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[NYLON] December 3, 2014

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The Most Gracious and Most Merciful, finally we manage to complete our first
assignment on this particular subject, Organic and Instrumental Chemistry for Engineers
(CBE422). We wish to express our gratitude to all those who had taking part in the making of
this assignment.

Our special thanks to Miss Julia Tan regarding her valuable guidance and advice
about this assignment. We also would like to thank her for showing us some example that
related to the topic of our assignment. We were really grateful to have her as our lecturer for
this subject.

Not to forget, we would also like to thank to our families and friends for their
understandings and supports on us in order to complete this assignment. Without the help of
the particular people mentioned above, we would face many difficulties while doing this
assignment. Thank you to all of you once again.

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Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................................................. 1
Contents .................................................................................................................................................. 2
1.0

Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 3

1.1 History ........................................................................................................................................... 3


1.2 Introduction to Nylon.................................................................................................................... 4
2.0 Properties of Nylon ........................................................................................................................... 5
2.1 Physical Properties ........................................................................................................................ 6
2.2 Chemical Properties ...................................................................................................................... 7
3.0 Nylon Production Technology ........................................................................................................... 8
3.1 Method used to produce Nylon .................................................................................................. 10
3.1.1 Production method of Nylon 6 ............................................................................................. 11
3.1.2 Manufacturing Process of Nylon 6, 6 .................................................................................. 12
4.0 Advantages and Disadvantages of Nylon ........................................................................................ 13
4.1 Advantages.................................................................................................................................. 14
4.2 Disadvantages ............................................................................................................................. 14
5.0 Application of Nylon........................................................................................................................ 15
5.1 Most important uses of Nylon .................................................................................................... 15
5.2

Common application of Nylon .............................................................................................. 16

References ............................................................................................................................................ 17

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1.0 Introduction
1.1 History
Nylon was introduced in 1940, is the
first all-synthetic fibre made commercially and
opened up the entire field. Wallace H.
Carothers was the person who discovered
polyamides

in

year

1931.

Commercial

production of nylon 6, 6 began in the 28th


October

1938.

First,

polyamides

were

introduced as fibre forming polymers. The


Bristles on Dr Wests Miracle Tuft toothbrush
is the first commercial application.
Next following years, nylon stocking
became available and thus in 1941, nylon
mouding

powders

began

commercial

production. In the 1940s, nylon 6 was


developed; largely as a consequence of patent

Figure 1 Wallace H. Carothers, the Nylon founder

that existed on Nylo 6, 6. Nylon mouldings


were not widely used until the 1950s. During 1981, the U.S production was up to 1.18 x
106t, where 59 per cent of it was used for home furnishing, mostly carpets. 20 percent for
apparel accounted and another 11 per cent for tire cord.

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1.2 Introduction to Nylon


Nylon is polyamides which is a polymer where the repeating units are held together
by amide links. The formula for amide group is CONH2. An amide link has this structure:

The repeating units:

Nylon 6, 6 is the product resulting from the polymerization reaction of adipic acid and
hexamethylene diamine because each of the raw material chains contains six carbon atoms.
Nylon 6 is the homopolymer of caprolactam, and the newly developed aramid fibre, Kevlar,
an aromatic polyamide, poly-p-phenylene terephthalamide.
Nylon is a family of plastics. The common grades of nylon is Nylon 6 and Nylon 6,6
(the number refers to the number of methyl groups). In condition where the separation of
amide group increase, the polarity of the amide group decreases, thus the moisture
absorbance decreases. Due to more flexibility and mobility in the methyl unit sections of the
chain, the resistance to thermal deformation is lowered.
Comparison the Nylon 6 and Nylon 6, 6 properties are not that different. But we can
see the relationship when comparing the Nylon 6, 6 and Nylon 6, 12. Nylon 6, 12 has lower
modulus, longer elongation, lower strength, lower thermal distortion temperature, lower
hardness and lower melting point than Nylon 6, 6. However, Nylon 6/12 can absorb half as
much water on Nylon 6/6. Thus the property of Nylon 6, 6 is better in dry condition. While,
Nylon 6,12 is much more consistent when it is used in applications in which water may be
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present.

