Content Rating System

Motion Picture, Television, Video Game, Mobile Software

Contents
1

Motion picture rating system

1

1.1

Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.2

Argentina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.3

Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.4

Austria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.5

Belgium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

1.6

Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

1.7

Bulgaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.8

Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.8.1

Classifications used outside Québec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.8.2

Classifications used in Québec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

1.10 China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

1.11 Colombia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

1.12 Denmark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

1.13 Estonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

1.14 Finland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

1.15 France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

1.16 Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

1.17 Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

1.18 Hong Kong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

1.19 Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

1.20 Iceland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

1.21 India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

1.22 Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

1.23 Ireland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

1.24 Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

1.25 Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

1.26 Kazakhstan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

1.27 Latvia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

1.28 Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

1.29 Maldives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

1.9

i

ii

2

CONTENTS
1.30 Malta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

1.31 Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.32 Netherlands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.33 New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.34 Nigeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.35 Norway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.36 Philippines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.37 Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.38 Portugal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.39 Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.40 Singapore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.41 South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.42 South Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.43 Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.44 Sweden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.45 Switzerland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.46 Taiwan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.47 Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.48 Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.49 United Arab Emirates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.50 United Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

1.51 United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

1.52 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

1.53 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

1.54 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

Television content rating systems

20

2.1

Argentina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

2.2

Armenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

2.3

Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

2.3.1

Child-specific ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

2.3.2

Standard ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

2.4

Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

2.5

Bulgaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

2.6

Cambodia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

2.7

Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

2.7.1

Outside Quebec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

2.7.2

Quebec ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

2.8.1

Child specific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

2.8.2

Standard ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

Colombia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

2.8

2.9

13 Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 United States . . . . . . . . . . .35 South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2. . .41 Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Hong Kong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Taiwan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Ukraine . . . . . . . .40 Thailand . . . . . . . . . . .23 Mexico . .21 Malaysia . . . . 32 2. . . . .15 Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2. . . . . . .47 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Russia . 35 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Maldives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Netherlands .25. . . . . . .33 Singapore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 iii Fringe hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Serbia . . . . .11 Finland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Israel . . . . . 34 2. 31 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2. . . . . . . .12 France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Switzerland . . . . . 31 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Countries Without TV Ratings Systems . . . . . . . . .34 Slovenia . 28 2. . . .18 Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Peru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2. . . . . 24 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .25 New Zealand . . 37 2. . . . . . . .27 Philippines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Portugal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2. . . . . . . . . . . 32 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 2.44 Venezuela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2. . . . . . . . . . .1 Free-to-air . . . . . . .19 Ireland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2. . . . . . . . . . 31 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .25. . . . . . . .36 South Korea . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Iceland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2. . . . 24 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 See also . .17 India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Romania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Denmark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Pay television . 25 2. . . . . . . . . . . .28 Poland .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3. . . . 49 4. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Initial controversy . . . . . . .5 External Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Regional and national .2 Images . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4. . . . . . . . . . .4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Existing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4. . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4. . . . . . . . . . .6 Text and image sources. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 CTIA Mobile Application Rating System . 43 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Rating systems . .6 References . 45 4. . . . . . .1 Text . . . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . .iv 3 CONTENTS Video game content rating system 40 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4. . . . . . . . . .3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . .1 4 Mobile software content rating system 45 4.7 External links . . . . . . 45 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 3. .4 Amazon Store . . . . . . . . . .2 Comparison . . . . . . . . . . 45 4. . . . . . . . . and licenses . . 43 3. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Google Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .6. . .1 Apple App Store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . contributors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 3.

country to another. other countries. A film • ATP: Suitable for all ages. films depicting explicit war violence in a real war context (such as the Through its Advisory Commission of Cinematographic Second World War) are handled more leniently than films Exhibition (Comisión Asesora de Exhibición Cinematográfica) the National Institute of Cinema and Auwith purely fictional settings. In most • Spring green – Aimed at young audiences. substance abuse. restricted. certificate or rating. The influence of specific factors in deciding a rating varies from country to country. are usually laws forbidding certain films. Other factors may or may not influence the classification process. for example. Note however that the specific criteria used in assigning a classification can vary widely from one country to another. an official government cen. the following categories:* [1] It may be re-edited if the desired rating is not obtained. whereas countries such as Australia offer more lenient ratings to violent movies. • Red – Restricted to an older audience unless accompanied by an adult. films with strong sexual content are often restricted to older viewers. In Germany. in countries such as the U. or by the antagonist. • Black – No rating / Exempt from classification / Banned from viewing. there • Yellow – Parental guidance is suggested. sexual content is viewed much more leniently. • Orange – Not recommended for a younger audience but not restricted. ATP stands for “Apta may also be re-edited to produce an alternate version for (para) Todo Público”. impudence or other types of mature content. sorship system decides on ratings. with whom the viewer should empathize. A particular issued rating can be called a certification. however. films with violent content are often subject in countries such as Germany and Finland to high ratings and even censorship. whereas in countries such as France and Germany.S. • Blue – Exclusively adult content / Further restrictions usually apply to exhibition. showing age on the horizontal axis.. For example. • Brown – Restricted exclusively to an older audience. On the other hand. it is done by industry committees with little. if the film rating system has no legal consequences. such as being set within a non-fictional historical context. meaning “for all public” 1 . countries. In some jurisdictions the legal obligation of administering the rating may be imposed on movie theaters. profanity. classification. and are often given in lieu of censorship. Thus a color code or age range cannot be directly compared from one In countries such as Australia. 1. violence. or forbidding minors to view them. diovisual Arts (INCAA) issues ratings for films based on A film may be produced with a particular rating in mind.Chapter 1 Motion picture rating system A motion picture rating system is designated to classify films with regard to suitability for audiences in terms of issues such as sex. whether said violence or drug use is carried out by the 1.2 Argentina protagonist. or banned. films that are considered morally offensive have been censored. and a film has not explicitly been restricted or banned.1 Comparison A comparison of currently active film rating systems. if any official government status. especially to avoid a higher rating than intended. Even • Green – All ages may watch. Ratings typically carry age recommendations in an advisory or restrictive capacity. such Key: as the United States. in other countries. whether the film glorifies violence or drug use.

Children under the age of 13 age admitted if accompanied by an adult.* [5] 1. Arts and Culture (Bundesministerium für Unterricht. The content is high in impact.3 Australia Main article: Australian Classification Board The Classification Board and Classification Review Board are government-funded organizations which classify all films that are released for public exhibition. Children younger than 15 years must be accompanied by a parent or guardian.* [4] In addition to the ABMC's age recommenor hire in Australia and cannot be legally imported. • X18+ – Restricted to 18 years and over. The content is moderate in impact.* [2] • G – General. • R18+ – Restricted to 18 years and over. dations. • 16: Suitable for 16-year-olds and over. It is not recommended for viewing or playing by persons under 15 without guidance from parents or guardians. Adults only. Kunst und Kultur). sexual abuse.2 CHAPTER 1. MOTION PICTURE RATING SYSTEM • 13: Suitable for 13-year-olds and over. Films classified as X18+ are banned from being sold or rented in all Australian states and are only legally available in the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. The Australian classifications are nine sets of provincial laws on the cinema sector with different age provisions. Films with this rating have pornographic content. Not recommended for children under 15 years old but not legally restricted. • M – Recommended for mature audiences. Unsuitable for children younger than 15. in the province of Vienna children under the age Films are rated RC if their content is very high in of 6 are only permitted to attend public film performances impact and exceeds the guidelines. conditional display: Restricted to specially licensed venues. • MA15+ – Mature Accompanied. Banned from sale lence etc. • PG – Parental guidance recommended.e. • 18. The content is strong in impact.* [3] The only exception is in the case of “16”rated films. 1. glorification of vio• RC – Refused Classification. discrimination. since under Austrian law there is a legal age restriction on certain types of content i. The recommendations made by the ABMC are generally not legally binding and there The AMBC issues age recommendation from the following categories: • Unrestricted – Released for all age groups • 6+ – Released for children from age 6 • 10+ – Released for children from age 10 • 12+ – Released for children from age 12 . • 18: Suitable for 18-year-olds and over. The content is very mild in impact.4 Austria Motion pictures are rated by the Austrian Board of Media Classification (ABMC) for the Federal Ministry of Education. if they are accompanied. The content is mild in impact.

BRAZIL • 14+ – Released from age 14 • 16+ – Released from age 16. such as the ones listed below: Violence: Fantasy violence. overvaluation of consumption. obscenity. vulgarity. Rating. bones and skeletons with signs of violent acts. Drugs: Moderate or insinuated use of legal drugs.* [11] The Dejus uses the following system: • 12: Não Recomendado para Menores de 12 Anos (“Not recommended for ages under 12”): The following contents are accepted for this age range: Violence: Violent act. sexual intercourse. • 10: Não Recomendado para Menores de 10 Anos (“Not recommended for ages under 10”): The following contents are accepted for this age range: Violence: Display of arms with violence. sexual innuendo. irregular use of medication. verbal aggression. by law. Drugs: Use of legal drugs. stigma/prejudice. which is run by the Brazilian Ministry of Justice (Ministério da Justiça). sex simulation.* [7]* [8] Anyone below the film's minimum age can watch it if accompanied by the parent or guardian. display of arms with no violence. It is basically the same as the system for theatrical exhibition. showing people in embarrassing or degrading situations. sexual harassment. victim's grief. sexual fondling.5 Belgium There are only two classifications for films publicly exhibited in Belgium issued by the Inter-Community Commission for Film Rating (Dutch: Intergemeenschapscommissie voor de Filmkeuring. Títulos e Qualificação – Department of Justice. masturbation. which. French: Commission Intercomunautaire de Contrôle des Films). overvaluation of the physical beauty. distress. sex content language. natural or accidental death with violence.* [9]* [10] Unlike many countries.6. the Dejus doesn't have any legal right to ban. Drugs: Oral description of the use of legal drugs.2 – Unsuitable for people younger than 16 1. foul language. Classificação. medicinal use of illegal drugs. Sex and Nudity: Nudity. presence of blood. Sex and Nudity: Educational contents about sex.* [6] • CAT.1 – Suitable for all • CAT. sexual appeal. description of violence. Restricted classification. demand cuts or refuse to rate any movie. discussion on the issue “drug trafficking". exposure to danger. inducing the use of legal drugs. Main article: Brazilian Advisory Rating System Films are rated in Brazil by the Dejus (Departamento de Justiça. body injury. derogatory language. Film classification symbols used in Brazil. 1. corpses. erotization. Films are prohibited to minors under the age of 16 unless passed by the commission. criminal acts without violence.6 Brazil 3 • L: Livre para Todos os Públicos (“Free For All Public”): This classification applies to works which contain predominantly positive contents and which do not bring unsuitable elements subject to ratings to ages higher than 10. are strictly prohibited from viewing by people under 18. Titles and Qualification). but also provides a “12”rating. bones and skeletons with no violence. violent act against animals. prostitution. deaths with no violence. There is no mandatory rating system for video formats but 90 per cent of video distribution abides by the voluntary Belgium Video Federation. mention to illegal drugs.1. fear/tension. Sex and Nudity: Veiled nudity. Sex and Nudity: Non-erotic nudity. • 14: Não Recomendado para Menores de 14 Anos (“Not recommended for ages under 14”): The following contents are accepted for this age range: Violence: Intentional death. . bullying. except for those rated“Not recommended for ages under 18”.

group sex. sexual coercion. glamorization and/or incitement to violence. MOTION PICTURE RATING SYSTEM Drugs: Insinuation of the use of illegal drugs. supply of 14A and 18A films is restricted to customers above those ages.* [18] Saskatchewan (administered by the British Columbia Film Classification Office). There are also operational descriptions of attenuating and aggravating elements that can interfere on the final rating. mutilation.* [17] * Film ratings in Canada are a provincial responsibility. such as Nova Scotia. 1. Drugs: Inciting the use of illegal drugs.* [12] Exhibitions of X films are permitted on the condition that the venue is licensed for exhibiting X rated films only. In the provinces that require classification of video formats. complex/strong impact sexual intercourses (incest.1 Classifications used outside Québec Sex and Nudity: Intense sexual intercourse. Ratings . use of illegal drugs. Canadian rating labels used outside Québec. cruelty. verbal descriptions of the use of illegal drugs. the seven rating systems̶with the exception of Quebec̶now all use cate• 16: Não Recomendado para Menores de 16 Anos gories and logos derived from the Canadian Home Video * (“Not recommended for ages under 16”): The fol.* [14] Alberta and Ontario also admit children to 14A and 18A films if accompanied. 1. hate crimes. euthanasia. are required for theatrical exhibition.8 Canada Main articles: Canadian motion picture rating system and Canadian Home Video Rating System The categories are mostly identical to the CHVRS with a few minor variations. tions regarding rating.4 CHAPTER 1. torture. discussion on the“decriminalization of illegal drugs”. exaltation. gratuitous violence/banalization of violence.* [15] In the case of theater exhibition.Rating System (CHVRS). Drugs: Production or trafficking of any illegal drug. but not all provinces require classification for home video. children are admitted to 14A and 18A films in the Manitoba and Maritime provinces if accompanied by an adult. the categories are: [15] each province has its own legislation.* [13] In the past there was a wide range of rating categories and practices in the various provinces. • 18: Não Recomendado para Menores de 18 Anos (“Not recommended for ages under 18”): The following contents are accepted for this age range: Violence: Violence of high impact. [14] lowing contents are accepted for this age range: Violence: Rape. exhibition and admission. The act also prohibits the renting and selling of D and X rated media to people below the ages of 16 and 18 respectively. and In general. Sex and Nudity: Explicit sex. suicide. but do not impose an age restriction on 18A films. inducing the use of illegal drugs. abortion.8. reserve the right to prohibit films altogether. violent fetish and pornography overall). British Columbia. however. rules and regula• G – Suitable for viewing by all ages.* [17]* [18] Some provinces. although admittance is restricted to children over the age of 14 in the case of 18A films. death penalty.* [19]* [20] The Maritimes and British Columbia (along with Saskatchewan) also provide an “A”classification for adult content.* [16]* [17] Likewise.7 Bulgaria The Bulgarian film rating system is defined in the Film Industry Act of 2003 and administered by the National Film Rating Committee. 1.

9. rented or purchased by children 13 years of age or over. • Mayores de 18 años – Suitable for people aged 18 and older. 5 • 13+: 13 ans et plus (13 years and over) – May be viewed. • 18+: 18 ans et plus (18 years and over) – May be viewed.* [23] In some cases the Régie du cinéma may refuse to provide a classification.10 China banning the film. • R – Restricted to 18 years and over. Minors are admitted to films with pornographic and excessively violent content if they videos. the Régie du cinéma rates all films and • Todo Espectador – General Audience • Inconveniente para menores de 7 años – Not suitable for children younger than 7 years • Mayores de 14 años – Suitable for people aged 14 and older. In Quebec.2 Classifications used in Québec For more details on this topic.* [24] China does not have a rating system. effectively 1. No rental or purchase by those under 18. see Régie du cinéma (Quebec). 1. Content not suitable for minors. The age ratings are: 1.9 Chile • A – Adult. rented or purchased by adults 18 years of age or over. The age ratings may also be supplemented by the following content categories: • Contenido educativo – Educational content • Contenido pornográfico – Pornographic content • Contenido excesivamente violento – Excessively violent content Pornographic films may only be exhibited at venues licensed for that purpose. though some exhibitors have introduced informal ratrented or purchased by persons of all ages.* [22] its purview devolves from the Cinema Act (chapter C-18. Those under 14 should view with an adult. • 16+: 16 ans et plus (16 years and over) – May be viewed. • 14A – Suitable for people 14 years of age or older.8. Parents cautioned. Educational and sports films are exempt from classification. CHILE • PG – Parental guidance advised. Film is not suitable for viewers under 18 years of age. Only films that The rating labels used by Régie du cinéma. No rental or purchase by those under 18. Children under 13 may be admitted only if accompanied by an adult.1).* [25] • E – Exempt. are passed as “suitable for all ages”are released al• G: Visa général (General Rating) – May be viewed. Those under 18 should view with an adult. Parents strongly cautioned.1.* [26]* [27] . The Régie is a governmental agency overare accompanied by a parent or guardian. rented or purchased by children 16 years of age or over. seen by the Quebec Ministry of Culture and Communications. ings. (Formerly“Adult Accompaniment (14)" in the Maritimes)* [17]* [21] • 18A – Suitable for people 18 years of age or older. No rental or purchase by those under 14. (Formerly“Explicit Material (XXX)" Films are classified by the Council of Cinematographic Classification (Consejo de Calificación Cinematográfica) in the Maritimes)* [17]* [21] which is a central agency under the Ministry of Education.

