matzdorff, D.; Nolte, T.: Bemessungsprogramm fr CFK-Lamellen.

Beton- und Stahlbetonbau 95, 9/2000, S. 551 552.

10

[10]

Onken, P.; vom Berg, W.: Biegezugverstrkung mit CFK-Lamellen Neues Bemessungsmodell nach EC 2 und DIN 1045-1. Beton- und Stahlbetonbau 96, 2/2001, S. 61 70.

[11]

Rostsy, F. S.: Expert Opinion No. 98/0322; S&P Reinforcement, Eisenstadt, sterreich.

[12]

Blaschko, M. A.: Zum Tragverhalten von Betonbauteilen mit in Schlitze eingeklebten CFKLamellen, Dissertation an der TU Mnchen, 2001.

[13]

Design guidance for strengthening concrete structures using fibre composite materials,

Technical Report No. 55, The Concrete Society, Berkshire, UK, 2000.

11

5.

Safety concept

The ultimate limit state design is based on the following condition (cf. EC 2, section 2.3.2):

Sdf Rdf

(1)

Sdf corresponds to the design value of internal forces or moments due to loads and Rdf to the design

resistance, for instance the moment capacity of the cross-section at strengthened state. The index f

defines the state after strengthening (with FRP). Both, Sdf and Rdf, are design values and associated

with the partial safety factors for actions and materials properties as shown in table 1.

Code

Loads

dead loads

live loads

Q

G

Resistance

concrete

reinforcing steel

C

S

Eurocode 2

1.35

1.5

1.5

1.15

1.35

1.5

1.5

1.15

1.75 2.1

1.0

BS 8110 (UK)

1.4

1.6

1.5

1.15

BAEL 91 (France)

1.35

1.5

1.5

1.15

1.3

1.5

1.2

1.4

1.7

1 / 0.9

KCI (Korea)

1.4

1.7

1 / 0.85

Tab. 1

For actions additionally the combination values for the probability of occurrence of several variable

loads have to be considered. Additional partial safety factors for the FRP systems are missing in

table 1 since different safety concepts are used according to the FRP system and the national

guideline. In many cases, e.g. for externally bonded FRP laminates, the design strain is limited instead

of introducing a partial safety factor for the tensile strength of the material. For further information see

chapter 8.

12

6.

6.1

Degree of strengthening

Definition according to Eurocode 2

In the German Guidelines for the strengthening of concrete members with external bonded FRP

laminates [2], [3] and unidirectional carbon sheets [4] it is recommended, that the flexural capacity of

the strengthened element should not exceed twice the flexural capacity of the unstrengthened

element. This is expressed by the flexural strengthening ratio.

A limitation of the strengthening ratio is only mentioned in the German guidelines [2] [4]. There exists

no such limitation in other regulations or guidelines. One reason for the limitation of the strengthening

ratio is the scant knowledge about the behaviour of highly strengthened structures. Other reasons

were the insufficient design methods for strengthening with externally bonded FRP reinforcement in

the past. Hand calculations do not allow the verification of strains and stresses at service state. On the

other hand the design software FRP Lamella provides the strain distributions and stresses at

strengthened state in all parts of the section. By this means yielding of internal reinforcement can be

avoided, strain limits can be controlled. Therefore the limitation of the strengthening ratio based on the

German guidelines [2] [4] may not be applied very strictly but it is highly recommended not to

increase the strengthening ratio far beyond the point which is twice the capacity of the unstrengthened

element. The bond behaviour of externally bonded FRP strips will be influenced unfavourably by the

increased formation of cracks in highly stressed concrete elements.

Since there is no experience with highly strengthened structures, the limitation of the strengthening

ratio is also recommended for other national guideline or standards:

B,EC =

MSdf

MRd0

2.

(2)

MSdf describes the imposed bending moment at strengthened state, MRd0 corresponds to the design

moment of resistance of the unstrengthened cross-section. For MSdf, the combination principles of

actions according to EC 2 have to be considered.

When the strengthening ratio exceeds the limit of 2, the design and detailing should be carried out with

special care. For near surface mounted laminates there exist no requirements for the limitation of the

strengthening ratio.

6.2

In other national regulations (e.g. ACI) there is a demand of minimum safety ( > 1,0) after loss of the

FRP strengthening under service (unfactored) loads. In this case the following equation is valid:

EC =

MRk 0

> 1

M Skf

(3)

13

7.

7.1

Material behaviour

Concrete

relationship can be assumed, as provided by Eurocode 2, shown in figure 2a. The parabolic curve

ends at a strain value c1 = 0.2 % and the maximum compressive strain is limited to cu = 0.35 %

(cf. [5]). However, the program also offers the possibility to modify the shape of the parabolicrectangular stress-strain by adjusting the strain parameters (c1, cu). The design value of the concrete

compressive strength fcd is determined by dividing the characteristic strength fck by the appropriate

partial safety factor in table 1. The reduction factor takes into account the reduced compressive

strength under long-term loading.

f cd =

f ck

c

(4)

1 .5

example:

The design shear strength can be determined from the characteristic concrete compressive strength

using the following equation:

Rd = 0.25

f ctk,0.05

c

= 0.0525

f ck2 / 3

c

(5)

The average modulus of elasticity and the axial tensile strength of concrete are calculated from the

concrete compressive strength. According to Eurocode 2 the following equations are used:

E cm = 9500 (f ck + 8 )

(6)

(7)

1/ 3

2/3

7.2

Reinforcing steel

For the steel reinforcement, an idealised bilinear stress-strain relationship is considered with a design

yield strength fyd as shown in fig. 2b. The appropriate parameters of strength and strains depend on

the selected steel grade. For the design at strengthened state the strain of reinforcing steel is limited

to su = 1 % according to Eurocode 2, section 4.2.2. The design value of the yield strength fyd is

determined by dividing the characteristic strength fyk by the appropriate partial safety factor in table 1.

7.3

Prestressing steel

For prestressing steel the same bilinear line with a horizontal branch is applied (fig. 2b). The design

value of the tensile strength fpd is determined by dividing the characteristic strength fpk by the

appropriate partial safety factor in table 1. For the design of the member cross-section, the tensile

strength is reduced to 90 % according to Eurocode 2. Therefore the reduction factor p is introduced in

fig. 2b.

14

7.4

FRP material

The tensile stress-strain behaviour of FRP can be idealised by means of a linear response, defined in

fig. 2c. The modulus of elasticity depends on the selected FRP system. It is quoted from the relevant

national approval or guideline. At present, the characteristic values of the German General Approval

[1] are applied, as far as national approvals or guidelines are not available:

modulus of elasticity:

CFRP laminate 150/2000

CFRP laminate 200/2000

C-Sheet 240

C-Sheet 640

Ef = 164'000 [N/mm]

Ef = 205'000 [N/mm]

Ef = 240'000 [N/mm]

Ef = 640'000 [N/mm]

tensile strength:

CFRP laminate 150/2000

CFRP laminate 200/2000

C-Sheet 240

C-Sheet 640

ffk = 2'500 [N/mm]

ffk = 3'800 [N/mm]

ffk = 2'650 [N/mm]

ultimate strain:

fu = 1.40 [%]

fu = 1.30 [%]

fu = 1.55 [%]

fu = 0.40 [%]

CFRP laminate 200/2000

C-Sheet 240

C-Sheet 640

For externally bonded FRP the ultimate tensile strength or the strain at failure are not significant for

the design of strengthened structures, because other mechanisms like bond failure are prematurely

responsible for the failure. Therefore, to determine the design moment of resistance for the

strengthened state, the design strain of the external bonded FRP system will be limited to

approximately 50 % of the ultimate elongation at failure (fu).

concrete

FRP material

f

p fpk

fck

p fpk

s

fck

c

fyk

f fd

fyk

s

Ecm

c1

Fig. 2

cu

f fu

Es

sy py

su

E fd

s

E fk

f,lim

Stress-strain diagrams for concrete, reinforcing and prestressing steel as well as FRP Material

15

fu

8.

8.1

Externally bonded FRP laminates cannot be stressed up to their tensile strength. Before externally

bonded FRP reinforcement will reach the tensile strength, the strengthened system is failing, e.g. due

to rupture of the anchorage or bond failure at shear or flexural cracks. For this reason, based on the

German Guideline for the strengthening of concrete components using externally bonded CFRP

laminates [2], the strain of externally bonded systems is limited. This design principle is meanwhile

adopted by many other national guidelines.

The strain limits for CFRP laminates are defined in the national approvals and guidelines. Normally,

the design strain is limited to about 50 % of the average ultimate strain in direction of the fibres. Below,

the design strain limits for flexural strengthening are given according to the German General Approval

[1]:

The lowest strain value f,limit of the two following conditions is decisive:

Depending on the type of laminate and modulus of elasticity in fibre direction:

S&P CFRP laminate 150/2000

S&P CFRP laminate 200/2000

f,limit = 0.75 [% ]

f,limit = 0.65 [% ]

f , lim it = 5

fsyk/Es

f syk

(8)

Es

(always refers to the outer layer of the internal reinforcement)

Given that the strains can hardly be controlled by hand calculation, the last condition indirectly helps to

prevent yielding of the internal reinforcement at service state. However, the program offers the

possibility to check the strains at service state. Anyway, this condition is only relevant for internal

reinforcement with low steel strength.

Considering the low limits of the design strain there is no need for any additional partial safety factor

( > 1.0) for externally bonded CFRP systems.

16

8.2

For externally bonded Carbon sheets the same principles as for externally bonded CFRP laminates

are valid. The design strain at ultimate limit state is limited:

C-Sheet 240

Following the German Guideline for the strengthening of concrete components using unidirectional

Carbon sheets [4], the number of layers should not exceed 5 layers.

8.3

CFRP laminates can also be glued into slots which will be cut into the concrete surface. Compared to

externally bonded FRP strips, near surface mounted laminates have a higher anchoring capacity,

therefore they can almost be stressed up to their tensile strength. The bond behaviour of near surface

mounted CFRP laminates is comparable to embedded steel rebars. A sufficient bond length prevents

bond failure and debonding problems will not occur. The design of near surface mounted laminates is

based on recent investigations in Germany [12].

The design value of the tensile strength ffd and the ultimate strain fd are determined by dividing the

characteristic values by the following partial safety factors f for FRP laminates:

ffd = ffk / f

(9)

fd = fu / f

(10)

The characteristic values of the tensile strength and the ultimate strain are quoted from chapter 7.4.

According to the German Guideline for the strengthening of concrete elements using unidirectional

CFRP laminates glued into slots [3] the following partial safety factors are valid:

f = 1.2

f = 1.0

Additionally it has to be proved, that the maximum strain in the laminate does not exceed f,max at

ultimate limit state:

f,max k fd

(11)

As a contribution to the reduced ductility of CFRP strengthened elements the reduction factor k is

assumed to 0.8.

17

9.

Imposed actions

Similar to the design of new elements, the imposed actions of the reinforced concrete element to be

strengthened must be known. The easiest way is to analyse the available as-built documents of the

structure. If these documents are not available, geometry, idealised model of the structure and loads

must be established by investigations on site. The bending moment, normal and shear force diagrams

have to be determined considering the different type of loads and their combinations.

It is necessary to determine the imposed bending moment of the structure during application of the

FRP strengthening system for the evaluation of the initial state of strain. Normally this will be the

moment due to dead load of the structure and eventually to the prestressing force. In any case the

bending moment of the initial state results from service loads (load safety factor = 1.0).

Furthermore, the characteristic and design bending moment due to expected future loads are

required. The procedure of the determination of the moment curves is shown in figure 3.

The design value of the bending moment MSdf due to expected future loads must include the partial

safety factors (table 1) and the additional combination values which consider the probability of

occurrence of several variable loads. For prestressed or post-tensioned elements the statically

indeterminate part of the prestressing moment Mp has to be considered for the determination of MSdf.

The statically determinate part of the prestressing moment Mp0, which is defined by the prestressing

force and the distance to centre of gravity of the concrete section, is considered by the design

program.

Q

G

MSd0,g+q

G

MSk0,g

Q

G

Fig. 3

strengthening with FRP system

MSdf,g+q

18

10.1

To check the strengthening ratio the bending capacity of the unstrengthened cross-section has to be

calculated first. The design resistance of the unstrengthened cross-section MRd0 is determined

considering the existing geometry, reinforcement, prestressing steel, concrete quality as well as the

partial safety factors for material properties listed in table 1. If as-built documents are not available this

information has to be established by investigations on site. Samples may be taken to check the

concrete compressive strength.

10.2

In the next step the program determines the strain distribution of the initial strain state. At this point the

FRP material is still unstressed. The required cross-sectional area of FRP Af,req is calculated for the

additional demand at strengthened state by superposition of the strain profiles. A strain state is

established, which leads to an equilibrium of the internal and external forces of the cross-section.