In general, Nylon has very good physical properties. But moisture gives significant
effect on the properties. It was very good heat resistance, chemical resistance, and wear
resistance. Its price is between moderate to high price and it is fair to easy processing.

2.0 Properties of Nylon


The majority of the nylon tends to be partial Crystals and is ingredients that are
generally very difficult to heat resistance and good chemistry. Different types provide
different properties with gravity, melting point and moisture content tends to reduce as
increasing numbers of nylon. Nylons can be used in high temperature environment. Heat
allows stable system performance is maintained at temperatures up to 185oC.

Physical

Value
2

Tensile Strength:

90 - 185 N/mm

Notched Impact Strength:

5.0 - 13.0 Kj/m

Thermal Coefficient of Expansion:

80 x 10

Max. Continued Use Temperature:

150 - 185 C (302 - 365 F)

Melting Point:

190 - 350 C (374 - 662 F)

Glass Transition Temp. (Nylon 66):

45 C (113 F)

Density:

1.13 - 1.35 g/cm

-6

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2.1 Physical Properties

1. Composition: The nylons are polyamides with recurring amide groups. They contain
carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen elements.

2. Strength: Nylon has good tenacity and the strength is not lost with age. Nylon has a high
strength to weight ratio. It is one of the lightest textile fibres is at the same time also one of
the strongest. It is one of the fibres which are added at the points of wear such as knees and
seats of jeans and toes and heels of socks. The strength of the nylon fabric is lost when wet.
Nylon has excellent abrasion resistance.

3. Elasticity: Nylon has good elasticity which makes it much suitable for the apparel
purposes. The excellent elasticity would mean that the nylon materials return to their original
length and shreds the wrinkles or creases. Nylon like other fibres has its own limit of
elasticity. If stretched too much, it will not completely recover its shape. The high elongation
and excellent elastic recovery of nylon contributes to the outstanding performance in hosiery.
Nylon hosiery recovers to its original shape at knees and ankles instead of bagging.

4. Resilience: Nylon fabrics have excellent resilience. Nylon fabrics retain their smooth
appearance and the wrinkles from the usual daily activities can be removed easily.

5. Drapability: Fabrics of nylon filament yarn have excellent draping qualities. The drape of
the fabrics made from nylon can be varied depending on the yarn size. The light weight sheer
fabrics of nylon night gowns have high-draping quality. The medium-weight dress fabrics
can drape very nicely.

6. Heat Conductivity: The heat conductivity of the nylon fabrics vary depending upon the
fabric construction, the type of nylon (staple/filament) used in the construction etc. For
instance, the filament nylon used in the open construction would be cooler when compared to
the same filament used in a closed construction. In a closed or tight construction the air
circulation through the fabric is limited. The heat and moisture of the body will not readily
pass the fabric construction, which makes the wearer feel very warm. Such fabrics are good
for winter apparel, such as wind-breakers, but are not suitable for summer garments. On the
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other hand the fabrics with open construction permits the air circulation which makes the
wearer feels cool.

7. Absorbency: Nylon fabrics have low absorbency. The low absorbency of the fabrics tends
to be advantageous and also disadvantageous. The main advantage of the nylons low
absorbency is that the water remains on the surface of the fabrics and runs off the smooth
fabric and hence dries quickly. This property makes the nylon fabrics suitable for raincoats
and shower curtains. Nylons low absorbency has a disadvantage in that the fabric feels
clammy and uncomfortable in warm, humid weather.

8. Cleanliness and Wash ability: Nylon fabrics are easy care garments. Nylon fabrics are
smooth, non-absorbent and dry quickly. Dirt doesnt cling to this smooth fibre, which can be
washed easily or can be even cleaned by using a damp cloth. Nylon whites are commonly
referred as colour scavengers and should be washed separately to avoid greying. They easily
pick up colour and dirt from the wash water. Nylons, washed with other fabrics pick up
colour (even from the palest pastels) and develop a dingy grey appearance that is extremely
difficult to remove. In addition to retaining their appearance during wear, garments made
from nylon fabrics retain their appearance and shape after washing. Hot water should be
avoided during washing as the hot water may cause wrinkling in some fabric constructions.