6 CHAPTER 1. • 7: Advisory • 12: Advisory • 15: Restricted • K-12 – Prohibited for under 12 unless accompanied by an adult. • 18: Restricted • X: Pornographic content. • Prohibited: Contains elements that incite or advocate crime. • 18 – Adults only. the Media Council for Children and Young People currently rates films.* [31] Approval of the film for general admittance. the Ministry of Culture issued its new rating system. A minor up to 3 years younger than the age limit is permitted to see a film in a cinema when accompanied by an adult. • 16 – Over 16 year. but not recommended for children younger than the age of 7. Approval of the film for general admittance. a distribution certificate must from the age of 11. 1. 1.* [28]* [29]* [30] The classifications are: • MS-12 – Not recommended for under 12.* [32] • PERE – Family Film. • K-16 – Prohibited for under 16 unless accompanied by an adult.11 Colombia • MS-6 – Not recommended for under 6. • T: For general audiences.* [34] A certificate will Exempt from classification – only used on home be granted from the following: video products (mostly documentaries. • L – Allowed to all. As of June 22. • U – certificate authorising the screening of the film to all members of the public • 12 – certificate prohibiting the screening of the film to minors under twelve • 16 – certificate prohibiting the screening of the film to minors under sixteen • 18 – certificate prohibiting the screening of the film to minors under eighteen . In some cases films may be classified as“pornographic films from the age of 15. or those containing an incitement to violence”or completely prohibited from screening. The Minister will decide which certificate to issue based on a recApproval of the film for admittance of children ommendation by the Board of Film Classification. 2005. 1.* [33] • S – For all ages. except for 18-rated films.13 Estonia Film classification in Estonia is regulated by the Child Welfare Act. MOTION PICTURE RATING SYSTEM 1. • K-14 – Prohibited for under 14 unless accompanied by an adult. be obtained from the Ministry of Culture. • 7 – Over 7 years. Films do not have to be submitted for a rating and in such instances must be labelled a “15”(restricted to people aged 15 and above). • 12 – Over 12 years. Children aged 7 and above may attend any performance̶ including those restriced to older audiences̶if they are accompanied by an adult.12 Denmark In Denmark.15 France Approval of the film for admittance of children Prior to showing in theaters.14 Finland Films in Finland are classified by the Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media. Danish stand-up shows and educational material) 1.

but may be self-applied to films seeking to edUniversal.16 Germany 7 • 17 – Not permitted to young people under the age of 17.* [41] . nobody under this age admitted (blue Only Level III is a restricted category.* [38]* [39] ages 6 and older (yellow sign) • I – suitable for all ages (circle sign) Freigegeben ab 12 Jahren (FSK 12): released to ages 12 and older. Stations are permitted to broadcast films not approved for audiences under 12 at their own discretion.* [35] Films intended for public exhibition have to be submitted to the Director of Film. instructional films. Cinemas may legally exhibit films without a classification but mi. adults only. sign) Keine Jugendfreigabe (FSK 18): "no youth admitted".Further information: § Netherlands gories: Since July 1. Films with this rating may be sold Not recommended below age of 6 without any age restriction provided they do not contain any material “evidently harmful to the development of children and youths”.* [37] Not recommended below age of 16 Not recommended below age of 18 Restricted below 18. In October 2013. SMAIS • Unrestricted – No restrictions announced that it was adopting the Netherlands' Kijkwi• 13 – Suitable for people aged 13 and above. for all ages ucate their audience (e. untary Self-Regulation of the Film Industry. documentaries. jzer at least through 2016.18. who is the Film Censorship Authority (FCA) striction (white sign) under the Ordinance.17 Greece 1. HONG KONG 1.18 Hong Kong accordance with §14 of the Youth Protection Law). Levels I.g.).* [6] There are four cate. A B ages 16 and older. (red sign) 1. children who are at least age 6 may be admitted with parental accompaniment (green sign) • IIA – not suitable for children (square sign) • IIB – not suitable for young persons and children • III – for persons aged 18 or above only Freigegeben ab 16 Jahren (FSK 16): released to Of the four levels. The Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle der Filmwirtschaft (Vol• 18 – Not permitted to people under the age of 18. All the ratings contain the phrase “gemäß §14 JuSchG”(in 1.* [36] Not recommended below age of 12 The FSK rating also limits the time of the day in which the movie may be aired on free-to-air TV stations to a time frame between 22:00 (FSK 16) or 23:00 (FSK 18) and 6:00.20 Iceland All publicly released films must be submitted to the Youth Committee for classification. 2006. and II are unrestricted.19 Hungary Hungarian ratings are decided by the National Media and * • Infoprogramm or Lehrprogramm: “educational Infocommunications Authority (NMHH): [40] programming”. II .1. signifying that they are legally binding for minors. FSK) has a film ratings system under which films are classified. for adults only 1. for approval. Newspaper and Article AdminOhne Altersbeschränkung (FSK 0): no age reistration.Main article: Hong Kong motion picture rating system nors are prohibited from such screenings. Smáís has replaced the Kvikmyndaskoðun system in Iceland. etc. This rating is not issued by the FSK. Films approved for public exhibition are then either classified or exempted Freigegeben ab 6 Jahren (FSK 6): released to from classification.

22 Indonesia Motion pictures shown in Indonesia must undergo reviewing by the Indonesian Film Censorship Board. not admitted at cinemas or permitted to purchase/rent the video. . Viewers under 18 are dren below 12 years. • БА: Suitable for children over the age of 12.* [44]* [45] • PG-12: Parental guidance requested for young people under 12 years. 1. 1. Younger viewers are not admitted. tion. suitable for all ages 1. such as movie trailers and posters. * * have been in use since 1 May 1998. • VM14: Not suitable for children under 14.26 Kazakhstan Parental Guidance – Suitable for children In Kazakhstan. • A – Restricted to adults. the LSF/IFCB also reviews and issues permits for film-related advertising. • S – Restricted to any special class of persons. Films passed for exhibition are awarded one of the following classifications:* [43] • SU (Semua Umur): All ages 1. Younger viewers may be admitted to the film at cinemas In India.23 Ireland All films that are exhibited in public or released on a home video format must be submitted for classification to the Irish Film Classification Office (IFCO). LSF has the authority to cut scenes from films. Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) is if accompanied by an adult. • VM18: Not suitable for children under 18. • R18+: No one under 18 admitted. Suitable for viewers of twelve and over.24 Italy All films aimed to be shown in Italy are classified by the Committee for the Theatrical Review of the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities into one of the following categories:* [46] • T (all): All ages admitted.8 CHAPTER 1. General – Suitable for children of school going age. • К: Film is allowed for any audience.21 India Suitable for viewers of fifteen and over. (cinema only) Suitable for viewers of sixteen and over. films are rated by the Committee for Cul* over the age of 8. Younger children may be admitted to the film at cinemas if accompanied by an adult. • Б14: Supervision by parents recommended for children under the age of 14. • R15+: No one under 15 admitted. [47] [48] screenings • G: General. on home video younger viewresponsible for certifying films meant for public exhibi* ers are not permitted to purchase/rent. Other than issuing certificates.25 Japan • R (Remaja): Teen A Japanese film rating regulator known as Eirin (映倫) [full-name: Eiga Rinri Kanri Iinkai (映画倫理管理委 • D (Dewasa): Adult 員会)] has a film classification system under which films The categories • Limited (Terbatas): Passed uncut for film festival are classified into one of four categories. • UA – Unrestricted Public Exhibition but with a word of caution that Parental discretion required for chilSuitable only for adults. [49] children under the age of 12. MOTION PICTURE RATING SYSTEM 1. Parental guidance is recommended for ture of the Ministry for Culture and Information. on home video younger viewers are not permitted to purchase/rent. 1. [42] • U – Unrestricted Public Exhibition.

• 18 – For viewers aged 18 and above. • 12+ – For ages 12 and above. and later the Film Censorship Act 2002.* [55] As part of an overhaul in 2013 to P13 in 2012.29. .e.No age limit. • 15+ – Suitable for ages 15 and above. Film Censorship Board (LPF) was created to censor films distributed across Malaysia in accordance with the Cine• PU – For Professional Use Only matograph Films Act 1952.1. 1. As of 2012 the ratings are:* [52] • U (Umum) .* [56] If the film is deemed“fit for exhibition”it will be awarded one of the following classifications: Malaysian film classification logos used since January 2012 • U (Universal) – Suitable for all. 1. Certificates issued are based on * • 12+: Suitable for a person who has reached at least the following categories: [54] 12 years of age • 16+: Suitable for a person who has reached at least 16 years of age • 18+: Not suitable for a minor (prohibited to people Maldive film classifications under 18) • G – Suitable for all ages. films in Malta are classified by the Film PG13 classification was introduced. and in 1996 these classifications were changed to U and 18. visual recordings and films broadcast over television and electronic networks must be classified.* [52] the“14”and“16”age classifications were replaced by “12A”and “15".30 Malta Only (Untuk Orang Dewasa Sahaja). • НА: For viewers aged over 21. by police under the Theatre Ordinance 1908. All publicly exhibited films. the Board then assigns the film a classification. MALDIVES • Е16: Supervision by parents recommended for children under the age of 16. but some scenes may be unsuitable for young children.* [51] Malaysia's motion picture rating system was introduced in 1953. • Е18: For viewers aged over 18. the “PG”rating was redefined while “U”.28 Malaysia See also: Censorship in Malaysia • PG – Parental Guidance. which was changed Board in accordance with the Malta Council for Culture and the Arts Act. film censorship in Malaysia was carried out • 18+ – Suitable for ages 18 and above. 1. In Latvia it is the duty of the producer of a film or distributor to assign a rating according to a pre-determined set of criteria. Upon viewing the board will assign one of three categories to the film:* [53] • PG (Parental Guidance) – General viewing.29 Maldives • 7+: Suitable for a person who has reached at least 7 Film in the Maldives are classified by the National Bureau years of age of Classification (NBC). “12”and “18”were retained in their existing form. In 2010 the As of 2012.27 Latvia 9 • Lulus Bersih (Passed Clean [i.* [50] • U (universal audience) – Suitable for persons of all age groups • P13 (Penjaga) – Viewers under 13 years of age need parental/guardian supervision while viewing. In 1954 the • 18+R – Suitable for ages 18 and above. without cuts]) • Lulus Dengan Pengubahan (Passed with Edits/Cuts) • Tidak Diluluskan Untuk Tayangan (Not Approved for Screening) Should a film be approved. initially classifying films either for General Audiences (Tontonan Umum) or For Adults 1. Historically. Restricted. Restricted to licensed venues between 10pm and 6am local time.

New Zealand Ratings The Films. as follows:* [57] • AA Informative-only rating: Understandable for children under 7 years.* [60] With a few exceptions.33 New Zealand 1. over. frightening scenes. • A Information-only rating: For all age groups. 1993 gives the Office of Film and Literature Classibroadcasting is not allowed before 8:00 pm. It has its own classification system. 1. • D Restrictive rating: Adult movies. Television and Cinematography (in Spanish. Potentially harmful to children under 9 years. Televisión y Cinematografía) is the issuer of ratings for motion pictures. MOTION PICTURE RATING SYSTEM • 12A – Suitable for persons of 12 years and over: Mostly. Potentially harmful to children under 6 years. fication the power to classify publications into three categories: unrestricted. broadcasting is not allowed before 10:00 pm. sexual content. or coarse language. films. drug or alcohol abuse. and Publications Classification Act Potentially harmful to children under 12 years. restricted.* [58]* [59] All ages. 1. The RTC is an agency of the Department of State (Secretaría de Gobernación). Dirección General de Radio. Under Dutch law children are admitted to films carrying an age rating if accompanied by an adult except in the case of “16”rated films. • C Restrictive rating: For adults 18 and older. These symbols are also used for TV• 12 – Suitable only for persons of twelve years and programs in the Netherlands. discrimination. which is executed by the Netherlands Institute for the Classification of Audiovisual Media (NICAM). Videos.10 CHAPTER 1. the Kijkwijzer system is used.31 Mexico The General Directorate of Radio. • B Information-only rating: For adolescents 12 years and older. DVDs and restricted computer games must carry a label . attend only when accompanied by an adult. • 18 – Suitable only for persons of eighteen years and over. (banned). or “objectionable” Potentially harmful to children under 16 years. • 15 – Suitable for persons of fifteen years and over. • B-15 Information-only rating: Not recommended for children under 15. these icons are used along with other symbols. videos. Provided that persons younger than 12 years may displaying if a movie contains violence.32 Netherlands In the Netherlands.

* [66] • PG (Green Sign): Parental Guidance advised. • 18 (Red Sign): Not suitable for people under the 18. • R-13 (Restricted-13) – Only viewers who are 13 years old and above can be admitted. A child must be accompanied by an adult to view the film.36 Philippines and “18”classifications do not apply to people below 2 years of age. age parents from accompanying children below the age recommendation to certain films. As of 2012.35 Norway The Norwegian Media Authority (Medietilsynet) sets the age limits on films to be exhibited in Norway. • 15 (Red Sign): Not suitable for persons under the age of 15.34 Nigeria films which they consider contravene Norweigian criminal law. • X (Not For Public Exhibition) – “X-rated”films are not suitable for public exhibition. cinemas: The current ratings are:* [62] • R13: Restricted to persons 13 years and over. The following age limits apply to films to be shown in • M: Suitable for mature audiences 16 years and over.* [63] The categories are: In the Philippines. NORWAY before being offered for supply or exhibited to the public.* [61] 11 1. a special agency of the Office of the President.* [64] viewers. cation ratings. motion pictures. • RE (Red Sign): Films which fall under this category are to be exhibited and distributed only in specially licensed premises. • R-16 (Restricted-16) – Only viewers who are 16 years old and above can be admitted. • 12 (Yellow Sign): Not suitable for people under the age of 12. age rating may be admitted if accompanied by an adult. although the“15” 1. • PG (Parental Guidance Suggested) – Viewers below 13 years old must be accompanied by a parent or supervising adult. There is no requirement to submit a film to the Media Authority for • G: Suitable for general audiences. are rated by the Movie and Television Review • G (Green Sign): Suitable for viewing by persons of and Classification Board.35. • R18: Restricted to persons 18 years and over. however the Media Authority will occasionally discour• R: Restricted exclusively to a certain audience. . • RP13: Children under age 13 are not admitted unless accompanied by a parent or an adult. the Board uses six classifiall ages.1. but such films carry a mandatory age rating of “18”and the distributor is legally responsible for the • PG: Parental guidance may be needed for younger film's content.* [64] The Media Authority has no power to ban films but must not classify 1. classification.* [65] The National Film and Video Censors Board classifies films. Classifications carrying an age rating are legally restricted. • R-18 (Restricted-18) – Only viewers who are 18 years old and above can be admitted. and VCDs. along with television programs. • A – Suitable for all • R15: Restricted to persons 15 years and over. • 12A (Yellow Sign): Not suitable for people under the age of 12. videos. • G (General Audiences) – Viewers of all ages are admitted. DVDs. • 11 – 11 years (children down to 8 years accompanied by an adult) • 15 – 15 years (young down to 12 years accompanied by an adult) • 18 – 18 (absolute lower limit) • RP16: Children under age 16 are not admitted unChildren up to three years younger than the indicated less accompanied by a parent or an adult. • 7 – 7 years (children from 4 years old accompanied by an adult) • R16: Restricted to persons 16 years and over.

12

1.37 Poland
Ratings in Poland are not set by any board or advisory
body. Prior to 1989 the applicable age ratings were “no
age limit”,“over 7”,“over 12”,“over 15”and“over 18”
and were set by The General Committee of Cinematography. Since 1989 there is no official classification system, with age ratings being self-prescriptive and set by the
distributors. In case of television, the supervisory body
– Krajowa Rada Radiofonii i Telewizji (KRRiT, The National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television) can
impose fines upon those responsible for improper rating
of a broadcast, or lack of it.* [67]

1.38 Portugal

CHAPTER 1. MOTION PICTURE RATING SYSTEM
• 0+ Фильм разрешён для показа в любой
зрительской аудитории (Film allowed for any
age) – All ages are admitted. No age restrictions.
• 6+ Фильм разрешён детям, достигшим 6 лет
(Film for those above 6) – Unsuitable for children
under 6.
• 12+ Детям до 12 лет фильм разрешён в
сопровождении родителей (Film for those above
12) – Unsuitable for children under 12.
• 16+ Фильм разрешён детям старше 16 лет
(Film for those above 16) – Unsuitable for children
under 16.
• 18+ Фильм разрешён детям старше 18 лет
(Film for those above 18) – Prohibited for children
under 18.