Figure 4 shows the superposition of the strains and the internal forces acting on a reinforced and a

prestressed or post-tensioned concrete cross-section respectively. Normally prestressed or posttensioned concrete cross-sections are uncracked in unstrengthened state, unless the prestressing

forces are very low. Commonly under additional loads at strengthened state the prestressed or posttensioned cross-section turns over into a cracked stage.

c0

c = c0 + c

Stahlbeton

s0

ds

s = s0 + s

s

f

c,o

f

c = c0 + c

+

p0

ac

c,u

Fc

dp

=

p = p0 + p

df

Fs

Ff

Spannbeton

Fig. 4

ac

Fc

Fp

f

19

Fs

Ff

ds

df

10.3

Conditions of equilibrium

The unknown values like the capacity of the unstrengthened cross-section MRd0, the imposed initial

strain state 0, the required cross-sectional area of the FRP material Af,req and the resisting moment of

the strengthened state MRdf are derived from the conditions of equilibrium H = 0 and M = 0

considering the mechanical behaviour of each material.

Internal forces

steel

Fs = Es As s

FRP

Ff = Ef Af f

concrete

f yk

s

As

f f,limit

f ck

Fc = R b x

c

(12)

(13)

(14)

H = 0

Fc Fs Fp Ff = 0

(15)

M = 0

Fc ac Fs ds Fp dp Ff df = 0

(16)

The solution for the equilibrium conditions in equations 15 and 16 is found by variation of the strain

profile. The strains are assumed to have linear distribution (Hypothesis of Bernoulli).The conditions for

equilibrium are checked while running through the possible strain profiles within the defined limits:

unstrengthened cross-section:

0 < s su

0 < c cu

initial strain state:

MSk0 is known

design:

MSdf is known

0 < s su

0 < c cu

0 < f f,limit

strengthened cross-section:

Af,prov is known

0 < s su

0 < c cu

0 < f f,limit

The system of equations always leads to an unique solution.

20

10.4

The program provides the user with the calculated strain profiles. The determined strain values can be

compared with the strain limits of concrete and FRP (Fig. 5). Normally the design will be controlled by

highly stressed FRP material, i.e. the strain limit of CFRP. In cases where the design is limited by

failure of the compression zone the user should check if strengthening with FRP is still reasonable

The design can be checked by hand calculation using the provided strain profiles and the equilibrium

conditions in equations 15 and 16.

0

cu

cu

f,lim

design

controlled by

Lamellendehnung

laminate

strain limit

ausgenutzt

Fig. 5

f,lim

design controlled by

Betondehnung

concrete

strain limit

ausgenutzt

The strain distribution in service state allows to control yielding of internal reinforcement under service

loads. In addition stresses at service state are determined for concrete, reinforcing and prestressing

steel as well as the selected FRP cross-section.

10.5

Control of stresses

If the design and detailing is not in compliance with the rules given in Eurocode 2 to limit concrete and

steel stresses in service state, a verification of the stresses is necessary. In that case the following

stress limits for the rare combination of loads have to be respected.

concrete

(17)

reinforcing steel

(18)

prestressing steel

(19)

21

11.1

The bonding characteristics of externally bonded CFRP laminates is totally different compared to

embedded steel rebars. While steel rebars can be stressed up to the yielding point by increasing the

bond length, the bond force of FRP laminates is limited. An increase in bond length above the length

lbd does not result in an increase in resisting tensile stresses (see fig. 6). Based on tests a design

model for the maximum bond failure force has been established in [8] for externally bonded steel

plates on concrete structures.

bond force

Fb

Fbd,max

bond length

lb

lbd,max

Fig. 6

This model can also be applied to CFRP laminates in a modified form. It has become a substantial

part of the German guideline [2] and is generally accepted as being the most up-to-date and

straightforward to apply.

The maximum bond failure force Fbd,max (corresponds to Tk,max in the German guideline [2]) can be

determined using the design value of the surface tensile strength fctd of the concrete:

Fb d,max = 0.5 m f b f k b k T

with

fcsd =

fcsm

c

E f n f t f f csd

[N/mm]

[N]

(20)

(21)

The subscript d in equation 20 indicates a design value considering the partial safety factor for

concrete. Subscript f describes the properties of the FRP material while b corresponds to bond.

22

The associated bond length lbd,max can be derived from the following equation (cf. [10]):

l bd,max = 0.58

Ef nf t f

f csd

(22)

[mm]

where:

mf

bf

nf

tf

Ef

fcsm

c

kT

kb

laminate width [mm]

number of laminates on top of each other [ - ]

laminate thickness [mm]

modulus of elasticity of FRP laminates [N/mm]

surface tensile strength of the concrete [N/mm],

valid for: 1.5 N/mm fctm 3.0 N/mm.

partial safety factor for concrete [-]

temperature reduction factor [-],

taking into account temperature variations between -20C and +30C,

0.9 for exterior components, 1.0 for interior components.

width factor according to the German guideline [2]

k b = 1.06

2 bf / b

[-]

1 + b f / 400

The factor 0.5 in equation 20 refers to the material characteristics of the adhesive bond. This

explanation is also valid for equation 22. Additional information is given in the German guideline [2] or

in the publications of Rostsy [7], [11] and Onken [10] respectively.

The bond force Fbd related to a bond length lb lbd,max can be calculated by the following equation:

Fbd = Fbd,max

11.2

lb

lbd,max

l

2 b

l

bd,max

(23)

The bond failure behaviour of FRP sheets is based on the same mechanical principles as CFRP

laminates. In the equation stated above the thickness of the laminate tf is replaced by the theoretical

fibre thickness of the selected sheet. The factor lf gives the number of layer glued one on top of each

other. The width factor kb is set to 1 for the calculation of the bond failure force of carbon sheets.

Compared to CFRP laminates the surface of sheets is relatively large, so the bond behaviour is much

better than for CFRP laminates.

23

11.3

The verification of the anchorage is carried out for ultimate limit state, considering the partial safety

factors listed in table 1. For the application of externally bonded FRP systems the envelope line of the

tensile forces has to be covered over the total length of the reinforced concrete element. Therefore the

CFRP laminate or sheet should be extended to the support line as close as possible. It has to be

proved that the design tensile force of the FRP material Ffd,E does not exceed the bond failure force

Fbd,max that can be transmitted by the associated length lbd,max (see fig. 6). The tensile force of the FRP

system is determined from the moment line in the same way as the force of the internal tension

rebars.

A distinction has to be made between solid slabs and beams. Since CFRP laminates applied on slabs

cannot be clasped by strap binders, the bond failure force has to be reduced. According to the

German guidelines [2], [4] a reduction factor of 1.2 is introduced for slabs.

beams:

Fbd Ff d

(24)

solid slabs:

Fbd

1.2

(25)

Ff d

To avoid the determination of the whole envelope line for the tensile forces the bond check can be

carried out for a certain point E according to the German guidelines [2], [4]. For the end support of

beams or slabs it is assumed that the first crack due to the imposed moment will appear at the point E,

which corresponds to the associated bond length lbd,max of the maximum bond failure force Fbd,max. The

maximum distance from the end of the CFRP laminates or sheets to the edge of support should not

exceed 50 mm for sagging moments (cf. [11]).

A s1

Af

ai f

aL

l bd aL

E

ME

xE

Fig. 7

M(x)

24

For reinforced concrete elements the definite point E for the calculation of the existing tensile force

in the FRP strengthening can be simply determined by adding up the following lengths (see fig. 7):

xE = ai + f + lbd,max + aL

xE

ai

f

lbd,max

aL

(26)

distance from the support axis to the support front

distance from the end of FRP strengthening to the support front ( 50 mm)

bond length related to Fbd,max according to equations 20 and 22

horizontal displacement of the envelope line

According to Eurocode 2 the following values are valid for the horizontal displacement of the envelope

line:

beams:

simplified for vertical stirrups and compression struts at 45:

(cot cot ) = 1

T-beams:

(28)

with x = distance of reinforcement placed in the flange outside the web

slabs:

aL = dm

(27)

(29)

The distance xE is calculated by the program. The user must determine the corresponding bending

moment MSdf,E from the moment line of the structure. The tensile force Ffd,E of the FRP material at

point E is calculated from the entered design value of the bending moment by iteration of the

equilibrium.

From the entered design value of the bending moment at point E the program calculates the tensile

force of the FRP material Ffd,E by iteration of the equilibrium.

As prestressed or post-tensioned concrete members are usually uncracked near the support line

the bond check has to be modified. Externally bonded FRP systems always have to be anchored

beyond the last flexural crack. The design program determines the cracking moment of the

prestressed or post-tensioned cross-section considering the tensile strength of the concrete. The user

then has to enter the value xE which means the distance of the cracking moment from the support line,

measured from the moment curve of the structure. Considering the selected FRP cross-section the

program is calculating the tensile force Ffd,E in the section at the point where the first crack will occur.

This force is compared to the maximum bond force Fbd,max of the selected FRP system.

Following possibilities are recommended, if the anchorage verification according to equations 24 and

25 may fail:

reduce the distance f between the end of FRP strengthening and the front of support,

extend the FRP reinforcement beyond the support (e.g. slot-in end)

increase the contact pressure of FRP reinforcement using additional anchorage devices

25

Since the position of the moment zero point varies with different load combinations the FRP system

should be anchored at least 1 m beyond the zero-crossing of the horizontal displaced envelope line of

the tensile forces. However, at least the bond length lbd,max related to the maximum bond force should

be applied. According to the German guidelines [2], [4] the maximum distance from the end of FRP

strengthening to the front of support should not exceed 50 mm for sagging moments (cf. [11]).

As1

Af

ai f

lb aL

E

M(x)

xE

Fig. 8

At the intermediate support the point E refers to the zero point of the bending moment line. From the

distance xE, the program determines the distance f between the end of the CFRP laminates or sheets

and the front line of the support (see fig. 8).

fmax = xE ai aL lbd,max

Recommendation:

f = xE ai aL lb

xE

aL

lb

f

(30)

with lb = 1 m

distance from the theoretical support line to the moment zero point

horizontal displacement of the envelope line

bond length

distance from the end of FRP strengthening to the support front

If the existing length at the intermediate support is not sufficient to anchor the external bonded FRP

system with the minimum bond length lbd,max, the program will calculate a negative value for f. In this

case the bond forces have to be proved equivalent to the bond check at the end support or the FRP

system must be extended beyond the support line.

For prestressed or post-tensioned elements the verification of the anchorage at intermediate support

can be performed by the same approach as for the end support.

26

The verification of the anchorage for the FRP top strengthening can be carried out in a similar way as

for the FRP bottom strengthening at the intermediate support. In the German guidelines [2], [4] it is

recommended to anchor the FRP system at least 1 m beyond the zero-crossing of the displaced

envelope line. The program determines the distance from the intermediate support front line to the end

of the FRP strengthening material (see fig. 9).

aL

M(x)

xE

Af

E

aL lb

As1

ai

Fig. 9

fmin = xE ai + aL + lbd,max

Recommendation:

f = xE ai + aL + lb

xE

aL

lb

f

11.4

(31)

with lb = 1 m

horizontal displacement of the envelope line

bond length

distance from the end of FRP strengthening to the support front line

As already mentioned, compared to externally bonded strips, near surface mounted laminates have a

higher anchoring capacity. Therefore they can almost be stressed up to their tensile strength with

increasing bond length. Based on the investigations in [12] a design model was established for the

anchoring of near surface mounted FRP laminates in the surrounding concrete cover. According to

[12] the bond force Fbd of the laminate depends on the bond length lb. It can be described by the

following equations:

(32)

a

Fbd = m f b f K,d 4 a r 26.2 + 0.065 tanh r (l b 115 )

70

(33)

27

where:

mf

bf

ar

number of slots

width of the FRP laminate [mm]

distance of the laminate axis to the edge of the member [mm],

(valid for ar 150 mm)

design bond strength of the epoxy adhesive [N/mm]

K,d

The characteristic bond strength K,k of the epoxy adhesive is determined with the following equation:

K,k = 2 fKt,k 2

(f

2

Kt,k

(34)

For the determination of the design bond strength K,d according to the German Guideline for the

strengthening of concrete components using unidirectional CFRP laminates glued into slots in the

concrete [3] the following partial safety factors are valid:

K,d

K,k / b

(35)

= 1.3

= 1.05

The envelope line of the tensile forces is carried out at ultimate limit state under consideration of the

horizontal displacement in the same way as for externally bonded FRP systems. The envelope line

has to be covered by the envelope line of the resisting tensile force considering the internal steel

reinforcement and the near surface mounted FRP laminates. Unlike externally bonded FRP systems

near surface mounted laminates can be anchored from the point where they are theoretically no

longer required to cover the entire tensile force.

The required bond length for near surface mounted FRP laminates results from transformation of

equations 32 and 33:

Ffd,E

l bd = 0.4 0.16

0.000009 0.0015 b f K,k 4 a r

0.003

Ffd,E

l bd =

0.065 tanh ar b f K,k 4 a r

70

( )

26.2

0.065 tanh

28

[mm]

( )

ar

70

bd

11.5

A proper execution of strengthening with externally bonded FRP systems on site will always lead to a

failure in the concrete covering layer (bond failure) and not to a failure in the adhesive substance. An

essential parameter for the adhesive bond of FRP systems is the surface tensile strength fcsm of the

existing concrete cover. The testing of the surface tensile strength has to be carried out according to

the relevant national regulation. Due to the German guidelines [2], [4], at least five tests should be

performed on each concrete element.