2.2 Chemical Properties

1. Effect of Bleaches: The nylon fabrics are white and generally do not require bleaching.
The nylon fabrics which pick up colour or develop greying should be bleached with oxidising
bleaches such as hydrogen peroxide.

2. Shrinkage: Nylon fabrics retain their shape and appearance after washing. It has good
stability and does not shrink.

3. Effect of Heat: Nylon should always be ironed at low temperatures. Using hot iron will
result in glazing and then melting of the fabric.

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4. Effect of Light: Nylon fabrics have low resistance to sun light. They are not suitable for
curtains or draperies as it is weakened by the exposure to sun light.

5. Resistance to Mildew: Nylon fabrics have absolute resistance to the development of


mildew.

6. Resistance to Insects: Nylon is resistance to the moths and fungi.

7. Reaction to Alkalis: Nylon has excellent resistance to alkali's but the frequent and
prolonged exposures to alkalis will weaken the nylon fabrics.

8. Reaction to Acids: Nylon is less resilient to the action of acids and is damaged by strong
acids.

9. Affinity for Dyes: Nylon can be easily dyed with a wider range of dyes. The dyed fabrics
retain their colour and have good resistance to fading.

10. Resistance to Perspiration: Nylon fabrics are resistant to perspiration

3.0 Nylon Production Technology


Nowadays, nylon being produced constantly to fulfil for the demand of developing
and modern country. Nylon produced in the various type to make the particular products . one
of the product that make the Nylon as its main material is Nylon Filament Yarn (NFY) .
Nylon is a generic term for the long chain synthetic polyamides. The two most
important polyamides is Nylon 6 and Nylon 6,6 . Nylon 6 is manufactured by selfcondensation of 6-amino caproic acid obtained from caprolactam. Like all other polyamides
Nylon 6 is capable of being formed into a filament in which the polymer molecules are
oriented, at large, in the direction of the axis. It can also be cut to small length to get staple
fibres . Nylon Filament Yarn can be manufactured with varied degree of orientation such a s
low oriented yarn , partially oriented yarn and full oriented yarn . Nylon Filament Yarn is
produced as multi filament yarn or mono filaments in a wide range of deniers. It is also
available in bright, semi-dull and dull lustres.

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NFY has excellent orientation and crystallites characteristics which imparts it with
good mechanical properties. NFY has good fatigue resistance and better resistance to the
effect of prolonged heating for applications at a temperature lower than its melting point. It is
highly resistance to chemical degradation and strains . It has excellent biological resistance.
Nylon-6 and Nylon-6, 6 are two synthetic polyamides which are being manufactured
on a commercial scale. The two polyamides have similar properties. Nylon-6,6 has higher
melting point and fatigue resistance compared to Nylon 6 , and therefore may be preferred for
application such as tyre cord or carcass . However , process to manufacture Nylon 6 is
simpler than that for Nylon 6,6 , and is superior resistance for light degradation .Also nylon-6
has advantage over Nylon-6,6 in respect of dye ability , elastic recovery , and thermal
stability and thus , for end uses like textile and carpet manufacture it may be preferred over
nylon-6,6.
The manufacturing process for Nylon Filament Yarn can be broadly divided into
following production steps which is 1) polymerization of caprolactam to manufacture nylon
chips . 2) extraction and drying of chips 3) melt spinning of chips to manufacture spun yarn
4)processing of spun yarn and 5) recycling of Nylon waste .
There is an history behind this development of technology . The commercial
production of Nylon 6 was started in Germany in 1940 and during world war 2 . Plycaproamide or nylon-6 fibres ware manufactured and sold under the name of Perlon L .
Over period of time , the process has been developed to manufacture physically and
chemically modified fibres suitable for special purposes .There are couples of examples for
that such modified yarns such as crimpled and bulked yarn , modified cross-section yarn ,
mono-filaments , high count yarn , abrasion resistant yarn and etc. .
Nylon 6 is the linear addition polymer of caprolactam or 6-amino-caproic-acid . The
polymerization process for Nylon 6 can be batch or continuous , however , the main process
for its manufacture is continuous polymerization . Three reversible , hydrolysis ,
polycondensation , and polyaddition are the main steps in nylon 6 production .
The first steps is hydrolysis reaction to open the caprolactam ring , forming
amino
caproic acid . This reaction proceeds in molten caprolactam in the presence of a small weight
percent water . Althoush the reaction will proceed with only caprolactam and water present ,
a material such as phosphoric acid is added at low concentration to act as a chain stabilizer
and help achieve the desired final viscosity .
Polyaddition is the reaction which is mainly responsible for the growth of the linear
polymer chains . It is the most important reaction as soon as a certain amount of end groups
has been made available by the hydrolysis of caprolactam .
Thus , the polymer dissolves in the unreacted caprolactam . The polymer end groups
affect the stability and final molecular weight of the polyimide. Organic acids such as acetic
acid can be added as chain stabilizers. Monofunctional organic amines can also be added .

