You are on page 1of 60

Content Rating System

Motion Picture, Television, Video Game, Mobile Software

Contents
1

Motion picture rating system

1

1.1

Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.2

Argentina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.3

Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.4

Austria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.5

Belgium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

1.6

Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

1.7

Bulgaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.8

Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.8.1

Classifications used outside Québec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.8.2

Classifications used in Québec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

1.10 China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

1.11 Colombia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

1.12 Denmark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

1.13 Estonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

1.14 Finland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

1.15 France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

1.16 Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

1.17 Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

1.18 Hong Kong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

1.19 Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

1.20 Iceland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

1.21 India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

1.22 Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

1.23 Ireland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

1.24 Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

1.25 Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

1.26 Kazakhstan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

1.27 Latvia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

1.28 Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

1.29 Maldives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

1.9

i

ii

2

CONTENTS
1.30 Malta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

1.31 Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.32 Netherlands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.33 New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.34 Nigeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.35 Norway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.36 Philippines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.37 Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.38 Portugal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.39 Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.40 Singapore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

1.41 South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.42 South Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.43 Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.44 Sweden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.45 Switzerland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.46 Taiwan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.47 Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.48 Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.49 United Arab Emirates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.50 United Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

1.51 United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

1.52 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

1.53 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

1.54 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

Television content rating systems

20

2.1

Argentina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

2.2

Armenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

2.3

Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

2.3.1

Child-specific ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

2.3.2

Standard ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

2.4

Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

2.5

Bulgaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

2.6

Cambodia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

2.7

Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

2.7.1

Outside Quebec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

2.7.2

Quebec ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

2.8.1

Child specific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

2.8.2

Standard ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

Colombia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

2.8

2.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Pay television . . . . . . . . . . 29 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Maldives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Thailand . 27 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Indonesia . . . . . .24 Netherlands . . . . . . . . . . . .1 iii Fringe hours . . . .32 Serbia . . . . . . . . .27 Philippines . 35 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 India . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Ukraine . . . .21 Malaysia . . . 24 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2. . . . . . . 34 2. . . . . . . . . . 30 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Iceland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2. . .26 Peru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Taiwan . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2. . . . . . .29 Portugal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2. . . . . . . . . . . 38 . . . 28 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Ireland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 2. . . . . . . . . . .15 Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Countries Without TV Ratings Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Hong Kong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 References . . . . . . . . . . 32 2. . . . . .38 Switzerland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . 30 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2. . . . .11 Finland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Singapore . . 26 2. . . . . . . . . . . 35 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2. . . . . . . . . . . 24 2. 29 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Free-to-air . . . . . . . . . .25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Slovenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2. . . . . . . . . . . .36 South Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Romania . . . . . . 31 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 United States .44 Venezuela . 29 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2. . . 30 2. . . 28 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Denmark . . . . . . . 28 2. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .2 Comparison . . . . . . . . . 44 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4 Mobile software content rating system 45 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4. . . . . .5 External Links . . . . .6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Content license . . . . . . . . . 45 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 4. . . . . . . . . .2 Initial controversy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 3.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 See also .7 External links . . 55 .1 Existing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Google Play . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . 49 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 4. . . . . . . . . . .3 CTIA Mobile Application Rating System . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3. . . . . . . . . . .3 Rating systems . . . . . . . . 46 4.1 Comparison . . . . . . . . . 40 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4. . . . . . . . and licenses . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .iv 3 CONTENTS Video game content rating system 40 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 43 3. . . . . . . . . .3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Regional and national . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4. . . . . . .1 Apple App Store . . . . 45 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Text . . . .6 Text and image sources. . . . . . . contributors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Amazon Store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

or forbidding minors to view them. with whom the viewer should empathize. Thus a color code or age range cannot be directly compared from one In countries such as Australia. in countries such as the U.S. films that are considered morally offensive have been censored. meaning “for all public” 1 . In Germany. in other countries. Ratings typically carry age recommendations in an advisory or restrictive capacity. The influence of specific factors in deciding a rating varies from country to country. countries. whereas in countries such as France and Germany. diovisual Arts (INCAA) issues ratings for films based on A film may be produced with a particular rating in mind. • Brown – Restricted exclusively to an older audience. an official government cen. ATP stands for “Apta may also be re-edited to produce an alternate version for (para) Todo Público”. and are often given in lieu of censorship. such Key: as the United States. if any official government status. violence. or banned. • Red – Restricted to an older audience unless accompanied by an adult. however. In most • Spring green – Aimed at young audiences. and a film has not explicitly been restricted or banned. are usually laws forbidding certain films. For example. A particular issued rating can be called a certification. for example. there • Yellow – Parental guidance is suggested. whereas countries such as Australia offer more lenient ratings to violent movies. • Black – No rating / Exempt from classification / Banned from viewing. such as being set within a non-fictional historical context. restricted.1 Comparison A comparison of currently active film rating systems. On the other hand. whether said violence or drug use is carried out by the 1. • Blue – Exclusively adult content / Further restrictions usually apply to exhibition. films with violent content are often subject in countries such as Germany and Finland to high ratings and even censorship. or by the antagonist. the following categories:* [1] It may be re-edited if the desired rating is not obtained. A film • ATP: Suitable for all ages. Other factors may or may not influence the classification process. Even • Green – All ages may watch. profanity. showing age on the horizontal axis. 1. films depicting explicit war violence in a real war context (such as the Through its Advisory Commission of Cinematographic Second World War) are handled more leniently than films Exhibition (Comisión Asesora de Exhibición Cinematográfica) the National Institute of Cinema and Auwith purely fictional settings.. impudence or other types of mature content. Note however that the specific criteria used in assigning a classification can vary widely from one country to another. films with strong sexual content are often restricted to older viewers. • Orange – Not recommended for a younger audience but not restricted. classification. sorship system decides on ratings. it is done by industry committees with little.country to another. other countries. sexual content is viewed much more leniently.Chapter 1 Motion picture rating system A motion picture rating system is designated to classify films with regard to suitability for audiences in terms of issues such as sex. substance abuse. especially to avoid a higher rating than intended.2 Argentina protagonist. whether the film glorifies violence or drug use. if the film rating system has no legal consequences. certificate or rating. In some jurisdictions the legal obligation of administering the rating may be imposed on movie theaters.

Adults only. • M – Recommended for mature audiences. The content is high in impact. Not recommended for children under 15 years old but not legally restricted. The content is strong in impact. Films classified as X18+ are banned from being sold or rented in all Australian states and are only legally available in the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. • 16: Suitable for 16-year-olds and over.* [4] In addition to the ABMC's age recommenor hire in Australia and cannot be legally imported. • R18+ – Restricted to 18 years and over. It is not recommended for viewing or playing by persons under 15 without guidance from parents or guardians. • MA15+ – Mature Accompanied. • 18: Suitable for 18-year-olds and over.e. 1.2 CHAPTER 1. The content is mild in impact. Films with this rating have pornographic content. dations. since under Austrian law there is a legal age restriction on certain types of content i. Kunst und Kultur). sexual abuse. The content is moderate in impact. if they are accompanied. • X18+ – Restricted to 18 years and over. The recommendations made by the ABMC are generally not legally binding and there The AMBC issues age recommendation from the following categories: • Unrestricted – Released for all age groups • 6+ – Released for children from age 6 • 10+ – Released for children from age 10 • 12+ – Released for children from age 12 .3 Australia Main article: Australian Classification Board The Classification Board and Classification Review Board are government-funded organizations which classify all films that are released for public exhibition.* [5] 1. Arts and Culture (Bundesministerium für Unterricht. Banned from sale lence etc.4 Austria Motion pictures are rated by the Austrian Board of Media Classification (ABMC) for the Federal Ministry of Education. The content is very mild in impact. • 18. • PG – Parental guidance recommended. in the province of Vienna children under the age Films are rated RC if their content is very high in of 6 are only permitted to attend public film performances impact and exceeds the guidelines. The Australian classifications are nine sets of provincial laws on the cinema sector with different age provisions. discrimination. MOTION PICTURE RATING SYSTEM • 13: Suitable for 13-year-olds and over. Children under the age of 13 age admitted if accompanied by an adult. Children younger than 15 years must be accompanied by a parent or guardian. Unsuitable for children younger than 15. glorification of vio• RC – Refused Classification.* [3] The only exception is in the case of “16”rated films.* [2] • G – General. conditional display: Restricted to specially licensed venues.

5 Belgium There are only two classifications for films publicly exhibited in Belgium issued by the Inter-Community Commission for Film Rating (Dutch: Intergemeenschapscommissie voor de Filmkeuring. Film classification symbols used in Brazil.1. discussion on the issue “drug trafficking". Títulos e Qualificação – Department of Justice. overvaluation of consumption.* [9]* [10] Unlike many countries. Rating. verbal aggression. overvaluation of the physical beauty.6 Brazil 3 • L: Livre para Todos os Públicos (“Free For All Public”): This classification applies to works which contain predominantly positive contents and which do not bring unsuitable elements subject to ratings to ages higher than 10. Sex and Nudity: Veiled nudity.1 – Suitable for all • CAT. derogatory language. French: Commission Intercomunautaire de Contrôle des Films). which. sexual intercourse. description of violence.6. criminal acts without violence. violent act against animals. vulgarity. BRAZIL • 14+ – Released from age 14 • 16+ – Released from age 16. sexual harassment. but also provides a “12”rating. erotization. Restricted classification. • 14: Não Recomendado para Menores de 14 Anos (“Not recommended for ages under 14”): The following contents are accepted for this age range: Violence: Intentional death. by law. Films are prohibited to minors under the age of 16 unless passed by the commission.2 – Unsuitable for people younger than 16 1. sex simulation. There is no mandatory rating system for video formats but 90 per cent of video distribution abides by the voluntary Belgium Video Federation. prostitution. body injury. demand cuts or refuse to rate any movie. distress. exposure to danger. showing people in embarrassing or degrading situations. Sex and Nudity: Nudity. fear/tension. • 10: Não Recomendado para Menores de 10 Anos (“Not recommended for ages under 10”): The following contents are accepted for this age range: Violence: Display of arms with violence. natural or accidental death with violence. obscenity. sexual innuendo. bones and skeletons with signs of violent acts.* [6] • CAT. irregular use of medication. sexual fondling. victim's grief. Sex and Nudity: Non-erotic nudity. are strictly prohibited from viewing by people under 18. stigma/prejudice. which is run by the Brazilian Ministry of Justice (Ministério da Justiça). Main article: Brazilian Advisory Rating System Films are rated in Brazil by the Dejus (Departamento de Justiça. inducing the use of legal drugs. bullying. corpses. Drugs: Moderate or insinuated use of legal drugs. Drugs: Oral description of the use of legal drugs. 1.* [11] The Dejus uses the following system: • 12: Não Recomendado para Menores de 12 Anos (“Not recommended for ages under 12”): The following contents are accepted for this age range: Violence: Violent act. medicinal use of illegal drugs. Classificação. Titles and Qualification). sexual appeal. such as the ones listed below: Violence: Fantasy violence. . It is basically the same as the system for theatrical exhibition. Drugs: Use of legal drugs. presence of blood. except for those rated“Not recommended for ages under 18”. the Dejus doesn't have any legal right to ban. Sex and Nudity: Educational contents about sex. bones and skeletons with no violence. masturbation. sex content language.* [7]* [8] Anyone below the film's minimum age can watch it if accompanied by the parent or guardian. deaths with no violence. foul language. display of arms with no violence. mention to illegal drugs.

violent fetish and pornography overall). gratuitous violence/banalization of violence. but not all provinces require classification for home video. tions regarding rating.8. Ratings . verbal descriptions of the use of illegal drugs. the seven rating systems̶with the exception of Quebec̶now all use cate• 16: Não Recomendado para Menores de 16 Anos gories and logos derived from the Canadian Home Video * (“Not recommended for ages under 16”): The fol. sexual coercion. abortion. There are also operational descriptions of attenuating and aggravating elements that can interfere on the final rating. Canadian rating labels used outside Québec. exhibition and admission. cruelty. MOTION PICTURE RATING SYSTEM Drugs: Insinuation of the use of illegal drugs. are required for theatrical exhibition. such as Nova Scotia.* [18] Saskatchewan (administered by the British Columbia Film Classification Office). reserve the right to prohibit films altogether.* [15] In the case of theater exhibition. inducing the use of illegal drugs. Drugs: Production or trafficking of any illegal drug.1 Classifications used outside Québec Sex and Nudity: Intense sexual intercourse. children are admitted to 14A and 18A films in the Manitoba and Maritime provinces if accompanied by an adult. rules and regula• G – Suitable for viewing by all ages. the categories are: [15] each province has its own legislation. but do not impose an age restriction on 18A films. suicide. mutilation. British Columbia.* [13] In the past there was a wide range of rating categories and practices in the various provinces. death penalty. • 18: Não Recomendado para Menores de 18 Anos (“Not recommended for ages under 18”): The following contents are accepted for this age range: Violence: Violence of high impact.* [17] * Film ratings in Canada are a provincial responsibility. use of illegal drugs.* [12] Exhibitions of X films are permitted on the condition that the venue is licensed for exhibiting X rated films only.8 Canada Main articles: Canadian motion picture rating system and Canadian Home Video Rating System The categories are mostly identical to the CHVRS with a few minor variations. supply of 14A and 18A films is restricted to customers above those ages. and In general. In the provinces that require classification of video formats. euthanasia.* [14] Alberta and Ontario also admit children to 14A and 18A films if accompanied. discussion on the“decriminalization of illegal drugs”.4 CHAPTER 1. torture. exaltation. Sex and Nudity: Explicit sex.* [16]* [17] Likewise. although admittance is restricted to children over the age of 14 in the case of 18A films. [14] lowing contents are accepted for this age range: Violence: Rape. glamorization and/or incitement to violence. Drugs: Inciting the use of illegal drugs. hate crimes. 1. 1.7 Bulgaria The Bulgarian film rating system is defined in the Film Industry Act of 2003 and administered by the National Film Rating Committee. group sex.* [19]* [20] The Maritimes and British Columbia (along with Saskatchewan) also provide an “A”classification for adult content. The act also prohibits the renting and selling of D and X rated media to people below the ages of 16 and 18 respectively. complex/strong impact sexual intercourses (incest.Rating System (CHVRS).* [17]* [18] Some provinces. 1. however.