For the calculation of the bond failure force the surface tensile strength can be applied according to

the German guidelines [2], [4] as the median value of the population. This value can be derived from

test results under consideration of the student distribution with a statistical safety of 95%.

arithmetic median

xm =

xi

n

(38)

standard deviation

s=

1 (x x )

i

m

n 1

(39)

fcsm = x m k s

(40)

strength of test i

number of tests

reduction factor

xi

n

k

Depending on the number of tests, the reduction factor k can be taken from the following table (see

German DIN 1048)

n

10

15

20

25

30

35

0.953

0.823

0.734

0.67

0.62

0.58

0.455

0.387

0.342

0.31

0.286

Tab. 2

Reduction factor k for the calculation of the median of the population (German DIN 1048)

Example

Test Nr.

xi [N/mm]

(xi xm)

1

2

3

4

5

6

2.0

2.2

3.5

4.0

3.1

3.5

1.1025

0.7225

0.2025

0.9025

0.0025

0.2025

Total

18.3

3.135

xm = 18.3 = 3.05

6

s=

1 3.135 = 0.792

6 1

29

On account of the truss model used for the shear design the bottom reinforcement has to be properly

anchored at end and intermediate supports. The required conditions are stated in Eurocode 2. It is

necessary to

a)

retain not less than 25% (or 50% for slabs) of the required steel section present in the

span

b)

cover the tension force, which is derived from the truss analogy considering the shear

and normal force at the support

a

(41)

FsR = VSdf ,A L + NSdf ,A

dm

The maximum value of both conditions is valid for the anchorage of the bottom reinforcement.

Normally the first condition is only valid for the new design of structural concrete elements, not for

strengthening. Applied to existing concrete elements to be strengthened 25% (or 50%) of the tensional

force due to the maximum moment of span has to be anchored at the supports. For strengthened

systems the combined maximum tensile force of the internal steel reinforcement and the external FRP

system has to be considered.

As long as the existing bottom reinforcement is not curtailed, the internal rebars extended beyond

support line are normally sufficiently anchored an strengthened state. The program calculates

required anchorage force at the support from the two conditions mentioned above and determines

part of the tensile force covered by the internal rebars. It is calculated from the circumference of

bar and the bond strength fbd:

4 As

Fs,A = l s,A

ds

fbd

the

the

the

the

(42)

If the internal reinforcement is not sufficient for the anchorage an strengthened state, a part of the FRP

strengthening has to be extended beyond the support front line. The software determines the tensile

force to be anchored and the required bond length.

In practice the anchorage of FRP systems beyond the support line is very difficult and questionable.

Under slabs supported by masonry walls, externally bonded CFRP laminates can be extended to the

adjacent span by removing one brick of the wall.

At concrete walls and beams the only adequate solution is to slot-in the end of the laminate and inject

the slot with epoxy paste. If the slot is sufficiently thin (d 10 mm), a verification of the anchorage

according to chapter 11.4 is possible.

In contrast to externally bonded FRP systems, an additional anchorage of near surface mounted

laminates beyond the support front line can hardly be realised in practice.

30

For externally bonded FRP strengthening the spacing of the strips is limited. According to the German

guidelines [2] [4] different limits are valid for the FRP systems.

edge distance:

ar,min = cw

axial spacing:

sf,max = 0.2 l

sf,max = 5 h

sf,max = 0.4 l

(43)

(bearing distance)

(slabs)

(cantilevering length)

(44)

(45)

edge distance:

ar,min = 2 bf

ar,min = dk

axial spacing:

sf,min = dk

sf,min = bf

slot:

(46)

(47)

ts,max = cw h

bs,min = tf + 1 [mm]

bs,max = tf + 3 [mm]

where:

cw

dk

as

ds

ts,

bs

h

maximum diameter of aggregates in concrete

axial spacing of internal longitudinal rebars

diameter of internal longitudinal rebars

depth of the slot

width of the slot

allowance for tolerances of the concrete cover

31

(48)

(49)

(50)

(51)

(52)

14.1

In most cases of flexural strengthening with FRP systems, it is necessary to check the shear capacity

of the concrete structure as well. Especially beams they also require shear strengthening. On the

other hand for concrete solid slabs it may be proven that shear reinforcement is dispensable for

expected future loads. If not, other strengthening methods have to be considered.

According to Eurocode 2 the imposed shear force VSd can either be transferred by the concrete alone

or in combination with shear reinforcement. The shear resistance is described by the design values

VRd1 to VRd3. For the calculation of the shear reinforcement the standard method is applied considering

vertical stirrups and an inclination of the compression struts of 45. The relevant equations according

to Eurocode 2 can be taken from the following flowchart (fig. 11).

VRd1

alone,

VRd2

decisive for the shear resistance,

VRd3

shear resistance with shear reinforcement the shear force transmission results from

concrete and shear reinforcement.

The lower design value VRd1 is the relevant value for slabs which are usually constructed without any

shear reinforcement. Presenting the uppermost limit, VRd2 must not be exceeded by the imposed shear

force.

Following the conditions given in the German guidelines [2] [4] and according to Eurocode 2, a

distinction has to be made between four different cases with regard to the shear force capacity of a

strengthened concrete structure (see [10]):

1. In case that the existing shear force VSdf of the structure at strengthened state is lower than the

shear resistance VRd1 of the concrete alone, no shear strengthening is necessary. This case

generally applies to slabs.

VSdf VRd1

(53)

VSdf and VRd1 are determined considering the partial safety factors in Table 1.

2. If the shear force at strengthened state can be completely covered by the existing internal stirrups,

minimum shear strengthening is necessary to complete the mechanical truss model

VSdf VRd3

(54)

The additional shear reinforcement has to clasp the flexural strengthening and is designed for the

shear force difference V depending on the strengthening ratio.

V =

1

VSdf

(55)

In this case, anchorage of the shear strengthening in the compression zone can be omitted (see

Fig. 11).

32

The fact that additional shear reinforcement in the form of external bonded stirrups is necessary

despite sufficient internal shear reinforcement is justified by the concrete beam design truss

analogy. The additional tension chord of the external flexural strengthening must be connected to

the tension struts of the internal stirrups for completion of the truss model (fig. 10, see [10]).

shear strengthening

compression chord

internal stirrups

As1

Af

sw

Fig. 10

tension chords

3. If the shear force demand at strengthened state exceeds the shear capacity of the existing crosssection, the shear strengthening has to be designed for the remaining amount of shear force.

VSdf > VRd3

V =

VSdf VRd3

(56)

or

V =

1

VSdf

(57)

The higher value V of both conditions in equation 57 is valid for the design. Since the additional

shear reinforcement is necessary to cover the total shear force of the cross-section, the external

stirrups have to be anchored in the compression zone (see fig. 11).

4. The maximum shear resistance VRd2 provides the upper limit of the shear force also for

strengthened state. However, the German guidelines [2] [4] do not permit shear strengthening of

high stressed beams. Therefore in the program it is recommended to limit the maximum shear

capacity in the design concept of Eurocode 2 as well. Reducing the maximum shear capacity to

50 % (Vmax = 0.5 VRd2) corresponds approximately to the limitation given in the German guidelines

[2] [4]

VSdf Vmax

(58)

(59)

33

Fig. 11 Anchorage of the additional shear reinforcement depending on the imposed shear force

Fig. 12 Flowchart for the shear check of strengthened beams according to Eurocode 2

34

Even if additional external stirrups are not required to cover the imposed shear force (case 1), it is

recommended for beams to clasp the FRP flexural strengthening system at least with 2 external

stirrups at the end of the beam. For strengthening the moment of span these external stirrups should

be anchored in the compression zone. For moments of support an additional anchorage of the flexural

strengthening with external stirrups can be omitted.

14.2

As additional shear reinforcement, steel plates as well as high modulus carbon sheets (unidirectional

fabrics) can be used. The sheets have a modulus of elasticity of about 640'000 N/mm (C-Sheet 640),

they are easier to handle than steel plates and therefore the application is more economical despite

the price of the material.

The required cross-section of the additional shear reinforcement in form of steel plates or sheets has

to be determined for the remaining shear force difference V (eq. 55 and 57).

The internal steel stirrups and the external stirrups made of steel plates or carbon sheets are

considered as parallel connected elastic or elastic-plastic elements. The strain conformity of these

elements must be ensured also at strengthened state. Therefore the same strain limit of limit = 0.2 %

according to [7] will be taken as a basis for the design.

The stress of the internal stirrups to determine the shear capacity VRd3 must be limited according to

equation 60:

sw =

lim it E s

f yd

(60)

The required cross-sectional area of the additional external shear reinforcement results from the

following equation:

a w,req =

V

z f fw

(61)

where:

V

zf

fw

internal lever arm between the concrete compressive force and the flexural strengthening

is iteratively determined by the program

stress of the additional external shear reinforcement (at limit = 0.2 %)

Steel plates:

fw =

lim it E s

f yd

(62)

Carbon sheets:

fw =

lim it E fd

(63)

Since the carbon sheets are rather weak during handling and are applied by hand lamination at

building site conditions, it is doubtful that the high modulus of elasticity of about 640'000 N/mm will be

35

achieved in practice. Therefore the modulus of elasticity in equation 63 should be reduced for carbon

sheets as shown in figure 13. For this a reduction factor of E = 1.2 is recommended in [10]:

fd

Ef

lim

fu

Efd = Efk / E

(64)

Steel plates:

The maximum spacing of the plates sw,max results from the truss analogy and is approximately equal to

the effective depth of the FRP flexural strengthening (see fig. 10) which corresponds to the overall

height of the beam.

sw,max = h

(65)

Carbon sheets:

When strengthening with carbon sheets C-Sheets 640, a maximum strip spacing of 80 % of the overall

height of the beam is recommended.

sw,max = 0.8 h

(66)

36

14.3

If only minimum external stirrups are required without anchorage in the compression zone, (case 2:

Vsdf VRd3), it has to be proved, that the adhesive bond of the external stirrups provides a sufficient

anchorage. For this check the bond behaviour as stated in chapter 11 can be applied, where the

material properties of steel plates or carbon sheets have to be considered.

As the form an the location of shear cracks can not be predicted, according to the German guideline

[2] it has to be proved, that the tensile force of the additional external stirrups does not exceed 50 % of

the bond force Fbd as given in equation 23:

Fwd 0.5 Fbd

(67)

The external stirrups always have to be bonded over the whole height of the web. But only half of the

existing bond length lbw at the side of the web can be considered for lb in equation 23 (see fig. 14):

lb 0.5 lbw

(68)

external stirrup

Laschenbgel

shear

crack

Schubri

h1

h

lb

sw

bw

sw

lbw

FRP

FRPLamelle

laminate

sw

sw,max = 0,5 h

lb = 0,5 lbw

The tensile force of the external stirrups is determined according to Eurocode 2 using the following

equations:

f wd = 0.5

Vwd

z

(69)

Fwd = 0.5

Vwd s w

z

(70)

For external stirrups that are only anchored by adhesive bond, differing from equations 65 and 66 the

following is valid:

sw,max = 0.5 h

(71)

37

In addition to the calculations which can be carried out with the program FRP Lamella, the structural

engineer should also check cracks and deformations of the strengthened structure if necessary.

According to the most national regulations or guidelines, the control of crack widths at strengthened

state is not required. Nevertheless, in a special case where it may be necessary, you should make

sure that durability and serviceability of the strengthened concrete structure are ensured. Please note

that strengthening with FRP products has no significant influence on the deformations of a

strengthened concrete structure. In case of deflection problems, preference should be given to other

strengthening methods like for instance sprayed concrete.

If fire protection is required, the program enables the user to check the remaining safety for service

loads under the condition that the external bonded FRP system and the external stirrups will

completely fail. Please note that epoxy resins may loose their load bearing capacity when the

temperature approaches 80 C. If necessary it has to be proved in special cases by an approval or an

expert opinion that the FRP system and the external stirrups are sufficiently protected against fire,

using additional protective measures as for instance fire protection plates.

38

17.1

The program is developed for the following Windows operating systems: Win 9x, 2000, NT.

After successful installation of FRP Lamella you start the program by either clicking the FRP Lamella

icon on the Desktop or choosing the option FRP Lamella in the Windows start menu of your computer.

First the disclaimer will appear. You have to accept to start the FRP Lamella program window.

To exit the program FRP Lamella and close the window, click the cross in the title bar at the upper

right corner of the program window. Instead you can either choose the option exit of the file menu.

17.2

Settings

To ensure optimum display performance of the FRP Lamella program on your screen a minimum

screen resolution of 800 x 600 pixel is assumed.

The display font size is also essential for a proper display of the program window. In the Windows

menu Start point to Settings, click Control Panel, and then double click Display. On the Settings tab,

click Advanced, then you will find the Font Size list on the General tab. Small fonts (standard) should

be selected, otherwise several items might not be completely displayed.

17.3

You will find general information about Windows user interfaces in your Windows manual or in the

online help function of your Windows operating system.

Title bar

The uppermost line of the FRP Lamella program window shows information

about program, data file and path.

Menu bar

The items File, Calculation, Extras and Info on the menu bar lead to different

submenus. You will find a detailed list of all menu items in chapter 19.1.

Tool bar

The most frequently required functions can easily be called from the toolbar by

clicking one of the symbols. You will find a detailed list of all tool bar symbols

in chapter 19.2.

Tree view

The tree views in the left part of the program window enable you to call the

different input and output windows directly. Click the + symbol in front of a

heading to display the subordinated items. A click on the symbol hides the

subordinated items again.