Movies are rated in Portugal by the Comissão de Classifi• Фильмы, которым отказано в классификации
cação de Espectáculos of the Ministry of Culture. In cin(Refused classification) – Banned.
emas the ratings are mandatory (subject to parental guidance) whereas for video releases they are merely advisory,
except in the case of pornographic content.* [68] Children
under the age of 3 were previously prohibited from pub- 1.40 Singapore
lic film performances, but a special category was introduced for this age group when the classification system
Further information: Media Development Authority
was overhauled in 2014. A category for 14 year-olds was
also introduced, and the lowest age rating was dropped
from 4 years of age to 3.* [69]* [70] The categories are Film classification in Singapore was introduced in 1991
and comes under the jurisdiction of the Board of Film
the following:
Censors (BFC). There were three ratings originally: G
• Para todos os públicos – For all the public (espe- (General), PG (Parental Guidance) and R18 (Restricted
to 18 years and above). Prior to then films were either apcially designed for children under 3 years of age).
proved or effectively banned. Since then, there have been
several alterations to the ratings over the years. The R18
• M/3 Passed for viewers aged 3 and older.
rating has been dropped, and has been replaced by NC16
• M/6 Passed for viewers aged 6 and older.
(No Children under 16), M18 (Mature 18) and R21 (Restricted 21). A PG13 (Parental Guidance 13) rating, in• M/12 Passed for viewers aged 12 and older.
troduced in 2011, is the latest rating to be introduced.
The G, PG and PG13 ratings are advisory while NC16,
• M/14 Passed for viewers aged 14 and older.
M18 and R21 carry age restrictions. Video ratings are
mostly the same as the cinema ratings, except only go up
• M/16 Passed for viewers aged 16 and older.
to M18. Some titles, such as documentaries and sports
• M/18 Passed for viewers aged 18 and older.
programmes may be exempt from classification on video,
but all titles must be classified for public exhibition.* [73]
• P Special rating supplementary to the M/18 age rating denoting “pornography”.

1.39 Russia
See also: On Protecting Children from Information
Harmful to Their Health and Development
The revised Singapore film rating system which took effect 15 July
2011

Since 2012 the rating appears inside circles, which indicate age restrictions followed by a plus(+), and appears The categories are:
in most shows, including TV and Internet shows in Rus• G: General – Suitable for all ages.
sian.* [71]* [72] The indication shown:

1.43. SPAIN

13

• PG: Parental Guidance – Suitable for all but parents
should guide their young.

• Teenager restricted (
hibits children under 18.

• PG13: Parental Guidance 13 – Suitable for persons
aged 13 and above but parental guidance is advised
for children below 13.

• Restricted – Restricted to “special theaters”.

• NC16: No Children Under 16 – Suitable for persons
aged 16 and above.

) – Pro-

1.43 Spain

All films to be commercially released in Spain in any
• M18: Mature 18 – Suitable for persons aged 18 and medium must be submitted to the ICAA. Classifications
above.
are advisory except for X-rated films, which are restricted
• R21: Restricted 21 – Suitable for adults aged 21 and to specially licensed venues. A supplementary classification, “Especialmente Recomendada para la Infancia”
above.
(Especially recommended for children), is sometimes appended to the lowest two classifications.* [77]

1.41 South Africa
In South Africa film are classified by the Film and Publication Board.* [74] All broadcasters, cinemas and distributors of DVD/video and computer games must comply
with the following:

• APTA – General admission
• 7 – Not recommended for audiences under 7
• 12 – Not recommended for audiences under 12
• 16 – Not recommended for audiences under 16

• A: Suitable for all.

• 18 – Not recommended for audiences under 18

• PG: Parental Guidance

• Película X – Prohibited for audiences under 18

• 7–9PG: Not suitable for children under the age of
7. Children aged 7–9 years old may not be admitted
unless accompanied by an adult.

1.44 Sweden

• 10: Not suitable for children under the age of 10.





Statens medieråd (the Swedish Media Council) is a government agency with the aims to reduce the risk of harm10–12PG: Not suitable for children under the age
ful media influences among minors and to empower miof 10. Children aged 10–12 years old may not be
nors as conscious media users.* [78] The classification beadmitted unless accompanied by an adult.
stowed on a film should not be viewed as recommendations on the suitability for children, as the law the council
13: Not suitable for children under the age of 13.
operates under (SFS 2010:1882) only mandates them to
16: Not suitable for persons under the age of 16.
assess the relative risk to children's well-being. It is not a
legal requirement to submit a film to the Media Council,
18: Not suitable for persons under the age of 18.
but children under the age of 15 are not admitted in such
X18: No One Under 18 Admitted; restricted to li- instances.* [79]* [80]* [81] The councils classification only
applies to public exhibition, and the law does not require
censed adult premises.
classification of home media.* [82]
XX: Must not be distributed or exhibited in public.
The following categories are used:* [80]* [81]

1.42 South Korea

• Btl (Barntillåten) – All ages.

)
The Korea Media Rating Board (
in Seoul divides licensed films into the following categories:* [75]* [76]

• 7 – Children under the age of 7, who are accompanied by an adult (a person aged 18 or over), are
admitted to films that have been passed for children
from the age of 7.

• All (

) – Suitable for all audiences.

• 12 (12
12 years and over.

) – Suitable for persons aged

• 15 (15
15 years and over.

) – Suitable for persons aged

• 11 – Children over the age of 7, who are accompanied by an adult, are admitted to films that have been
passed for children from the age of 11.
• 15 – Children under the age of 15 are not admitted
to any film that is “not approved”for viewing by
children.

14

1.45 Switzerland
Further information: § Germany

CHAPTER 1. MOTION PICTURE RATING SYSTEM
• P – Educational.
• G – General Audience.
• 13 – Suitable for viewers aged 13 years and over.

Switzerland has adopted Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle der
Filmwirtschaft (FSK), Germany's classification body.
Under Swiss law, however, children up to two years
younger than the age recommendations will be admitted
if accompanied by a person invested with parental authority.* [83]

1.46 Taiwan
Taiwan/Republic of China did not have a motion picture
rating system until April 1994. The Government Information Office (GIO) classifies films into one of the following four categories pursuant to its issued Regulations
Governing the Classification of Motion Pictures of the
Republic of China (電影⽚分級處理辦法 in traditional
Chinese):* [84]

• 15 – Suitable for viewers aged 15 years and over.
• 18 – Suitable for viewers aged 18 years and over.
• 20 – Suitable for viewers aged 20 years and over.
Restricted.
• Banned – Films that are not allowed to screen publicly in Thailand.

1.48 Turkey

In Turkey, movies to be shown in cinemas are rated by
the Evaluation and Classification Board of the Ministry
of Culture and Tourism. All films to be made commercially available must be classified, except in the case of
educational films which are labeled as “for educational
purposes”instead. The board also has the power to refuse
• General audiences category (普遍級 (普)) – (G) classification in extreme cases (producers and distributors
can submit an edited version of a movie to the board but
Viewing is permitted for audiences of all ages.
edited versions may also be rejected if still deemed inap• Protected category (保護級 (護)) – (P) Viewing is propriate); in this case, the movie will be banned with the
not permitted for children under six; children view- exception of special artistic activities like fairs, festivals,
ers between six and 11 shall be accompanied and feasts and carnivals.* [87]* [88]
given guidance by parents, teachers, seniors, or adult
relatives or friends.
• Genel İzleyici Kitlesi – General audience.
• Parental guidance category (輔導級 (輔)) – (PG)
Viewing is not permitted for children under 12; attention and guidance from parents, teachers, or seniors are required for adolescent viewers between 12
and 17.
• Restricted category (限制級 (限)) – (R) Viewing
is not permitted for those under 18.

1.47 Thailand

• 7+ – Suitable for viewers aged 7 and over.
• 7A – Viewers under the age of 7 may watch with
accompanying family mambers.
• 13+ – Suitable for viewers aged 13 and over.
• 13A – Viewers under the age of 13 may watch with
accompanying family members.
• 15+ – Suitable for viewers aged 15 and over.
• 15A – Viewers under the age of 15 may watch with
accompanying family members.

A motion picture rating system was proposed in the Film
• 18+ – Suitable for viewers aged 18 and over.
and Video Act of 2007, and was passed on December 20,
2007 by the Thai military-appointed National Legislative
Assembly, replacing laws which had been in place since
1930. The draft law was met with resistance from the 1.49 United Arab Emirates
film industry and independent filmmakers. Activists had
hoped for a less-restrictive approach; however, films are
The Ministry of Information of the United Arab Emirates
still subject to censorship, or can be banned from release
classifies all films, which cinemas must abide by.* [89]
altogether if the film is deemed to“undermine or disrupt
social order and moral decency, or might impact national
• G (General admission) – All ages are allowed.
security or the pride of the nation”.* [85]
The ratings were put into effect in August 2009.* [86]
They are as follows:

• PG13 – All ages allowed but children under 13 must
be accompanied by an adult.

the Motion Picture Association of under 15 is allowed to see a 15 film at the cinema or America (MPAA). A PG film should not unsettle a child aged around eight or older. Children aged 14 and under are not allowed even if accompanied by adults. R18 videos may not be supplied by mail order.Suitable for all. but some scenes may be unsuitable for young children.51 United States • 12 – Video release suitable for 12 years and over. • 15+ – 15 years old and above only. Children aged 17 and under are not allowed even if accompanied by adults. the BBFC also classifies films made commercially available though a home video format.Suitable only for 15 years and older.Suitable only for adults. • 15 . and video works may be supplied to adults only in licensed sex shops. • 18+ – 18 years old and above only.General viewing.* [93] • U (Universal) . 1. UNITED STATES 15 • PG15 – All ages allowed but children under 15 must be accompanied by an adult.Adult works for licensed premises only. 1. • 18 .* [90]* [91] UK film classification certificates. although statutory powers remain with local councils which can overrule any of the BBFC's decisions. • R18 (Restricted 18) . No-one under 18 is allowed to see an 18 film at the cinema or buy / rent an 18 rated video.50 United Kingdom See also: History of British film certificates and Video Recordings Act 1984 The British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) classifies films to be publicly exhibited in the United Kingdom. • PG (Parental Guidance) . The buy/rent a 15 rated video. The current BBFC system is:* [92] • Uc – Especially suitable for pre-school children. The R18 category is a special and legally-restricted classification primarily for explicit works of consenting sex or strong fetish material involving adults. so a film they have banned on physical media can still be made available via streaming media/video on demand. although older video works still in circulation may carry the label. religion or music are exempt from classification. but this is not an official label. exempt films may be marked as “E”. Videos designed to inform.Cinema release suitable for 12 years and over.1. educate or instruct or concerned with sport. Main article: Motion Picture Association of America Video recordings with this rating are not to be sup. Since 1984.film rating system plied to anyone below that age. issues ratings for movies. . No one younger than 12 may see a 12A film in a cinema unless accompanied by an adult. • 12A . The category is now deprecated. The BBFC's regulatory powers do not extend to the internet.51. through the Classification and Rating Administration (CARA). Films may only be shown to adults in specially licensed cinemas. A U film should be suitable for audiences aged four years and over. If the BBFC refuses a classification this effectively amounts to a ban (although local councils retain the legal right to overturn it in the case of cinema exhibition). No-one In the United States. Uc is deprecated.

Retrieved 7 June 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. The Hollywood Reporter. of July 14. Vienna: Federal Ministry of Education. Arts and Culture. Retrieved 23 August 2014. . InfoLEG (in Spanish). Study on Parental Control of Television Broadcasting (PDF). Retrieved 28 May 2014.100. [13] “Film Ratings – Theatrical Classification”. • R (Restricted) – Under 17 Requires Accompanying Parent Or Adult Guardian. • PG-13 (Parents Strongly Cautioned) – Some Material May Be Inappropriate For Children Under 13.100. [9] Portaria Nº 1. [4] “Age Rating of Movies and Similar Image Carriers by the Austrian Youth Media Commission” (PDF). Australian Classification Board. Retrieved 24 May 2014. MOTION PICTURE RATING SYSTEM [8] Brazilian National Secretariat of Justice (2012). CHAPTER 1. 2006 – Article 19] (in Portuguese). Brazil: Ministry of Justice. Retrieved 7 June 2014. [18] “Categories and Advisories”. “Chinese Cinemagoers Keen on Film Ratings System”. • NC-17 (Adults Only) – No One 17 and Under Admitted. Nova Scotia: Maritime Film Classification Board. 5 August 2011.1 – Cinema Act”. Quebec: Ministry of Culture and Communications. Bulgarian National Film Center. “Content Rating Practical Guide” (2 ed. Nova Scotia: Department of Justice. Chile: Consejo de Calificación Cinematográfica. 2 December 2003. [25] “Constitución del Consejo de Calificación Cinematográfica – El Sistema de Calificación Cinematográfica”[Constitution of the Board of Film Classification – Film Rating System] (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 June 2014. [17] “Theatres and Amusements Regulations”. Ontario Film Review Board. Motion Picture Association – Canada. [22] “Home – Who Are We?". Retrieved 28 May 2014. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. 3. [15] “Film Ratings – Home Entertainment”. Brazil: Ministry of Justice. Manitoba Film Classification Board. [5] University of Oxford PCMLP (1997). Retrieved 28 May 2014. 125. “Empirical Study on the Practice of the Rating of Films Distributed in Cinemas Television DVD and Videocassettes in the EU and EEA Member States” (PDF). Retrieved 23 May 2014. Régie du cinéma.899”[Decree No.). Consumer Protection BC. 14 July 2006. [10] “Classificação Indicativa”[Rating System] (in Portuguese). Régie du cinéma. Alberta Film Ratings. KEA European Affairs. Arts and Culture. [26] Coonan. 28 March 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014. “Portal Online Classificação Indicativa”[Portal Online Rating System] (in Portuguese). [6] Olsberg SPI. [3] “Austrian Board of Media Classification” (PDF). [23] “Chapter C-18. Retrieved 23 May 2014. European Commission. Brazil: Ministry of Justice. Archived from the original on 23 May 2014. 113.16 system was established in 1968 and is voluntary. Retrieved 30 May 2014. Brazil: Centerplex Cinemas. • PG (Parental Guidance Suggested) – Some Material May Not Be Suitable For Children.53 Sources [1] “Cinematographia – Decreto Nº 3. British Columbia Film Classification Office. Retrieved 23 May 2014. Brazil: Ministry of Justice.899]. “Annex 1: Comparative Analysis of Ratings Systems – Cinema Ratings Systems”.19 [Ordinance Number 1. [11] “Ministério da Justiça classifica“A Serbian Film"" [Ministry of Justice classifies “A Serbian Film"] (in Portuguese). Retrieved 7 June 2014. Clifford (26 August 2013). 14 December 1984.* [94]* [95]* [96] • G (General Audiences) – All Ages Admitted. p. [24] “Film Classification in Québec”. 1 June 2014. Theatres and Amusements Act. Retrieved 7 June 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014. [19] “Ratings Explained”. [21] “Theatre & Amusements – History”. [14]“Film Classification Boards”. KPMG (May 2003). 1. de 14 de JULHO de 2006 – Art. Motion Picture Association – Canada. Buenos Aires: Minister of Economy of Argentina. [12] “Film Industry Act” (DOC). Vienna: Federal Ministry of Education. Motion Picture Association – Canada. Retrieved 6 June 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2014. [16] “Film and Video Ratings”. p. an unrated film is often informally denoted by“NR”in newspapers and so forth. Retrieved 6 June 2014. [2] “Guidelines”.52 See also • Television content rating systems • Video game content rating system 1. Jugend Medien Kommission. Retrieved 28 June 2014. [20] “Classification Categories”. European Commission. |chapter= ignored (help) [7] National Secretariat of Justice.