Educational and sports films are exempt from classification. rented or purchased by children 16 years of age or over.1. Those under 14 should view with an adult. (Formerly“Adult Accompaniment (14)" in the Maritimes)* [17]* [21] • 18A – Suitable for people 18 years of age or older. • 16+: 16 ans et plus (16 years and over) – May be viewed. • 14A – Suitable for people 14 years of age or older. 1. Film is not suitable for viewers under 18 years of age.* [24] China does not have a rating system. seen by the Quebec Ministry of Culture and Communications.8.* [23] In some cases the Régie du cinéma may refuse to provide a classification. rented or purchased by children 13 years of age or over. are passed as “suitable for all ages”are released al• G: Visa général (General Rating) – May be viewed.9. No rental or purchase by those under 18. • 18+: 18 ans et plus (18 years and over) – May be viewed.* [26]* [27] . • Mayores de 18 años – Suitable for people aged 18 and older. rented or purchased by adults 18 years of age or over. 5 • 13+: 13 ans et plus (13 years and over) – May be viewed.10 China banning the film. The Régie is a governmental agency overare accompanied by a parent or guardian.* [22] its purview devolves from the Cinema Act (chapter C-18. No rental or purchase by those under 14. Parents strongly cautioned. Those under 18 should view with an adult. ings. the Régie du cinéma rates all films and • Todo Espectador – General Audience • Inconveniente para menores de 7 años – Not suitable for children younger than 7 years • Mayores de 14 años – Suitable for people aged 14 and older.1). effectively 1. Minors are admitted to films with pornographic and excessively violent content if they videos. (Formerly“Explicit Material (XXX)" Films are classified by the Council of Cinematographic Classification (Consejo de Calificación Cinematográfica) in the Maritimes)* [17]* [21] which is a central agency under the Ministry of Education. In Quebec. Content not suitable for minors. though some exhibitors have introduced informal ratrented or purchased by persons of all ages. see Régie du cinéma (Quebec). No rental or purchase by those under 18. CHILE • PG – Parental guidance advised. Only films that The rating labels used by Régie du cinéma.* [25] • E – Exempt. Children under 13 may be admitted only if accompanied by an adult.2 Classifications used in Québec For more details on this topic. The age ratings are: 1.9 Chile • A – Adult. • R – Restricted to 18 years and over. Parents cautioned. The age ratings may also be supplemented by the following content categories: • Contenido educativo – Educational content • Contenido pornográfico – Pornographic content • Contenido excesivamente violento – Excessively violent content Pornographic films may only be exhibited at venues licensed for that purpose.

but not recommended for children younger than the age of 7.* [28]* [29]* [30] The classifications are: • MS-12 – Not recommended for under 12. Children aged 7 and above may attend any performance̶ including those restriced to older audiences̶if they are accompanied by an adult.* [33] • S – For all ages. • L – Allowed to all. • 18: Restricted • X: Pornographic content. • T: For general audiences. or those containing an incitement to violence”or completely prohibited from screening. Films do not have to be submitted for a rating and in such instances must be labelled a “15”(restricted to people aged 15 and above). MOTION PICTURE RATING SYSTEM 1. 2005. • 16 – Over 16 year. • Prohibited: Contains elements that incite or advocate crime.* [31] Approval of the film for general admittance. be obtained from the Ministry of Culture.* [34] A certificate will Exempt from classification – only used on home be granted from the following: video products (mostly documentaries.14 Finland Films in Finland are classified by the Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media. 1. 1.6 CHAPTER 1. • U – certificate authorising the screening of the film to all members of the public • 12 – certificate prohibiting the screening of the film to minors under twelve • 16 – certificate prohibiting the screening of the film to minors under sixteen • 18 – certificate prohibiting the screening of the film to minors under eighteen . • 12 – Over 12 years. As of June 22. • 7: Advisory • 12: Advisory • 15: Restricted • K-12 – Prohibited for under 12 unless accompanied by an adult. the Ministry of Culture issued its new rating system.12 Denmark In Denmark. a distribution certificate must from the age of 11. • K-14 – Prohibited for under 14 unless accompanied by an adult. • 7 – Over 7 years. except for 18-rated films.15 France Approval of the film for admittance of children Prior to showing in theaters.13 Estonia Film classification in Estonia is regulated by the Child Welfare Act. The Minister will decide which certificate to issue based on a recApproval of the film for admittance of children ommendation by the Board of Film Classification.11 Colombia • MS-6 – Not recommended for under 6. In some cases films may be classified as“pornographic films from the age of 15. • K-16 – Prohibited for under 16 unless accompanied by an adult.* [32] • PERE – Family Film. 1. the Media Council for Children and Young People currently rates films. Approval of the film for general admittance. • 18 – Adults only. A minor up to 3 years younger than the age limit is permitted to see a film in a cinema when accompanied by an adult. Danish stand-up shows and educational material) 1.

Levels I. untary Self-Regulation of the Film Industry. for adults only 1.18. signifying that they are legally binding for minors. FSK) has a film ratings system under which films are classified.16 Germany 7 • 17 – Not permitted to young people under the age of 17. Stations are permitted to broadcast films not approved for audiences under 12 at their own discretion.20 Iceland All publicly released films must be submitted to the Youth Committee for classification. children who are at least age 6 may be admitted with parental accompaniment (green sign) • IIA – not suitable for children (square sign) • IIB – not suitable for young persons and children • III – for persons aged 18 or above only Freigegeben ab 16 Jahren (FSK 16): released to Of the four levels.* [35] Films intended for public exhibition have to be submitted to the Director of Film. Smáís has replaced the Kvikmyndaskoðun system in Iceland. sign) Keine Jugendfreigabe (FSK 18): "no youth admitted". nobody under this age admitted (blue Only Level III is a restricted category. and II are unrestricted. etc.18 Hong Kong accordance with §14 of the Youth Protection Law). adults only.* [38]* [39] ages 6 and older (yellow sign) • I – suitable for all ages (circle sign) Freigegeben ab 12 Jahren (FSK 12): released to ages 12 and older.Main article: Hong Kong motion picture rating system nors are prohibited from such screenings.19 Hungary Hungarian ratings are decided by the National Media and * • Infoprogramm or Lehrprogramm: “educational Infocommunications Authority (NMHH): [40] programming”.* [41] .* [36] Not recommended below age of 12 The FSK rating also limits the time of the day in which the movie may be aired on free-to-air TV stations to a time frame between 22:00 (FSK 16) or 23:00 (FSK 18) and 6:00.17 Greece 1. This rating is not issued by the FSK. Films with this rating may be sold Not recommended below age of 6 without any age restriction provided they do not contain any material “evidently harmful to the development of children and youths”. In October 2013. HONG KONG 1. jzer at least through 2016. A B ages 16 and older.Further information: § Netherlands gories: Since July 1. who is the Film Censorship Authority (FCA) striction (white sign) under the Ordinance. Films approved for public exhibition are then either classified or exempted Freigegeben ab 6 Jahren (FSK 6): released to from classification. SMAIS • Unrestricted – No restrictions announced that it was adopting the Netherlands' Kijkwi• 13 – Suitable for people aged 13 and above. II . The Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle der Filmwirtschaft (Vol• 18 – Not permitted to people under the age of 18.* [37] Not recommended below age of 16 Not recommended below age of 18 Restricted below 18.* [6] There are four cate. documentaries. but may be self-applied to films seeking to edUniversal. for approval.1. instructional films. (red sign) 1. 2006. Newspaper and Article AdminOhne Altersbeschränkung (FSK 0): no age reistration. All the ratings contain the phrase “gemäß §14 JuSchG”(in 1.g. for all ages ucate their audience (e.). Cinemas may legally exhibit films without a classification but mi.

1. [47] [48] screenings • G: General.24 Italy All films aimed to be shown in Italy are classified by the Committee for the Theatrical Review of the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities into one of the following categories:* [46] • T (all): All ages admitted. Other than issuing certificates.25 Japan • R (Remaja): Teen A Japanese film rating regulator known as Eirin (映倫) [full-name: Eiga Rinri Kanri Iinkai (映画倫理管理委 • D (Dewasa): Adult 員会)] has a film classification system under which films The categories • Limited (Terbatas): Passed uncut for film festival are classified into one of four categories. on home video younger viewers are not permitted to purchase/rent. • R18+: No one under 18 admitted.26 Kazakhstan Parental Guidance – Suitable for children In Kazakhstan. not admitted at cinemas or permitted to purchase/rent the video. [42] • U – Unrestricted Public Exhibition. . [49] children under the age of 12. • К: Film is allowed for any audience. Viewers under 18 are dren below 12 years. MOTION PICTURE RATING SYSTEM 1. Younger children may be admitted to the film at cinemas if accompanied by an adult. on home video younger viewresponsible for certifying films meant for public exhibi* ers are not permitted to purchase/rent. • R15+: No one under 15 admitted.8 CHAPTER 1. Suitable for viewers of twelve and over. 1. 1.* [44]* [45] • PG-12: Parental guidance requested for young people under 12 years. such as movie trailers and posters. • БА: Suitable for children over the age of 12. • VM14: Not suitable for children under 14. the LSF/IFCB also reviews and issues permits for film-related advertising.21 India Suitable for viewers of fifteen and over. Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) is if accompanied by an adult. Younger viewers may be admitted to the film at cinemas In India.22 Indonesia Motion pictures shown in Indonesia must undergo reviewing by the Indonesian Film Censorship Board. • UA – Unrestricted Public Exhibition but with a word of caution that Parental discretion required for chilSuitable only for adults. • S – Restricted to any special class of persons.23 Ireland All films that are exhibited in public or released on a home video format must be submitted for classification to the Irish Film Classification Office (IFCO). • Б14: Supervision by parents recommended for children under the age of 14. • VM18: Not suitable for children under 18. LSF has the authority to cut scenes from films. General – Suitable for children of school going age. Younger viewers are not admitted. suitable for all ages 1. Films passed for exhibition are awarded one of the following classifications:* [43] • SU (Semua Umur): All ages 1. (cinema only) Suitable for viewers of sixteen and over. * * have been in use since 1 May 1998. • A – Restricted to adults. tion. films are rated by the Committee for Cul* over the age of 8. Parental guidance is recommended for ture of the Ministry for Culture and Information.