Quick info

explanation (tooltiptext) will appear after a few seconds. Proceed in the same

way to get explanations for the functions of the tool bar.

39

17.4

Data input

The required data is entered on several input windows shown in the upper part of the program user

interface. The titles of the different windows are listed in the opposite tree view. They are classified

according to the topics general information, cross-section, loads, strengthening and proofs. Every

input window shows a graphic to illustrate the essential data.

To show the different input windows click the related title in the tree view. If one heading includes

several subordinated windows, the first window will be displayed automatically. Input windows that

are not accessible yet are displayed in light grey.

Use the button

on the right below the picture box of each input window to display the next

window. It is recommended to follow the sequence of the windows to make sure that no window is

left out. The button on the left below the picture box leads to the previous input window.

Enter the required data in the provided text boxes of each window. If necessary overwrite the

entry 0. Text boxes with a grey font are locked and cannot be modified. Disabled text boxes

having a dark background are not considered in the calculations.

The key button in the toolbar enables you to unlock input fields having a grey font and modify the

preselected values.

For some items you can choose from a list of different values.

After you have entered all required data you can start the calculation either by clicking the

calculation button below the graphic of the input window FRP cross-section or by clicking the

calculator symbol in the toolbar.

Start the proofs of anchorage and shear capacity by clicking the proof button below the graphic

of the corresponding input window. A click on the tick symbol in the toolbar will carry out all

proofs successively. This function is useful after reopening an existing input data file.

40

17.5

Output of results

The results are displayed in additional windows located in the lower part of the program user interface.

The titles of the different windows are listed in the opposite tree view. They are classified according to

the topics general information, strengthening and proofs.

To show the different output windows click the related title in the tree view. If one heading

includes several subordinated windows, the first window will be displayed automatically. Output

windows that are not accessible yet are displayed in light grey

The result values are displayed in text fields having a light grey or coloured background. These

values cannot be modified.

Pay attention to the output fields highlighted in blue or red colour. They will show you if the proof

conditions are met and if special details of construction have to be followed.

The output windows of strains in ultimate limit state and strains in service state additionally show a

graphical representation of the strain distribution (s. chap. 18.15 and 18.16). You can change

the scale by clicking the picture.

After the calculation of certain proofs you have to design a sufficient strengthening. The required

input data is entered in the white text boxes of the output window (s. chap. 18.20 and 18.23).

The performed calculations can be printed on any printer installed under Windows operating systems.

You can modify the content of the heading line in the menu Extras >> company letterhead. It is

possible to print each page individually.

pages 1 4

page 5

page 6

page 7

proof of FRP end anchorage

proof of anchorage of flexural reinforcement at support

design of shear strengthening

41

18.1

When you start the program the first window project opens. It offers the possibility to enter some

general project and structural element data. This information appears on each page of the printout and

will help you administrating your projects.

Enter the project number and the project name.

For each structural element you can enter a number and an appropriate description.

tip

Use the button

on the right below the picture box to display the next window.

42

18.2

In this window you can choose the underlying code and guideline for the design. Additionally you

determine the material properties as well as the unit measurement for the input and output.

Choose the code according to which standard you want to perform the design of the

strengthening measure simply by clicking the related option button (not every version offers the

possibility to choose the code).

Afterwards choose the guideline on which the design of FRP strengthening shall base.

Select a country for the available steel and concrete grades based on the national standard that

will appear on the steel and concrete window, respectively. The appropriate national flag appears

next to the selection box.

You have the choice from different units of measurement: the unit of lengths and forces as well as

the unit of strains.

43

18.3

FRP Lamella offers the possibility to strengthen the most frequent types of cross-section: slabs,

rectangular beams, T-beams and I-beams. According to your choice FRP Lamella will present an

appropriate illustrating graphic.

Enter the dimensions of the cross-section in the corresponding data fields.

note

After entering all data the graphic turns into a true to scale graphic to allow a visual control of the

values.

Please indicate whether you want to strengthen an exterior or interior structural member.

According to the German guidelines [2], [3] for external concrete members the program will

consider a temperature reduction factor kT for the bond strength of externally bonded FRP strips

due to temperature variations from 20 C to 30 C (s. chap. 11.1, 11.2).

For slabs please indicate the span or the cantilever length. This input data field will be displayed

when you select a slab. The length is required to calculate the maximum spacing of FRP strips.

(s. chap. 18.13).

44

18.4

After entering the size of the structural member the cross-section values are calculated and shown in

the lower part of the user interface.

The upper field shows the gross cross-sectional area Ag of the structural member.

The gravity axis zcg of the cross-section is related to the top of the member.

Furthermore the moment of inertia Iy of the cross-section is given.

The section modulus Wtop and Wbottom apply to the top and the button of the cross-section.

note

The cross-section values are related to the gross cross-section of the member.

45

18.5

The window concrete indicates the material properties of the concrete. You can select the concrete

classes according to the chosen code.

Select the existing concrete class of the member from the list. The appropriate characteristic

compressive strength fck will be displayed in the next field. If the required concrete class is not

available in the list, select the option other, this enables you to define the characteristic strength

(s. chap. 7.1).

The concrete maximum strain cu is limited to 0.35 [%] according to Eurocode 2.

The strain at the axis of the parabolic curve c1 is assumed to be 0.2 [%] according to

Eurocode 2 (Model Code).

The reduction factor is a coefficient taking into account long term effects on the compressive

strength. It is generally assumed to be = 0.85.

The basic value of the design shear strength Rd is calculated from the characteristic cylinder

compressive strength (s. chap. 7.1).

The average modulus of elasticity of concrete Ecm is necessary for the calculation of the

uncracked state of the structural member.

The characteristic tensile strength of the concrete fctm defines the transition between the

uncracked and the cracked state of the cross-section.

The partial safety factor c for concrete is preselected as c = 1.5 according to Eurocode 2.

(s. chap. [1])

note

You can modify the proposed values by using the key button in the tool bar.

46

18.6

The material properties of the reinforcing steel are entered in the window steel. The program offers the

possibility to define 2 types of reinforcing steel as well as 2 types of prestressing steel. The graphic

shows both stress-strain diagrams.

Select the steel grade of the reinforcing steel and of the prestressing steel from the steel list. The

appropriate characteristic yield stress fyk and the appropriate characteristic tensile strength

fpk of the prestressing steel will be displayed in the field next to the steel list. If the required steel

grade is not available in the list, select the entry other, which enables you to define the

characteristic strength.

note

The available steel grades in the list depend on the country selected in the window code.

For rebars select between plain and ribbed sections, for prestressing steel it is to distinguish

between strands and wires. The choice has an effect on the bond of the rebars or the modulus of

elasticity of the prestressing steel, respectively.

The modulus of elasticity Es for reinforcing steel is preselected as Es = 200'000 [N/mm] in

accordance to Eurocode 2. For prestressing steel the modulus of elasticity Ep is preselected

depending on the chosen section in accordance to Eurocode 2.

The maximum steel strain su and pu is assumed as 2 [%] according to Eurocode 2. It is only

needed for the termination of the iteration. Before this strain limit will be reached, the design will

be controlled by the strain limit of the FRP material.

For the calculation of the prestressing force the horizontal line of the design stress-strain diagram

is used. According to Eurocode 2 the characteristic tensile strength of the prestressing steel is

reduced by p = 0.9.

The partial safety factor s for reinforcing steel is preselected to 1.15 according to Eurocode 2

(s chap. [1]).

note

You can modify the proposed values by using the key button in the tool bar.

47

18.7

Details about the existing rebars of the concrete member at the position of the maximum bending

moment can be entered in the window main flexural reinforcement. FRP Lamella allows the input of

six reinforcement layers in the tension or compression zone. You must at least enter one layer of

internal reinforcement since the program does not design unreinforced members.

Enter the cross-sectional area As of the existing tension rebars.

tip

Click the number button at the beginning of each line and an additional window shows a table of

rebars diameters. You can select the number and the cross-section for groups of rebars and copy

the total sum of the cross-sectional area of reinforcement to the input window (s. chap. 18.8).

The position of the reinforcement is given by the depth zs measured from the top edge of the

structural member to the axis of the rebars.

Afterwards you choose the steel grade. The list shows the four grades defined in the previous

window steel. For unclassified steel grades the defined yield strength or tensile strength will be

displayed.

For prestressed steel you have to enter the prestress after creep and shrinkage p0. The resulting

prestressing force is shown in the input window loads in unstrengthened state (s. chap. 18.10).

The option bonded is only enabled for prestressing steel. You can define if the tendon is fixed to

the surrounding concrete or if it slides without bond through a sheath. Rebars are always bonded

to the concrete.

The input of a concrete cover cw is optionally and just serves to if the arrangement of FRP strips

fits to the width of the member. The minimum distance between the lateral edge of the FRP strips

and the edge of the concrete member is equivalent to the concrete cover.

48

18.8

The cross-sectional area of reinforcement can be copied from a table which offers a wide selection of

rebar diameters. The cross-sectional area is depending on the number of rebars in a beam or the

spacing of rebars in a slab. To open the rebar table just click the number button in the input windows

main reinforcement and reinforcement at support, respectively.

Choose a cross-sectional area by clicking a white field in the table. The background of a selected

field turns into blue. For beams, a multiple choice is possible. The sum of the cross-sectional

area As of the selected rebars is displayed below the table.

You cancel the selection by clicking the blue field again.

You can copy the selection to the reinforcement window by clicking the copy button. The rebar

table will be closed.

Close the table without copying the value by clicking the cancel button.

49

18.9

Details about the existing rebars at support can be entered in the window flexural reinforcement at

support. Additional information is needed for the proof of anchorage at support.

Enter the cross-sectional area As for every layer of reinforcement. The value is automatically

copied from the previous input window main reinforcement.

tip

Click the number button at the beginning of each line and an additional window shows a table of

rebars diameters. You can select the number and the cross-section for groups of rebars and copy

the total sum of the cross-sectional area of reinforcement to the input window (s. chap. 18.8).

The position of the reinforcement is given by the depth zs measured from the top edge of the

structural member to the axis of the rebars. The default values are copied from the previous input

window main flexural reinforcement.

For prestressed steel layers the prestress p0 at the region of support is needed. The default

values are copied from the previous input window main flexural reinforcement.

Enter the diameter ds of the rebars.

For determination of the anchorage force the anchorage length ls,A from the support front is

needed.

Choose the coefficient for effectiveness of anchorage a. According to Eurocode 2 the value is

1.0 for straight bars. For hooks, bends, loops and welded transverse bars in the anchorage zone

the value can be reduced to 0.7.

50

18.10

The window loads in unstrengthened state defines the imposed actions just before strengthening with

FRP. The resulting strains in the concrete member are taken into consideration for the strengthening

design. The graphic schematically presents the initial state as a bridge girder, which is closed for

traffic during application of the FRP strengthening and only loaded by the dead load of the structure.

Choose the design for a positive (moment of span) or negative moment (moment at support).

note

This choice is linked with the type of moment in the window loads in strengthened state. It is not

possible to choose different types of moments in both windows.

Enter the characteristic bending moment MSk0 which is imposed to the structure during the

application of the FRP strengthening. Commonly this will be the dead load moment. This value

defines the initial state of strain in the cross-section. For statically indeterminated systems you

may have to add the secondary moment from prestressing Mp'.

If the member is subjected to an external axial force, e.g. the dead load of an inclined beam, you

have to choose between compressive and tensile force.

Enter the characteristic axial force NSk0 resulting from the imposed load. Compressive forces

have a positive effect and can be ignored.

For prestressed members the program displays the prestressing force NP as well as the

prestressing moment Mp0' that are considered in the design. The values result from the crosssectional area, prestress and position of the prestressing steel entered in the window main flexural

reinforcement (s. chap. 18.7).

note

The program considers only the statically determinated prestressing moment. If the support

conditions of the prestressed member are statically indeterminated, add the secondary moment

Mp' to MSk0, MSdf and MSkf.

51

To define the transition between the uncracked and the cracked state of the cross-section, decide

if the bending tension zone of the cross-section is already cracked under service loads.

Reinforced concrete members are usually always cracked, for prestressing members it depends

on the degree of prestress and the history of loading. As a rule the cross-section is uncracked for

maximum prestress (no tensile forces in service state).

52

18.11

The window loads in strengthened state defines the future actions. You have to enter the bending

moments which are imposed to the concrete member after strengthening with FRP (s. chap. 9). The

graphic schematically presents the strengthened state as a bridge girder, which is loaded by dead

load of the structure and an additional high live load.

Choose the design for a positive (moment of span) or negative moment (moment at support).

note

This choice is linked with the type of moment in the window loads in strengthened state. It is not

possible to choose different types of moments in both windows.

If the member is subjected to an external axial force, e.g. the dead load of an inclined beam, you

have to choose between compressive and tensile force.

Enter the design bending moment MSdf for the expected loads considering the partial safety

factors for permanent and variable loads as well as the combination value . For statically

indeterminated systems you may have to add the secondary moment from prestressing Mp'. (s.

chap. 18.10).

Proceed in the same way for the design axial force NSdf. Take also into consideration the

different partial safety factors and the combination value .