Retrieved 28 June 2014. New Zealand: Parliamentary Council Office. Hilversum: Netherlands Institute for the Classification of Audiovisual Media. 1 April 2003. Ben (12 August 2014). |chapter= ignored (help) [56]“New film classifications issued”.“Chinese cinema manager invents his own ratings system”. [28] “Comité de Clasificación de Películas”[Committee of Film Classification] (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 June 2014. [38] “Film Classification and Control of Obscene Articles: Topical Information – Policy on Film Censorship”. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 444)". [50] “Cabinet Regulation No. [55] “Malta Council for Culture and the Arts Act (Cap.1. Bunkamura. 29 June 2010. [52]“Film Censorship Board – Film Classification”. [51] “Film Censorship Board – Introduction”. [54] “Classification Ratings”.Q. Retrieved 28 June 2014. [46] Eggleton. Malaysia: Ministry of Home Affairs. [47] “Eirin Film Classification”. Retrieved 20 August 2014. R15+. Retrieved 13 April 2014. [39] “Film Classification in Hong Kong”(PDF). ReInstitute for the Classification of Audiovisual Media. 23 July 2013. France: National Center of Cinematography and the moving image. New [41] “Iceland Adopts Kijkwijzer!". Germany: Spitzenorganisation der Filmwirtschaft. Retrieved 25 June 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014. Archived from the original on 1 August 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2014. [29] “Las películas en Colombia tienen dos nuevas clasificaciones”[Movies in Colombia have two new classifications].587: Regulations Regarding the Classification of Films”. Archived from the original on 5 October 2007. and Publications Classification Act 1993” [42] “About CBFC”. 2012. [45] “Legislation”.53. [59] “Kijkwijzer en wetsartikel 240a”[Myspace and article of law 240a] (in Dutch). Malaysia: Ministry of Home Affairs. [48] “FAQ – Le Cinéma: What is the meaning of G. [43] “Tentang Kami: Sejarah Sensor”[About Us: History of Censorship] (in Indonesian). Retrieved 20 August 2014. Director de Cinematografía (2005). 6 April 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2014. May 2013. Hong Kong: Commerce and Economic Development Bureau.A. [61] “Films. Pat (11 February 2010). Retrieved 25 June 2014. “Por la cual se adopta el Sistema de Clasificación de Películas”[Whereby the Movie Rating System is adopted] (DOC) (Press release) (in Spanish). Legal Notice 416/2012 (Malta: Ministry for Justice. “Paranormal activity causes panic in Italy”. Hilversum: Netherlands Zealand: Office of Film and Literature Classification. [49] "Инструкции по проведению внешней оценки учебных достижений" (PDF). Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media. Retrieved 19 April 2014.”. Videos. The Guardian.04. [37] “Gültigkeit der FSK-Kennzeichen für das Fernsehen – Sendezeitschienen”[Validity of the G-mark for television – Airtime rails] (in German). Irish Film Classification Office. . Retrieved 26 June 2014. [58] “Kijkwijzer” (in Dutch). [30] David Melo Torres. Forum Cinemas AS. [60] “Classification in NZ: The classification criteria”. Hilversum: Netherlands Institute for the Classification of Audiovisual Media. Germany: Spitzenorganisation der Filmwirtschaft. [34] “Regulatory function : film classification”. Germany: Spitzenorganisation der Filmwirtschaft. Dirección General de Radio. Bogotá: Ministry of Culture. Kazakhstan: Ministry of Education and Science. [44] “Guidelines: Film and DVD/Video Classification”. [35] “Alterseinstufungen und FSK-Kennzeichen”[Age ratings and FSK mark] (in German). Hong Kong: Television and Entertainment Licensing Authority. Retrieved 5 July 2014. Maldives: National Bureau of Classification. AngloINFO. Retrieved 22 August 2014. Italy Magazine. Retrieved 26 June 2014. [33] “Ikärajat elokuvissa ja televisiossa”[Age limits in the movies and on TV] (in Finnish). Retrieved 20 August 2014. Retrieved 22 [40] “English-language Cinema in Budapest – Film Ratings” August 2014. and R18+?". Retrieved 22 August 2014. [36] “Informationsblatt zum neuen Jugendschutzgesetz ab 01. 22 June 2005. Retrieved 22 June 2005. Irish Film Classification Office. 4 April 2006. [31] “The Film Classification system”. Retrieved 8 June 2014. [32] “Vanusepiirangud”[Age Restrictions] (in Estonian). SOURCES 17 [27] Child.04. [53] “Film Censorship Board – F. October 2013. Bogotá: Ministry of Culture. 18 trieved 22 April 2014. . Retrieved 20 April 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014. Televisión y Cinematografía. India: Central Board of Film Certifi(PDF). Retrieved 3 July 2014. Culture and Local Government): B 4274–4284. Malaysia: Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 5 May 2014. Eirin. Retrieved 7 January 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.2003] (PDF) (in German). [57] “Cinematografía: Criterios de Clasificación”[Cinematography: Classification Criteria] (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 April 2014. Lembaga Sensor Film. The Malta Independent. National Film Center of Latvia. Caracol Radio. PG12. Retrieved 7 June 2014. Denmark: Media Council for Children and Young People. 11 cation. Retrieved 20 August 2014.2003”[Information sheet about the new Youth Protection Act from 01.

The Korea Herald. [77] “Cinema and Audio-Visual Concepts: Film Rating”. [81] "Åldersgränserna”[The age limits] (in Swedish). Retrieved 11 May 2014. [63] “Classifications: Classification Symbols”. 396/82. [93] “FAQs: What are the differences between the ʻUʼand ʻUcʼcategories?". Culture and Sport. Motion picture and video Act (in Norwegian) (Norway: Ministry of Culture). Retrieved 23 April 2014. Notisum. Retrieved 25 August 2014.12. Retrieved 11 May 2014. [92] “Guidelines”. Claire (7 August 2013). [94] “Film Ratings”. Retrieved 11 May 2014. Diário da República (in Portuguese) 1 (32). Retrieved 24 April 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014. Pakamard (18 August 2009). The Nation (Thailand). Norwegian Media Authority. MOTION PICTURE RATING SYSTEM [62] “New Zealand's classification labels”. British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved 12 October 2014. Variety. [86] Jaichalard. Information Technology and Mass Communications (Roskomnadzora)] (in Russian). [88] “Sinema Filmlerini Değerlendirme Ve Sınıflandırma İşaretlerimizi Tanıyalım”[Meet the assessment and classification Sign Cinema Films]. “Switzerland: Harmonisation of Minimum Age for Cinema Attendance”. [67] Kirwil. Retrieved 14 October 2014. [83] Aubrey. [68] “English Version: Classification in Portugal”. Retrieved 11 May 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014. p. Retrieved 14 May 2014. p. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Taiwan: Government Information Office. [70] Presidency of the Council of Ministers (14 February 2014). [78] “About the Swedish Media Council”. Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle Fernsehen. [87] “Sinema Filmlerinin Değerlendirilmesi ve Sınıflandırılmasına İlişkin Usul ve Esaslar Hakkında Yönetmelik” [Evaluation and Classification of Movies Regulation on the Procedures and Principles]. Retrieved 12 October 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2014. 31 December 2010. Swedish Media Council. Retrieved 7 October 2014. . [85] Rithdee. [89] “FAQs: Movie ratings – how do these work?". ИНФОРМАЦИОННЫХ ТЕХНОЛОГИЙ И МАССОВЫХ КОММУНИКАЦИЙ (РОСКОМНАДЗОР)[Federal Service for Supervision of Communications. New Zealand: Office of Film and Literature Classification. “Film ratings launched”. Retrieved 3 October 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014. Russia: Ministry of Communications and Mass Media. Seoul: Korea Media Rating Board. Retrieved 11 May 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014. [76] Lee. [91] “FAQs”. Turkey: Ministry of Culture and Tourism. [84] “Movie law” (in Chinese). Official Gazette (in Turkish) (25 731). |chapter= ignored (help) [80]“Film Classification”. 18 February 2005. British Board of Film Classification. 1385. Motion Picture Association of America. Retrieved 4 May 2014. 6. Comissão de Classificação de Espectáculos. [72] "Федеральный закон от 29. Swedish Media Council. de 21 de Setembro”[DecreeLaw n. Portugal: Comissão de Classificação de Espectáculos. [66]“2004 Implementing Rules and Regulations”. British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on 23 August 2012. [64] “Aldersgrenser på kino”[Age limits on cinema] (in Norwegian). “Decreto-Lei n.2010 № 436-ФЗ" [Federal Law of 29. Retrieved 3 May 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2014. Kong (20 December 2007). British Board of Film Classification.º 23/2014” (PDF). European Audiovisual Observatory.2010 № 436-FZ]. Swedish Media Council. Singapore: Media Development Authority. [74] “Classification Guidelines”. [71] ФЕДЕРАЛЬНАЯ СЛУЖБА ПО НАДЗОРУ В СФЕРЕ СВЯЗИ. [79] “Lag (2010:1882) om åldersgränser för film som ska visas offentligt”[Law (2010: 1882) for the age limit for the movie to be shown in public] (in Swedish). 21 September] (in Portuguese). “Age or Content Based Film Ratings: A Solution Discussed in Poland”. South Africa: Film and Publication Board.º 396/82. “Thailand passes controversial film act”. [69] “Decreto-Lei n. Lucyna (3–5 September 2003). Cinemacity. Turkey: Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Patrice (2012). Retrieved 3 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014. 16. [65] “Lov om film og videogram”[Law on film and video]. [75] “Statistics” (click the “statistics”tab). Retrieved 25 August 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2014. Nigeria: National Film and Video Censors Board. [73] “Regulations & Licensing: Content Standards & Classification – Film & Videos”. Archived from the original on 2 July 2001. Retrieved 13 October 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014. |chapter= ignored (help) [82] “Frågor och svar om åldersgränser”[Questions and answers about age limits] (in Swedish). April 1994.12. Spain: Ministry of Education. European Conference of Film Classification. Phillipines: Movie and Television Review and Classification Board. [90] “About the BBFC”. Archived from the original on 9 January 2012. 21 December 2010. IRIS Merlin 2012 (4).18 CHAPTER 1. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Swedish Media Council. “Media Rating Board OKs Screening of Kim Ki-dukʼ s Controversial 'Moebius'". p. Retrieved 11 May 2014.

South Africa. • Norway Media Authority. pp. Denmark. • Irish Film Censor's Office. • France Centre National de la Cinématographie (CNC). and Sweden. • Philippines Movie and Television Review and Classification Board • Singapore Media Development Authority. • IMDb's information about rating systems from all over the world. • Finland Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media. . Daniel P. (2006). • Japan Administration Commission of Motion Picture Code of Ethics. • Korea Korea Media Rating Board. ISBN 9781461641018. V. Canada. • USA Motion Picture Association of America. • Germany Spitzenorganisation der Filmwirtschaft e. Politics and Film: The Political Culture of Film in the United States. • South African Film and Publications Board. Rowman & Littlefield. France.1. Ireland. • Spanish Film Academy (ACE). • Denmark Medierådet for Børn og Unge (The Media Council for Children and Young People). Classification and Ratings Administration. the Netherlands. • Malaysia Lembaga Penapisan Filem Malaysia (Malaysia Film Filter Board) • Netherlands Kijkwijzer (and Nicam). (SPIO) • Iceland Smáís. 152–153. [96] Franklin. • United Kingdom British Board of Film Classification (BBFC). 1.54 External links • The Netherlands film board's comparison of film classifications issued for twelve recent films by the classification boards of the UK. Retrieved 14 October 2014. Germany. Austria. EXTERNAL LINKS 19 [95] “What: Guide to Ratings”. • New Zealand Office of Film & Literature Classification. • Australia Australian Classification Board. • Sweden Statens medieråd.54. • FilmClassifications. New Zealand. Singapore. the United Kingdom and the United States.com Information regarding film classifications from Australia.

Chapter 2 Television content rating systems Television content rating systems give viewers an idea of the suitability of a television program for children or adults. coarse language and explicit sexual references. 2. Range specific 2.3 Australia 20 For details on the video and DVD classification system in Australia.1 Argentina • Y – suitable for ages 2–11. • GA – suitable for general audiences. 10:30 p. As such it is impossi.2 Armenia A rating is usually set for each individual episode of a television series.m. Many countries have their own television rating system and each country's rating process may differ due to local priorities.m. • Apto para mayores de 18 años (SAM 18) (English: suitable for mature audiences only) – programs contain strong violence. • TW – suitable for tweens ages 9 and up. it is compulsory for broadcasters to show the plaque Comienza el horario apto para todo público English: Start time of suitable for all age schedule and Finaliza el horario apto para todo público English: End time of suitable for all age schedule at 6:00 a. • Y7 – suitable for ages 7–16.m.* [1] The Armenian ratings are as follows: stating when and where this rating is used. • Apto para mayores de 13 años (SAM 13) (English: suitable for ages 13 and up) – programs may contain mild to moderate language and mild vio. without 2006). partial nudity and moderate sexual references. .m. • A – suitable only for adults ages 18 and up. • AO – suitable for ages 17 and up. respectively. • T – suitable for ages 12 and up. the content rating system are identical to those used by the local film bureau. see Censorship in Australia. Programs are rated by either the organization that manages the system. • EC – suitable for ages 2 and up. In addition. or 7:00 a. In Argentina. and 10:00 p. niñas y adolescentes English: Warning: Content not suitable for children and adolescents are shown before news broadcasts. the broadcaster or by the content producers themselves. • Apto para mayores de 16 años (SAM 16) (English: suitable for ages 16 and up) – programs may contain more intensive violence and coarse language. • M – suitable for ages 16 and up. Starting from September 2010. or • E – suitable for ages 5 and up.troduced in June 2006 (first tested in Yerevan in January ble to state what kind of rating a program has. 2. A television content rating system for Armenia was innetwork.Age specific lence and sexual references. • T – suitable for teens ages 12 and up. language and mature situations. • E9 – suitable for ages 9 and up. • Apto para todo público (ATP) (English: suitable for all audiences) – programs may contain mild violence. The rating can change per episode. the plaque Atención: Contenido no apto para niños. rerun and per country.

2. They also usually appear in programming guides. instead of 9:00 p. In general. has a parental lock-out system which can be programmed . While the ABC recognizes the G rating. the ratings are intended to be equivalent to the Australian Classification Board (ACB) classifications of the same name. • V – used for programs depicting violence. Consumer advice Consumer advice is compulsory for all MA15+ and AV15+ programs.* [4] while ABC does not use the AV/MAV rating at all. Code of Practice.1 Child-specific ratings These time zones are further governed by the Australian Commercial Television Code of Practice. when a program carries consumer advice. although some of the content may be altered/removed to meet MA15+ classification guidelines. which is only used by commercial TV networks. • N – used for programs containing nudity. Pay television networks also have a different system* [5] Sometimes. The restrictions on to comply with the Australian Commercial Television R18+ rated programming have been increased since then.* [2]* [3] The guidelines provided by these Codes are similar but not identical to the Codes of Practice for commercial stations.3. a pay TV company. allowing children acCommercial television stations in Australia are required cess to violent TV shows and films.. R18+ rating for pay TV. the system malfunctioned. Several programs that air before the PG timeslot of 7:00pm do still contain PG content. such to the free-to-air networks. In 2009. although nothing may be edited to fit a G rating. there are not usually restrictions on the time of day any • SN – used for programs based upon supernatural particular programming can be broadcast. its code of practice does not require that it display its classification symbol on-air in respect to G-rated programming. • SV – used for programs containing depictions of sexual violence. Consumer advice takes the form of a full-screen written and verbal announcement at the start of the program announcing the classification as well as listing the type and strength of any mature content.m. In addition. are not bound by the same regulations as their commercial counterparts.2 Standard ratings With the exception of the AV15+ rating. over and above the commercial Code of Practice. these abbreviations are as follows: • A – signifies content with adult themes or dangerous stunts. whereas G specifies programming content that is suitable for all audiences. which is governed by the Australian and those programs can now only be shown on the two adult channels. For example. • L – used for dialogue containing coarse language. There is an themes. 2.3. however. • AL – used for dialogue containing aggressive language. but its use is strictly limited to • M – used for programs depicting medical procespecial interest channels. Both are similar to the G and PG classifications respectively in terms of allowable content.3. A classification disclaimer may be displayed for PG material if the broadcaster believes the material is of an intensity that parents and/or young children may not expect. SBS refers to the rating MAV15+ instead of AV15+. more specific consumer advice is issued. Shows that are usually rated PG now may feature the same amount of content when it was G rated. FOXTEL. 2. AUSTRALIA 21 Main article: Australian Classification Board by parents to stop children from seeing certain programs. dures. usually in lower case to distinguish from primary classifications.m. instead programs rated MA15+ must not start before 9:30 p. The two government-owned TV networks. miniseries and documentaries). but may not necessarily be of interest to children. • E – used for educational programming. • S – used for programs with sexual references/situations.. • D – used for programs with drug references or drug use. Some movies which have an “R”rating on DVD may be given an MA15+ on TV. all content on pay as: TV must still be given one of the above ratings. and are instead each bound by their own Codes of Practice. ABC and SBS. but are specifically targeted at children. appropriate abbreviations are displayed along with the classification symbol after each commercial break. and one-off programs and very short series classified M or higher (such as feature films. In general. • H – used for programs based upon horror and supernatural themes. They're usually presented with the same shape and sometimes colour as their ACB counterparts. Communications and Media Authority.