• НА: For viewers aged over 21. In 1954 the • 18+R – Suitable for ages 18 and above. In 2010 the As of 2012. . Restricted to licensed venues between 10pm and 6am local time.30 Malta Only (Untuk Orang Dewasa Sahaja).* [56] If the film is deemed“fit for exhibition”it will be awarded one of the following classifications: Malaysian film classification logos used since January 2012 • U (Universal) – Suitable for all.* [50] • U (universal audience) – Suitable for persons of all age groups • P13 (Penjaga) – Viewers under 13 years of age need parental/guardian supervision while viewing.1.27 Latvia 9 • Lulus Bersih (Passed Clean [i. • 12+ – For ages 12 and above. “12”and “18”were retained in their existing form. and in 1996 these classifications were changed to U and 18. by police under the Theatre Ordinance 1908. and later the Film Censorship Act 2002.28 Malaysia See also: Censorship in Malaysia • PG – Parental Guidance.29 Maldives • 7+: Suitable for a person who has reached at least 7 Film in the Maldives are classified by the National Bureau years of age of Classification (NBC).* [52] the“14”and“16”age classifications were replaced by “12A”and “15". Restricted. • Е18: For viewers aged over 18. the “PG”rating was redefined while “U”.* [51] Malaysia's motion picture rating system was introduced in 1953. Historically. the Board then assigns the film a classification.e.No age limit. Upon viewing the board will assign one of three categories to the film:* [53] • PG (Parental Guidance) – General viewing. which was changed Board in accordance with the Malta Council for Culture and the Arts Act. All publicly exhibited films. without cuts]) • Lulus Dengan Pengubahan (Passed with Edits/Cuts) • Tidak Diluluskan Untuk Tayangan (Not Approved for Screening) Should a film be approved.* [55] As part of an overhaul in 2013 to P13 in 2012. 1. MALDIVES • Е16: Supervision by parents recommended for children under the age of 16. Certificates issued are based on * • 12+: Suitable for a person who has reached at least the following categories: [54] 12 years of age • 16+: Suitable for a person who has reached at least 16 years of age • 18+: Not suitable for a minor (prohibited to people Maldive film classifications under 18) • G – Suitable for all ages. visual recordings and films broadcast over television and electronic networks must be classified. initially classifying films either for General Audiences (Tontonan Umum) or For Adults 1. films in Malta are classified by the Film PG13 classification was introduced. As of 2012 the ratings are:* [52] • U (Umum) . film censorship in Malaysia was carried out • 18+ – Suitable for ages 18 and above. 1. Film Censorship Board (LPF) was created to censor films distributed across Malaysia in accordance with the Cine• PU – For Professional Use Only matograph Films Act 1952. In Latvia it is the duty of the producer of a film or distributor to assign a rating according to a pre-determined set of criteria.29. • 15+ – Suitable for ages 15 and above. • 18 – For viewers aged 18 and above. 1. but some scenes may be unsuitable for young children.

which is executed by the Netherlands Institute for the Classification of Audiovisual Media (NICAM). videos.33 New Zealand 1. and Publications Classification Act Potentially harmful to children under 12 years. New Zealand Ratings The Films. MOTION PICTURE RATING SYSTEM • 12A – Suitable for persons of 12 years and over: Mostly. Under Dutch law children are admitted to films carrying an age rating if accompanied by an adult except in the case of “16”rated films. sexual content. the Kijkwijzer system is used. • 18 – Suitable only for persons of eighteen years and over. Dirección General de Radio. over. Television and Cinematography (in Spanish. films.10 CHAPTER 1.* [60] With a few exceptions. • 15 – Suitable for persons of fifteen years and over.31 Mexico The General Directorate of Radio. 1993 gives the Office of Film and Literature Classibroadcasting is not allowed before 8:00 pm.* [58]* [59] All ages. These symbols are also used for TV• 12 – Suitable only for persons of twelve years and programs in the Netherlands. or “objectionable” Potentially harmful to children under 16 years. • D Restrictive rating: Adult movies. fication the power to classify publications into three categories: unrestricted. • B-15 Information-only rating: Not recommended for children under 15. these icons are used along with other symbols. Potentially harmful to children under 6 years. (banned). as follows:* [57] • AA Informative-only rating: Understandable for children under 7 years. It has its own classification system. attend only when accompanied by an adult. broadcasting is not allowed before 10:00 pm. The RTC is an agency of the Department of State (Secretaría de Gobernación). 1. Televisión y Cinematografía) is the issuer of ratings for motion pictures. • B Information-only rating: For adolescents 12 years and older. • C Restrictive rating: For adults 18 and older. • A Information-only rating: For all age groups. frightening scenes. Potentially harmful to children under 9 years. or coarse language. Provided that persons younger than 12 years may displaying if a movie contains violence. DVDs and restricted computer games must carry a label . drug or alcohol abuse. Videos. 1.32 Netherlands In the Netherlands. restricted. discrimination.

but such films carry a mandatory age rating of “18”and the distributor is legally responsible for the • PG: Parental guidance may be needed for younger film's content. • 15 (Red Sign): Not suitable for persons under the age of 15. • X (Not For Public Exhibition) – “X-rated”films are not suitable for public exhibition. • R-16 (Restricted-16) – Only viewers who are 16 years old and above can be admitted. and VCDs. however the Media Authority will occasionally discour• R: Restricted exclusively to a certain audience.* [64] The Media Authority has no power to ban films but must not classify 1. along with television programs. NORWAY before being offered for supply or exhibited to the public. classification. • R-18 (Restricted-18) – Only viewers who are 18 years old and above can be admitted.35 Norway The Norwegian Media Authority (Medietilsynet) sets the age limits on films to be exhibited in Norway. cation ratings. • PG (Parental Guidance Suggested) – Viewers below 13 years old must be accompanied by a parent or supervising adult. The following age limits apply to films to be shown in • M: Suitable for mature audiences 16 years and over.* [64] viewers. • R18: Restricted to persons 18 years and over.34 Nigeria films which they consider contravene Norweigian criminal law. A child must be accompanied by an adult to view the film.* [66] • PG (Green Sign): Parental Guidance advised. videos. Classifications carrying an age rating are legally restricted. • A – Suitable for all • R15: Restricted to persons 15 years and over. age parents from accompanying children below the age recommendation to certain films.35. • 7 – 7 years (children from 4 years old accompanied by an adult) • R16: Restricted to persons 16 years and over. There is no requirement to submit a film to the Media Authority for • G: Suitable for general audiences.36 Philippines and “18”classifications do not apply to people below 2 years of age. are rated by the Movie and Television Review • G (Green Sign): Suitable for viewing by persons of and Classification Board. • 18 (Red Sign): Not suitable for people under the 18. cinemas: The current ratings are:* [62] • R13: Restricted to persons 13 years and over. • G (General Audiences) – Viewers of all ages are admitted. • 12A (Yellow Sign): Not suitable for people under the age of 12.1. DVDs.* [65] The National Film and Video Censors Board classifies films. • R-13 (Restricted-13) – Only viewers who are 13 years old and above can be admitted. • 11 – 11 years (children down to 8 years accompanied by an adult) • 15 – 15 years (young down to 12 years accompanied by an adult) • 18 – 18 (absolute lower limit) • RP16: Children under age 16 are not admitted unChildren up to three years younger than the indicated less accompanied by a parent or an adult. • RP13: Children under age 13 are not admitted unless accompanied by a parent or an adult. As of 2012. although the“15” 1. the Board uses six classifiall ages. a special agency of the Office of the President. • RE (Red Sign): Films which fall under this category are to be exhibited and distributed only in specially licensed premises. motion pictures. • 12 (Yellow Sign): Not suitable for people under the age of 12.* [61] 11 1.* [63] The categories are: In the Philippines. . age rating may be admitted if accompanied by an adult.

12

1.37 Poland
Ratings in Poland are not set by any board or advisory
body. Prior to 1989 the applicable age ratings were “no
age limit”,“over 7”,“over 12”,“over 15”and“over 18”
and were set by The General Committee of Cinematography. Since 1989 there is no official classification system, with age ratings being self-prescriptive and set by the
distributors. In case of television, the supervisory body
– Krajowa Rada Radiofonii i Telewizji (KRRiT, The National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television) can
impose fines upon those responsible for improper rating
of a broadcast, or lack of it.* [67]

1.38 Portugal

CHAPTER 1. MOTION PICTURE RATING SYSTEM
• 0+ Фильм разрешён для показа в любой
зрительской аудитории (Film allowed for any
age) – All ages are admitted. No age restrictions.
• 6+ Фильм разрешён детям, достигшим 6 лет
(Film for those above 6) – Unsuitable for children
under 6.
• 12+ Детям до 12 лет фильм разрешён в
сопровождении родителей (Film for those above
12) – Unsuitable for children under 12.
• 16+ Фильм разрешён детям старше 16 лет
(Film for those above 16) – Unsuitable for children
under 16.
• 18+ Фильм разрешён детям старше 18 лет
(Film for those above 18) – Prohibited for children
under 18.

Movies are rated in Portugal by the Comissão de Classifi• Фильмы, которым отказано в классификации
cação de Espectáculos of the Ministry of Culture. In cin(Refused classification) – Banned.
emas the ratings are mandatory (subject to parental guidance) whereas for video releases they are merely advisory,
except in the case of pornographic content.* [68] Children
under the age of 3 were previously prohibited from pub- 1.40 Singapore
lic film performances, but a special category was introduced for this age group when the classification system
Further information: Media Development Authority
was overhauled in 2014. A category for 14 year-olds was
also introduced, and the lowest age rating was dropped
from 4 years of age to 3.* [69]* [70] The categories are Film classification in Singapore was introduced in 1991
and comes under the jurisdiction of the Board of Film
the following:
Censors (BFC). There were three ratings originally: G
• Para todos os públicos – For all the public (espe- (General), PG (Parental Guidance) and R18 (Restricted
to 18 years and above). Prior to then films were either apcially designed for children under 3 years of age).
proved or effectively banned. Since then, there have been
several alterations to the ratings over the years. The R18
• M/3 Passed for viewers aged 3 and older.
rating has been dropped, and has been replaced by NC16
• M/6 Passed for viewers aged 6 and older.
(No Children under 16), M18 (Mature 18) and R21 (Restricted 21). A PG13 (Parental Guidance 13) rating, in• M/12 Passed for viewers aged 12 and older.
troduced in 2011, is the latest rating to be introduced.
The G, PG and PG13 ratings are advisory while NC16,
• M/14 Passed for viewers aged 14 and older.
M18 and R21 carry age restrictions. Video ratings are
mostly the same as the cinema ratings, except only go up
• M/16 Passed for viewers aged 16 and older.
to M18. Some titles, such as documentaries and sports
• M/18 Passed for viewers aged 18 and older.
programmes may be exempt from classification on video,
but all titles must be classified for public exhibition.* [73]
• P Special rating supplementary to the M/18 age rating denoting “pornography”.

1.39 Russia
See also: On Protecting Children from Information
Harmful to Their Health and Development
The revised Singapore film rating system which took effect 15 July
2011

Since 2012 the rating appears inside circles, which indicate age restrictions followed by a plus(+), and appears The categories are:
in most shows, including TV and Internet shows in Rus• G: General – Suitable for all ages.
sian.* [71]* [72] The indication shown:

1.43. SPAIN

13

• PG: Parental Guidance – Suitable for all but parents
should guide their young.

• Teenager restricted (
hibits children under 18.

• PG13: Parental Guidance 13 – Suitable for persons
aged 13 and above but parental guidance is advised
for children below 13.

• Restricted – Restricted to “special theaters”.

• NC16: No Children Under 16 – Suitable for persons
aged 16 and above.

) – Pro-

1.43 Spain

All films to be commercially released in Spain in any
• M18: Mature 18 – Suitable for persons aged 18 and medium must be submitted to the ICAA. Classifications
above.
are advisory except for X-rated films, which are restricted
• R21: Restricted 21 – Suitable for adults aged 21 and to specially licensed venues. A supplementary classification, “Especialmente Recomendada para la Infancia”
above.
(Especially recommended for children), is sometimes appended to the lowest two classifications.* [77]

1.41 South Africa
In South Africa film are classified by the Film and Publication Board.* [74] All broadcasters, cinemas and distributors of DVD/video and computer games must comply
with the following:

• APTA – General admission
• 7 – Not recommended for audiences under 7
• 12 – Not recommended for audiences under 12
• 16 – Not recommended for audiences under 16

• A: Suitable for all.

• 18 – Not recommended for audiences under 18

• PG: Parental Guidance

• Película X – Prohibited for audiences under 18

• 7–9PG: Not suitable for children under the age of
7. Children aged 7–9 years old may not be admitted
unless accompanied by an adult.

1.44 Sweden

• 10: Not suitable for children under the age of 10.





Statens medieråd (the Swedish Media Council) is a government agency with the aims to reduce the risk of harm10–12PG: Not suitable for children under the age
ful media influences among minors and to empower miof 10. Children aged 10–12 years old may not be
nors as conscious media users.* [78] The classification beadmitted unless accompanied by an adult.
stowed on a film should not be viewed as recommendations on the suitability for children, as the law the council
13: Not suitable for children under the age of 13.
operates under (SFS 2010:1882) only mandates them to
16: Not suitable for persons under the age of 16.
assess the relative risk to children's well-being. It is not a
legal requirement to submit a film to the Media Council,
18: Not suitable for persons under the age of 18.
but children under the age of 15 are not admitted in such
X18: No One Under 18 Admitted; restricted to li- instances.* [79]* [80]* [81] The councils classification only
applies to public exhibition, and the law does not require
censed adult premises.
classification of home media.* [82]
XX: Must not be distributed or exhibited in public.
The following categories are used:* [80]* [81]

1.42 South Korea

• Btl (Barntillåten) – All ages.