You can either enter the exact values of imposed actions in service state or choose the option

approximate. In this case the characteristic values of the bending moment and axial force are

calculated from the given design values as follows:

MSkf =

MSdf

M,m

N Skf =

NSdf

N,m

note

The use of the option approximate is especially recommended if the design actions are

determined by a complicated structural analysis (e.g. finite elements). Using the average safety

factors you can avoid another analysis applying characteristic loads without partial safety factors.

53

If you have chosen the option exact, enter the characteristic (service) moment of strengthened

state MSkf. Use the load combination applicable for the proof of the service limit state. For

statically indeterminated systems you may have to add the secondary moment from

prestressing Mp' (s. chap. 18.10).

If the member is subjected to an external axial force, enter the characteristic axial force NSkf.

If you have chosen the option approximate, enter an average partial safety factor M,m for

bending moments. The characteristic moment MSkf is then calculated with above-mentioned

equation from the design moment MSdf. The valid range for the average partial safety factors is 1.0

to 2.0 (1.35 to 1.5 according to Eurocode 2).

Is the member loaded with an axial force, also enter the average partial safety factor N,m.

54

18.12

The window FRP system shows the material properties of the CFRP laminates and sheets. The

displayed safety and reduction factors as well as the limited design strain are preselected according to

the guideline you have chosen in the window code.

Select the FRP product from the list. There are two types of prefabricated S&P FRP laminates

and one hand lay-up S&P C-Sheet in different grammages available.

For prefabricated laminates choose the type of bonding. While externally bonded laminates

provide a larger cross-sectional area, near surface mounted (slot-in) laminates show a higher

bond resistance (s. chap. 11).

Below the FRP material list the appropriate adhesive is mentioned. For some systems a selection

of different adhesives is available. S&P Resin 50 is used for pouring slots in negative moment

regions of slabs.

Depending on the chosen type of FRP the modulus of elasticity Efk, the tensile strength ffk and

the ultimate strain fu of the material will be displayed (s. chap. 7.4). For FRP linear-elastic

material behaviour is assumed.

The partial safety factor f depends on the guideline. The reduction factor for strain limit k

enables an additional reduction of the design strain limit f,limit (s. chap. 8.3).

For carbon sheets a reduction factor E for the characteristic modulus of elasticity is

recommended (s. chap. 14.2). The value is preselected to E = 1.2.

Some guidelines prescribe a strain limit f,limit for the design of FRP (s. chap. 8.1, 8.2).

note

You cannot modify the material properties of FRP. But you can change the preselected partial safety

and reduction factors by using the key button in the tool bar.

55

18.13

On the window FRP cross-section you are asked to choose the number and arrangement of the FRP

products. Observe the minimum and maximum spacing respectively. You can choose up to three

layers with different cross-sectional areas as well as different effective depths.

Before selecting the FRP cross-section, start the iteration either by clicking the calculation

button on the bottom right of the window or by clicking the calculator symbol in the toolbar. The

required FRP cross-sectional area will be calculated and displayed in the output window design

below.

note

To carry out the design calculation, in this window only the depth zf1 of the FRP layer 1 from the

top edge of the concrete member has to be given. As the design iteration can only determine the

cross-sectional area of one FRP layer (one unknown), FRP layers 2 and 3 are initially locked, but

they are enabled after the design calculation.

For each layer choose an FRP cross-section. The available selection depends on the chosen

FRP product in the window FRP System. For sheets the theoretical fibre thickness tf is given

and you can choose the width bf of the sheet. The delivery width of the sheet is preselected.

Enter the number of FRP plies nf lying on top of each other. One single ply is preselected. The

maximum is two plies of laminates or five plies of sheets.

For beams enter the number mf of FRP strips lying next to each other. The spacing sf of the strips

is calculated.

For slabs of a standard width (1 [m] or 12 [in]), enter the spacing sf of the strips. The number mf

of FRP strips lying next to each other is calculated. The limit spacing sf,max or sf,min respectively, is

calculated according to the German guidelines [2] [4] with following conditions (s. chap. 13):

sf,max

sf,max

sf,max

sf,min

=

=

=

=

5- times slab thickness

0,4- times cantilevering length

maximum size of aggregate 32 mm

56

For each layer the cross-sectional area Af is calculated. The total sum of FRP strips in one layer

is calculated from the number of plies lf multiplied by the number of strips nf.

For each layer determine the depth zf of the FRP reinforcement from the top edge of the concrete

member. To guarantee the position of the bonded FRP system in the tension zone, keep the limit

zf,min and zf,max respectively. The depth of the tension zone corresponds approximately to a fifth of

the member height.

The lateral distance ar of FRP strips to the edge of the member is only required for the

calculation of the bond force of near surface mounted laminates (s. chap. 11.4).

For all types of FRP keep the minimum distance ar,min (s. chap. 13).

tip

The program checks if the arrangement of FRP strips fits to the tension face of the member, taking

into consideration the lateral distance to the edge. A message will appear if the strengthening

does not fit.

note

After the determination of the required FRP cross-section the outstanding information can be given to

ensure the sufficient moment capacity of the strengthened member (s. chap. 18.14). All 3 FRP layers

are taken into account for the determination of the resisting moment in strengthened state.

57

18.14

After the design calculation the result window design will appear in the lower part of the user interface.

The chosen cross-sectional area of the FRP system can be compared to the required cross-sectional

area and the flexural capacity of the strengthened member is checked.

The required cross-sectional area A f,req is calculated based on the previously entered data. It

considers the imposed bending moment Mu of the strengthened state and the depth zf of FRP

layer 1 from the top edge of the member.

The provided cross-sectional area A f,prov is displayed. The total cross-sectional area results

from the sum of all three layers entered on the window FRP cross-section.

note

If you have entered several FRP layers with different depths zf, the bending moment proof can fail

in spite of sufficient cross-sectional area of FRP, because the required cross-sectional area only

considers the depth of FRP layer 1.

The design capacity of the strengthened section MRdf is determined by an additional iteration

taking into account the chosen cross-sectional area of FRP strengthening.

In the proof line the load capacity is compared to the imposed bending moment

tip

If the proof condition is met, the result fields will be highlighted in blue and you can access the

results of the service limit state and all additional proofs.

On the right side of the window MRd0 describes the design capacity of the unstrengthened

member, taking into account the partial safety factors for concrete and reinforcing steel. The

determination of the moment capacity considers the design value of the axial force NSdf.

MRk0 is the characteristic capacity of the unstrengthened member. The calculation is based on

characteristic strengths of the materials without partial safety factors. The determination of the

moment capacity considers the characteristic value of the axial force NSkf.

The degree of strengthening indicates the ratio between the applied design moment MSdf of

the strengthened state and the design resistance MRd0 of the unstrengthened section. According to

the German guidelines [2], [4] the degree of strengthening should not exceed 2.0 for externally

bonded FRP strips.

58

The program indicates the remaining global safety factor in case of loss of FRP

strengthening. The characteristic capacity of the unstrengthened section MRk0 will be determined

without any partial safety factors (c = s = 1.0). It is then compared to the imposed characteristic

(service) moment MSkf (s. chap. 6.2, 16)

59

18.15

The output window strains in ultimate limit state (ULS) shows the strain diagram as superposition of

the initial strain and an additional strain (s. chap.10.2). The strain diagram is displayed true to scale.

The left part of the window shows the strain distribution of the initial state resulting from the initial

bending moment MSk0 .

tip

Click the graphic and the strain diagram will be scaled up.

The right part of the window shows the strain profile at the ultimate limit state (ULS) considering

the required cross-sectional area of FRP strengthening Af,req .

The strain of the extreme compressive fibre c and the height of the compression zone x are

displayed.

p is the total strain of the prestressing steel including the initial strain due to prestressing.

The strains of the reinforcing steel and the strains of the FRP material are displayed as

and f respectively.

note

Positive values describe expansion of the material, negative values indicate compression.

The compressive force of the concrete as well as the forces of the steel reinforcement and the CFRP

strengthening can be determined using the corresponding strain of each material given by the

program. For the cross-sectional area of CFRP you should apply the required cross-sectional area

provided by the program in the design window. Then establish the sum of horizontal forces and the

sum of bending moments taking into account the imposed bending moment MSdf in strengthened state

(s. chap. 10.3).

60

18.16

The output window strain / stresses in service state (SLS) shows the strain diagram and the maximum

stresses of the different materials at service state. The strain diagram is displayed true to scale

The left part of the window presents the strain distribution at service limit state (SLS) as a result

of the characteristic load considering the provided cross-section of FRP Af,prov. The output of the

strain distribution at service state serves particularly to control steel strains, which should not

exceed the yielding point. Otherwise the program will give a warning and the selected FRP crosssection must be increased until no yielding of the reinforcement occurs at service state.

(s. chap. 10.4).

tip

The strain profile is displayed in the same scale as the strains in ultimate limit state. Click the

graphic and the strain diagram will be scaled up.

The strain of the extreme compressive fibre c and the height of the compression zone x are

displayed.

p is the total strain of the prestressing steel including the initial strain due to prestressing.

The strains of the reinforcing steel and the strains of the FRP material are displayed as

and f respectively.

The right part of the window shows the corresponding maximum stresses

materials at service state.

max

of the different

The maximum stresses are compared with the stress limits limit of Eurocode 2. They are

according to rare combination of loads. Limit values of other load combinations have to be proofed

separately.

note

If it is not necessary to check the stress limits (s. chap. 10.5), you can delete them by deselecting

the check box consider stress limits.

note

Positive values describe expansion of the material, negative values indicate compression.

61

18.17

The window FRP end anchorage enables you to carry out the required checking for bond anchorage

of the tensile force at the end of the FRP strips.

When strengthening a moment of span you have to choose the appropriate situation between the

options end support and interior support. The graphic schematically displays the situation at

support and the corresponding moment line.

For the bond check at an end support, enter the distance f between the end of the FRP strips

and the front edge of the support. To prevent delamination this distance shall not exceed 50 mm

(s. chap. 11.3).

Enter the distance ai between the theoretical support line and the support front.

Additionally the horizontal displacement of the tensile force line aL is given, which normally

corresponds to the average effective depth of the internal reinforcement and the external FRP

layer. (s. chap.11.3)

note

You can modify the proposed value by using the key button in the tool bar.

For externally bonded FRP systems, enter the concrete surface tensile strength fcsm. This value

has to be determined from several pull-off tests. The minimum value for prefabricated CFRP

laminates is 1.5 N/mm, for carbon sheets 1.0 N/mm. For the calculation of the bond force a

maximum of 3.0 N/mm should be considered (s. chap. 11.5).

Near surface mounted laminates consider the characteristic shear strength of the adhesive

This value is determined in

respect of the specific material

properties of the adhesive

(s.

chap.

11.4)

system.

K,k.

62

The bond check will be carried out at the point E as shown in the graphic. For the bond check at

an end support the program will calculate the distance xE from point E to the support axis. For

the bond check at an interior support the point E corresponds to the moment zero point. Now you

have to enter the distance xE, which results from the moment line you have determined prior to the

design of the FRP strengthening during the structural analysis (s. chap. 11.3).

For the bond check at an end support enter the corresponding design bending moment MSdf,E of

the strengthened state at point E. This value results from the moment line in strengthened state,

which has to be determined by structural analysis prior to the FRP design. For the bond check at

an interior support the point E is equivalent to the moment zero point and the program

automatically sets MSdf,E = 0.

The internal rebars at point E are only relevant for the anchorage at an end support. Specify

whether or not the bending reinforcement is curtailed. The program will calculate the forces at

point E considering the reduced reinforcement area entered in the window flexural reinforcement

at support. Otherwise the program will apply the area of reinforcement at midspan.

tip

If you click the button curtailed bending reinforcement, the window flexural reinforcement at

support will be opened. You can check the position and the cross-sectional area of reinforcement

at support. Use the button back below the graphic to return to the anchorage check.

After you have entered all required values, you can start the bond check either by clicking the

proof button on the bottom right of the window or by clicking the tick symbol in the tool bar.

63

18.18

On the left part of the result window FRP end anchorage the bond forces are compared. The right side

of the window gives further information about the bond length and the recommendations of the

German guidelines [2] [1] [4].

At point E the remaining tensile force of the FRP strips is called Ffd,E. It is determined iteratively

from the bending moment MSdf,E at point E. For the bond check at an interior support Ffd,E = 0 is

applies, since point E is the moment zero point.

Fbd,max indicates the design value of the maximum bond failure force at point E. This value

results from the material properties of the provided FRP product and the substrate strength of the

concrete and the shear strength of the adhesive respectively. For slabs additionally a reduction

factor of 1.2 is taken into account (s. chap. 11.1, 11.2, 11.5).

For the anchorage check of externally bonded FRP systems the bond length lbd,max related to the

maximum bond force Fbd,max is applied (s. chap. 11.1, 11.2). This value is calculated for each layer

of FRP strengthening depending on the chosen cross-section. The value lbd,max should always be

considered as the minimum bond length.

According to the German guidelines [2] Fehler! Verweisquelle konnte nicht gefunden

werden. in some cases is a higher bond length lb should be applied. For the anchorage at a

moment zero point a bond length of at least 1 m is recommended (s. chap.11.3).