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The linear polymer chain formed in the polyaddition reaction can further increase its
molecular weight via a polycondensation reaction . The reactive end groups polycondensate
forming linear chain molecules and by-product water. Thus, two linear chain molecule
condense producing a longer chain molecule with higher molecular weight. In other words ,
the polycondensation is regarded as the most important reaction in the last phase of nylon 6
formation in which the distribution of polymer chain length is adjust . Caprolactam can also
be polymerized in-situ in a mold . A typical procedure uses the sodium salt of caprolactam as
a catalyst.
For producing the Nylon , it have to go through the particular process . Nylon 6 and
Nylon 6,6 batch and continuous processes.
About Nylon 6 processes , the ring-opening polymerization of caprolactam to nylon 6
can be accomplished by both hydrolytic and anionic mechanisms . However , Nylon 6 can
produced almost exclusively by hydrolytic polymerization of caprolactam because it is easier
to control and better adapted for large-scale operation . The polymerization process for nylon
via the hydrolytic mechanism can be batch or continuous .
Besides, about Nylon 6,6 continuous process , to solve the limitations inherent in the
batch process, the continuous polymerization process was developed . The main steps of
continuous process include salt preparation, and polymerization . Solid phase polymerization
is an additional step used to increase molecular weight of the polymer without damaging
properties of the polymer.

3.1 Method used to produce Nylon


The term nylon refers to a family of polymers called linear polyamides. There are two
common methods of making nylon for fibre applications. In one approach, molecules with an
acid (COOH) group on each end are reacted with molecules containing amine (NH2) groups
on each end. The resulting nylon is named on the basis of the number of carbon atoms
separating the two acid groups and the two amines. Thus nylon 6, 6 which is widely used for
fibre is made from adipic acid and hexamethylene diamine. The two compounds form salt,
known as nylon salt, and an exact 1:1 ratio of acid to base. This salt is then dried and heated
under vacuum to eliminate water and form the polymer.
In another approach, a compound containing an amine at one end and an acid at the
other is polymerized to form a chain with repeating units of (-NH-[CH2]n-CO-)x. if n=5, the
nylon is referred to as nylon 6, another common form of this polymer. The commercial
production of nylon 6 begins with caprolactam uses a ring-opening polymerization.

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In both cases, the polyamide is melt spun and drawn after cooling to give the desired
properties for each intended use. Production of nylon industrial and carpet fibres begin with
an aqueous solution of monomers and proceeds continuously through polymerization,
spinning, drawing, or draw-texturing.