)
The Korea Media Rating Board (
in Seoul divides licensed films into the following categories:* [75]* [76]

• 7 – Children under the age of 7, who are accompanied by an adult (a person aged 18 or over), are
admitted to films that have been passed for children
from the age of 7.

• All (

) – Suitable for all audiences.

• 12 (12
12 years and over.

) – Suitable for persons aged

• 15 (15
15 years and over.

) – Suitable for persons aged

• 11 – Children over the age of 7, who are accompanied by an adult, are admitted to films that have been
passed for children from the age of 11.
• 15 – Children under the age of 15 are not admitted
to any film that is “not approved”for viewing by
children.

14

1.45 Switzerland
Further information: § Germany

CHAPTER 1. MOTION PICTURE RATING SYSTEM
• P – Educational.
• G – General Audience.
• 13 – Suitable for viewers aged 13 years and over.

Switzerland has adopted Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle der
Filmwirtschaft (FSK), Germany's classification body.
Under Swiss law, however, children up to two years
younger than the age recommendations will be admitted
if accompanied by a person invested with parental authority.* [83]

1.46 Taiwan
Taiwan/Republic of China did not have a motion picture
rating system until April 1994. The Government Information Office (GIO) classifies films into one of the following four categories pursuant to its issued Regulations
Governing the Classification of Motion Pictures of the
Republic of China (電影⽚分級處理辦法 in traditional
Chinese):* [84]

• 15 – Suitable for viewers aged 15 years and over.
• 18 – Suitable for viewers aged 18 years and over.
• 20 – Suitable for viewers aged 20 years and over.
Restricted.
• Banned – Films that are not allowed to screen publicly in Thailand.

1.48 Turkey

In Turkey, movies to be shown in cinemas are rated by
the Evaluation and Classification Board of the Ministry
of Culture and Tourism. All films to be made commercially available must be classified, except in the case of
educational films which are labeled as “for educational
purposes”instead. The board also has the power to refuse
• General audiences category (普遍級 (普)) – (G) classification in extreme cases (producers and distributors
can submit an edited version of a movie to the board but
Viewing is permitted for audiences of all ages.
edited versions may also be rejected if still deemed inap• Protected category (保護級 (護)) – (P) Viewing is propriate); in this case, the movie will be banned with the
not permitted for children under six; children view- exception of special artistic activities like fairs, festivals,
ers between six and 11 shall be accompanied and feasts and carnivals.* [87]* [88]
given guidance by parents, teachers, seniors, or adult
relatives or friends.
• Genel İzleyici Kitlesi – General audience.
• Parental guidance category (輔導級 (輔)) – (PG)
Viewing is not permitted for children under 12; attention and guidance from parents, teachers, or seniors are required for adolescent viewers between 12
and 17.
• Restricted category (限制級 (限)) – (R) Viewing
is not permitted for those under 18.

1.47 Thailand

• 7+ – Suitable for viewers aged 7 and over.
• 7A – Viewers under the age of 7 may watch with
accompanying family mambers.
• 13+ – Suitable for viewers aged 13 and over.
• 13A – Viewers under the age of 13 may watch with
accompanying family members.
• 15+ – Suitable for viewers aged 15 and over.
• 15A – Viewers under the age of 15 may watch with
accompanying family members.

A motion picture rating system was proposed in the Film
• 18+ – Suitable for viewers aged 18 and over.
and Video Act of 2007, and was passed on December 20,
2007 by the Thai military-appointed National Legislative
Assembly, replacing laws which had been in place since
1930. The draft law was met with resistance from the 1.49 United Arab Emirates
film industry and independent filmmakers. Activists had
hoped for a less-restrictive approach; however, films are
The Ministry of Information of the United Arab Emirates
still subject to censorship, or can be banned from release
classifies all films, which cinemas must abide by.* [89]
altogether if the film is deemed to“undermine or disrupt
social order and moral decency, or might impact national
• G (General admission) – All ages are allowed.
security or the pride of the nation”.* [85]
The ratings were put into effect in August 2009.* [86]
They are as follows:

• PG13 – All ages allowed but children under 13 must
be accompanied by an adult.

The BBFC's regulatory powers do not extend to the internet. Uc is deprecated.film rating system plied to anyone below that age. The category is now deprecated. • 18+ – 18 years old and above only.Adult works for licensed premises only. UNITED STATES 15 • PG15 – All ages allowed but children under 15 must be accompanied by an adult. .* [90]* [91] UK film classification certificates. Videos designed to inform. No one younger than 12 may see a 12A film in a cinema unless accompanied by an adult. issues ratings for movies. No-one In the United States. but some scenes may be unsuitable for young children. • R18 (Restricted 18) .1. The buy/rent a 15 rated video. but this is not an official label. A PG film should not unsettle a child aged around eight or older. although statutory powers remain with local councils which can overrule any of the BBFC's decisions.Suitable only for adults.51. Films may only be shown to adults in specially licensed cinemas. 1. • 15 . • 12A .51 United States • 12 – Video release suitable for 12 years and over. Main article: Motion Picture Association of America Video recordings with this rating are not to be sup. Children aged 14 and under are not allowed even if accompanied by adults. exempt films may be marked as “E”.Suitable only for 15 years and older. No-one under 18 is allowed to see an 18 film at the cinema or buy / rent an 18 rated video. The current BBFC system is:* [92] • Uc – Especially suitable for pre-school children.Cinema release suitable for 12 years and over. Since 1984. A U film should be suitable for audiences aged four years and over. • 18 .General viewing. so a film they have banned on physical media can still be made available via streaming media/video on demand. educate or instruct or concerned with sport. the BBFC also classifies films made commercially available though a home video format. through the Classification and Rating Administration (CARA). 1. although older video works still in circulation may carry the label. • PG (Parental Guidance) .50 United Kingdom See also: History of British film certificates and Video Recordings Act 1984 The British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) classifies films to be publicly exhibited in the United Kingdom. If the BBFC refuses a classification this effectively amounts to a ban (although local councils retain the legal right to overturn it in the case of cinema exhibition).Suitable for all. R18 videos may not be supplied by mail order. Children aged 17 and under are not allowed even if accompanied by adults. • 15+ – 15 years old and above only.* [93] • U (Universal) . religion or music are exempt from classification. The R18 category is a special and legally-restricted classification primarily for explicit works of consenting sex or strong fetish material involving adults. and video works may be supplied to adults only in licensed sex shops. the Motion Picture Association of under 15 is allowed to see a 15 film at the cinema or America (MPAA).

European Commission. of July 14. [16] “Film and Video Ratings”. [2] “Guidelines”. Vienna: Federal Ministry of Education. [6] Olsberg SPI. • NC-17 (Adults Only) – No One 17 and Under Admitted. Retrieved 24 May 2014. “Annex 1: Comparative Analysis of Ratings Systems – Cinema Ratings Systems”. Retrieved 7 June 2014. KEA European Affairs.16 system was established in 1968 and is voluntary. [4] “Age Rating of Movies and Similar Image Carriers by the Austrian Youth Media Commission” (PDF).19 [Ordinance Number 1. British Columbia Film Classification Office. Retrieved 23 May 2014. Motion Picture Association – Canada. KPMG (May 2003). Retrieved 28 May 2014. 14 December 1984. 3.52 See also • Television content rating systems • Video game content rating system 1.). Retrieved 6 June 2013. [10] “Classificação Indicativa”[Rating System] (in Portuguese). Vienna: Federal Ministry of Education. 1. Arts and Culture. MOTION PICTURE RATING SYSTEM [8] Brazilian National Secretariat of Justice (2012). Retrieved 28 May 2014. Brazil: Centerplex Cinemas. [21] “Theatre & Amusements – History”. “Content Rating Practical Guide” (2 ed. de 14 de JULHO de 2006 – Art. [12] “Film Industry Act” (DOC). Retrieved 28 June 2014.1 – Cinema Act”. • PG (Parental Guidance Suggested) – Some Material May Not Be Suitable For Children. [19] “Ratings Explained”. Régie du cinéma. [17] “Theatres and Amusements Regulations”. [26] Coonan. . Retrieved 7 June 2014. Brazil: Ministry of Justice. Study on Parental Control of Television Broadcasting (PDF). [15] “Film Ratings – Home Entertainment”. 2 December 2003. “Empirical Study on the Practice of the Rating of Films Distributed in Cinemas Television DVD and Videocassettes in the EU and EEA Member States” (PDF). 2006 – Article 19] (in Portuguese). “Portal Online Classificação Indicativa”[Portal Online Rating System] (in Portuguese). [22] “Home – Who Are We?". [13] “Film Ratings – Theatrical Classification”. Retrieved 5 June 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014. CHAPTER 1. Brazil: Ministry of Justice. Bulgarian National Film Center. [23] “Chapter C-18. Nova Scotia: Maritime Film Classification Board. 5 August 2011. [3] “Austrian Board of Media Classification” (PDF). • R (Restricted) – Under 17 Requires Accompanying Parent Or Adult Guardian. 28 March 2013. Chile: Consejo de Calificación Cinematográfica. Jugend Medien Kommission. an unrated film is often informally denoted by“NR”in newspapers and so forth. Manitoba Film Classification Board. |chapter= ignored (help) [7] National Secretariat of Justice. Retrieved 7 June 2014. Motion Picture Association – Canada.100. [25] “Constitución del Consejo de Calificación Cinematográfica – El Sistema de Calificación Cinematográfica”[Constitution of the Board of Film Classification – Film Rating System] (in Spanish). Clifford (26 August 2013). Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Theatres and Amusements Act. Buenos Aires: Minister of Economy of Argentina. The Hollywood Reporter. Arts and Culture. 1 June 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2014.100. “Chinese Cinemagoers Keen on Film Ratings System”. 113. [9] Portaria Nº 1. 125. [24] “Film Classification in Québec”. [14]“Film Classification Boards”. [20] “Classification Categories”. Archived from the original on 23 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.53 Sources [1] “Cinematographia – Decreto Nº 3. European Commission.899]. Retrieved 23 May 2014. InfoLEG (in Spanish). [11] “Ministério da Justiça classifica“A Serbian Film"" [Ministry of Justice classifies “A Serbian Film"] (in Portuguese). Alberta Film Ratings. Australian Classification Board.* [94]* [95]* [96] • G (General Audiences) – All Ages Admitted. Nova Scotia: Department of Justice. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2014. Motion Picture Association – Canada. [18] “Categories and Advisories”. p. Consumer Protection BC. Brazil: Ministry of Justice. 14 July 2006. Retrieved 30 May 2014. Régie du cinéma. • PG-13 (Parents Strongly Cautioned) – Some Material May Be Inappropriate For Children Under 13.899”[Decree No. Retrieved 23 May 2014. Quebec: Ministry of Culture and Communications. Retrieved 10 April 2014. p. [5] University of Oxford PCMLP (1997). Retrieved 6 June 2014. Brazil: Ministry of Justice. Retrieved 28 May 2014. Ontario Film Review Board.