The values fmax, fmin and f define the distance from the end of the FRP strips to the edge of the

support. They are calculated taking into account the appropriate bond length and enable you to

determine the position of the FRP strengthening and the required length. For underside

strengthening of beams and slabs, the distance f from the support front to the starting point of the

FRP strengthening should not exceed 50 mm. (s. chap.11.3)

note

The distance f may also be a negative value. In this case the FRP strengthening must be

extended beyond the support line. Additionally the field is highlighted in red colour.

Short information terms about the checking are displayed in the two text boxes at the bottom of

the window. If the end anchorage check is ok, the background of the bottom lines will be

highlighted in blue. A bond failure will be indicated by a red background and further information

how to improve the anchorage will be given.

64

18.19

The window anchorage at support enables you to enter the required data, to prove a sufficient

anchorage of the total bending reinforcement at support. This proof is only necessary for

strengthening of a positive moment (moment of span).

Choose direct or indirect support by clicking the option field. The illustrated graphic

schematically shows the selected support condition.

For indirect support the calculation considers the distance ai between the theoretical support

line and the support front. This value is copied from the input window FRP end anchorage

(s. chap. 0).

For prefabricated laminates at a direct support, additionally choose the type of bonding at the

end of the laminates. Slot-in laminate ends must be completely surrounded by adhesive in a

narrow slot (s. chap. 12).

The concrete surface tensile strength fcsm is required for the calculation of an externally bonded

FRP strengthening. This value is taken from the window FRP end anchorage (s. chap. 0).

Enter the design shear force at support VSdf,A.

Enter the design axial force at support NSdf,A.

To check the given reinforcement at support click the corresponding button at the bottom of the

window. The window reinforcement at support will be opened. Use the button back below the

graphic to return to the anchorage check.

After you have entered all required values, you can start the anchorage check either by clicking

the proof button on the bottom right of the window or by clicking the tick symbol in the tool bar.

65

18.20

The left part of the window anchorage of flexural reinforcement at support shows the different bond

forces. On the right part of the window you can enter the bond length for each strengthening layer at

support. The anchorage at support is schematically represented in the graphic of the input window.

According to Eurocode 2 a specific part of the bending tensile force has to be anchored at support.

This is the total required tension force FA,erf (s. chap. 12).

The part of the tensile force Fs,A already covered by the internal reinforcement is calculated in

dependence of the rebar diameter ds and bond length ls,A entered in the window rebars at support

(s. chap. 12)

Ff,A,req is the additionally required anchorage force at support. This value is the difference of

FA,req and Fs,A and must be covered by FRP.

Below, the provided anchorage force Ff,A,prov is compared to the required FRP reinforcement at

support. This value depends on the provided bond length lf,A entered on the right part of the

window.

In the check line at the bottom left of the window, the provided and the required anchorage force

are compared.

note

If the anchorage check is ok, the background of the bottom lines will be highlighted in blue. An

anchorage failure will be indicated by a red background.

On the right side of the output window enter the bond length lf,A of each strengthening layer

measured from the support front.

For each strengthening layer, the bond force Ffd,A at support is calculated depending on the given

bond length. The sum of these forces is displayed on the left side of the window in the field Ff,A,prov.

For information the maximum design bond force Fbd,max as well as the maximum bond length

lbd,max are displayed (s. chap. 11.1, 11.2).

Short information terms about the anchorage of FRP are displayed in the right text box at the

bottom of the window. If the flexural strengthening can end in front of the support the background

of the text box is highlighted in blue.

66

18.21

In the window shear reinforcement and loads you enter the existing internal shear reinforcement as

well as the imposed loads at strengthened state.

For beams and T-beams enter the cross-sectional area of the internal stirrups asw per meter.

tip

Click the button table and an additional window will appear. Here you can select from a table of

rebar diameters the cross-sectional area of double-shear stirrups per meter and you can take over

the selected value.

Choose the steel grade of the existing shear reinforcement from the list. The list shows the two

grades of reinforcing steel defined in the window steel. For unclassified steel grades the defined

yield strength will be displayed. The field next to the list shows the appropriate yield strength fyk.

Specify whether or not the bending reinforcement is curtailed. The program will calculate the

reinforcement ratio of the longitudinal internal rebars considering the reduced reinforcement

entered in the window flexural reinforcement at support. Otherwise the program will calculate the

reinforcement ratio at midspan. The longitudinal reinforcement ratio is needed to evaluate VRd1.

tip

If you click the button curtailed bending reinforcement, the window flexural reinforcement at

support will be opened. You can check the position and the cross-sectional area of reinforcement

at support. Use the button back below the graphic to return to the shear check.

Enter the design shear force VSdf in strengthened state at the point X. According to Eurocode 2

you can evaluate VSdf at the distance d (effective depth of reinforcement) from the front of a direct

support on beams with continuously distributed loading.

Determine the axial force NSdf,X at the same position X. An axial compressive force increases the

shear capacity of the concrete.

The bending moment MSdf,X is needed to determine the lever z of the internal forces.

67

18.22

In the window shear strengthening the material properties of the strengthening material are defined.

You can choose between S&P C-Sheets and steel plates.

Select the shear strengthening material from the list. According to your choice, input fields for

the material parameters will appear.

Below the FRP material list the appropriate adhesive is mentioned.

Enter the appropriate modulus of elasticity Es of the structural steel. For C-Sheets 640 the

characteristic modulus of elasticity Efk is a fixed value.

Enter the characteristic strength fyk according to the structural steel you want to apply. For CSheets 640 the characteristic strength ffk is a fixed value.

For carbon sheets the ultimate strain fu of the fibres is shown. The ultimate limit strain of the

steel is not relevant for the shear design.

For steel plates as additional shear reinforcement the partial safety factor s is preselected to

s = 1.15. It is the same value as for reinforcing steel which is also used for internal stirrup

reinforcement.

For the design of hand lay-up carbon sheets a reduction factor E for the modulus of elasticity is

recommended (s. chap. 14.2). The value is preselected to 1.2. The factor takes into account the

softening effects of the hand lay-up on construction site.

According to [1] the design will be carried out with a strain limit limit of 0.2 %. (s. chap. 14.2)

After you have entered all required data, you can start the shear check either by clicking the

proof button on the bottom right of the window or by clicking the tick symbol in the tool bar.

note

You cannot modify the material properties of FRP. But you can change the preselected partial safety

and reduction factors by using the key button in the tool bar.

68

18.23

The calculation of the shear capacity is derived from the standard method described in Eurocode 2

assuming vertical stirrups and a compression strut inclination of 45. On the left part of the result

window shear, the imposed shear force is compared to the design values of the shear capacity. The

right part of the result window shear shows the required additional shear reinforcement and gives the

recommendation for the anchorage of the external shear reinforcement.

The recommended maximum shear resistance Vmax shall not exceed 50 % of the shear capacity

VRd2 corresponding to the failure of the concrete compression struts (s. chap. 14.1).

The shear resistance provided just by concrete VRd1 is calculated taking into account the

design shear strength Rd and the longitudinal reinforcement ratio. In case the imposed shear

force is inferior to this value, shear strengthening is not necessary (s. chap. 14.1).

The shear capacity of the section with internal shear reinforcement VRd3 indicates whether

external shear strengthening is required or not to cover the whole imposed shear force. If the

imposed shear force VSdf does not exceed the shear capacity VRd3 of the unstrengthened crosssection, additional shear reinforcement is only needed to link the flexural strengthening with the

internal stirrups. In this case the external shear reinforcement has not to be anchored in the

compression zone (s. chap. 14.1).

The proof conditions of the shear check are displayed in the left bottom line

note

If the shear check is ok, the background of the bottom line will be highlighted blue. If the shear

force exceeds the maximum permissible value the line will change to red.

Choose the thickness tw of the additional external stirrups. If you apply carbon sheets you can

choose up to 5 layers.

Decide the width bw of the additional external stirrups. Select a value from the list or enter a value

into the field.

The cross-sectional area Aw of one stirrup leg is calculated and shown in the field next to the list.

Enter the spacing sw of the additional external stirrups. The maximum spacing sw,max is

displayed below (s. chap. 14.2).

69

The provided cross-sectional area aw,prov of the additional shear reinforcement is calculated per

meter. As the shear strengthening is usually attached to both sides of the web, the dimensioning

of the external strap binder considers two-leg stirrups.

The required cross-sectional area aw,req is compared to the selected shear strengthening

(s. chap. 14.2).

The right bottom line of the window gives additional recommendations for the anchorage of the

external shear strengthening. If the external stirrups have to be anchored in the compression

zone, you can use the height of the compression zone x shown in the output window strains in

ultimate limit state as a reference.

note

If shear strengthening is necessary, the bottom line will be highlighted in red. If no external shear

strengthening is required, it will be highlighted in blue.

18.24

If an external shear strengthening is required, the anchorage of the additional stirrups in the

compression zone or the adhesive bond on the side of the web has to be proved. The left part of the

result window shows the tensile force of the external stirrups, the right part displays the bond force of

the adhesive bond. The right part of the output window is only enabled if an adhesive bond anchorage

is admissible.

The shear resistance of shear strengthening Vwd is the difference of VSdf and VRd3 of the

previous window or a minimum value according to the German guidelines [2] [1] [4] (s. chap.

14.1).

The calculation considers two-leg stirrups (both sides of the web). The tensile force of one

stirrup leg Fwd is shown (s. chap. 14.3).

Additionally the tension force per meter fwd is displayed. This value is related to one side of the

web.

The left bottom line of the window gives additional recommendations for the anchorage of the

external shear strengthening.

70

On the right part of the window the bond length lbw of the additional external stirrups has to be

entered as shown in the graphic of the corresponding input window shear strengthening.

According to the German guidelines [2] [4] the bond length should tally with the height of the

web. (s. chap. 14.3). The appropriate value is preselected.

note

This value can be modified using the key button in the toolbar.

The program calculates the design bond force Fbd of the adhesive bond, applying the properties

of the external stirrups and the concrete surface. According to the German guideline [2] the

calculation only considers half of the adhesive length lbw (s. chap. 14.3).

The maximum bond force Fbd,max as well as the related bond length lbd,max are displayed

(s. chap. 11.1, 11.2).

In the right bottom line the tensile force to be anchored is compared to the bond force. According

to the German guideline [2][1] only half of the bond force is allowed to be considered (s. chap.

14.3).

note

If the check is ok, the background of the results and the bottom line will be highlighted in blue,

otherwise it will change to red.

71

19.1

Menu File

open

Open an existing data file or search for a file. The windows dialogue open is displayed. Select the

folder where the required data file is located.

save

Save the opened data file using the existing file name. If no file is opened the menu save as will

be called.

save as

Save entered data by indicating a file name, the folder and the drive.

print

Print the currently displayed input data and results. If no calculation has been carried out yet, only

the pages containing the input data will be printed. The windows dialogue print is called. You have

the possibility to select and print each page individually.

end

Terminate the program FRP Lamella and close the program window. If you made changes in the

opened data file, a corresponding inquiry appears which enables you to save those changes.

last files

A list of the last 4 files you have been working on is displayed in the lower part of the menu

window. It is possible to call one of these files by a simple mouse click.

Menu Calculation

dimensioning

Starts the FRP design, after you have entered all relevant values required for the calculation or

after opening an input data file.

strains

After you have selected the required FRP cross-section, you can control the strain distributions at

ultimate limit state and at service state.

anchorage

Once you carried out a flexural strengthening design, you can move to the check of the anchorage

with this menu level. When all required data is entered, you can start the calculation using the

submenu proof.

shear

Once you carried out a flexural strengthening design, you can move to the shear check with this

menu level. When all required data is entered, you can start the calculation using the submenu

proof.

Menu Extras

company letterhead

Displays a window where you can enter and save the name and address of your company. This

information will appear in the head line of the program printout. It will still be available at the next

program start. The default name and address is S&P Clever Reinforcement Company.

72

always on top

If you are working on several windows at the same time, you can predefine that FRP Lamella

should always appear in the foreground. A tick symbol next to this menu level indicates the current

state of this option.

Menu Info

info

Indicates the number of the program version as well as the name of the program authors and

information about your computer and your operating system.

contact

Shows the address of S&P Clever Reinforcement Company, Switzerland.

?

Opens the FRP Lamella online help function (not available yet).

73

19.2

new: Delete the results and clear the input data fields. The program automatically switches to

the first window.

open : Open an existing data file or search for a file. The windows dialogue open is displayed.

Select the folder where the required data file is located.

save : Save the open data file using the existing file name. If no file is opened the menu save as

will be called.

print: Print the currently displayed input data and results. If no calculation has been carried out

yet, only the first page with the input data will be printed. The windows dialogue print is called.

You have the possibility to select and print each page individually.

unlock: Modify the preselected values. Attention: when you change the preselected values,

the calculation is no longer based on the chosen design code and guideline.

calculate: Start the FRP design, after you have entered all relevant values required for the

calculation or after opening an input data file.

stop iteration: Stop the running iteration. A dialog box opens to ask again if you really want to

stop the calculation.

checkings: Carry out the checkings for anchorage and shear. This button is only enabled after

the design of the flexural strengthening.

info: Indicates the number of the program version as well as the name of the program authors

and information about your computer and your operating system.

contact: Shows the address of S&P Clever Reinforcement Company, Switzerland

help: Opens the FRP Lamella online help function (not available yet).