Figure 2 A step of manufacturing


Nylon

Figure 3 Nylon filaments (raw)

3.1.1 Production method of Nylon 6


Toyo Royan developed the photochemical route in Japan that avoids the conventional
oxidation narration step with a simplified process. The letter success was largely due to the
development of 20 KW mercury lamps that conseme power less than 4.5 KWH per kg of
oxime.
By the nature of the polymerization, the process is differs from that for Nylon 6, 6.
The similar process is the step wise condensation of caprolactam with no net removal. More
difficulty will arise, but however, in the thermal equilibrium between the monomer and
polymer are at the melting and spinning temperatures. 10% monomer is retained in this
process, so the fibres have to be water washed the soluble caprolactam monomer. While the
molecular weight controlled by the addition of monofuntional acid.
Final product are produced with a molecular weight at range 12,000-16,000 is
extruded as a ribbon onto chilling rolls. Then it is extruded to a chipper for producing small
chips suitable for storage and rehandling.

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The chips are melted when the nylon fibres are produced, metered through high
pressure pumps, filtered and passed through a melt spinneret. On air cooling, the extruded
filaments will harden immediately and can be wound on bobbins at speed of 750 meters per
minute or higher. The thread will stretch to about 4 times than its original length in cold
drawing to give the fibre desirable textile properties.

Figure 4 Caprolactam synthesis

Figure 5 Stage condensation of caprolactum

3.1.2 Manufacturing Process of Nylon 6, 6


1. The process starts with the production of two chemicals; hexamethylene diamine and

adipic acid. Both contain 6 carbon atoms from coal.


2. Then, these chemicals are combined to form the nylon salt.
3. The nylon salt is dissolved in water and sent to the spinning mill.
4. By heating it in large evaporators, the nylon salt solution is made into a concentrated

solution.

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5. Next, the concentrated solution is heated in an autoclave under the pressure and

temperature.
6. The polymerization takes place by combining the two chemicals into polymers which

are likes giant chain.


7. Similar to nylon 6, the molten polymer is processed in a manner.

Figure 6 Manufacturing Nylon 6, 6

4.0 Advantages and Disadvantages of Nylon


Nylon fibers can be produced in a variety of cross-section and fineness. Composite
fibers, having unique appearance and tactile feeling, can also be produced by combining with
other types of fibers. Heat storage or warmth retention fibers consisting of extremely fine
filament yarns in which carbonaceous material converting the light to heat are inserted. Antistatic nylon fibers are inhibiting electro-static charge. Transparent nylon fibers are exhibiting
more transparent and beautiful colors. Thus a wide variety of nylon fibers are available
giving much more performances and fabric hand.
Almost all nylon fibers are filament yarns ranging from very fine to coarse denier to
be used for clothing such as sport wear, lingerie, pantyhose; home furnishing as carpets; and
industrial uses such as fishing nets, ropes, and tire cords. Staple fibers are used, in the yarns
blended with wool and acrylic fibers, for clothing; home furnishing such as carpets,
upholstery; and other fields of sundries.
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4.1 Advantages
1. One of the very strong fibers. Extremely resistant to abrasion and flexing.
2. The specific gravity is 1.14 Very light, i.e., 80% of that of silk fibers, and 70% of that
of cotton fibers.
3. Since nylon fibers absorb little water even though they are wetted., they dry fast and
simple in laundering.
4. Excellent in elasticity and resistant to wrinkle.
5. If properly set, nylon textiles little shrink/ extend or little deform their shape due to
thermo plasticity.
6. Resistant to chemicals and oil. Non-attackable by sea water.
7. Non-attackable by molds and insects.
8. Used in many military applications.

4.2 Disadvantages
Some of the disadvantage of nylon includes that:
1. It has a tendency to fade easily and stain. It is also highly sensitive to light and heat.
2. Good quality nylon fiber is much more expensive than some other types of material.
3. Nylon is famous of its properties that is easy to dye with bright color is the major
factor of it prone to staining. Permanent stains are result from food stain that mainly
contains oil and grease. Cleaning product that contain bleach or acid that are created
to remove stains from fabrics.
4. Prolonged exposure to direct sunlight also causes the nylon to fade and wear out.
5. Nylon fibers melt if exposed to extreme temperature.
6. Cheap nylon is also available. However it tends to lose its bounce, brightness and
color very quickly.