May 2013. AngloINFO. [52]“Film Censorship Board – Film Classification”. [43] “Tentang Kami: Sejarah Sensor”[About Us: History of Censorship] (in Indonesian). [58] “Kijkwijzer” (in Dutch). Bogotá: Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 4 April 2006. Hilversum: Netherlands Institute for the Classification of Audiovisual Media. [60] “Classification in NZ: The classification criteria”. Archived from the original on 1 August 2012. [54] “Classification Ratings”. New [41] “Iceland Adopts Kijkwijzer!". Hong Kong: Television and Entertainment Licensing Authority. The Malta Independent. Hilversum: Netherlands Zealand: Office of Film and Literature Classification. ReInstitute for the Classification of Audiovisual Media. 29 June 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2014. [49] "Инструкции по проведению внешней оценки учебных достижений" (PDF). “Por la cual se adopta el Sistema de Clasificación de Películas”[Whereby the Movie Rating System is adopted] (DOC) (Press release) (in Spanish). [34] “Regulatory function : film classification”. October 2013.587: Regulations Regarding the Classification of Films”. Retrieved 3 July 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014. [44] “Guidelines: Film and DVD/Video Classification”. Retrieved 20 April 2014. 444)".2003”[Information sheet about the new Youth Protection Act from 01. Retrieved 5 July 2014. and R18+?". 23 July 2013. Caracol Radio. Dirección General de Radio. Legal Notice 416/2012 (Malta: Ministry for Justice.A.”. [50] “Cabinet Regulation No. Eirin. Videos. [55] “Malta Council for Culture and the Arts Act (Cap. [35] “Alterseinstufungen und FSK-Kennzeichen”[Age ratings and FSK mark] (in German). New Zealand: Parliamentary Council Office. Hong Kong: Commerce and Economic Development Bureau. Retrieved 22 August 2014. [51] “Film Censorship Board – Introduction”. 6 April 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2014. 11 cation. Pat (11 February 2010). [38] “Film Classification and Control of Obscene Articles: Topical Information – Policy on Film Censorship”. Retrieved 20 August 2014. Culture and Local Government): B 4274–4284. Retrieved 28 June 2014. 2012. SOURCES 17 [27] Child. Retrieved 22 [40] “English-language Cinema in Budapest – Film Ratings” August 2014.04. Retrieved 22 June 2005. Retrieved 19 April 2014. . Retrieved 28 June 2014. [28] “Comité de Clasificación de Películas”[Committee of Film Classification] (in Spanish). 1 April 2003. Malaysia: Ministry of Home Affairs. National Film Center of Latvia. Germany: Spitzenorganisation der Filmwirtschaft. [37] “Gültigkeit der FSK-Kennzeichen für das Fernsehen – Sendezeitschienen”[Validity of the G-mark for television – Airtime rails] (in German). Germany: Spitzenorganisation der Filmwirtschaft. Retrieved 26 June 2014. [31] “The Film Classification system”. Retrieved 5 May 2014. Director de Cinematografía (2005).Q. Archived from the original on 5 October 2007. Lembaga Sensor Film. Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media. France: National Center of Cinematography and the moving image. Retrieved 20 August 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2014.04. [36] “Informationsblatt zum neuen Jugendschutzgesetz ab 01.2003] (PDF) (in German). R15+. [30] David Melo Torres. [47] “Eirin Film Classification”. Germany: Spitzenorganisation der Filmwirtschaft. and Publications Classification Act 1993” [42] “About CBFC”. [33] “Ikärajat elokuvissa ja televisiossa”[Age limits in the movies and on TV] (in Finnish). PG12. [46] Eggleton. Retrieved 7 January 2014.“Chinese cinema manager invents his own ratings system”. Malaysia: Ministry of Home Affairs. Forum Cinemas AS. Retrieved 20 August 2014. Denmark: Media Council for Children and Young People. Ben (12 August 2014). Retrieved 7 June 2014.1. [32] “Vanusepiirangud”[Age Restrictions] (in Estonian). Televisión y Cinematografía. [61] “Films. [45] “Legislation”. Irish Film Classification Office. [57] “Cinematografía: Criterios de Clasificación”[Cinematography: Classification Criteria] (in Spanish). 22 June 2005. Bogotá: Ministry of Culture. Kazakhstan: Ministry of Education and Science. [53] “Film Censorship Board – F. Retrieved 19 April 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014. Hilversum: Netherlands Institute for the Classification of Audiovisual Media. Retrieved 8 June 2014. [48] “FAQ – Le Cinéma: What is the meaning of G. [59] “Kijkwijzer en wetsartikel 240a”[Myspace and article of law 240a] (in Dutch). |chapter= ignored (help) [56]“New film classifications issued”. Retrieved 22 August 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014. India: Central Board of Film Certifi(PDF). Retrieved 25 June 2014. The Guardian. [39] “Film Classification in Hong Kong”(PDF). Maldives: National Bureau of Classification. Retrieved 5 May 2014. Italy Magazine. Irish Film Classification Office. 18 trieved 22 April 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014. Malaysia: Ministry of Home Affairs. . [29] “Las películas en Colombia tienen dos nuevas clasificaciones”[Movies in Colombia have two new classifications]. “Paranormal activity causes panic in Italy”. Retrieved 20 August 2014.53. Bunkamura.

Retrieved 13 October 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Turkey: Ministry of Culture and Tourism. “Age or Content Based Film Ratings: A Solution Discussed in Poland”. |chapter= ignored (help) [82] “Frågor och svar om åldersgränser”[Questions and answers about age limits] (in Swedish). p. [89] “FAQs: Movie ratings – how do these work?". 396/82. Retrieved 12 October 2014. Taiwan: Government Information Office. Russia: Ministry of Communications and Mass Media. Swedish Media Council. Retrieved 11 May 2014. Swedish Media Council. “Thailand passes controversial film act”. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 21 September] (in Portuguese). [84] “Movie law” (in Chinese). “Decreto-Lei n. IRIS Merlin 2012 (4). [94] “Film Ratings”. British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on 2 July 2001. [64] “Aldersgrenser på kino”[Age limits on cinema] (in Norwegian). Variety. Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle Fernsehen. [92] “Guidelines”. Retrieved 14 May 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2014. Notisum. [77] “Cinema and Audio-Visual Concepts: Film Rating”. Retrieved 3 October 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2014. de 21 de Setembro”[DecreeLaw n. Retrieved 11 May 2014. Singapore: Media Development Authority. MOTION PICTURE RATING SYSTEM [62] “New Zealand's classification labels”. [91] “FAQs”. New Zealand: Office of Film and Literature Classification. Spain: Ministry of Education. Phillipines: Movie and Television Review and Classification Board. Nigeria: National Film and Video Censors Board. [73] “Regulations & Licensing: Content Standards & Classification – Film & Videos”. [75] “Statistics” (click the “statistics”tab). Retrieved 7 May 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014. British Board of Film Classification. Cinemacity. Kong (20 December 2007). Pakamard (18 August 2009). Retrieved 11 May 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2014. [79] “Lag (2010:1882) om åldersgränser för film som ska visas offentligt”[Law (2010: 1882) for the age limit for the movie to be shown in public] (in Swedish). Comissão de Classificação de Espectáculos. “Switzerland: Harmonisation of Minimum Age for Cinema Attendance”. Motion picture and video Act (in Norwegian) (Norway: Ministry of Culture). Retrieved 11 May 2014. ИНФОРМАЦИОННЫХ ТЕХНОЛОГИЙ И МАССОВЫХ КОММУНИКАЦИЙ (РОСКОМНАДЗОР)[Federal Service for Supervision of Communications. “Media Rating Board OKs Screening of Kim Ki-dukʼ s Controversial 'Moebius'". European Audiovisual Observatory. p. [85] Rithdee.2010 № 436-FZ]. [72] "Федеральный закон от 29.º 396/82. Archived from the original on 23 August 2012. Diário da República (in Portuguese) 1 (32). Archived from the original on 9 January 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2014. Official Gazette (in Turkish) (25 731). p. . Retrieved 11 May 2014. Swedish Media Council. [88] “Sinema Filmlerini Değerlendirme Ve Sınıflandırma İşaretlerimizi Tanıyalım”[Meet the assessment and classification Sign Cinema Films]. Retrieved 11 May 2014. The Korea Herald. Retrieved 22 August 2014. [74] “Classification Guidelines”. [93] “FAQs: What are the differences between the ʻUʼand ʻUcʼcategories?".2010 № 436-ФЗ" [Federal Law of 29. [90] “About the BBFC”. 16.12. Retrieved 3 October 2014. European Conference of Film Classification. Retrieved 14 October 2014.12. [65] “Lov om film og videogram”[Law on film and video]. Norwegian Media Authority. 31 December 2010. [67] Kirwil. Lucyna (3–5 September 2003). |chapter= ignored (help) [80]“Film Classification”. Retrieved 25 August 2014. Claire (7 August 2013). Retrieved 23 April 2014. [66]“2004 Implementing Rules and Regulations”. [69] “Decreto-Lei n. Retrieved 4 May 2014. Swedish Media Council. [86] Jaichalard. [70] Presidency of the Council of Ministers (14 February 2014).º 23/2014” (PDF). British Board of Film Classification. [78] “About the Swedish Media Council”. [71] ФЕДЕРАЛЬНАЯ СЛУЖБА ПО НАДЗОРУ В СФЕРЕ СВЯЗИ. “Film ratings launched”. 21 December 2010. 6. Motion Picture Association of America. [63] “Classifications: Classification Symbols”. Retrieved 3 October 2014. Portugal: Comissão de Classificação de Espectáculos. [83] Aubrey. Patrice (2012). Information Technology and Mass Communications (Roskomnadzora)] (in Russian). [76] Lee. Retrieved 3 October 2014. British Board of Film Classification. Seoul: Korea Media Rating Board. South Africa: Film and Publication Board. 1385. Retrieved 4 May 2014.18 CHAPTER 1. Retrieved 25 August 2014. Turkey: Ministry of Culture and Tourism. The Nation (Thailand). Culture and Sport. Retrieved 11 May 2014. [81] "Åldersgränserna”[The age limits] (in Swedish). [68] “English Version: Classification in Portugal”. Retrieved 3 May 2014. [87] “Sinema Filmlerinin Değerlendirilmesi ve Sınıflandırılmasına İlişkin Usul ve Esaslar Hakkında Yönetmelik” [Evaluation and Classification of Movies Regulation on the Procedures and Principles]. April 1994. 18 February 2005. Retrieved 12 October 2014.

• Korea Korea Media Rating Board. • FilmClassifications. V. [96] Franklin. Retrieved 14 October 2014. • IMDb's information about rating systems from all over the world. (SPIO) • Iceland Smáís. Germany. Canada. pp. • Spanish Film Academy (ACE).54. • Finland Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media. • Japan Administration Commission of Motion Picture Code of Ethics.1. • Sweden Statens medieråd. the Netherlands. Daniel P. • Malaysia Lembaga Penapisan Filem Malaysia (Malaysia Film Filter Board) • Netherlands Kijkwijzer (and Nicam). Denmark. • Philippines Movie and Television Review and Classification Board • Singapore Media Development Authority. • Australia Australian Classification Board. 1. Rowman & Littlefield. New Zealand. ISBN 9781461641018. • New Zealand Office of Film & Literature Classification. Singapore. EXTERNAL LINKS 19 [95] “What: Guide to Ratings”. • United Kingdom British Board of Film Classification (BBFC). • Germany Spitzenorganisation der Filmwirtschaft e. • USA Motion Picture Association of America. the United Kingdom and the United States. Austria. 152–153. • Denmark Medierådet for Børn og Unge (The Media Council for Children and Young People). • Irish Film Censor's Office. Politics and Film: The Political Culture of Film in the United States. Classification and Ratings Administration. (2006).com Information regarding film classifications from Australia. • Norway Media Authority.54 External links • The Netherlands film board's comparison of film classifications issued for twelve recent films by the classification boards of the UK. . Ireland. France. South Africa. • South African Film and Publications Board. and Sweden. • France Centre National de la Cinématographie (CNC).

• Apto para mayores de 18 años (SAM 18) (English: suitable for mature audiences only) – programs contain strong violence. The rating can change per episode. A television content rating system for Armenia was innetwork.2 Armenia A rating is usually set for each individual episode of a television series. . 10:30 p. respectively. • T – suitable for teens ages 12 and up.m.Chapter 2 Television content rating systems Television content rating systems give viewers an idea of the suitability of a television program for children or adults. 2. • M – suitable for ages 16 and up. or 7:00 a. coarse language and explicit sexual references. the plaque Atención: Contenido no apto para niños.m. partial nudity and moderate sexual references.troduced in June 2006 (first tested in Yerevan in January ble to state what kind of rating a program has. rerun and per country. • Y7 – suitable for ages 7–16. the content rating system are identical to those used by the local film bureau. • Apto para mayores de 16 años (SAM 16) (English: suitable for ages 16 and up) – programs may contain more intensive violence and coarse language. Range specific 2. Many countries have their own television rating system and each country's rating process may differ due to local priorities. In Argentina. the broadcaster or by the content producers themselves. • T – suitable for ages 12 and up. • A – suitable only for adults ages 18 and up. see Censorship in Australia. and 10:00 p. language and mature situations. • E9 – suitable for ages 9 and up. Programs are rated by either the organization that manages the system. • GA – suitable for general audiences.m.3 Australia 20 For details on the video and DVD classification system in Australia. Starting from September 2010.1 Argentina • Y – suitable for ages 2–11. • AO – suitable for ages 17 and up. • Apto para todo público (ATP) (English: suitable for all audiences) – programs may contain mild violence. it is compulsory for broadcasters to show the plaque Comienza el horario apto para todo público English: Start time of suitable for all age schedule and Finaliza el horario apto para todo público English: End time of suitable for all age schedule at 6:00 a.m. In addition. niñas y adolescentes English: Warning: Content not suitable for children and adolescents are shown before news broadcasts. or • E – suitable for ages 5 and up. • EC – suitable for ages 2 and up. 2. • Apto para mayores de 13 años (SAM 13) (English: suitable for ages 13 and up) – programs may contain mild to moderate language and mild vio. As such it is impossi. without 2006).* [1] The Armenian ratings are as follows: stating when and where this rating is used. • TW – suitable for tweens ages 9 and up.Age specific lence and sexual references.