74

Make sure that you are provided with administrative rights under Windows NT or Windows 2000 and

close all current applications. Uninstall older versions of FRP Lamella (Start >> Settings >> Operating

system >> Software >> FRP Lamella >> Delete)

Insert the CD in your CD-ROM drive. Click Start, then select Execute.

Enter the following under Open : D:\SETUP\SETUP.EXE

(when the letter D corresponds to your CD-ROM drive)

Welcome: Click Next.

Select Installation Folder: Click Next to install FRP Lamella in the indicated folder or Browse to choose

or create another folder.

Confirm Installation: Click Next to start the installation.

Installation complete: Click Close.

Installation of the required components

FRP Lamella requires special Microsoft components to be perfectly installed on your Windows

operating system. The FRP Lamella installation routine searches for those components in your

system. In case these components do not exist you will get an error message and the FRP Lamella

installation will abort.

Components:

Microsoft Data Access Component 2.5:

Mdac_typ.exe

Database Communication:

DCOM95 fr Windows 95

DCOM98 fr Windows 98

The required data can be found in the components folder of the CD-Rom. It is possible for you to

download the Data Access Components SDK Version 2.5 (Mdac_typ.exe) file in any language from

http://www.microsoft.com/downloads.

To install these files:

1.

Insert the FRP Lamella CD in your CD-ROM drive. Double click Windows-Explorer.

Double click the FRP Lamella directory, then the components folder. You will see three files: Dcom95,

Dcom98 and Mdac_typ

Double click the required file to execute it:

Once the required components have been installed on your operating system, restart the FRP Lamella

installation.

75

DESIGN EXAMPLE

For the T-beam shown in fig. 2 an increase of live loads from 17.5 kN/m to 50 kN/m is planed.

pk,new = 50 kN/m

pk,old = 17.5 kN/m

gk = 35 kN/m

10 m

Fig. 1: Idealised structure and loads

2000

180

2 16

8 / 200

900 720

2 28

5 28

45

50

C 20/25

S 500

600

Fig. 2: Cross-section of unstrengthened state

As1

As2

As3

Asw

=

=

=

=

3080 [mm]

1230 [mm]

402 [mm]

502 [mm]

concrete:

reinforcing steel:

FRP laminate:

external stirrups:

(bottom)

(bottom)

(top)

(stirrups)

C 20/25

S 500 (swiss)

S&P CFK 150/2000

S&P C-Sheet 640

adhesive:

adhesive:

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

S&P Resin 55

3. Imposed moments

initial strain state

gk = 35 kN/m

10 m

Fig. 3: Load and internal moments of initial strain state

During the application of the FRP strengthening only the dead load of the T-beam and the slab

have an effect on the cross-section. The resulting bending moment in service state leads to an

initial state of strain that has to be considered in the design.

strengthened state

1.5 p = 75 kN/m

10 m

xE

611 kN

xE = 0.87 m

611 kN

MSdf,E = 483 kNm

Fig. 4: Loads and internal moments of strengthened state

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

For the design of the FRP strengthening the bending moments of ultimate limit state and service

state can be determined using a structural analysis program or by a hand calculation.

Considering the partial safety factors for actions, the maximum design moment amounts to

MSdf = 1528 [kNm].

The maximum bending moment in service state results to

MSkf = 1062.5 [kNm].

4. Design

flexural resistance of the unstrengthened cross-section:

MRd0 = 1376.5 [kNm]

imposed design moment in strengthened state (see above):

MSdf = 1528 [kNm]

strengthening ratio:

= MSdf / MRd0 = 1528 / 1376.5 = 1.11 [-]

remaining global safety in case of loss of the FRP strengthening:

required cross-sectional area of FRP strengthening:

Af,req = 166 [mm]

Two prefabricated laminates of type CFK 150/2000 are chosen.

number = 2

cross-section:

bf / tf = 80 / 1.2 [mm/mm]

>

>

design ok !

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

6. Strain profiles

Ultimate limit state

In ultimate limit state the FRP material reaches its strain limit. Due to the high strain of the FRP

strengthening and the internal steel reinforcement the ductility of the member is ensured.

f = 7.5 [] = f,limit

s = 7.674 [] >> sy = 2.3 []

However, the compression zone is not stressed up to the limit

c = 1.543 [] < cu = 3.5 []

service limit state

To avoid uncontrollable high deformations in service state, it must be ensured that the internal

steel reinforcement does not yield under characteristic loads.

s = 1.584 [] > 2.3 [] = sy

strain check ok !

7. Stresses

If the design and detailing rules given in EC 2 to restrict concrete and steel stresses in service

state are not satisfied, the following stress limits for the rare combination of loads are valid:

c,limit = 0.6 fck = 0.6 20 = 12 [N/mm]

s,limit = 0.8 fyk = 0.8 460 = 368 [N/mm]

c,max = 6.83 [N/mm] < 12 [N/mm] = c,limit

s,max = 316.89 [N/mm] < 368 [N/mm] = s,limit

stress check ok !

stress check ok !

geometry of support:

f

ai

aL

=

=

=

50

150

408

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

distance from support axis to edge of support

horizontal displacement of tensile force line

The mimimum value of the substrate strength is assumed. This value must be proved by

sampling on site.

f

1,5

f csd = csm

c = 1,5 = 1,0

[N / mm ]

The maximum bond force and the required bond length can be derived from the formulas given

in the German guideline. The modified coefficients result from the adaption to the partial safety

factor concept of EC 2.

lbd,max = 0.58

Ef t f

= 0.58 164000 1.2 = 257.3 [mm]

1.0

f csd

Fbd,max = 0.5 b f k b k T E f t f f ctd = 0.5 2 80 1.179 1 164000 1.2 1.0 = 41859 [N] = 41.86 [kN]

k b = 1.06

2 bf / bw

= 1.06 2 2 80 / 600 = 1.179

1 + b f / 400

1 + 2 80 / 400

The anchorage check is carried out in point E, which is determined from the geometry of

support and the bond length of Fbd.

xE = ai + f + lbd,max + aL = 150 + 50 + 257 + 408 = 865 [mm]

Considering a distance xE = 0.865 m and a reaction at support of A = 611 kN the bending

moment in point E in ultimate limit state amounts to:

MSdf,E = 483 [kNm]

The strain of the FRP strips in point E is determined by iteration of the static equilibrium and the

resulting force of the FRP strips is calculated.

f,E = 0.7729

(determined by iteration)

Fbd,max = 41.86 [kN]

>

anchorage check ok !

If the bending reinforcement is curtailed, so that only an area of 30.8 cm is retained near the

support, the resulting tensile forces of the FRP strips are higher.

f = 1.0159 []

(determined by iteration)

Fbd,max = 41.86 [kN]

>

bond check ok !

According to EC 2 at least 25 % of the bottom reinforcement has to be retained over the

support. Additionally, the anchorage of the reinforcement should be capable of resisting the

tensile force FsR.

The total tensile force at midspan amounts to:

Fmax = 1928.4 [kN]

(determined by iteration)

25 % Fmax = 25 % 1928.4 = 482.1 [kN]

decisive

The tensile force of the reinforcement is calculated from the design shear and axial force as

follows:

FsR = VSdf,A (aL / dm) + NSdf,A = 611 (408 / 848) + 0 = 293.98 [kN]

Ferf,A = 482.1 [kN]

The proportion of the tensile force covered by the internal reinforcement is calculated from the

surface shell of the rebar and the bond stress fbd.

fbd = 2.32 [N/mm]

Due to the high lateral pressure in a direct support, the bond strength is increased by the factor

3/2 according to EC 2.

Fs,A = ls,A (4 As / ds) fbd 3/2 = 40 (4 30.8 / 2.8) 0.232 3/2 = 612.73 [kN]

Fs,A = 612.7 [kN]

>

anchorage check ok !

The internal reinforcement ensures a sufficient anchorage at the support. An extension of the

FRP strengthening beyond the support line is consequently not required and the FRP strips can

be cut-off at most 50 mm in front of the support front.

The design shear force is assumed at a distace dm from the edge of support according to EC 2:

xX = ai + dm = 150 + (900 + 850) / 2 = 1025 [mm]

VSdf,X = 486.0 [kN]

MSdf,X = 562.0 [kNm]

(from structural analysis)

The program uses the exact lever arms of the internal forces, which are iteratively determined

from the given moment in point X.

zs = ds ac = 837.8 72.7 = 765.1 [mm]

zf = df ac = 900 72.7 = 827.3 [mm]

zm = 768.2 [mm]

dm = 840.2 [mm]

The maximum shear resistance amounts to 0.5 VRd2. This value corresponds to the limit given

in the German guideline.

f

VRd2 = 0.5 fcd b w z m = 0.5 0.6 20 600 768.2 = 1843.7 [kN]

with = 0.7 ck = 0.6

200

1.5

Vmax = 0.5 VRd2 = 0.5 1843.7 = 921.8 [kN]

VSdf = 486.0 [kN]

<

shear check ok !

The part of the shear force transmitted by the concrete alone can be derived from the following

equations:

VRd1 = Rd k (1.2 + 40 1 ) b w dm

1 =

A sl

= 3080 + 1230 = 0.00858

b w ds

600 837

>

Considering the existing internal stirrups the cross-section can transfer the shear force VRd3,

which is the sum of the concrete shear capacity and the resistance of the stirrups.

1.15

VRd3 = VRd1 + Vwd = 202.2 + 153.9 = 356.2 [kN]

zone required

The shear strengthening is designed for the remaining shear force proportion V, however the

value given in the German guideline is assumed as minimum.

Vmin =

1

VSdf = 1.11 1 486 = 48.16 [kN]

1.11

>

Vmin

The strain in the cross-section is limited to limit = 0.2 % to ensure an even deformation of the

cross-section and to avoid shear offset.

The lower stiffness of the sheets due to manual lamination on-site is considered by the

reduction factor E = 1.2 for the modulus of elasticity.

E fd =

E fk 640000

=

= 533333 [N / mm ]

E

1.2

fw = lim it E fd = 0.002 533333 = 1066 .67 [N / mm ]

The theoretical fibre section of the required shear strengthening is determined as follows:

a w,req =

129800

V =

= 0.147 [mm / mm ] = 147 [mm / m]

fw z f 1066 .67 827

Carbon sheets of 300 mm width are selected (delivery width). To achieve the required crosssection, single-ply FRP stirrups are chosen. Each leg of a stirrup provides the following crosssectional area:

Aw = tf bf = 1 0.19 300 = 57 [mm]

For two-leg stirrups with a spacing of sw = 700 mm the resulting cross-sectional area per

running meter results to:

aw,prov = 2 Aw 1 m / sw = 2 57 1000 / 700 = 163 [mm/m]

The maximum spacing comes to:

sw,max = 0.8 h0 = 0.8 900 = 720 [mm]

aw,prov = 163 [mm/m] > aw,req = 147 [mm/m]

shear design ok !

As the internal shear reinforcement is not sufficient to transfer the imposed shear force, the

external FRP stirrups have to be anchored in the concrete compression zone.

The tensile force of the stirrups to be anchored on one side of the web per running meter

amounts to:

f wd = 0.5

Vwd

= 0.5 129 .8 = 78.44 [kN / m]

zf

0.8273

Fwd = f wd s w = 78.44 0.7 = 54.91 [kN]

curtailed bending reinforcement

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

If the bending reinforcement is curtailed, so that only an area of 3080 mm is retained near the

support, this must be considered in the calculation of VRd1

1 =

A sl

= 3080 = 0.00604

b w d s 600 850

VRd1 = 0.26 1 (1.2 + 40 0.00604 ) 600 852 .6 = 191 .7 [kN]

VRd3 = VRd1 + Vwd = 191.7 + 157.8 = 349.5 [kN]

>

Vmin

The theoretical fibre section of the required shear strengthening then amounts to:

aw,req = 153 [mm/m]

The same shear strengthening as before is sufficient.

aw,prov = 163 [mm/m] > aw,req = 153 [mm/m]

shear design ok !

As the internal shear reinforcement is not sufficient to transfer the imposed shear force, the

external FRP stirrups have to be anchored in the concrete compression zone.

The tensile force of the stirrups to be anchored on one side of the web per running meter

amounts to:

f wd = 0.5

Vwd

= 0.5 136 .51 = 81.83 [kN / m]

zf

0.8341

Fwd = f wd s w = 81.83 0.7 = 57.28 [kN]

DESIGN EXAMPLE

For the floor slab shown in fig. 2 an increase of live loads from 3.5 kN/m to 7.5 kN/m is planed.

qk = gk + pk = 12.5 kN/m

pk,old = 3.5 kN/m

gk = 5 kN/m

5m

5m

1000

R 589

200

R 513

C 20/25

S 500

bottom reinforcement:

top reinforcement:

As1

As2

concrete:

reinforcing steel:

FRP laminate:

adhesive:

C 20/25

S 500

S&P CFK 150/2000

S&P Resin 220

=

=

513 [mm]

589 [mm]

3. Imposed moments

(at time of application of the FRP strengthening)

gk = 5 kN/m

5m

5m

Fig. 3: Load and internal moments of initial strain state

During the application of the FRP strengthening only the dead load of the slab acts on the

cross-section. The resulting bending moment in service state leads to an initial state of strain

that has to be considered in the design.

strengthened state

qd = gd + pd = 18 kN/m

5m

5m

MSdf,support = 41.4 kNm/m

xE

xE = 0.54 m

MSdf,span = 38.6 kNm/m

Fig. 4: Loads and internal moments of strengthened state

For the design of the FRP strengthening the bending moments of ultimate limit state and service

state can be determined using a structural analysis program or by a hand calculation.

