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CHEMISTRY PROJECT

CLASS XII
2014-2015
PRESENTED BY :
FATHIMA NIHLA LATHEEF

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
At the onset I would like to express my profound
Gratitude and deep regards to my chemistry teacher,
Mrs Sreeja Rajmohan, for her exemplary guidance,
Throughout this project. I would also like to thank
My principal, Dr Rishikesh Padegaonkar, the Almighty,
My parents and friends, for their constant encouragement
Without which this assignment
Would not be possible !

PARTICULARS
Name : Fathima Nihla Latheef
Class : XII-A
GR No. : 3027
Roll No. :
Topic : Analysis of vegetable and fruit juices
Teacher in charge : Mrs Sreeja rajmohan

Signature of internal examiner :


Signature of principal :
Signature of external examiner :

Analysis of
fruit and
vegetable
juices

INDEX
INDEX

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Acknowledgement
Introduction
Aim
Materials required
Procedure
Observation
Conclusion

INTRODUCTION
Human body is like an engine .To keep it going we must provide it with the
right kind of fuel. This is balanced food. A balanced diet is one which
consists of the correct proportions of the five basic ingredients of good
nutrition that is carbohydrates, fats, proteins, mineral salts and vitamins.
The knowledge of various essential constituents of food and the food
materials in which these ingredients are available is a must. Deficiency of
any of these essential ingredients leads to many diseases. For example,
calcium and phosphorous are required for the formation of bones and
teeth, deficiency of these causes the decay of tooth and bones. Deficiency
of iron causes anemia. Lack of iodine causes goiter. So it is necessary
that the food we eat be selected carefully.
Besides wheat, rice and milk, fruits and vegetables form an important
part of balanced diet. They contain minerals, carbohydrates and vitamins.
We are advised by doctors to include more vegetables and fruits in our
diets. Therefore, study could be undertaken to investigate the
constituents of various fruits and vegetables.

MATERIALS
REQUIRED
Test tubes
Burner
Litmus paper
Iodine solution
Ninhydrin solution
Sodium hydroxide
Copper sulphate
Fehling solution A
Fehling solution B
Juices of various fruits and vegetables

AIM
AIM
Toanalyse
analyse
some
and vegetable
To
some
fruit fruit
and vegetable
juices
juices for the contents present in

For the contents present in them.

them.

PROCEDURE
The fruits and vegetables whose juices are going
to be used for the tests are cut into small pieces.
Their juices are extracted by either putting
them in a juicer or by squeezing the juice out.
The juices are filtered with the help of a filter
paper. The filtrate is taken out and subjected to
various tests for acidity, starch, carbohydrates,
proteins and fats.
Fruits and vegetables used for analysis
Apple
Orange
Grape
Tomato
Watermelon

Potato
Onion
Lemon
Cucumber
Ginger

TEST OF ACIDITY
Take 5ml each of various fruit and vegetable
juices in different test tubes and dip litmus
paper in them. Litmus is a watersoluble
mixture of different dyes extracted from
lichens, especially Roccella tinctoria. It is often
absorbed onto filter paper to produce one of the
oldest forms of pH indicator, used to test
materials for acidity. Blue litmus paper turns
red under acidic conditions and red litmus
paper turns blue under basic (i.e. alkaline)
conditions, with the color change occurring
over the pH range 4.5-8.3 at 25 C (77 F).

TEST FOR STARCH


Take 2 ml of juice in a test tube and add few drops
of iodine solution. Blue colour shows the presence of
starch.
Starch or amylum is a carbohydrate consisting of a
large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic
bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most
green plants as an energy store. In photosynthesis,
plants use light energy to produce glucose from
carbon dioxide. The glucose is stored mainly in the
form of starch granules, in plastids such as
chloroplasts and especially amyloplasts. Towards
the end of the growing season, starch accumulates in
twigs of trees near the buds. Fruit, seeds, rhizomes,
and tubers store starch to prepare for the next
growing season.