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Other disadvantages are the physical weakness of the material:

7. It has high moisture pick-up with related dimensional stability and require UV
stabilization.
8. It has high shrinkage and molded sections.
9. Apart from that it has high moisture absorptivity degrades electrical and mechanical
properties.
10. It is also easily attack by oxidizing and strong acid or base.
11. It also has high notch sensitivity.

5.0 Application of Nylon


Nylon fibres are wide used in textiles, fishing line as well as carpet. Nylon films is
used for food packaging, offering toughness and low gas permeability, and coupled with its
temperature resistance, for boil-in-bag food packaging.
Moulding and extrusion compounds find many applications as replacements for metal
a parts, for instance in car engine components. Intake manifolds in nylon are tough, corrosion
resistant, lighter and cheaper than aluminium as well as offer better air flow due to a smooth
internal bore instead of a rough cast one. Its self-lubricating properties make it useful for
gears and bearings.
Electrical insulation, corrosion resistance, toughness are as well make nylon a better
choice for high load parts in electrical applications as insulators, switch housings and the
ubiquitous cable ties. Another major application is for power tool housings.

5.1 Most important uses of Nylon


1. Because of it has high strength fibre. It is used in making fishing nets, ropes,
parachutes and type
2. For making elastic hosiery, crinkled nylon fibres are used.
3. Used for making fabrics in textile industry
4. Widely used as plastic for making machine parts. To increase the strength, it is
blended with wool

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5.2

Common application of Nylon

1. Fabric, carpeting, sportswear


2. Sports and recreational equipment
3. Electrical connectors
4. Gear, slide, cams, and bearings
5. Cable ties and film packaging
6. Fluid reservoirs

Figure 7 Fishing net

7. Fishing line, brush bristles


8. Automotive oil pans

Figure 8 Heavy Nylon Jecket

Figure 11 Nylon fabric

Figure 9 Fabric (net form)

Figure 12 Toothbrush

Figure 10 Nylon tubing

Figure 13 Nylon rope

Figure 14 Carpet made from Nylon

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References
Benefits of Nylon.
http://benefitof.net/benefits-of-nylon/
Bhishm Khanna (May 2013). What are the uses of Nylon?
http:// www.preservearticles.com/201101032306/uses-of-nylon.html
Mazharul Islam Kiron (August 2011). Characteristics of Nylon Fabrics | Physical and
Chemical Properties Nylon Fabrics.
http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2011/08/characteristics-of-nylon-fabrics_745.ht
KqRMwGzB ml#ixzz3
Draw a flow chart and explain the manufacturing process of Nylon 6.
https://bookstreet.in/questions/draw-a-flow-chart-and-explain-the-manufacturing-process-ofnylon-6-10-marks-1602
Dr. Plotkin, J. S. (2009). PERP Program - Nylon 6 And Nylon 6,6. Retrieved from
http://www.chemsystems.com/about/cs/news/items/PERP%200708S6_Nylon%206.cfm
Fry, Bill. Working with Nylon -Speaking of Plastics Manufacturing Series
(Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME), 1999)
George T. Austin. Shreves Chemical Process Industries
(McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1984)
Hoelderich, W. F., & Dahlhoff, G. (February, 2001). DEVELOPING TECHNOLOGY.
Retrieved from http://pubs.acs.org/subscribe/archive/ci/31/i02/html/02dahlhoff.html
Jim Clark. (2004). Polyamides - nylon and Kevlar.
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/organicprops/amides/polyamides.html
Nylon (Polyamide).
http://www.bpf.co.uk/plastipedia/polymers/polyamides.aspx
Polymer Technology & Services, LLC. A GUIDE TO NYLON
ptsllc.com/intro/nylon_intro.aspx.
Sambhar Pati. Flow sheet manufacturing diagram of Nylon 6, 6.
http://blog.oureducation.in/flow-sheet-manufacturing-diagram-of-nylon-66/
Steve Dashew. Materials used for Ropes: Nylon (polyamide)
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http://www.christinedemerchant.com/rope_material_nylon.html
The University of York (May 2013). The Essential Chemical Industry Online
http:// http://www.essentialchemicalindustry.org/polymers/polyamides.html

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