Considering the partial safety factors for actions, the maximum design moments at midspan and

at the middle support amount to:

MSdf,span = 38.6 [kNm]

MSdf,support = 41.4 [kNm].

The maximum bending moments in service state result to

MSkf,span = 24.9 [kNm]

MSkf,support = 28.75 [kNm].

4. Design for the moment of span

flexural resistance of the unstrengthened cross-section:

MRd0 = 30.9 [kNm]

imposed design moment in strengthened state (see above):

MSdf = 38.6 [kNm]

strengthening ratio:

= MSdf / MRd0 = 38.6 / 30.9 = 1.25 [-]

remaining global safety in case of loss of the FRP strengthening:

= MRk0 / MSkf = 36.0 / 24.9 = 1.45 [-]

required cross-sectional area of FRP strengthening:

Af,req = 37 [mm/m]

Prefabricated laminates of type CFK 150/2000 with a spacing of 800 mm are chosen

cross-section:

bf / tf = 80 / 1.2 [mm/mm]

spacing:

sf = 800 [mm]

smax = 0.2 time span

= 0.2 5000 = 1000 [mm]

smax = 5 time slab thickness = 5 200 = 1000 [mm]

Af,prov = 75 [mm/m]

MRdf = 46.9 [kNm ]

>

>

37 [mm/m] = Af,req

38.6 [kNm] = MSdf

design ok !

flexural resistance of the unstrengthened cross-section:

MRd0 = 35.2 [kNm]

imposed design moment in strengthened state (see above):

MSdf = 41.4 [kNm]

strengthening ratio:

= MSdf / MRd0 = 41.4 / 35.2 = 1.18 [-]

remaining global safety in case of loss of the FRP strengthening:

= MRk0 / MSkf = 41.1 / 28.8 = 1.43 [-]

required cross-sectional area of FRP strengthening:

Af,req = 30 [mm/m]

The same type of prefabricated laminates CFK 150/2000 with a spacing of 1 m is chosen.

cross-section:

bf / tf = 50 / 1.2 [mm/mm]

spacing:

sf = 1000 [mm]

smax = 0.2 time span

= 0.2 5000 = 1000 [mm]

smax = 5 time slab thickness = 5 200 = 1000 [mm]

Af,prov = 60 [mm/m]

MRdf = 47.8 [kNm ]

>

>

Af,req = 30 [mm/m]

41.4 [kNm] = MSdf

design ok !

2830

780

xE = 505

37.3 kN/m

geometry of support:

f

ai

aL

=

=

=

30

[mm]

80

[mm]

172.4 [mm]

distance from support axis to edge of support

horizontal displacement of tensile force line (aL = dm EC 2)

In this case the mimimum value of the substrate strength is not sufficient. A greater value is

assumed. This value must be proved by sampling on site.

f

2 .0

f csd = csm

c = 1.5 = 1.33 [N / mm ]

The maximum bond force and the required bond length can be derived from the formulas given

in the German guideline. The modified coefficients result from the adaption to the partial safety

concept of EC 2.

fcsm

lbd,max = 0.58

2.0

[N/mm]

Ef t f

= 0.58 164000 1.2 = 222.9 [mm]

1.33

f csd

1.2

= 0.5 1000 50 1.391 1 164000 1.2 1.33 = 18556 [N] = 18.56 [kN]

1.2 800

2 bf / sf

= 1.06 2 50 / 800 = 1.391

k b = 1.06

1 + b f / 400

1 + 50 / 400

The anchorage check is carried out in point E, which is determined from the geometry of

support and the bond length of Fbd.

xE = ai + f + lbd,max + aL = 80 + 30 + 222.9 + 172.4 = 505.3 [mm]

Considering a distance xE = 0.505 m the bending moment in point E in ultimate limit state

amounts to:

MSdf,E = 16.8 [kNm]

The strain of the FRP strips in point E is determined by iteration of the static equilibrium and the

resulting force of the FRP strips is calculated.

f,E = 0.1656 [%]

(determined by iteration)

Fbd,max = 18.56 [kN]

>

anchorage check ok !

At the intermediate support the anchorage length of the bottom laminates is measured from the

zero point of the horizontally displaced moment line. According to the German guidelines the

distance between the laminates' end and the support front should not exceed 50 mm.

geometry of support:

xE

ai

aL

=

=

=

780

[mm]

120

[mm]

172.4 [mm]

distance from support axis to edge of support

horizontal displacement of tensile force line (aL = dm EC 2)

design anchorage length (see above)

maximum distance between the end of laminate and the support front:

fmax = xE - ai - lbd,max- aL = 780 12 222.9 172.4 = 264.7 [mm]

according to the guideline:

f = 50 [mm]

At the intermediate support the anchorage length of the top laminates is measured from the

zero point of the horizontally displaced moment line. According to the German guidelines the

minimum anchorage length is 1 m.

geometry of support:

xE

ai

aL

=

=

=

2380

[mm]

120

[mm]

169.5 [mm]

distance from support axis to edge of support

horizontal displacement of tensile force line (aL = dm EC 2)

minimum distance between the end of laminate and the support front:

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

according to the guideline:

f = xE + aL + lb - ai = 2830 + 169.5 + 1000 - 120 = 3879.5 [mm]

Bottom reinforcement at the end support

According to EC 2 at least 25 % of the bottom reinforcement has to be retained over the

support. Additionally, the anchorage of the reinforcement should be capable of resisting the

tensile force FsR.

The total tensile force at midspan amounts to:

Fmax = 500.68 [kN]

(determined by iteration)

25 % Fmax = 25 % 500.68 = 125.17 [kN]

decisive

The tensile force of the reinforcement is calculated from the design shear and axial force as

follows:

FsR = VSdf,A (aL / dm) + NSdf,A = 37.8 (172.4 / 172.4) + 0 = 37.8 [kN]

Freq,A = 125.17 [kN]

The proportion of the tensile force covered by the internal reinforcement is calculated from the

surface shell of the rebar and the bond stress fbd.

fbd = 2.32 [N/mm]

Due to the high lateral pressure in a direct support, the bond strength is increased by the factor

3/2 according to EC 2.

Fs,A = ls,A (4 As / ds) fbd 3/2 = 100 (4 513 / 6.5) 2.32 3/2 = 109.91 [kN]

The required additional anchorage force, that has to be covered by the FRP reinforcement

results to:

Freq,A = Freq,A Fs,A = 123.14 109.91 = 15.27 [kN]

The FRP strengthening must be anchored beyond the support front. At each position of a

laminate one brick is of the supporting wall is taken out. The end of the laminates is assumed as

externally bonded. The required anchorage length is determined by trial and error.

lf,A 130 [mm]

bow ingenieure gmbh breite strae 15 D - 38100 braunschweig fon +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 0 fax +49 (0)531 / 2 43 59 - 51

Ff ,A = Fbd,max

lb

l bd,max

>

l

2 b

lbd,max

223

223

anchorage check ok !

According to EC 2 at intermediate supports the same conditions as for end supports are valid.

The calculation of required anchorage forces is presented above.

As the internal bottom reinforcement is continuous, the bars are anchored up to the yield

strength with the basic anchorage length lb.

l s,A lb =

= 186.8 [mm]

4 fbd

4 2.32 3 / 2

The proportion of the tensile force covered by the internal reinforcement is calculated from the

cross-sectional area and the yield strength:

Fs,A = As fyd = 513 460/1.15 = 205.2 [kN]

Fs,A = 205.2 [kN]

>

anchorage check ok !

The internal reinforcement ensures a sufficient anchorage at the support. An extension of the

FRP strengthening beyond the support line is consequently not required and the FRP strips can

be cut-off at most 50 mm in front of the support front.

The design shear force is assumed at a distace dm from the edge of support according to EC 2.

In this case the shear force near the intermediate support is decisive.

xX = ai + dm = 120 + 164 = 284 [mm]

VSdf,X = 51.94 [kN]

MSdf,X = 15.48 [kN]

(from structural analysis)

The part of the shear force transmitted by the concrete alone results to:

VRd1 = Rd k (1,. + 40 1 ) b w dm

1 =

A sl

589

=

= 0.00368

b w d s 1000 160

VSdf = 51.94 [kN]

<

shear check ok !

The shear force does not exceed the limit of EC 2given for slabs without shear reinforcement.

DESIGN EXAMPLE

The superstructure of a three-span footbridge required bottom strengthening at the end spans.

The T-beam is prestressed with 5 parabolic tendons. The internal forces from the structural

analysis are given.

3000

175

850 770

C 35/45

SSt 1420/1570

850

5 stranded tendons

Ap

Ac

zcg

=

=

1'098'750 [mm]

309 [mm]

concrete:

prestressing steel:

FRP laminate:

adhesive:

Woben =

Wunten =

234'762'516 [mm]

134'380'281 [mm]

C 35/45

SSt 1420/1570

S&P CFK 150/2000

S&P Resin 220

3. Internal forces

The bending moments of ultimate limit state and service state are determined using a structural

analysis program. The maximum characteristic values of the end span moment are given below:

dead load + additional load (surfacing):

live load:

4. Prestress

To consider the prestress of the cross-section you have to give the pre-strain of each layer of

prestressing steel. The admissible stress results from the admissible prestressing force of each

tendon:

The loss of friction (ca. 10 %) as well as creep and shrinkage (ca. 15 %) are considered:

Subsequently the pre-strain of the tendons is determined and to be entered in the software:

The program calculates the entire prestressing force:

PSk0 = 3'649.52 [kN]

The pre-strain of the tendons already considers the prestressing force and the statically

determinated part of the prestressing moment, calculated from the prestressing force and the

lever arm of each tendon.

Mp0 = PSk0 (zp zcg) = 3'649.52 (0.77 0.3094) = 1'680.8 [kNm]

The secondary moment of prestress, resulting from the statically undeterminated supporting is

not included. It always has to be added to the imposed moments.

Mp' = Mpk Mp0 = 1'266.8 (1'680.8) = 414 [kNm]

5. Imposed moments

initial strain state

During the application of the FRP strengthening only the dead loads of the cross-section and

the surfacing act on the cross-section. The resulting bending moment in service state leads to

an initial state of strain that has to be considered in the design. The secondary moment from

prestressing has to be added.

MSk0 = Mgk + Mp' = 1'637.5 + 414 = 2'051.5 [kNm]

As the cross-section is prestressed, the tension zone is assumed to be uncracked.

ultimate limit state

For the design of the strengthening, the partial safety factors for actions according to EC 2 have

to be considered. Also the secondary moment from prestressing has to be added.

MSdf = 1.35 Mgk + 1.5 Mqk + 1.0 Mp'

= 1.35 1'637.5 + 1.5 1'253.7 + 1.0 414 = 4'505.2 [kNm]

service state

In service state the following load combination is considered:

MSkf = 1.0 Mgk + 1.0 Mqk + 1.0 Mp' = 1'637.5 + 1'253.7 + 414 = 3'305.2 [kNm]

6. Design

flexural resistance of the unstrengthened cross-section:

MRd0 = 4'320.7 [kNm]

MRk0 = 5'045.7 [kNm]

imposed design moment in strengthened state (see above):

MSdf = 4'505.2 [kNm]

strengthening ratio:

= MSdf / MRd0 = 4'505.2 / 4'320.7 = 1.04 []

remaining global safety in case of loss of the FRP strengthening:

= MRk0 / MSkf = 5'045.7 / 3'305.2 = 1.53 []

required cross-sectional area of FRP strengthening:

Af,req = 244 [mm]

Two prefabricated laminates of type CFK 150/2000 are chosen.

Af,prov = nf bf tf = 2 100 1.4 = 280 [mm]

flexural resistance of the strengthened cross-section:

MRdf = 4'533.4 [kNm]

MRdf = 4'533.4 [kNm] > MSdf = 4'505.2 [kNm]

design ok !

In service state the following stress limits are given according to EC 2:

c,limit = 0.6 fck = 0.6 35 = 21 [N/mm]

p,limit = 0.75 fpk = 0.75 1570 = 1'177.5 [N/mm]

The software calculates the maximum service stresses of the materials as follows:

c,max = 13.27 [N/mm] < c,limit = 21 [N/mm]

p,max = 957.37 [N/mm] < p,limit 1'177.5 [N/mm]

stress check ok !

stress check ok !

experts for

strengthening

design

bow engineers are leading consultants

for the application of FRP systems for

strengthening and rehabiliation.

Based on long time and intensive

cooperation with universities and

material testing institutes bow

engineers are able to provide special

know-how and scientific background

for the use of FRP.

bow engineers have developed design

software for strengthening of

reinforced concrete members using

sprayed concrete or FRP.

bow engineers will assist you in the

assessment and development of

strengthening concepts for structures

and will ensure proper design

procedures and effective detailing of

special FRP applications.

bow engineers have been engaged as

expert consultants for strengthening

with FRP systems in a large number

of projects worldwide.

Please ask for further information.

fon +49 531 / 2 43 59 -0 fax +49 531 / 2 43 59 -51 mail@bow-engineers.de

bow engineers

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