TEST FOR
PROTEINS
(i) Ninhydrin test
To 2 ml of juice in a test tube add 2 ml of ninhydrin
solution and heat it. Blue colour confirms the
presence of protein in the juice.
The Ninhydrin Test is a test for amino acids and
proteins with a free -NH2 group. When such an -NH2
group reacts with ninhydrin, a purple-blue complex
is formed.

(ii) Biuret test


To about 3 ml of 5% NaOH solution, add 2 drops of
1% CuSO4 solution so that permanent blue colour
is obtained. Add juice to it and shake the solution.

Violet colored precipitate indicates protein in the


juice.
The Biuret Test is a general test for proteins.
When a protein reacts with copper(II) sulfate
(blue), the positive test is the formation of a violet
colored complex.

The Biuret Test works for any compound


containing two or more of the following groups.

TEST FOR FATS


Solubility test:
This test if based on the fact that oils and fats are
soluble in organic solvents like chloroform, alcohols
etc. shake a small amount of given sample with 3mL
of each of water, alcohol , and chloroform in 3 test
tubes. On observation the inference drawn is as
follows :

Sl Procedure
no.
1.

2.

3.

Sample + water

Sample + alcohol

Sample + chloroform

Observation Inference
- sample is immiscible

-fat is present

- sample is miscible

-fat is absent

- sample forms a layer


which dissolves on
heating.

-fat is present

-sample does not


dissolve on heating.

-fat is absent

-sample is miscible

-fat is present

-sample is immiscible

-fat is absent

TEST FOR
CARBOHYDRATES
Molischs test
All carbohydrates give this test. Take 1- 2 ml of aqueous solution of the
carbohydrate + Molisch reagent (10% alcoholic solution of naphthanol)
in a test tube. Add 1 ml of conc. H2SO4 slowly along the sides of the
testtube.

Chemistry involved
The test reagent dehydrates pentoses to form furfural (top reaction)
and dehydrates hexoses to form 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (bottom
reaction). The furfurals further react with -naphthol present in the
test reagent to produce a purple product at the interface of the two
liquids.

Fehlings test
Take 2 ml of aqueous solution of carbohydrates
and 1-2 ml of fehlings solution A and B. Keep the
test tubes in a boiling water bath. Appearance of a
reddish precipitate indicates the presence of
reducing sugar.
Chemistry involved

CH2OH

CH2OH

(CH2OH)4+2Cu(OH)2+NaOH
|
CHO

(CHOH)4+Cu2O+ 3H2O
|
COONa (Red ppt.)

OBSERVATIONS
JUICE

ACIDITY

STARCH

CARBOHYDRATES

PROTIENS

Apple

Acidic

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Ginger

Basic

No

No

No

No

Potato

Acidic

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Grapes

Acidic

No

Yes

Yes

No

Lemon

Acidic

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Cucumber

Acidic

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Orange

Acidic

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Tomato

Acidic

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Watermelon Basic

No

Yes

Yes

No

onion

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Acidic

FATS

CONCLUSION
After completion of all tests we infer that all the fruits and
vegetables contain one or more body building compounds.
With the exception of proteins, which is not present in
adequate amounts in vegetables and fruits, all other
constituents are present in good quantities. Proteins are only
present in a few selected foods in the form of mixtures of
compounds and usually the presence of carbohydrate is
predominant.
Starch and reducing sugars are usually not present in plants.
Starch is found in the modified form for storage purposes.
Carbohydrates are present in the form of reducing sugars and
starch.
Majority of the fruits are acidic, while very few of them are
basic.
Thus, from the above tests we can conclude that cereals fruits
and vegetables form an integral part of the balanced diet. The
deficiency of any one of them could lead to metabolic
disorders. Thus it is of prime importance to include fruits and
vegetables in ones diet, which provides us with various
necessary nutrients.