taking drugs or stimulants or a considerable number of scenes showing violence. Children and nonof 8 p. the ratings are also translated in Brazilian Sign Language. TELEVISION CONTENT RATING SYSTEMS • 14-rated programs may air only between 9 p. • 14 Não recomendado para menores de 14 anos – Content suitable for viewers over the age of 14. Others may not use the above examples at all and simply list the content as violence. . while the Department of Justice. casting Commission for all eight Cambodian TV stations The system also regulates a watershed.m.m. Títulos e Qualificação) judges the content to guarantee that the rating is appropriate for that specific show.22 • W – used for programs based upon war themes or scenes. or certain times to set up a procedure of TV program classification. When the film contains certain erotic scenes or scenes with drinking. the Kingdom of Cambodia on April 23. However.m. and 6 a. and 6 a. • B – No restrictive recommendations from the Committee.original system used four main rating symbols and three sion. and 6 a. has no restrictive recommendations from the Committee and does not fall in rating A. There are no official graphics or signs for • L. but then substitute one of the more widespread categories when using the abbreviated form. 2. the television networks themselves rate the shows. • D – No persons under the age of 16 are admitted. and some television networks since 2006.m. CHAPTER 2.m. The con• 18 Não recomendado para menores de 18 anos – tent rating system is a project of the Government Public Relations Department by the Office of National BroadContent suitable for viewers over the age of 18. video games. Rating. When the film confirms the ideals of humanism or popularizes the national and world cultures or contributes to upbringing children. a network may include more specific advice at the start of a program.and 10-rated programming may air at any time the ratings. and 6 a. In other cases. and consist of the following: • L Livre para todos os públicos – Content is suitable for all audiences • 10 Não recomendado para menores de 10 anos – Content suitable for viewers over the age of 10. Titles and Qualification (Portuguese: Departamento de Justiça. • 18-rated programs may air only between 11 p.m.* [6] On broadcast networks. regardless of its rating.6 Cambodia • 16 Não recomendado para menores de 16 anos – The Television Classification System was introduced in Content suitable for viewers over the age of 16. although it was already used for rating motion pictures.m. 2. utilizing only a ticker bar with a warning sig• 12-rated programs may air only between the hours nified content not suitable for children.5 Bulgaria The Bulgarian content rating system persists of the following classifications: • A – Recommended to children. When the film is in no way contrary to the universal rules of morality in this country. When the film contains quite a number of erotic scenes or scenes with drinking. and may also carry content descriptors. 2011. content descriptors (using Cambodian characters) shown on-screen during the duration of the program. • X – No persons under the age of 18 are admitted.m. where the system is mandatory. and their respective promos.* [7] The Brazilian content rating system utilizes age-specific classifications (with the exception of L-rated programming). • C – No persons under the age of 12 are admitted unless accompanied by an adult. The icons must be shown at the start of each block of the show.4 Brazil Main article: Brazilian Advisory Rating System The implementation of a television content rating system in Brazil was made official for broadcasters in mid-2007. When the film is naturalistically erotic or shows violence in an ostentatious manner. taking drugs or stimulants or a few scenes of violence. Classificação. Programming on cable networks can air at any time. 2. Since then.* [8] the stations have to follow the existing laws on broadcasting programs. • 16-rated programs may air only between 10 p. adult themes etc. The where certain programming may air on broadcast televi. • 12 Não recomendado para menores de 12 anos – Content suitable for viewers over the age of 12. scripted programming are usually not rated.

and strong sexual content. should a program contain content poand older. CANADA 2. May contain explicit violence and sexual warnings) are required to air a disclaimer at the beginactivity. Notably. • 16+ – recommended for children over the age of 16 and may contain with strong violence.2. No sexual content of any level allowed. glish Canadian programming above.). • C8 – Suitable for children ages 8+. television ratings are generally considered more restrictive than movie ratings. Contains little violence. • 14+ – Programming intended for viewers ages 14 Additionally. although in the case of longer programs that do not start on the hour. language. • PG – Parental guidance. • 8+ – appropriate for children 8 and may contain with little violence. • 13+ appropriate – suitable for children 13 and may contain with moderate violence. regulating Canadian Broadcast Standards Council (which • 18+ – Programming intended for viewers ages 18 does not include the CBC. or nudity. However. but occasional “socially offensive and discriminatory”language is allowed if in the context of the story. and some (but not all) channels in fact observe French-language broadcasters use the Régie du cinéma this. language. Moderate violence and moderate profanity is allowed. break. Also. . Canadian viewers were used to seeing ratings attached to American programming delivered via cable and over-the-air reception). coarse language. The upper-right corner of symbols are shaped like the corner of a maple leaf. Programming suitable for the entire family with mild violence. to 6:00 a. advising viewer discretion (such disclaimers are only required for the first hour if airing after 9:00 p.7.2 Quebec ratings commercial break comes immediately before the closing credits. while others show the rating at the start and again precisely one hour later. over-the-air. and mild profanity and/or censored language.m. some broadcasters show the rating at the start and at the top of each subsequent clock hour.exempt programming.7 Canada The Canadian TV Classification System was created in late 1997* [9] for English-language programmers to use in conjunction with the V-chip (by this point. the television rating given may depend on the Logo may or may not appear on screen after every comlevel of cable and satellite. • Exempt – Shows which are exempt from ratings An E rating (no rating will appear on screen) is given to (such as news and sports programming) will not dis. members of the selfas they are within the context of a story. The icons are displayed in the upper-left corner and the size should be a minimum of 52 scan lines tall.m. Canadian TV Ratings: 18+ • 18+ – only to be viewed by adults and may contain extreme violence and graphic sexual content. • G (general) – appropriate for all ages and must con- 2. The icons are intended to be shown once an hour lasting 15 seconds. No foul language is allowed. Low level violence and fantasy horror is allowed.m.* [11] film rating system system for television programming. or if the program is broadcast mercial depending on the TV channel. such as vioprofanity. This disclaimer is technically required even if the final 2.1 Outside Quebec tain little or no violence and little to no sexual content. in the same classes used for Enplay an on-screen rating at all. there are some networks like Global that only display the television rating at the beginning of the show.* [10] 23 • C – Programming suitable for children ages of 2–7 years. although it still uses such and older. It is mostly used for 18+ movies and pornography. as is used in the national flag. Programming with this rating cannot air ning of the program and at the end of each commercial before the watershed (9:00 p. No profanity or sexual content of any level allowed. and depictions of sexual activity as long lence. and little to no sexual situations.7. strong language. • G – Suitable for general audiences. May contain strong violence and strong tentially unsuitable for some viewers. and some sexual situations.).7. as is brief nudity and sexual references if important to the context of the story.

panied by an adult.2 Standard ratings 2.11 Finland A content rating system were introduced to Finland television broadcasting in 2004. • I7 Infantil para mayores de 7 años – programs recommended for children ages 7 or older. and sexual or explicit situations (used afmore intensive content . with content appropriate for all ages. a notification Television Commission.. The National Association of Television (Asociación Nacional de Televisión) devised a content rating system in 1993.* [15] 2. • Infantil (children) – Monday through Friday from 16:00–17:00.. TELEVISION CONTENT RATING SYSTEMS 2. but a rating system has been • F Familiar (family) – programs suitable for a general devised. • R Responsabilidad compartida (shared responsibility) – programs may content not suitable for children • Yellow symbol – programs suitable children accomnot accompanied by an adult. In Denmark. even in the adult fringes. • K18 – not allowed air before 11:00 p.8 Chile • Para todas las audiencias (content suitable for all audiences) – daily. (22:30 Saturdays and Sundays) explaining to viewers that the adult fringe has started. not recommended for children under 16.8.m. and Saturdays and Sundays 07:00–08:00 and 10:00–22:30.. there are no regulations on what can be shown on Danish television. • K12 – not allowed air before 05:00 p. and Saturdays and Sundays from 08:00–10:00. Most networks opt to display a scrolling text message instead.m. as defined by the National If a program is classified as 'K16' or 'K18'.m. can be broadcast on all networks at any times.24 CHAPTER 2. sion in Colombia. the minimum age required to watch the program. The fringes (Spanish: franjas).* [16] and are as follows: must be shown before broadcast. • A Adulto (adult) – programs suitable for adult audiences only (ages 18 or older).m. may only be broadcast after 6 p.”* [14]* [15] A message must be broadcast at 22:10..* [13] The networks must also air an 'institutional message' daily at 21:00.m. • K16 – not allowed air before 09:00 p. respectively.10 Denmark older. local time).* [12] Colombian television networks are required to specify programs within dubbed family and adult fringes. • Adultos (adult audiences) – Programming dubbed with this classification run through the remaining time slots not specified by the Infantil and Familiar fringes. not recommended for children under 18. The initial ratings system for television programs shown on Finnish television channels consist of the following: • S – allowed at all times.m. may contain coarse • Red symbol – programs containing material with language. Child specific • I Infantil (English: for children) – programs suitable for all children. • Green symbol – programs suitable for all ages. and must display a notice signifying the audience. and if parental company is needed at the beginning of every program. • I10 Infantil para mayores de 10 años – programs Pornography is forbidden in broadcast over the air televirecommended for children ages 10 or older.1 • Familiar (family) – Monday to Friday from 07:00– 16:00 and 17:00–22:10. ter 10 p. inviting children 12 years of age or less to “not to stay exposed to contents which have no essentially child[-oriented] nature. 2. • Blue symbol – programs containing explicit content and strictly for adults only 2. both visually and in narration.9. from the hours of 07:00–21:30. . • K7 – not allowed air before 7:00 a. not recommended for children under 12. Monday through Friday. and consist of the following: audience. not recommended for children under 7..1 Fringe hours 2. if it contains sexual or violent content.* [17] • I12 Infantil para mayores de 12 años – programs recommended for children and teens ages 12 or 2.9 Colombia Since 1997.8.

parental guidance is recommended.m.m. – suitable for minors over the age of 15 (only allowed between 9:00 p. except when used in the context of the program. since the radio and television authorities have stricter guidelines about age appropriate rating categories for programs. The symbol of this category was a blue triangle.2. 1995. access to these programs is locked by a personal password.m.). May contain excpilt scenes. HONG KONG 25 2.m. • • PG (parental guidance recommended) – programs are unsuitable for children. 2. The color-coded ratings are compulsory. and 8:30 p.12 France • A content rating system in French is regulated by Conseil Supérieur de l'Audiovisuel (CSA). and are displayed and verbally announced at the beginning of each broadcast. Programs that are classified as either 'PG' or 'M' should • Déconseillé aux moins de 18 ans (English: not be broadcast between 4:00 p. the airing channel often has to pay large penalties to Hungarian authorities.* [19] • If no rating appears. lowed in children's television series.m. it is most likely appropriate for all ages.). The ratings of the programs broadcast often caused legal interferences. • – parental consent suggested. • Not recommended for children under the age of 14 – films displaying light violence or with explicit dialogue were ranked into this category. The current ratings are: • Déconseillé aux moins de 12 ans (English: not recommended for children under 12) – not allowed air before 10:00 p. • Not recommended for children under the age of 18 – Films displaying heavy violence or sexual content were ranked into this one. and 6:00 a.m. only allowed to be shown between 11:00 p. These provisions are enforced by the Greek National Council for Radio and Television (ESR).).14. The system has five ratings. the Hungarian television rating system was more simplistic: networks would range their programs into three categories: • – suitable for all ages. (some channels and programs are subject to exception). etc.m.m. A content rating system in Greece was devised in 2000.14 Hong Kong • The Hong Kong television rating system is since by Déconseillé aux moins de 10 ans (English: generic code of television programs standard of the not recommended for children under 10) – not alBroadcasting Ordinance (Cap.15 Hungary 2. with each rating being represented by a different shape on a different-coloured background.562) on December 11. and only in some channels. – suitable only for adults (allowed only between midnight and 6:00 a. and 6:00 a.m.m.m. as of November 2012. The symbol of this category was a filled red circle.13 Greece The Hungarian content rating system has changed frequently during the last few years. profanity before midnight is punishable by fine. If a program is not marked with the television authority's choice of rating symbol.* [18] Each rating icon is translucent and. Déconseillé aux moins de 16 ans (English: not recommended for children under 16) – not allowed air before 10:30 p. 2. • Unrated – programs suitable for anyone. Before 2002. • M (mature) – programs are recommended only for adult viewers above the age of 18. is shown for the whole duration of the show. • • – required parental consent (only allowed between 7:00 p. every not recommended for persons under 18) – allowed day. . (some channels and programs are subject to exception). as this is a watershed devised for family viewing. and 6:00 a.m. between midnight and 5 a. • G (general) – for general audiences.

• 12 – programs not recommended for children below the age of 12. But. there is no obligation for broadcasters to indicate it. ity allowed channels to choose to show the rating symbols on the left or on the right side of the screen.) Shri • 18 – the program is recommended only for Mukul Mudgal to examine issues of film certification unadult viewers (for ages 18 and up). but it of broadcasting on television channels and radio stations. of the rating. however unlike in other countries a viewer cannot be denied The current classifications of films in India are as follows: access from entering a screening if they are not the age • U – unrestricted public exhibition. the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting constituted a panel under the Chairmanship of Justice (Retd. the television author• 12 – programs suitable for ages 12 and older. A yellow circle with the number 12 written inside is Sample censor certificate issued by Central Board of Film Certiused for this rating.26 CHAPTER 2. may contain more intensive violence and sexual content. the channels were required to display the ranking sym• 7 – programs suitable for ages 7 and older. The content rating system in Iceland consist of the chanIn 2002. One of the terms of plicit violence and explicit sexual content. Similar ratings also apply to films shown in cinemas. 2. chan• 14 – programs suitable for ages 14 and older. Ranking pro. and networks feared • 10 – programs suitable for ages 10 and older. may contain exder the Cinematograph Act 1952. Eventually the television authority found this system inappropriate. The symbols were distracting to viewers. A yellow circle with the number 16 written inside is used for this In February 2013. TELEVISION CONTENT RATING SYSTEMS Rating programs and displaying on-screen symbols was 2. bols during the entire duration of their programs. A yellow circle with the number 6 written inside is used for this rating. pension of exhibition of the film. nels were also allowed to increase the transparency of the • 16 – programs suitable for ages 16 and older. • 6 – programs not recommended for children below the age of 6. • • 18 – programs suitable for ages 18 and older. may not contain any violence or sexual content.* [20] . fication (CBFC) that has to be displayed for 10 seconds before • exhibition of a 'theatrical film'. in the wake of controversy over susrating.17 India children friendly – programs recommended for children. with the rating following grams and displaying the rating symbols became compul. consisting of the following: sory on every Hungarian television network. a new rating system was devised. Because of the complaints. A red cirreference for the committee is to examine “the requirecle with the number 18 written inside is used for this ment of special categories of certification for the purposes rating (the red circle was also used until 2002.” did not contain any number in it). because • L – programs suitable for all ages. and for 15 seconds before exhibition of a 'video film'. Most films without serious violence or sexual content fit into this category as well. The new rating system caused trouble within these networks. In the current system there are five rating categories: • Unrated – programs can be viewed by any age. ʻVishwaroopamʼ.“V/U”infers that the film is sanctioned for video exhibition. the committee had not made any recommendations on this important matter.nel's logo in the top-right corner. Later.by. that their constant presence could damage the television screen. symbols. and has been given a rating of “Unrestricted Public Exhibition”. may contain light sexual content or explicit language. It is an optional rating. 16 – programs not recommended for teens and children below the age of 16.16 Iceland not strictly compulsory for the channels.

) a program.g. • 15+ – suitable for teens ages 15 and over.19 Ireland tion regarding parental guidance to those under 12 years of age. Because of Indonesia's large Islam population (the largest in the world). regardless of age. known as Haram.2. dren with parental guidance) – suitable for children ages 7 through 12. kissing]. (RTÉ One. Other television channels will make an announcement about whether or not a show's • A-BO Anak – bimbingan orang tua (English: chilcontent is appropriate for any range of age. no child under 12 are permitted to view the program. orange and red. Israel networks (Channel 2 and Channel 10) display the suggested age range for all programmes. allowing for heavy subject matter and coarse language • A Anak (English: children) – suitable for teens and These content ratings only apply to the RTÉ channels children from ages 7 through 12.18 Indonesia • GA Lucht féachana ginearálta (English: general audience) – suitable for all ages. yellow. However. RTÉ Two). In Ireland. extreme violence. The current ratings are as follows: under. • R-BO Remaja – bimbingan orang tua (English: roughly translates to teenager with parental guidance) – suitable for teens with parental guidance or permission. • YA Ógra (English: young adult) – suitable for adolescent audiences. classifications: 2. Raidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ) displays a banner in the top right-hand corner (previously on the left• S – public exhibition restricted to members of any hand corner) of the screen during the opening screen of profession or any class of persons (e. and references to homosexuality). The ratings are divided into eight categories: • SU Semua Umur (English: all ages) – suitable for general audiences. but appear on Indonesian TV as content warnings for certain networks. displays of affection [e. Originally. including cable networks. • G – general audience. but in cable or satellite television. The BO. may contain comedic violence or action fantasy violence. • PS Treoir tuismitheora (English: parental supervision) – suitable for more mature viewers. A-BO. and animated scenes considered too scary or frightening for children. more mature themes may be present. mostly movies with very strong language.g. doctors etc.2. it is designated differently. may contain thematic elements that would appeal to teenagers. can view the program. • R Remaja (English: teenager) – suitable for teens from ages 13 through 17. the limit tags came in three colors. some disturbing material etc. IRELAND 27 • U/A – unrestricted public exhibition. the system was revised. sexual situations (including nudity. • P Prasekolah (English: pre-school) – suitable for children from ages 2 through 6. Later. some movies (even in late night airings) still need to be edited because the content is forbidden to air in Indonesia. Television series in Indonesia are forbidden to have excessive offensive language. no child under 15 may view the programme. sex. the rating became available at all of the channels. . • BO Bimbingan orang tua (English: parental guidance) – parental guidance suggested for ages 5 and In 2010. • Ch Páistí (English: children) – suitable for children ages 5 to 10. • MA Lucht féachana lánfhásta amháin (English: mature audience only) – most restrictive classification.19. The banner may display one of the following ̶very rare. and R-BO classifications are not considered official. with parental guidance or permission. TV censors have the right to edit out any content deemed offensive according to Islamic law. but with a cau.20 Israel Since April 2003. nudity. anyone. Main article: RTÉ programme classifications • A – public exhibition restricted to adults 18 years of age and older only. usually news and children's programming. 2. • 12+ – suitable for teens and children ages 12 and over. • D Dewasa (English: mature) – suitable for viewers over 18 and older only.