• S – used for programs with sexual references/situations. Pay television networks also have a different system* [5] Sometimes. the ratings are intended to be equivalent to the Australian Classification Board (ACB) classifications of the same name.3. miniseries and documentaries). which is governed by the Australian and those programs can now only be shown on the two adult channels. • AL – used for dialogue containing aggressive language. A classification disclaimer may be displayed for PG material if the broadcaster believes the material is of an intensity that parents and/or young children may not expect. over and above the commercial Code of Practice. The two government-owned TV networks. but its use is strictly limited to • M – used for programs depicting medical procespecial interest channels. • N – used for programs containing nudity. its code of practice does not require that it display its classification symbol on-air in respect to G-rated programming. such to the free-to-air networks. There is an themes. but are specifically targeted at children. Communications and Media Authority. The restrictions on to comply with the Australian Commercial Television R18+ rated programming have been increased since then. • E – used for educational programming. these abbreviations are as follows: • A – signifies content with adult themes or dangerous stunts. instead of 9:00 p.2.3. whereas G specifies programming content that is suitable for all audiences. and are instead each bound by their own Codes of Practice.. appropriate abbreviations are displayed along with the classification symbol after each commercial break.1 Child-specific ratings These time zones are further governed by the Australian Commercial Television Code of Practice. ABC and SBS. although some of the content may be altered/removed to meet MA15+ classification guidelines. instead programs rated MA15+ must not start before 9:30 p. allowing children acCommercial television stations in Australia are required cess to violent TV shows and films.3. • D – used for programs with drug references or drug use. dures. Both are similar to the G and PG classifications respectively in terms of allowable content. usually in lower case to distinguish from primary classifications. Some movies which have an “R”rating on DVD may be given an MA15+ on TV. • SV – used for programs containing depictions of sexual violence. Shows that are usually rated PG now may feature the same amount of content when it was G rated. In general. They also usually appear in programming guides. Consumer advice Consumer advice is compulsory for all MA15+ and AV15+ programs. there are not usually restrictions on the time of day any • SN – used for programs based upon supernatural particular programming can be broadcast. and one-off programs and very short series classified M or higher (such as feature films.* [4] while ABC does not use the AV/MAV rating at all. In general. • H – used for programs based upon horror and supernatural themes. While the ABC recognizes the G rating. when a program carries consumer advice. however. more specific consumer advice is issued. SBS refers to the rating MAV15+ instead of AV15+. Code of Practice. AUSTRALIA 21 Main article: Australian Classification Board by parents to stop children from seeing certain programs. 2. Several programs that air before the PG timeslot of 7:00pm do still contain PG content. but may not necessarily be of interest to children. all content on pay as: TV must still be given one of the above ratings.m. In addition.2 Standard ratings With the exception of the AV15+ rating. FOXTEL. Consumer advice takes the form of a full-screen written and verbal announcement at the start of the program announcing the classification as well as listing the type and strength of any mature content. has a parental lock-out system which can be programmed . the system malfunctioned.* [2]* [3] The guidelines provided by these Codes are similar but not identical to the Codes of Practice for commercial stations.. 2. In 2009. • V – used for programs depicting violence. For example.m. a pay TV company. R18+ rating for pay TV. which is only used by commercial TV networks. • L – used for dialogue containing coarse language. are not bound by the same regulations as their commercial counterparts. although nothing may be edited to fit a G rating. They're usually presented with the same shape and sometimes colour as their ACB counterparts.

regardless of its rating. 2. and some television networks since 2006. The con• 18 Não recomendado para menores de 18 anos – tent rating system is a project of the Government Public Relations Department by the Office of National BroadContent suitable for viewers over the age of 18. Programming on cable networks can air at any time. In other cases. When the film is naturalistically erotic or shows violence in an ostentatious manner. content descriptors (using Cambodian characters) shown on-screen during the duration of the program. Classificação.and 10-rated programming may air at any time the ratings. has no restrictive recommendations from the Committee and does not fall in rating A.* [6] On broadcast networks. Others may not use the above examples at all and simply list the content as violence. although it was already used for rating motion pictures. and may also carry content descriptors. taking drugs or stimulants or a considerable number of scenes showing violence. Títulos e Qualificação) judges the content to guarantee that the rating is appropriate for that specific show.m. However. the ratings are also translated in Brazilian Sign Language. .* [7] The Brazilian content rating system utilizes age-specific classifications (with the exception of L-rated programming). and 6 a.m. adult themes etc. and 6 a. Since then. the Kingdom of Cambodia on April 23. or certain times to set up a procedure of TV program classification. and consist of the following: • L Livre para todos os públicos – Content is suitable for all audiences • 10 Não recomendado para menores de 10 anos – Content suitable for viewers over the age of 10. 2. utilizing only a ticker bar with a warning sig• 12-rated programs may air only between the hours nified content not suitable for children.6 Cambodia • 16 Não recomendado para menores de 16 anos – The Television Classification System was introduced in Content suitable for viewers over the age of 16. CHAPTER 2. • 14 Não recomendado para menores de 14 anos – Content suitable for viewers over the age of 14.m. video games. When the film confirms the ideals of humanism or popularizes the national and world cultures or contributes to upbringing children. the television networks themselves rate the shows. When the film contains certain erotic scenes or scenes with drinking. and 6 a. • D – No persons under the age of 16 are admitted.m. while the Department of Justice. There are no official graphics or signs for • L. Children and nonof 8 p. but then substitute one of the more widespread categories when using the abbreviated form.5 Bulgaria The Bulgarian content rating system persists of the following classifications: • A – Recommended to children. 2011. and their respective promos. Titles and Qualification (Portuguese: Departamento de Justiça.* [8] the stations have to follow the existing laws on broadcasting programs. When the film is in no way contrary to the universal rules of morality in this country. • B – No restrictive recommendations from the Committee. a network may include more specific advice at the start of a program. and 6 a. TELEVISION CONTENT RATING SYSTEMS • 14-rated programs may air only between 9 p. casting Commission for all eight Cambodian TV stations The system also regulates a watershed.m. • 12 Não recomendado para menores de 12 anos – Content suitable for viewers over the age of 12. • 18-rated programs may air only between 11 p.m. • C – No persons under the age of 12 are admitted unless accompanied by an adult. taking drugs or stimulants or a few scenes of violence.22 • W – used for programs based upon war themes or scenes. The where certain programming may air on broadcast televi. 2.m. The icons must be shown at the start of each block of the show. scripted programming are usually not rated. When the film contains quite a number of erotic scenes or scenes with drinking.m.original system used four main rating symbols and three sion. • 16-rated programs may air only between 10 p. • X – No persons under the age of 18 are admitted. where the system is mandatory.4 Brazil Main article: Brazilian Advisory Rating System The implementation of a television content rating system in Brazil was made official for broadcasters in mid-2007. Rating.

This disclaimer is technically required even if the final 2. • PG – Parental guidance. Low level violence and fantasy horror is allowed.). and mild profanity and/or censored language. No sexual content of any level allowed. language. No foul language is allowed.2. May contain strong violence and strong tentially unsuitable for some viewers. • 16+ – recommended for children over the age of 16 and may contain with strong violence. No profanity or sexual content of any level allowed. • G (general) – appropriate for all ages and must con- 2. Canadian viewers were used to seeing ratings attached to American programming delivered via cable and over-the-air reception). Programming with this rating cannot air ning of the program and at the end of each commercial before the watershed (9:00 p. over-the-air. although in the case of longer programs that do not start on the hour. advising viewer discretion (such disclaimers are only required for the first hour if airing after 9:00 p. while others show the rating at the start and again precisely one hour later.7. and some (but not all) channels in fact observe French-language broadcasters use the Régie du cinéma this. The icons are displayed in the upper-left corner and the size should be a minimum of 52 scan lines tall. and depictions of sexual activity as long lence.7. Notably. glish Canadian programming above. break. .m. but occasional “socially offensive and discriminatory”language is allowed if in the context of the story.1 Outside Quebec tain little or no violence and little to no sexual content. strong language. although it still uses such and older. regulating Canadian Broadcast Standards Council (which • 18+ – Programming intended for viewers ages 18 does not include the CBC.). should a program contain content poand older. such as vioprofanity. • 8+ – appropriate for children 8 and may contain with little violence. coarse language. or if the program is broadcast mercial depending on the TV channel. The icons are intended to be shown once an hour lasting 15 seconds. some broadcasters show the rating at the start and at the top of each subsequent clock hour. Moderate violence and moderate profanity is allowed. there are some networks like Global that only display the television rating at the beginning of the show. May contain explicit violence and sexual warnings) are required to air a disclaimer at the beginactivity. • C8 – Suitable for children ages 8+. • 13+ appropriate – suitable for children 13 and may contain with moderate violence. Contains little violence. and some sexual situations. However. or nudity. members of the selfas they are within the context of a story.* [11] film rating system system for television programming. The upper-right corner of symbols are shaped like the corner of a maple leaf.m. • Exempt – Shows which are exempt from ratings An E rating (no rating will appear on screen) is given to (such as news and sports programming) will not dis. television ratings are generally considered more restrictive than movie ratings. as is used in the national flag. language. to 6:00 a. as is brief nudity and sexual references if important to the context of the story. • 14+ – Programming intended for viewers ages 14 Additionally. and little to no sexual situations. CANADA 2.* [10] 23 • C – Programming suitable for children ages of 2–7 years. in the same classes used for Enplay an on-screen rating at all.exempt programming. and strong sexual content.7 Canada The Canadian TV Classification System was created in late 1997* [9] for English-language programmers to use in conjunction with the V-chip (by this point.2 Quebec ratings commercial break comes immediately before the closing credits. Also. • G – Suitable for general audiences. the television rating given may depend on the Logo may or may not appear on screen after every comlevel of cable and satellite. Canadian TV Ratings: 18+ • 18+ – only to be viewed by adults and may contain extreme violence and graphic sexual content.7.m. Programming suitable for the entire family with mild violence. It is mostly used for 18+ movies and pornography.

. • I10 Infantil para mayores de 10 años – programs Pornography is forbidden in broadcast over the air televirecommended for children ages 10 or older. ter 10 p.8 Chile • Para todas las audiencias (content suitable for all audiences) – daily.* [13] The networks must also air an 'institutional message' daily at 21:00. not recommended for children under 12. local time).2 Standard ratings 2. The National Association of Television (Asociación Nacional de Televisión) devised a content rating system in 1993. 2. respectively. there are no regulations on what can be shown on Danish television. not recommended for children under 18. • K18 – not allowed air before 11:00 p. as defined by the National If a program is classified as 'K16' or 'K18'. may only be broadcast after 6 p. • Blue symbol – programs containing explicit content and strictly for adults only 2. • A Adulto (adult) – programs suitable for adult audiences only (ages 18 or older). from the hours of 07:00–21:30. with content appropriate for all ages. Monday through Friday.. and if parental company is needed at the beginning of every program. may contain coarse • Red symbol – programs containing material with language. a notification Television Commission.24 CHAPTER 2. • R Responsabilidad compartida (shared responsibility) – programs may content not suitable for children • Yellow symbol – programs suitable children accomnot accompanied by an adult.m. Child specific • I Infantil (English: for children) – programs suitable for all children. panied by an adult.* [15] 2.m.* [12] Colombian television networks are required to specify programs within dubbed family and adult fringes.1 Fringe hours 2. and sexual or explicit situations (used afmore intensive content . sion in Colombia. and must display a notice signifying the audience. inviting children 12 years of age or less to “not to stay exposed to contents which have no essentially child[-oriented] nature. • Green symbol – programs suitable for all ages. • K7 – not allowed air before 7:00 a.8.10 Denmark older. and Saturdays and Sundays from 08:00–10:00. both visually and in narration. not recommended for children under 16. and Saturdays and Sundays 07:00–08:00 and 10:00–22:30. the minimum age required to watch the program.m.m. can be broadcast on all networks at any times. but a rating system has been • F Familiar (family) – programs suitable for a general devised. • K12 – not allowed air before 05:00 p.m. even in the adult fringes.9 Colombia Since 1997. • K16 – not allowed air before 09:00 p.11 Finland A content rating system were introduced to Finland television broadcasting in 2004. .. • Adultos (adult audiences) – Programming dubbed with this classification run through the remaining time slots not specified by the Infantil and Familiar fringes.9.. TELEVISION CONTENT RATING SYSTEMS 2. • I7 Infantil para mayores de 7 años – programs recommended for children ages 7 or older.1 • Familiar (family) – Monday to Friday from 07:00– 16:00 and 17:00–22:10.m.”* [14]* [15] A message must be broadcast at 22:10. • Infantil (children) – Monday through Friday from 16:00–17:00.. In Denmark.* [17] • I12 Infantil para mayores de 12 años – programs recommended for children and teens ages 12 or 2. The fringes (Spanish: franjas). and consist of the following: audience. Most networks opt to display a scrolling text message instead.* [16] and are as follows: must be shown before broadcast. if it contains sexual or violent content. not recommended for children under 7. (22:30 Saturdays and Sundays) explaining to viewers that the adult fringe has started. The initial ratings system for television programs shown on Finnish television channels consist of the following: • S – allowed at all times.8.