Cinemas and .m. Displaying classification rating after commercials may be optional. of the country. but some elements may only be broadcast at night. because pornography remains illegal in the Mal2. parental guidance is recommended for children under 7 years (some profanity. can ico is almost equivalent to that of the movie rating system be broadcast anytime. only adults ages 25 and above may view. The rating system are shown five seconds before the start of the programme. can be broadcast anytime. Astro only uses P13 classification for movie channels such as Astro Best and Astro First. and consists of the following: • P13 . • A – appropriate for all ages. Each television station uses different classification rating for their respective programs. The same rating • 15+ – restricted to viewers aged 15 and above. The classifications are as follows: 2. • Y – young children. and mild language (allowed only between 20:00 and 05:00). systems are used for both television programs and films. rather than one. • B – designed for ages 12 and older. CHAPTER 2. slightly more intensive than the 'A' and 'B' ratings (allowed only between 21:00 and 05:00).for viewers ages 13 and above. News and live programs are exempt from classification. • D – designed to be viewed only by mature adults (at least 21 years of age and over). violence or crude humor) (broadcast between 05:00 and 20:00 were required to be A rated and can be broadcast anytime). 2. a television rating system was revised in January 2012. • PG – parental guidance is required unaccompanied children. all television stations use the following classification age groups. no minors may view the programme. with the classification 16 years from 10pm. mild violence.21 Malaysia dives as of the year 2009. wijzer (ViewingGuide or WatchWiser). • 18 – for viewers ages 18 and above only. along with the channel XEIMT-TV in Mexico City. contains extreme content matter (allowed only between midnight and 05:00). • E – exempt from classification (this rating is usually The X rating is used for content that is banned from airapplied to live broadcasts).28 • 18+ – suitable for adults only. children under 13 needs parental guidance. pornography or sexually explicit material is rated X and is banned.22 Maldives • C – designed to be viewed by adults aged 18 or older only. • G – general viewing for all ages. sification 12 years may only be broadcast from 8pm and • 21+ – restricted to viewers aged 21 and above. ing on public television in the Maldives. cannot be broadcast before 10:00 p. Between 2009 and 2011. In Malaysia. • PG-12 – parental guidance is required for children under the age of 12.23 Mexico The classification system of television programs in Mex• U (Malay: umum) – general viewing for all ages. the classification is called PG13. There are four 18 based ratings. sexual references. • B-15 – designed for ages 15 and up. otherwise restricted. Usually. may contain some sexual situations. TELEVISION CONTENT RATING SYSTEMS • X – most restrictive classification. and serve partly as guidelines (Programmes with the clas• 18+ – restricted to viewers aged 18 and above. 2. the Latin American channel Canal Fox started using TV ratings. Television stations in Maldives display a classification rating at the beginning of each program (news being exempt from this). prior to April 2010. generally more intensive content (allowed only between 22:00 and 05:00). In particular. • RC (refused classification) – banned from public television in Mexico.24 Netherlands The television rating system in the Netherlands was cre• 12+ – teens and children aged 12 and older may ated in 2001 by the Dutch Institute for the Classification of Audiovisual Media (NICAM) and is known as Kijkwatch. In December 2010.

A special sub-class of this rating. most recent episodes of 2 Broke Girls season 2 receives an AO rating. The system is also used for DVDs in Belgium and selectively used on television broadcasts in Flanders.m.bsa. depending on the time. 2. • • Sexual Content (Seks) • Discrimination [scenes of characters getting abused. Animated versions of the icons used are also utilized in visual mediums. Some PGR programmes and most AO programmes have an advisory before the programme begins to advise of any specific content that could offend viewers such as language. and between 7 p. Not every Comedy or Drama series receives all the same ratings.25 New Zealand Examples Include: CSI:Crime Scene Investigation. some The Big Bang Theory episodes are rated G. met kinderen tot 6 jaar) PGR (Parental Guidance Recommended): Programmes more suited to more mature viewers. but must not contain material likely to cause them undue distress or discomfort.m. realistic violence.25. Such programmes are directed primarily at a mature audience and can screen between noon There are also six descriptor icons used: and 3pm on a school day (except during school and public holidays as designated by the Ministry of Education). – 5:00 a. is reserved for • Violence (Geweld) programmes with a “greater degree of sexual activity.en/of alcoholmisbruik) • Bad Language (Grof taalgebruik) 2. These are not necessarily unsuitable for children. www.m. while most of them rated PGR.m.25. but viewer discre• Parental advisory for children under 9 (Let op tion is advised.nz. The rating for each programme is shown at the start and after each commercial break.m.govt. Programmes may not necessarily be designed for younger viewers. potentially offensive language. or excluded because of their race. • Parental advisory for children under 12 (Let Examples Include: Mostly primetime sitcoms And Local op met kinderen tot 12 jaar) Reality Shows • AO (Adults Only): AO programmes contain material Parental advisory for children under 16 (Let of an adult nature handled in such a way that it is unop met kinderen tot 16 jaar) suitable for children. sexual orientation. harassed. Soaps Parental advisory for children under 6 (Let op (Neighbours). or later.Grey's Anatomy and some primetime dramas etc. ethnicity. and parents and guardians are encouraged met kinderen tot 9 jaar) to supervise younger viewers. • All Ages (Alle leeftijden) New Zealand's free-to-air TV content rating system has been in place since 1989 and is based on the system Australia was using from the early 1980s until 1993. sex and violence. – 4 p. Programmes rated PGR can screen between 9 a. skin color.25. – 6 a.2 Pay television The system for pay television is as follows: New Zealand has two separate content rating systems.1 Free-to-air The following icons are in use for age rating: G (General Programmes): These exclude material likely to harm children under 14 and can screen at any time. sexual violence. NEW ZEALAND 29 theaters in the country cannot provide films with the classification 16 years to people under the age of 16).m. or physical/mental deficiencies] (Discriminatie) • Drug and/or Alcohol abuse (Drugs. and between 8:30 p. • G: suitable for general audiences .m. Some Packed to the Rafters episodes are rated AO. They are the same as Dutch film ratings. nudity.2. Some episodes or movies may required to be edited in order to be appropriate for the viewers. denoted AO 9:30 p. or horrific encounters”and are considered un• Scary or Disturbing Content (Angst) suitable for viewing before that time. For example. religious beliefs. one for free-to-air channels and one for pay TV services. Cooking And Lifestyle Shows etc. There are three classifications: Examples Include: Mostly kids shows. 2.

one can be used and the labels are: Sometimes. and also be.new system. in which these advisories are simply written on the upper left side or at the lower right side • M: Suitable for mature audiences 13 and up of the television screen. the MTRCB has implemented duced on 15 August 2005 and consists of five icons. composed of G (General Patronage). A rating logo then appears at the bottom right certain programmes rated PG or higher. Poland did not have any uniform classification system for television programs. * • V: Violence [27] * [28] • L: Language On 9 February 2012. in order to encourage parents to supervise and be responsible with their children in watching television. Polsat. etc. Wizja In the Philippines. wherein the rating must be aired twice (before the program and afscheduled on either side of a program rated G. where it had its old adviThe age rating system in the Peru television came into sory. PG (as per the Broadcasting Codes of Practice): (Parental Guidance). Panamericana Television.30 CHAPTER 2. do not show their Before 2000.“Friendly media”in order to introduce a uniform system cation Board § Television of classification of television programs.The current Polish television rating system was introtems.27 Philippines sating red 18+ logo. the MTRCB revamped its rating system.TVP. Poland and Cable TV Niepokalanow . In November 1995. ATV. The rating was first broadcast on the film Cinco which was aired in ABS-CBN. the channels: TV Peru. 2.* [29] which utilizes at least one of the following content descriptors: T for tema (themes). commonly known as MTRCB. TVN.agreement.* [31] Until 27 February 2000. K for karahasan (violence).* [33] only two television ratings: “General Patronage”and In 28 August 2011 changed the appearance of the char- . ever. Some stations.m. then it has to be put on the upper • C: Content may offend left side of the screen. channels carried by providers that do not The new ratings system is similar to the old one. ter a commercial break somewhere in the middle of the • Visual warning labels should be displayed before program). force in 2005 as President of the republic Alejandro Toledo and the Congress passed this law for radio and television.28 Poland Global TV and La Tele.vamped.26 Peru (drugs). the “M”rating was dropped. H for katatakutan (horror) and D for droga 2. Frecuencia Latina. S for sekswal (sex). to show in chart with key Canal+ in the appropriate color (green. • Programming rated M or higher should not be except in the case of programs with SPG rating. implementing a three-tiered system:* [21]* [22]* [23] Any programme of any rating can air at any time. but have said technology can only screen material rated the look and the ratings themselves was completely re18 between the hours of 8pm and 6am. every program.érica Televisión. Canal+. plements and regulates local television content rating sys. but sometime before the implementation of the • Although most services these days make content fil. howclassification. More than of the screen during a program if it was rated as such. L for lengguwahe (language). tering technology available to subscribers free-ofcharge. the Movie and Television Review and TV. our TV.had signed the Classification Board. TELEVISION CONTENT RATING SYSTEMS • PG: Parental guidance recommended for under 10 “Parental Guidance”. im.* [30] In Canal+ before the film listed below. TVN decided to mark the so-called“adult movies”with a pul2. red). The new system consists of a new full-screen advisory of the program's rating which is flashed before tween 9am and 3pm on school days. The open-signal channels that show their age rating are: a. yellow. Nevertheless.* [32] On 1 March 2000. opposite the logo of the TV station. Nine television broadcasters . SPG (Strong Parental Guidance). whatever the rating of such program is. applied their own system of signs: in front of the seThe ratings for television programs are available on some lected films TVP board applied the“Adult only”or“Film Peruvian channels. the SPG rating was imple• S: Sexual content mented. The rating system used in Peru is for adult audiences only”. • 16: Suitable for viewers 16 and up • 18: Suitable for viewers 18 and up On 6 October 2011. an agreement was reached with Polish television broadcasters as Main article: Movie and Television Review and Classifi. but The new ratings was originally to have been a fourcare should be taken to observe the following guidelines tiered system. when annotations are to be put and it takes the place of the logo. and M.

played before midnight. On These logos must be shown during 10 seconds in the be. Like (12. In 2006.31.g. ommended for children below the age of 12) usually a blank red circle)) • 12: Interzis copiilor sub 12 ani (Forbidden for chil• 12 (Program not suitable for children under the age dren under 12 years of age) of 12 (12 on a red circle)) • 15: Interzis minorilor sub 15 ani (Forbidden for children under 15 years of age) • 14 (Program not suitable for children/teens under the age of 14 (14 on a red circle)) • 18: Interzis minorilor sub 18 ani (Forbidden for children under 18 years of age) • 16 (Program not suitable for children/teens under the age of 16 (16 on a red circle)) .2. 12. all free-to-air networks decided to complement this rule with a shared.31 Russia 2. N means it's suitable gram is rated 16. Each program dissuitable for children under 12. 14. RUSSIA 31 acters:* [34] 2.29 Portugal The rating system for programs and films shown on Russian television:* [36] For a long time. 18) they are exempt from classification. it can only be broadcast between 11pm for kids and children and young. 14. All broadcasters have the right to classify programs on their own. do not mark it as deThe rating system for programs and films shown on Ro. a G rating ginning of any program and after every break. and 6am.is when nothing appears. parental guidance adIn Serbia. but the Serbian Republic Broadcasting Agency 2. only for adults) These logos are shown in the beginning of the program and after every break. has to be marked with a clearly visible age limit (e. They are also advised to take care of the • Y: (Young Ages) usual children schedule and to avoid problematic material in time when it could be easily expected that minors • G: (General Exhibition) are watching or listening the program. TV stations are obliged to mark all programs vised) that could endanger children and youth.* [35] and replaced by P. an L. and all ages may watch. and the custodians warned. Q and R.scribed or systematically estimate age categories wrongly. more detailed rating system for TV shows: • 0+ (Suitable for all ages) • 6+ (May not be suitable for very young children) • 12+ (Intended for viewers over the age of 12) • 16+ (Intended for viewers over the age of 16) • 18+ (Unsuitable for children. Aconselhamento Parental (may not be suitable for children under 10. It is displayed at the beginning (usually • 16 (not suitable for children under 16) in a big red circle across the screen) and each 15 minutes (on a visible location. If a pro. M. manian television: The broadcasters have the right to ask the agency's opinion in certain show if they are not capable of recognizing its category. parental guidance ad. 16. 18) which warns the vised) parents and other audience if it program is not suitable for all minors. Aconselhamento Parental (may not be marked.30 Romania (RBA) reserves its right to punish or warn the stations if they do not mark the programs at all. this warning is presented by the speaker. usually in a corner) of the show.radio. TV programs that could endanger minors in any way must be clearly • 12. • Todos (suitable for all) • 2. the only existing regulation on Portuguese television was that programs with potentially shocking or harmful content could air only between 11pm and 6am and with a red circular marker on the top-right corner of the screen. • AP: Accordul părinţilor (Parental guidance is rec• G (Program suitable for all ages (G on a red circle. 16.32 Serbia 10.

34 Slovenia • PG: Children under 6 may watch this program/film. They consist of PG and PG13 ratings for Free-to-Air TV and NC16 and M18 ratings in addition to the PG and PG13 ratings for Pay TV channels. whilst the National Broadcasting Commission regulates the various films and programs. This program contains an adult related theme. Regional channels like Star World. violence and sexual innuendo. A full-screen warning must be issued before the start of the program. cinemas and distributors of DVD. Slovenian government accepted a law in 2004. where the soft bordering hardcore Emmanuelle was screened. In the case of television. If the program is longer than an hour. It contains moderate violence. • 13: Children under 13 are prohibited from watching this program/film. In the case of television. Currently. • 15 (Program not suitable for children/teens under All television stations. Before the rated programme starts the TV channels will show a notification. FashionTV is also Singapore's first official M18 rated channel. but must be accompanied by an adult. Fox Movies Premium and HBO Asia are unable to carry Media Development Authority's film ratings as they are targeted at the same region (a certain group of Asia territories). StarHub TV's E City and Sensasi and Mio TV's FashionTV HD and FashionTV HD On Demand. • 18: Children under 18 are prohibited from watching this program/film.35 South Africa South African ratings are issued and certified by the Film and Publication Board. PG13 rated programmes can be shown anytime.g. No public viewing of this film may take place. This has been breached twice by ETv. the shows rated PG may be aired anytime while PG13 should air between 10pm to 6am. this program may only be broadcast after 9pm–4:30am. 2. For Free-to-Air TV. Unconventional ratings: 2. Only Video on Demand (VOD) Pay TV services are allowed to carry R21 content currently. .33 Singapore Singapore has adopted the use of TV Ratings from 15 July 2011. TELEVISION CONTENT RATING SYSTEMS • 18 (Program not suitable for minors under the age of 18 (18 on a red circle)) 2. A logo must be displayed in the corner of the screen for one minute after each commercial break. A logo must be displayed in the corner of the screen for the duration of the program. violence and sexual innuendo. A logo must be displayed in the corner of the screen for 30 seconds after each commercial break. a warning must be displayed every half an hour. the age of 15 (15 on a red circle)) video and computer games must display the following sig• 17 (Program not suitable for children/teens under nage: the age of 17 (17 on a red circle)) • Family: This is a program/film that does not contain These ratings are used only on a few TV stations. which might include very mild language.32 CHAPTER 2. It contains extreme violence. A logo must be displayed in the corner of the screen for five minutes after each commercial break. A logo must be displayed in the corner of the screen for two minutes after each commercial break.) • VS (vodstvo staršev) – Parental guidance suggested (for children under 6) • +12 – Content suitable for teens over 12 years • +15 Content suitable for teens over 15 years • AD (odrasli) – Content exclusively for adults • R18: this is reserved for films of an extreme sexual nature (pornography). R18 films may only be distributed in the form of video and DVD in a controlled environment (e.* [37] in (The 18 rating does not refer to adult. • 16: Children under 16 are prohibited from watching this program/film. For Pay TV. M18 rated programmes can only be telecasted from 10pm onwards to 6am on Pay TV. only StarHub TV's and Mio TV's self-packaged non-regional Pay TV channels ( e. language. this program may only be broadcast from 10pm–4:30am. both of which features modeling nudity in certain programmes ) are enabled to carry NC16 and M18 rated content. This program contains mild language. R18 films may not be broadcast on television and in cinemas. child or animal which television stations are required to play a warning pornography̶as this is banned from television and cinbefore a film and display one of the following icons: ema by the Film and Publication Board. any obscenity. Adult Shops). and is suitable for family viewing. which results in programmes being subjected to external censorship of a much harsher nature outside Singapore territorial control. and some sexual situations.g. language and/or graphic sexual content. G-rated programmes are not required to show a notification for any channel. A full-screen warning must be issued before the start of the program and after each commercial break.

Programmes that receive this rating will almost certainly have adult themes. A rating disclaimer is displayed on the start of the program for five seconds explaining “Because this program is not appropriate for children/youth under X years old. a broadcaster may apply a rating. sib-o-se ii-sang sicheong-ga): This rating is for programs that contain material that may be inappropriate for children under 15. sib-gu-se ii-sang sicheong-ga): This rating is for programs that are intended for adults only. sib-ee-se ii-sang sicheong-ga): This rating is for programs that may deemed inappropriate for those younger than 12. Usually used for animations that have stronger themes or violence then those designed for children.I . Even if it qualifies for being exempt. This does not apply to the“All”rating. This program usually involves programs designed for children or families.) 33 • 12 (12 가.36. Most programs have to be rated. this rating is the most used rating for TV. If the program is rated“19”. rating 13 was changed into 12 and a new rating. and other programs that Korea Communications Standards Commission recognizes. documentary shows. This rating does not have an icon. language. MBC. In February 2001. sports that excludes MMA or other violent sports. The programs that have this rating may include moderate or strong adult themes. • • All ( 가.* [39] Example of Korean TV rating icons. 13 and 19. • Exempt (no icon or name): This rating is only for knowledge based game shows. In 2007. and many American TV shows/dramas on Cable TV channels like OCN and OnStyle. and parental discretion should be used. chil-se ii-sang sicheong-ga): This rating is for programming that may contain material inappropriate for children younger than 7. Examples include most dramas. • 15 (15 가. parental discretion is advised"( X / . and in black writing on a yellow circle with a white outline. SOUTH KOREA (The R18 rating does not refer to child or animal pornography̶as this is totally banned by the Film and Publication Board. 19-rated programming cannot air during the hours of 7:00AM to 9:00AM. except the “exempt”rating below. Additional symbols: • D (Drugs)* [38] • V (Violence)* [38] • N (Nudity)* [38] • P (Prejudice) [38] * • S (Sex)* [38] • L (Language)* [38] 2. and after commercial breaks. or language. and 1:00PM to 10:00PM. or for reality shows that have mild violence. As with the TV-MA rating in North America. frequent use of strong language and disturbing scenes of violence.2. Mo-deun yeonryeong si-cheong-ga): This rating is for programming that is appropriate for all ages. education/culture shows. Some cartoon programming not deemed strictly as “educational”. this rating is commonly applied to live events where the occurrence of inappropriate dialogue is unpredictable. Since 2007. 7 (7 가. all programs except domestic dramas (which had been enforced since November 2002) has required to have a rating system. either on the upper-left or upper-right corner of the screen. and violence.36 South Korea The South Korean television rating system has been in force since 2000. • 19 (19 가. with a size of at least 1/20 of the screen. the icon must be displayed for the entire duration of the program. which has no icon. Ratings are displayed every ten minutes. Disclaimer or rating icons are not needed. and parental discretion should be used. lifestyle shows. 15 is introduced. current topic discussion shows. and films rated “G”or “PG”in North America may fall into the 7 category. sexual situations. SBS). themes. 7. news. sexual inference. for 30 seconds. and it started with only four classifications which are All. and talk shows on OTA (over-the-air) TV (KBS. and that parental discretion should be used.

therefore the red symbol will be displayed. • i (Recomendado especialmente para la infancia). People aged 6 but under 12 require guidance from accompanying adults to watch. Specially recommended for preschoolers and kids. and before 6:00 a.” Those contents are usually aired after 10:00 p. The programmes can be shown on television between 10:00 p. all ratings were shown only al the beginning. and after 6. but can be watched by those who are under the recommended age if parental guidance is provided. and 5:00 a.38 Switzerland The Swiss system only contains one symbol which is used for content unsuitable for children and young teenagers. Parental guidance is required for people aged 12 but under 18. depending on the rating and the hour (12 and over are always shown.m. 2. “All”and“19”ratings have a different disclaimer. • 7 or +7 : Recommended for people older than 7 years old. and 5:00 a.m. The ratings are therefore used in a broader sense. In September • 16 or +16 : Recommended for people older than 16 2013. the following text appears on the whole screen right before the content is aired. Recommended for all ages. channel: “This program contains scenes that may hurt sensitive people. the so-called ′Free TV′ channels have to label their programmes and reschedule their • 18 or +18 : Recommended for people older than 18 shows to comply in the following categories: years old. years old. Moreover. • Protected category (" 護" 級): Not suitable for children under 6 years old. 12. 2.34 CHAPTER 2. • 7i or +7i : Recommended for kids older than 7 years old.m.m.00 p. '18' or '+18' rated programs are not allowed to be shown on free to air television before 10.39 Taiwan Taiwanese rating system for television programs was introduced in 1999 and there are four symbols: • General audiences category (" 普" 級): For all ages. a television rating system was introduced in years old. • Restricted category (" 限" 級): For adults only and people under 18 years of age must not watch. • PG 18 . TELEVISION CONTENT RATING SYSTEMS peu-ro-geu-raem eun“X: se-mi-man ui eo rin-i/cheongso nyeon-i si cheong hagi e bu-jeok jeol ha-meu robo hoja ui si cheong-ji doga pir-yo han peu-ro-geu-raem ipnida) for 7. the television rating was revised. Under this category.content suitable for primary school aged children • Children .37 Spain These are the symbols of the Spanish rating system for television programs: • TP (Todos los públicos). which say“This program is suitable for all ages"( ) and “This program is not suggested for youths under the age of 19"( 19 ) respectively.. those who are younger that 18 must be provided with parental guidance.m.content suitable for people aged 13 and above.. Rating symbols are shown all the programme or when it begins (also after broadcasting adverts). It is a red rectangle that appears next to or below the TV channel logo and for the whole duration of the show.m. . The program under this rating can only be broadcast after 10:00 p.m. South Korean television ratings do not include content descriptors or viewer advisories as they do in other nations. and 15 ratings. • Parental guidance category (" 輔" 級): Not suitable for people under 12 years of age.content suitable for general audiences • PG 13 .40 Thailand • 12 or +12 : Recommended for people older than 12 In Thailand.m. 2.. On '+18' rated programs.content suitable for people aged above 18 years old. the content can be shown on television between 8:30 p.m. 2. 2006 alongside a movie ratings for movies. a brief warning tone can also be heard. Years ago. in the language of the • Primary . Under the new guideline. and TP is never shown).00 a.content suitable for children between 6– 12 years old • General .

News programs. It is: action films. 2. some action and mystical films.m. • 18+ – Suitable for ages 18 and over.m. • Genel İzleyici – General audience. but other marks must be present over the time of this programs. cording to the FCC.* [40] Ukrainian TV content rating was adopted on 15 September 2003. TV programmes in Thailand are already labelled by certain system of categories.m. and 5:00 a. Shown for the whole duration of the program/movie (may be translucent). sports competitions. Programs Programs rated TV-Y7 are designed for children age 7 with this rating usually broadcast in the evening (6 and older. or violence. sexuality and negative examples. There are also content informations which indicate violence/horror. • TV-Y7 – This program is designed for children age • Yellow Triangle: children must view this program 7 and above. Green circle can be shown for only the first three minutes.43 United States ages.content unsuitable for children and youngsters. Shown for the whole duration of the program/movie (may be translucent).2.–5 a.m.m. These designations must be in the lower right corner. including children from ages 2–6. UNITED STATES • Adults . a practice criticised by rights group as nanny-state censorship and ridiculed by some Netizens for its confusing standards. The ratings are the following: 35 • Red Square: this program is only for adult viewers. Shown (family symbol) at the beginning of the program/movie and after every commercial break. But if there is a red square in the lower right corner of the screen. frighten younger children”.m.m. some comedies and dramas.* [40] drama films. cartoons. programs are “not expected to comedies. mystical films. Main article: TV Parental Guidelines • 7+ – Suitable for ages 7 and over. and 5:00 a.–5 a. . Acrestrictions. To it category related family films. it is not necessarily a dangerous film for children to view.41 Turkey The TV content rating system in Turkey was introtuced by RTÜK in 2006. These programs broadcast late at night (11 p.43.m. It somewhat looks like Poland's former ratings. The FCC implies that it“may be more appropriate for children who have acquired the developmental p. May only be broadcast between 9:30 p.* [40] with parents. 2. The thematic elements portrayed in programs with this rating are specifically designed for a very • Green Circle: this program does not have age young audience. and can be viewed on TV only between 12:00 a. religious ceremonies and commercial communication broadcasts are exempt from the content rating system.m.). It can be some action films with big violence level and excessive bloodshed. In it program there are fragments. drug use.. Suitable for all 2. concerts. Programs rated TV-Y are designed to be appropriate for Listed below are designations of Ukraine classification: all children. horrors. May only be broadcast between 0:00 a. • 13+ – Suitable for ages 13 and over. which unsuitable for children. horror films.).42 Ukraine • TV-Y – This program is designed to be appropriate for all children. In it there are scenes with nudity. Shown at the beginning of the program/movie and after every commercial break.

most parents may let younger children watch this program unattended.”* [40] .* [40] Programs rated TV-14 may contain some material that parental guardians may find unsuitable for children under the age of 14. TELEVISION CONTENT RATING SYSTEMS this rating contain little or no violence. The FCC warns that “Parents are cautioned to exercise some care in monitoring this program and are cautioned against letting children under the age of 14 watch unattended.* [41] skills needed to distinguish between make-believe and reality. or may be frightening or confusing for children under the age of 7.”* [40] The thematic elements portrayed in programs with this rating may include 'comedic violence'. The FCC states that “this rating does not signify a program designed specifically for children. no strong language.* [40] Programs rated TV-G are generally suitable for all ages.36 CHAPTER 2.* [40] and are generally more intense or guardians may find inappropriate for young children.” * [40] The thematic elements portrayed in programs with • TV-14 – This program contains some material that many parents would find unsuitable for children under 14 years of age.* [40] Programs given the“FV”content descriptor exhibit more Programs rated TV-PG contain material that parental 'fantasy violence'. • TV-G – Most parents would find this program suitable for all ages. and little or no sexual dialogue or situations. combative than other programs rated TV-Y7. • TV-PG – This program contains material that parents may find unsuitable for younger children.

44 Venezuela Television content in Venezuela is regulated by the Law on Social Responsibility on Radio and Television (Ley de Responsabilidad Social en Radio y Televisión). “may call for parental guidance and/or the program may contain • Denmark one or more of the following”sub-ratings. where the type viewed by adults and therefore may be unsuitable for of program (recreational.2. As the rating increases pertaining to the age. It is mandatory for all Venezuelan television station to broadcast a short presentation. viewed by adults. depending on the kind of suggestive content featured in a program (with the exception of the “FV”sub-rating. due to its sole applicable use for children's programs). • Afghanistan Some thematic elements. mixed. introduced in January 2003.* [40] type of production (domestic or national independent) elements include containing (such as language.44.2. before the broadcast of • TV-MA – This program is specifically designed to be any programs. Programs rated may only be broadcast at certain times. while the DLSV sub-ratings are only used with the TV-14 and TV-MA ratings. TU means for all ages.45 Countries Without TV Ratstrictions on program content. VENEZUELA 37 and TV-14 rated programs only. children under 17. 2. SU means parental guidance for young viewers and A for mature viewers. informational. This rating is seldom used by broadcast networks or local television stations due to FCC re. sex Programs rated TV-MA are usually designed to be and/or violence) and lastly the rating of the program. Some content may be unsuitable for children under 17. the rating was divided into three. The violence descriptor was used for TV-Y7 programs until the creation of the 'FV' descriptor in 1997. The 'suggestive dialogue' descriptor is used for TV-PG • Saudi Arabia • Papua New Guinea • Timor Leste • North Korea • Vietnam • Morocco • United Kingdom . health. according to the FCC. although it is commonly ings Systems applied to television programs featured on certain cable channels (especially premium services such as HBO and Showtime) for both mainstream and pornographic pro• People's Republic of China grams. the content matters generally get more intensive.Exclusive to TV-Y and TV-Y7) Up to four content descriptors can be applied alongside an applied rating. made by the same channel. designated with an alphabetic letter: • Germany • D – Suggestive dialogue (Not used with TV-MA) • Iran • L – Coarse language • Iraq • S – Sexual content • Japan • V – Violence • Pakistan • FV – Fantasy violence (exclusive to TV-Y7) • E/I – Educational & Informative (usually used for childrens' programs .). although certain networks may choose the rate their TV-MA programs with the descriptor. As of 2013. etc.

SBS Codes of Practice. Artículo 4o. SBS Codes of Practice. Titles and Qualification. [30] “DAWNA TELEWIZJA .html [37] Slovenian media law . Retrieved 20 February 2012. [11] For further details.12 July 2011 [13] Comisión Nacional de Televisión. Comisión Nacional de Televisión. the pictogram Déconseillé aux moins de 10 ans used to disappear after a few minutes.) [5] Australian Subscription Television and Radio Association (2007). [29] “Bagong rating na 'Strong Parental Guidance.47 References [1] Jeannette Goehring (2007). [26] [8] “TV Rating System Building Citizenship on the Small Screen” (PDF). [10] “CAB-Broadcaster Manual for Classification and Icon Use”. Retrieved 29 July 2013. [27] “MTRCB TV Rating Classification: YouTube. [9] “Canadian television networks begin rating system”. Rowman & Littlefield. Contenido del Mensaje – Acuerdo 4 de 1997. TELEVISION CONTENT RATING SYSTEMS [15] Comisión Nacional de Televisión. YouTube. [24] [25] [7] “Content Rating Practical Guide” (PDF). DZMM. Retrieved 2012-06-11.com. [32] “Stary system klasyfikacji programów pod względem przeznaczenia wiekowego na TVN”. [18] Conseil Supérieur de l'Audiovisuel . Concepto 54A de 2004 – Concepto respecto de los contenidos que constituyen programación infantil. Subscription Broadcast Television Codes of Practice 2007. [4] Special Broadcasting Service. nirepaso ng MTRCB” (in Tagalog). [23] Matabuena. [14] Comisión Nacional de Televisión.jingiel “Film dla wszystkich”. 8 July 2004 [17] Comisión Nacional de Televisión.38 2. 3 April 1997 15. LifeSiteNews. Marinel (6 October 2011). Aviso Sobre el Contenido de los Programas – Acuerdo 17 de 1997. Artículo Pornografía – Acuerdo 17 de 1997. Classificação Indicativa: Notícias (in Portuguese). 2012. 13 February 1997 [36] http://www. Retrieved 28 July 2013. Rated PG”. Cab-acr. ISBN 978-0-932088-26-0. Políticas de Comunicação.ru/2010/12/31/deti-inform-dok. Manila Bulletin. item 4. YouTube. Règles d'usage de la signalétique jeunesse [19] Until November 2012. 93.rg. Agência de Notícias dos Direitos da Infância (ANDI). Retrieved 14 February 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-11. must be displayed pursuant ABNT norms (NBR 15290) and is optional for shows with rating equal or inferior to PG-10. The information in Brazilian sign language. [6] “Sociedade apoia multa por descumprimento de classificação indicativa”. Retrieved 28 October 2011. advertising revenue is rising̶encouraged by the introduction of a television rating system. refer to the Canadian Association of Broadcasters Code of Ethics and Voluntary Code Regarding Violence in Television Programming [33] “Rozporządzenie Krajowej Rady Radiofonii i Telewizji z dnia 23 czerwca 2005 r. “MTRCB revises rating system for TV shows”.5: Classification Categories. 2006. 12 December 2011. CHAPTER 2. ABC Code of Practice: March 2007. p. Horario de Emisón cel Artículo Institucional – Acuerdo 4 de 1997. Retrieved 29 July 2013. (French) [20] Law concerning TV ratings (in Hungarian) [21] “Classfication ng TV ratings. 23 June 2005 [12] Introduction of Colombian television rating system [34] “Rozporządzenie Krajowej Rady Radiofonii i Telewizji z dnia 12 lipca 2011 r.1998 rok”. (Section 4. Although broadcast media remained dependent on private financing in 2006. Julien Merced (6 October 2011). Retrieved 27 October 2011. 3 April 1997 [35] “Sinalização de emissão explicação para sites versão 2” . [22] Cruz. YouTube.ca. Retrieved 2012-06-11. Retrieved 29 July 2013. [3] Special Broadcasting Service. first in Yerevan in January 2006 and then nationwide in June. Ministério da Justiça/Brazilian National Secretariat of Justice/Department of Justice. DZMM. 29 September 1997. Retrieved 200901-15. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Rating. 26 November 2011. [31] “Canal+ Polska .TVP 1 .”. Retrieved 27 October 2011. Artículo 2o.1992 rok”. YouTube. Decision from the Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel. Nations in Transit 2007: Democratization from Central Europe to Eurasia. [28] “MTRCB TV Rating Classification: Rated SPG”.Pani Edyta Wojtczak zapowiada film“Pluton”.46 See also • Motion picture rating system • Video game content rating system 2. “Revised TV classifications launched by MTRCB”. Artículo 2o. [2] Australian Broadcasting Corporation (2007).”. 13 February 1997 [16] Germán Yances Peña.' ilulunsad ng MTRCB”(in Tagalog).