m. May contain excpilt scenes. the Hungarian television rating system was more simplistic: networks would range their programs into three categories: • – suitable for all ages. Before 2002. and 6:00 a. Déconseillé aux moins de 16 ans (English: not recommended for children under 16) – not allowed air before 10:30 p.m. only allowed to be shown between 11:00 p. • G (general) – for general audiences.* [19] • If no rating appears. profanity before midnight is punishable by fine. • • – required parental consent (only allowed between 7:00 p. as of November 2012. 2.14.m. (some channels and programs are subject to exception). access to these programs is locked by a personal password. • • PG (parental guidance recommended) – programs are unsuitable for children. etc.12 France • A content rating system in French is regulated by Conseil Supérieur de l'Audiovisuel (CSA). • M (mature) – programs are recommended only for adult viewers above the age of 18. The symbol of this category was a filled red circle. except when used in the context of the program. A content rating system in Greece was devised in 2000.* [18] Each rating icon is translucent and. These provisions are enforced by the Greek National Council for Radio and Television (ESR). and 6:00 a.14 Hong Kong • The Hong Kong television rating system is since by Déconseillé aux moins de 10 ans (English: generic code of television programs standard of the not recommended for children under 10) – not alBroadcasting Ordinance (Cap. . as this is a watershed devised for family viewing.m.m.562) on December 11. 2. is shown for the whole duration of the show. Programs that are classified as either 'PG' or 'M' should • Déconseillé aux moins de 18 ans (English: not be broadcast between 4:00 p. it is most likely appropriate for all ages.m. HONG KONG 25 2.). The system has five ratings. and 8:30 p. • Not recommended for children under the age of 18 – Films displaying heavy violence or sexual content were ranked into this one.15 Hungary 2. lowed in children's television series. If a program is not marked with the television authority's choice of rating symbol. and only in some channels.13 Greece The Hungarian content rating system has changed frequently during the last few years. • Unrated – programs suitable for anyone.m.).m. with each rating being represented by a different shape on a different-coloured background. every not recommended for persons under 18) – allowed day.m.m.m. 1995. The current ratings are: • Déconseillé aux moins de 12 ans (English: not recommended for children under 12) – not allowed air before 10:00 p.).m. since the radio and television authorities have stricter guidelines about age appropriate rating categories for programs. The symbol of this category was a blue triangle. the airing channel often has to pay large penalties to Hungarian authorities. (some channels and programs are subject to exception).2. parental guidance is recommended. • – parental consent suggested. • Not recommended for children under the age of 14 – films displaying light violence or with explicit dialogue were ranked into this category. – suitable for minors over the age of 15 (only allowed between 9:00 p. and 6:00 a. The color-coded ratings are compulsory. – suitable only for adults (allowed only between midnight and 6:00 a. between midnight and 5 a. and are displayed and verbally announced at the beginning of each broadcast. The ratings of the programs broadcast often caused legal interferences.

• • 18 – programs suitable for ages 18 and older. • 6 – programs not recommended for children below the age of 6. the television author• 12 – programs suitable for ages 12 and older. Most films without serious violence or sexual content fit into this category as well. nels were also allowed to increase the transparency of the • 16 – programs suitable for ages 16 and older. and networks feared • 10 – programs suitable for ages 10 and older. But.nel's logo in the top-right corner. pension of exhibition of the film. there is no obligation for broadcasters to indicate it. consisting of the following: sory on every Hungarian television network. chan• 14 – programs suitable for ages 14 and older.16 Iceland not strictly compulsory for the channels.” did not contain any number in it). with the rating following grams and displaying the rating symbols became compul. of the rating.) Shri • 18 – the program is recommended only for Mukul Mudgal to examine issues of film certification unadult viewers (for ages 18 and up). ʻVishwaroopamʼ. One of the terms of plicit violence and explicit sexual content. bols during the entire duration of their programs. but it of broadcasting on television channels and radio stations. A yellow circle with the number 16 written inside is used for this In February 2013. a new rating system was devised. A red cirreference for the committee is to examine “the requirecle with the number 18 written inside is used for this ment of special categories of certification for the purposes rating (the red circle was also used until 2002. and for 15 seconds before exhibition of a 'video film'.* [20] . may contain light sexual content or explicit language. In the current system there are five rating categories: • Unrated – programs can be viewed by any age. because • L – programs suitable for all ages. The symbols were distracting to viewers. the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting constituted a panel under the Chairmanship of Justice (Retd.by. A yellow circle with the number 12 written inside is Sample censor certificate issued by Central Board of Film Certiused for this rating. Because of the complaints. and has been given a rating of “Unrestricted Public Exhibition”. 16 – programs not recommended for teens and children below the age of 16. Similar ratings also apply to films shown in cinemas. TELEVISION CONTENT RATING SYSTEMS Rating programs and displaying on-screen symbols was 2. may contain more intensive violence and sexual content. 2. symbols. Eventually the television authority found this system inappropriate. A yellow circle with the number 6 written inside is used for this rating. The content rating system in Iceland consist of the chanIn 2002. the committee had not made any recommendations on this important matter.26 CHAPTER 2. the channels were required to display the ranking sym• 7 – programs suitable for ages 7 and older. that their constant presence could damage the television screen. Later. fication (CBFC) that has to be displayed for 10 seconds before • exhibition of a 'theatrical film'. in the wake of controversy over susrating. may contain exder the Cinematograph Act 1952. ity allowed channels to choose to show the rating symbols on the left or on the right side of the screen.“V/U”infers that the film is sanctioned for video exhibition. however unlike in other countries a viewer cannot be denied The current classifications of films in India are as follows: access from entering a screening if they are not the age • U – unrestricted public exhibition. The new rating system caused trouble within these networks. may not contain any violence or sexual content.17 India children friendly – programs recommended for children. Ranking pro. It is an optional rating. • 12 – programs not recommended for children below the age of 12.

Other television channels will make an announcement about whether or not a show's • A-BO Anak – bimbingan orang tua (English: chilcontent is appropriate for any range of age. some disturbing material etc.g. more mature themes may be present. regardless of age. Television series in Indonesia are forbidden to have excessive offensive language. and references to homosexuality). sexual situations (including nudity. but in cable or satellite television. In Ireland.2. anyone. • R Remaja (English: teenager) – suitable for teens from ages 13 through 17. Main article: RTÉ programme classifications • A – public exhibition restricted to adults 18 years of age and older only. RTÉ Two). orange and red. displays of affection [e. and R-BO classifications are not considered official.19 Ireland tion regarding parental guidance to those under 12 years of age. Because of Indonesia's large Islam population (the largest in the world). . The banner may display one of the following ̶very rare. dren with parental guidance) – suitable for children ages 7 through 12. Later. • BO Bimbingan orang tua (English: parental guidance) – parental guidance suggested for ages 5 and In 2010. yellow. TV censors have the right to edit out any content deemed offensive according to Islamic law. • G – general audience. no child under 12 are permitted to view the program. extreme violence. including cable networks. some movies (even in late night airings) still need to be edited because the content is forbidden to air in Indonesia. Originally. nudity.) a program. no child under 15 may view the programme. may contain comedic violence or action fantasy violence. IRELAND 27 • U/A – unrestricted public exhibition. usually news and children's programming. and animated scenes considered too scary or frightening for children. can view the program. doctors etc. classifications: 2. • PS Treoir tuismitheora (English: parental supervision) – suitable for more mature viewers. The BO. However. The ratings are divided into eight categories: • SU Semua Umur (English: all ages) – suitable for general audiences. it is designated differently. Israel networks (Channel 2 and Channel 10) display the suggested age range for all programmes. the system was revised. with parental guidance or permission. • R-BO Remaja – bimbingan orang tua (English: roughly translates to teenager with parental guidance) – suitable for teens with parental guidance or permission. • Ch Páistí (English: children) – suitable for children ages 5 to 10. • D Dewasa (English: mature) – suitable for viewers over 18 and older only. • P Prasekolah (English: pre-school) – suitable for children from ages 2 through 6. • YA Ógra (English: young adult) – suitable for adolescent audiences. mostly movies with very strong language. the rating became available at all of the channels. • MA Lucht féachana lánfhásta amháin (English: mature audience only) – most restrictive classification.19.2. kissing].18 Indonesia • GA Lucht féachana ginearálta (English: general audience) – suitable for all ages. • 15+ – suitable for teens ages 15 and over. A-BO. (RTÉ One. Raidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ) displays a banner in the top right-hand corner (previously on the left• S – public exhibition restricted to members of any hand corner) of the screen during the opening screen of profession or any class of persons (e. may contain thematic elements that would appeal to teenagers. but with a cau. the limit tags came in three colors. known as Haram. but appear on Indonesian TV as content warnings for certain networks. The current ratings are as follows: under. allowing for heavy subject matter and coarse language • A Anak (English: children) – suitable for teens and These content ratings only apply to the RTÉ channels children from ages 7 through 12. sex.g.20 Israel Since April 2003. • 12+ – suitable for teens and children ages 12 and over. 2.

• B – designed for ages 12 and older.28 • 18+ – suitable for adults only. Television stations in Maldives display a classification rating at the beginning of each program (news being exempt from this). The rating system are shown five seconds before the start of the programme. pornography or sexually explicit material is rated X and is banned.for viewers ages 13 and above. along with the channel XEIMT-TV in Mexico City. prior to April 2010. generally more intensive content (allowed only between 22:00 and 05:00). systems are used for both television programs and films. because pornography remains illegal in the Mal2.21 Malaysia dives as of the year 2009. News and live programs are exempt from classification. Astro only uses P13 classification for movie channels such as Astro Best and Astro First. • A – appropriate for all ages. In December 2010. a television rating system was revised in January 2012. wijzer (ViewingGuide or WatchWiser). the Latin American channel Canal Fox started using TV ratings. and mild language (allowed only between 20:00 and 05:00). can be broadcast anytime. • E – exempt from classification (this rating is usually The X rating is used for content that is banned from airapplied to live broadcasts). Displaying classification rating after commercials may be optional. TELEVISION CONTENT RATING SYSTEMS • X – most restrictive classification. In Malaysia. slightly more intensive than the 'A' and 'B' ratings (allowed only between 21:00 and 05:00). The same rating • 15+ – restricted to viewers aged 15 and above. violence or crude humor) (broadcast between 05:00 and 20:00 were required to be A rated and can be broadcast anytime). sification 12 years may only be broadcast from 8pm and • 21+ – restricted to viewers aged 21 and above. • D – designed to be viewed only by mature adults (at least 21 years of age and over). Each television station uses different classification rating for their respective programs. but some elements may only be broadcast at night. • B-15 – designed for ages 15 and up. • PG – parental guidance is required unaccompanied children. Cinemas and . • PG-12 – parental guidance is required for children under the age of 12. sexual references.24 Netherlands The television rating system in the Netherlands was cre• 12+ – teens and children aged 12 and older may ated in 2001 by the Dutch Institute for the Classification of Audiovisual Media (NICAM) and is known as Kijkwatch. only adults ages 25 and above may view. with the classification 16 years from 10pm. no minors may view the programme. all television stations use the following classification age groups. and serve partly as guidelines (Programmes with the clas• 18+ – restricted to viewers aged 18 and above. • Y – young children. Usually. ing on public television in the Maldives. cannot be broadcast before 10:00 p. • G – general viewing for all ages. Between 2009 and 2011. • RC (refused classification) – banned from public television in Mexico. and consists of the following: • P13 . In particular. There are four 18 based ratings. children under 13 needs parental guidance.23 Mexico The classification system of television programs in Mex• U (Malay: umum) – general viewing for all ages. can ico is almost equivalent to that of the movie rating system be broadcast anytime. rather than one. parental guidance is recommended for children under 7 years (some profanity. The classifications are as follows: 2. the classification is called PG13. of the country. mild violence. 2.m. • 18 – for viewers ages 18 and above only. may contain some sexual situations. CHAPTER 2. 2. contains extreme content matter (allowed only between midnight and 05:00).22 Maldives • C – designed to be viewed by adults aged 18 or older only. otherwise restricted.