Retrieved 2009-06-25. FCC V-chip. 22 January 2010.2. Su-jin (2009-11-10). Film and Publication Board. Retrieved 24 July 2013. [41]“Understanding the TV Ratings”. . [39] Kim. REFERENCES [38] “May 2009 Classification Guidelines” (PDF) (Press release). 6 May 2009. Retrieved 2014-09-10. Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved 24 July 2013. Federal Communications Commission. The TV Parental Guidelines.47. 39 . “TV ?" (in Korean). [40] “V-chip: Viewing Television Responsibly”. 2000.

video games have been the subject of argument between leading professionals and restriction and prohibition.043 (passed in 2005) states that the National Council of Children. Often these bouts of criticism come from use of debated topics such as video game graphic violence.* [8] • Yellow : Parental guidance is suggested. • Orange : Not recommended for a younger audience but not restricted. Youth and Family ('Consejo • Blue : Restricted exclusively to an older audience. and Audiovisual Arts will be the government agen• Light Grey : Other rating.* [3] 3. A video game content rating system is a system used for the classification of video games into suitabilityrelated groups.3 Rating systems • Red : Restricted exclusively to an older audience un. Argentina • Brown : Restricted exclusively to an older audience unless accompained by an adult. numerous researchers have proposed potential positive effects of video games on aspects of social and cognitive development and psychological well-being. and are sometimes part of the local motion picture rating system. The law 26. such as the German retailer Galeria Kaufhof's removal of all video games rated 17+ by the USK following the Winnenden school shooting.* [2] Video game content rating systems can be used as the basis for laws that cover the sales of video games to minors. Nacional de la Niñez. partial or full nudity. see Eleven plus exam. than non-players. drug use. Adolescencia y la Familia') in coordination with the National Institute of Cinema • Black : Restricted to adults only. their sensitivity to information in the peripheral vision and their ability to count briefly presented objects.* [9]* [10]* [11] The Argentine 40 . portrayal of criminal behavior or other provocative and objectionable material. Video games have also been studied for links to addiction and aggression. Further.* [1] and as such calls have been made to“fix”the existing rating systems.1 Comparison • Spring Green : Aimed at young audiences. such as in Australia. Several studies have found that video games do not contribute to these problems. virtual sex. For the educational examination in Explanations of specific ratings are available in corresponding use in the UK. • Lime Green : All ages may play. several groups have argued that few if any scientifically proven studies exist to back up these claims.1 Regional and national less accompanied by an adult.* [4]* [5]* [6] Furthermore. 3. 3.2 Initial controversy Similar to other forms of media. and that the video game industry has become an easy target for the media to blame for many modern day problems. cies that assigns age ratings. Rating checking and approval is part of the game localization when they are being prepared for their distribution in other countries or locales.3. but exist for films.* [7] It has been shown that action video game players have better hand-eye coordination and visuo-motor skills.3. violent and gory scenes. such as their resistance to distraction. The utility of such ratings has been called into question by studies that publish findings such as 90% of teenagers claim that their parents “never”check the ratings before allowing them to rent or buy video games. articles.Chapter 3 Video game content rating system “12+" redirects here. These rating systems have also been used to voluntarily restrict sales of certain video games by stores. Most of these systems are associated with and/or sponsored by a government.

* [15] Europe Main article: Pan European Game Information Pan European Game Information (PEGI) is a European video game content rating system established to help European parents make informed decisions on buying computer games with logos on games boxes. The AttorneyGeneral's Department now provides administrative support to the Board. Japan Computer Entertainment Rating Organization Main article: Computer Entertainment Rating Organization The Computer Entertainment Rating Organization (特定⾮営利活動法⼈コンピュータエンターテイ ンメントレーティング機構 Tokutei Hieiri Katsudō Hōjin Konpyūta Entāteinmento Rētingu Kikō) (CERO) is .* [12]* [13]* [14] age range based on the games content. Games that cannot be rated are considered illegal and cannot be sold. Rating. in Swedish Centralen för mediefostran och bildprogram (both: MEKU)) is an official institution of the Finnish Ministry of Education. also translated as Game Software Rating Man.3. Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media (in Finnish Mediakasvatus. sale or hire in Australia since its establishment in 1970. video games and publications for exhibition. Main article: Unterhaltungssoftware Selbstkontrolle Republic of China Main article: Game Software Rating Regulations Unterhaltungssoftware Selbstkontrolle (USK) (SelfMonitoring of Entertainment Software).tute.* [16] The age rating does not indicate the difficulty of the game or the skill required to play it. The classifiers usually work within the media industry. Titles and In January 2014.* [17] Australia Main article: Australian Classification Board Finland The Australian Classification Board (CB) is a statutory classification body formed by the Australian Government which classifies films. Game Software Rating Regulations (電腦軟體分級 辦法). PEGI self-regulation is composed Entertainment Software Rating Association (Persian: ‫( )اﺳﺮا‬ESRA) is a governmental video game content rating system that is used in Iran. Rating. a set of rules to which every publisher using the PEGI system is contractually committed. It was developed by the Interactive Software Federation of Europe (ISFE) and came into use in April 2003. games and television programs in Brazil. Decisions made by the Board may be reviewed by the Australian Classification Review Board.Iran agement Regulations. is Germany's software rating organization founded in 1994. It is controlled Germany by the Ministry of Justice (Ministério da Justiça). It is responsible for the age-ratings of films. Films and television programmes are classified by authorized classifiers. Brazil Main article: Department of Justice. Finnish Centre for Media Education Qualification and Audiovisual Media was merged with National Audiovisual Archive to form National Audiovisual Insti* The Department of Justice. The Classification Board was originally incorporated in the Office of Film and Literature Classification (OFLC) which was dissolved in 2006. it replaced many national age rating systems with a single European system. Only material intended to be accessible to minors (those under 18 years of age) is subject to classification before being released to the public. RATING SYSTEMS 41 Game Developer Association (Asociación de Desarrol.3. Títulos e Qualificação in Portuguese) rates films. The PEGI system is now used in more than thirty countries and is based on a code of conduct. trained by the Centre.ja kuvaohjelmakeskus. sex films do not need to be classified (but they have to be marked clearly with the age limit 18).by five age categories and eight content descriptors that ladores de Videojuegos Argentina) was critical of the advise the suitability and content of a game for a certain law. Titles and Qual. is a video game content rating Main article: Entertainment Software Rating Association system used in the Taiwan. Classificação. television programs and interactive games. [18] ification ('DJCTQ') (Departamento de Justiça.

enforces industry-adopted advertising guide. Demand § Content Soft Association Russia The Contents Soft Association (コンテンツ・ソフト 協同組合 Kontentsu Sofuto Kyōdō Kumiai) (CSA)* [19] Further information: On Protecting Children from is a cooperative that rates PC games (dating sims. The head of the OFLC is called the Chief Censor. VIDEO GAME CONTENT RATING SYSTEM Philippines Main article: Movie and Television Review and Classification Board The Movie and Television Review and Classification Board (Filipino: Lupon sa Pagrerepaso at Paguuri ng Sine at Telebisyon. and became an officially recognized non-profit organization in 2003.42 an organization that rates video games and PC games (except dating sims. videos. maintaining a title that has described the government officer in charge of censorship in New Zealand since 1916. and eroge) in Japan. Māori: Te Tari Whakaropu Tukuata. television programs and video games in Singapore. The Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) is a self-regulatory organization that assigns age and content ratings. and some video games in New Zealand. причиняющей вред их здоровью и развитию»). It was established in July 2002 as a branch of Computer Entertainment Supplier's Association. and ensures responsible online privacy principles for computer and video games and other entertainment Further information: British Board of Film Classification software in Canada and the United States. publications. A governmental organization. sale or hire in Russia since 1 September 2012. It was created by the Films. See also: The Age classification of information products is a new statutory classification set of rules formed by the Russian Government after enacting in September 2012 a Federal Law of Russian Federation no.United Kingdom lines. and is an independent Crown Entity* [21] in terms of the Crown Entities Act 2004. abbreviated as MTRCB) is a Philippine government agency responsible for the clasContents Soft Association Main article: Soft On sification and review of Video games. visual Information Harmful to Their Health and Development novels. replacing various film classification acts. Tuhituhinga) is the government agency in New Zealand that is responsible for classification of all films. and Publications Classification Act 1993 (FVPC Act). or Sofurin)* [20] is an incorporated association that rates PC games (dating sims. South Korea Main article: Game Rating Board North America Main article: Entertainment Software Rating Board The Game Rating Board ( Geimmul Deung-Geub-Wiwonhoe) (GRB) is the South Korean video game content rating board. the GRB rates video and computer games to inform customers of the nature of game contents. which classifies films. visual novels. N 436-ФЗ «О защите детей от информации. The Office of Film and Literature Classification (OFLC.* [22] . Videos. and eroge) in Japan. CHAPTER 3. visual novels. The Ministry of Culture provides administrative support Main article: Office of Film and Literature Classification to the classification. 436-FZ of 201012-23 “On Protecting of Children from Information Harmful to Their Health and Development”(Russian: Федеральный закон Российской Федерации от 29 декабря 2010 г. (New Zealand) Ethics Organization of Computer Software The Ethics Organization of Computer Software (⼀般社 団法⼈コンピュータソフトウェア倫理機構 Ippan Shadan Hōjin Konpyūta Sofutowea Rinri Kikō) (EOCS. Singapore Main article: Media Development Authority Media Development Authority (Chinese: 媒体发展管 理局) (MDA) is a statutory board of the Singapore Government which regulates films. video games and publications for New Zealand exhibition. and eroge) in Japan with levels of rating that informs the customer of the nature of the product and for what age group it is suitable.

Games featuring strong pornographic content or ancillary minigames to be included with a DVD feature will still be rated by the BBFC. Retrieved 201002-06. Retrieved 18 March 2009.043 . 18 March 2009. [16] PEGI Website [17] “PEGI Pan European Game Information . Retrieved 28 January 2014. . 2013. [7] Radoff. parte final: su regulación en Argentina” (in Spanish). David Walsh (2000-03-21).* [24] In July 2012. El Cronista.* [23] It has a statutory requirement to classify videos and DVDs.html [9] Kaverna (2005-07-19). 2005-07-17. Retrieved 2008-08-27. Routledge. Westview. Jon (2009-12-08). The VSC uses the PEGI ratings system to rate games.com. Taiwan Game Software Rating Information. [12] Gustavo Arballo (2006-03-15).3. Science. 2005) ESRB PEGI OFLC (AU) [14] Mirror of the ADVA's press release OFLC (NZ) GRB CERO VET USK DJCTQ BBFC/ELSPA ESRA various/różne [15] “Game Software Rating Management Regulations”. [20] “EOCS /⼀般社団法⼈コンピュータソフトウェア 倫理機構オフィシャルウェブサイト". “The Impact of Interactive Violence on Children: Testimony submitted to the Committee on Commerce. 41. Retrieved 19 September 2013. “Why search our souls when video games make such an easy scapegoat?".5 See also • Video game controversy • Mobile software content rating system • Internet Content Rating Association 3. Retrieved January 8. and Transportation. bbfc. 30-32. Retrieved 2008-07-13. originally British Board of Film Censors. Winda (2008-02-18).“Ley 26. [24] “The Video Standards Council”. 2004 [5]“It's Not the Media”. the Games Rating Authority (GRA).What do the labels mean?".6 References [1] Dr. [18] “Kansallinen audiovisuaalinen instituutti” (in Finnish). Retrieved 2009-12-19. 2013. 2003 [6] Benedetti. SaberDerecho.”Electronic Gaming Monthly 227.“How to Fix the Ratings System: A former game rater lists six ways to bolster the Entertainment Software Rating Board. It no longer has responsibility for rating video games in the UK. the Video Standards Council (VSC) became the sole UK statutory video games regulator for the UK. United States Senate” (PDF).4 Usage [10] “Ley 26. REFERENCES The British Board of Film Classification (BBFC).com/nature/journal/v423/n6939/full/ nature01647.” (in Spanish). [19] " コンテンツ・ソフト協同組合".“Six Wonderful Things about Games”. MSNBC. funded by the film industry and responsible for the national classification of films within the United Kingdom. Games released in the UK are rated by the VSC's games rating arm. p. Contents Soft Association. ISBN 0-415-26268-2. This role has been passed to the Video Standards Council using its games rating arm the Games Rating Authority (GRA). [3] “Kaufhof schafft Filme und Spiele für Erwachsene ab” . Capítulo 95 del SA. Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved January 8. juegos y artículos para recreo o deporte. 3DGames. This role was previously undertaken by the BBFC. [22] ESRB FAQ [23] Nelmes. Karen Sternheimer. The image below presents outdated usage of various video game content rating systems around the world. sus partes y accesorios. [4]“Video Violence: Villain or Victim?". [13] ADVA at the Wayback Machine (archived October 24. systems. London Video Standards Council. 43 [2] Jerry Bonner (April 2008).nature. Guy Cumberbatch. “Los videojuegos. Ethics Organization of Computer Software (EOCS). [8] http://www. 3. [11] “Juguetes.Los videojuegos deben llevar la leyenda “La sobreexposición es perjudicial para la salud"" (in Spanish). [21] “Censorship in New Zealand”. Countries filled with gradients are using several rating Latin American Integration Association.043 regula los videojuegos” (in Spanish). An introduction to film studies. Digital Game Rating Committee. Jill (2003). is a nongovernmental organisation. 3.6.

44 3.jsp CHAPTER 3. VIDEO GAME CONTENT RATING SYSTEM .esrb.biz/articles/ tiga-responds-to-byron-review • http://www.biz/articles/ ELSPA-concerned-by-Byron-proposals • http://www.7 External links • Video games ratings face overhaul • http://www.gamesindustry.gamesindustry.org/ratings/ratings_guide.

4 References • Low maturity [1] “Application Content Ratings”.3 45 . Adult is“advertisements. it does not give age guidance.1 Existing systems 4.* [3] 4. ESRB. “Guidance Suggested”is for recommendation that parents should give guidance to pre-teens/children.* [2] It was [4] Amazon. The CTIA . • Medium maturity [2] “CTIA Mobile Application Ratings System with ESRB” .2 Google Play • Internet Content Rating Association Main article: Google Play • Video game content rating system Google Play uses the following rubric:* [1] • Everyone 4.1. Google.or other content only suitable for adult audiences”. abstentions from subscribing companies. “CTIA And ESRB Debut App Rating System.Chapter 4 Mobile software content rating system A mobile software content rating system is a rating sys. with Apple and Google being notable tem which is tailored to users of mobile software. “MaMain article: App Store (iOS) ture”is recommended to be suitable for mature audiences. No Buy-In From Google Or Apple”. 4.* [4] lowing rubric: 4.3 See also 4.2 Comparison • 9+ Google Play cannot be compared with other rating systems such as the ESRB and the Nokia Store because. graphic violence. Google Play only describes the material contained in a program. • High maturity CTIA Mobile Application Rating System [3] Chris Velazco (November 29. 4.1.4 Amazon Store On the Amazon Appstore. unlike other systems. Archive. nudity Apple's rating system for the App Store follows the fol. Techcrunch. 2011).The Wireless Association.launched in 2011.1.1 Apple App Store • 4+ 4. an industry trade group. • 12+ • 17+ Apps rated 17+ are prohibited from purchase by younger users. “All Ages”is for all ages.com: Angry Birds Rio HD (Fire Edition): Appstore for Android (click “guidance suggested”for information on rating system). collaborated with the ESRB to largely apply ESRB's rating system to mobile devices.1.

Control what types of apps can be downloaded • ESRB Ratings .46 CHAPTER 4. MOBILE SOFTWARE CONTENT RATING SYSTEM 4.5 External Links • Google .

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