while most of them rated PGR.en/of alcoholmisbruik) • Bad Language (Grof taalgebruik) 2. sexual violence. Programmes may not necessarily be designed for younger viewers. realistic violence. The system is also used for DVDs in Belgium and selectively used on television broadcasts in Flanders. NEW ZEALAND 29 theaters in the country cannot provide films with the classification 16 years to people under the age of 16). These are not necessarily unsuitable for children. 2. Cooking And Lifestyle Shows etc. – 5:00 a. www. A special sub-class of this rating.25. They are the same as Dutch film ratings. The rating for each programme is shown at the start and after each commercial break. depending on the time.2 Pay television The system for pay television is as follows: New Zealand has two separate content rating systems. denoted AO 9:30 p. religious beliefs. – 6 a. Soaps Parental advisory for children under 6 (Let op (Neighbours).m.m. sex and violence. sexual orientation. Not every Comedy or Drama series receives all the same ratings. one for free-to-air channels and one for pay TV services.Grey's Anatomy and some primetime dramas etc. Programmes rated PGR can screen between 9 a. some The Big Bang Theory episodes are rated G.m. • All Ages (Alle leeftijden) New Zealand's free-to-air TV content rating system has been in place since 1989 and is based on the system Australia was using from the early 1980s until 1993.m.bsa. There are three classifications: Examples Include: Mostly kids shows.nz. but must not contain material likely to cause them undue distress or discomfort. 2. potentially offensive language. or horrific encounters”and are considered un• Scary or Disturbing Content (Angst) suitable for viewing before that time.25 New Zealand Examples Include: CSI:Crime Scene Investigation.1 Free-to-air The following icons are in use for age rating: G (General Programmes): These exclude material likely to harm children under 14 and can screen at any time. For example.25. but viewer discre• Parental advisory for children under 9 (Let op tion is advised. and between 8:30 p.m. most recent episodes of 2 Broke Girls season 2 receives an AO rating. – 4 p. harassed. Some PGR programmes and most AO programmes have an advisory before the programme begins to advise of any specific content that could offend viewers such as language. ethnicity.m. Such programmes are directed primarily at a mature audience and can screen between noon There are also six descriptor icons used: and 3pm on a school day (except during school and public holidays as designated by the Ministry of Education). Some episodes or movies may required to be edited in order to be appropriate for the viewers. and parents and guardians are encouraged met kinderen tot 9 jaar) to supervise younger viewers.m.2. Animated versions of the icons used are also utilized in visual mediums. is reserved for • Violence (Geweld) programmes with a “greater degree of sexual activity.25. or physical/mental deficiencies] (Discriminatie) • Drug and/or Alcohol abuse (Drugs. nudity. or later. • G: suitable for general audiences . met kinderen tot 6 jaar) PGR (Parental Guidance Recommended): Programmes more suited to more mature viewers. • Parental advisory for children under 12 (Let Examples Include: Mostly primetime sitcoms And Local op met kinderen tot 12 jaar) Reality Shows • AO (Adults Only): AO programmes contain material Parental advisory for children under 16 (Let of an adult nature handled in such a way that it is unop met kinderen tot 16 jaar) suitable for children. • • Sexual Content (Seks) • Discrimination [scenes of characters getting abused. skin color. Some Packed to the Rafters episodes are rated AO.govt. and between 7 p. or excluded because of their race.

The rating was first broadcast on the film Cinco which was aired in ABS-CBN. an agreement was reached with Polish television broadcasters as Main article: Movie and Television Review and Classifi. More than of the screen during a program if it was rated as such. The open-signal channels that show their age rating are: a. then it has to be put on the upper • C: Content may offend left side of the screen. in which these advisories are simply written on the upper left side or at the lower right side • M: Suitable for mature audiences 13 and up of the television screen. implementing a three-tiered system:* [21]* [22]* [23] Any programme of any rating can air at any time. Frecuencia Latina. Some stations. opposite the logo of the TV station.* [29] which utilizes at least one of the following content descriptors: T for tema (themes). K for karahasan (violence). 2. the MTRCB revamped its rating system.* [31] Until 27 February 2000.* [32] On 1 March 2000.The current Polish television rating system was introtems. Polsat.érica Televisión. TVN decided to mark the so-called“adult movies”with a pul2. and M.“Friendly media”in order to introduce a uniform system cation Board § Television of classification of television programs. one can be used and the labels are: Sometimes.30 CHAPTER 2. where it had its old adviThe age rating system in the Peru television came into sory. Wizja In the Philippines.TVP. composed of G (General Patronage). do not show their Before 2000.m. wherein the rating must be aired twice (before the program and afscheduled on either side of a program rated G. tering technology available to subscribers free-ofcharge.* [33] only two television ratings: “General Patronage”and In 28 August 2011 changed the appearance of the char- . L for lengguwahe (language). ter a commercial break somewhere in the middle of the • Visual warning labels should be displayed before program). In November 1995. etc. yellow. • Programming rated M or higher should not be except in the case of programs with SPG rating. * • V: Violence [27] * [28] • L: Language On 9 February 2012. Nine television broadcasters .vamped. the Movie and Television Review and TV. our TV. to show in chart with key Canal+ in the appropriate color (green. force in 2005 as President of the republic Alejandro Toledo and the Congress passed this law for radio and television. PG (as per the Broadcasting Codes of Practice): (Parental Guidance). plements and regulates local television content rating sys. Canal+. red). howclassification.27 Philippines sating red 18+ logo. the SPG rating was imple• S: Sexual content mented.* [30] In Canal+ before the film listed below.28 Poland Global TV and La Tele. when annotations are to be put and it takes the place of the logo. H for katatakutan (horror) and D for droga 2. but have said technology can only screen material rated the look and the ratings themselves was completely re18 between the hours of 8pm and 6am. • 16: Suitable for viewers 16 and up • 18: Suitable for viewers 18 and up On 6 October 2011. but sometime before the implementation of the • Although most services these days make content fil.new system. Panamericana Television.26 Peru (drugs). in order to encourage parents to supervise and be responsible with their children in watching television. whatever the rating of such program is. the “M”rating was dropped. but The new ratings was originally to have been a fourcare should be taken to observe the following guidelines tiered system. The new system consists of a new full-screen advisory of the program's rating which is flashed before tween 9am and 3pm on school days.had signed the Classification Board. The rating system used in Peru is for adult audiences only”. commonly known as MTRCB. the MTRCB has implemented duced on 15 August 2005 and consists of five icons. A rating logo then appears at the bottom right certain programmes rated PG or higher. S for sekswal (sex). Poland did not have any uniform classification system for television programs. SPG (Strong Parental Guidance). TELEVISION CONTENT RATING SYSTEMS • PG: Parental guidance recommended for under 10 “Parental Guidance”. Nevertheless.agreement. applied their own system of signs: in front of the seThe ratings for television programs are available on some lected films TVP board applied the“Adult only”or“Film Peruvian channels. and also be. ever. ATV. every program. Poland and Cable TV Niepokalanow . TVN. the channels: TV Peru. im. channels carried by providers that do not The new ratings system is similar to the old one.

12. RUSSIA 31 acters:* [34] 2. manian television: The broadcasters have the right to ask the agency's opinion in certain show if they are not capable of recognizing its category. 16. 14. more detailed rating system for TV shows: • 0+ (Suitable for all ages) • 6+ (May not be suitable for very young children) • 12+ (Intended for viewers over the age of 12) • 16+ (Intended for viewers over the age of 16) • 18+ (Unsuitable for children. has to be marked with a clearly visible age limit (e. do not mark it as deThe rating system for programs and films shown on Ro. and all ages may watch.played before midnight.g. only for adults) These logos are shown in the beginning of the program and after every break. a G rating ginning of any program and after every break. They are also advised to take care of the • Y: (Young Ages) usual children schedule and to avoid problematic material in time when it could be easily expected that minors • G: (General Exhibition) are watching or listening the program. parental guidance ad.radio. On These logos must be shown during 10 seconds in the be. All broadcasters have the right to classify programs on their own. 16. usually in a corner) of the show.2. Q and R. the only existing regulation on Portuguese television was that programs with potentially shocking or harmful content could air only between 11pm and 6am and with a red circular marker on the top-right corner of the screen.31 Russia 2. • Todos (suitable for all) • 2. Aconselhamento Parental (may not be suitable for children under 10. it can only be broadcast between 11pm for kids and children and young. M. an L.31.32 Serbia 10. It is displayed at the beginning (usually • 16 (not suitable for children under 16) in a big red circle across the screen) and each 15 minutes (on a visible location.30 Romania (RBA) reserves its right to punish or warn the stations if they do not mark the programs at all. this warning is presented by the speaker.is when nothing appears. and the custodians warned. N means it's suitable gram is rated 16. 18) they are exempt from classification. parental guidance adIn Serbia. TV stations are obliged to mark all programs vised) that could endanger children and youth. 18) which warns the vised) parents and other audience if it program is not suitable for all minors. all free-to-air networks decided to complement this rule with a shared. ommended for children below the age of 12) usually a blank red circle)) • 12: Interzis copiilor sub 12 ani (Forbidden for chil• 12 (Program not suitable for children under the age dren under 12 years of age) of 12 (12 on a red circle)) • 15: Interzis minorilor sub 15 ani (Forbidden for children under 15 years of age) • 14 (Program not suitable for children/teens under the age of 14 (14 on a red circle)) • 18: Interzis minorilor sub 18 ani (Forbidden for children under 18 years of age) • 16 (Program not suitable for children/teens under the age of 16 (16 on a red circle)) . TV programs that could endanger minors in any way must be clearly • 12. and 6am.29 Portugal The rating system for programs and films shown on Russian television:* [36] For a long time. Like (12.* [35] and replaced by P.scribed or systematically estimate age categories wrongly. 14. In 2006. • AP: Accordul părinţilor (Parental guidance is rec• G (Program suitable for all ages (G on a red circle. Aconselhamento Parental (may not be marked. If a pro. but the Serbian Republic Broadcasting Agency 2. Each program dissuitable for children under 12.

TELEVISION CONTENT RATING SYSTEMS • 18 (Program not suitable for minors under the age of 18 (18 on a red circle)) 2. both of which features modeling nudity in certain programmes ) are enabled to carry NC16 and M18 rated content.32 CHAPTER 2. • 15 (Program not suitable for children/teens under All television stations. For Pay TV. StarHub TV's E City and Sensasi and Mio TV's FashionTV HD and FashionTV HD On Demand. In the case of television. No public viewing of this film may take place. • 18: Children under 18 are prohibited from watching this program/film. M18 rated programmes can only be telecasted from 10pm onwards to 6am on Pay TV. A full-screen warning must be issued before the start of the program. G-rated programmes are not required to show a notification for any channel. If the program is longer than an hour. It contains extreme violence. • 13: Children under 13 are prohibited from watching this program/film. any obscenity.33 Singapore Singapore has adopted the use of TV Ratings from 15 July 2011.35 South Africa South African ratings are issued and certified by the Film and Publication Board. language and/or graphic sexual content. and is suitable for family viewing. Slovenian government accepted a law in 2004. Unconventional ratings: 2. Adult Shops). A logo must be displayed in the corner of the screen for the duration of the program.g. language. which might include very mild language. For Free-to-Air TV. 2. FashionTV is also Singapore's first official M18 rated channel. PG13 rated programmes can be shown anytime. the shows rated PG may be aired anytime while PG13 should air between 10pm to 6am. Only Video on Demand (VOD) Pay TV services are allowed to carry R21 content currently.g. In the case of television. where the soft bordering hardcore Emmanuelle was screened. R18 films may only be distributed in the form of video and DVD in a controlled environment (e. This program contains mild language. Fox Movies Premium and HBO Asia are unable to carry Media Development Authority's film ratings as they are targeted at the same region (a certain group of Asia territories). A logo must be displayed in the corner of the screen for one minute after each commercial break. They consist of PG and PG13 ratings for Free-to-Air TV and NC16 and M18 ratings in addition to the PG and PG13 ratings for Pay TV channels. cinemas and distributors of DVD. R18 films may not be broadcast on television and in cinemas.* [37] in (The 18 rating does not refer to adult. This has been breached twice by ETv. which results in programmes being subjected to external censorship of a much harsher nature outside Singapore territorial control. A logo must be displayed in the corner of the screen for five minutes after each commercial break. . this program may only be broadcast after 9pm–4:30am. whilst the National Broadcasting Commission regulates the various films and programs. violence and sexual innuendo. • 16: Children under 16 are prohibited from watching this program/film. A full-screen warning must be issued before the start of the program and after each commercial break. Before the rated programme starts the TV channels will show a notification. child or animal which television stations are required to play a warning pornography̶as this is banned from television and cinbefore a film and display one of the following icons: ema by the Film and Publication Board. this program may only be broadcast from 10pm–4:30am. only StarHub TV's and Mio TV's self-packaged non-regional Pay TV channels ( e. This program contains an adult related theme.) • VS (vodstvo staršev) – Parental guidance suggested (for children under 6) • +12 – Content suitable for teens over 12 years • +15 Content suitable for teens over 15 years • AD (odrasli) – Content exclusively for adults • R18: this is reserved for films of an extreme sexual nature (pornography). Regional channels like Star World. violence and sexual innuendo. but must be accompanied by an adult. a warning must be displayed every half an hour. and some sexual situations. A logo must be displayed in the corner of the screen for two minutes after each commercial break. A logo must be displayed in the corner of the screen for 30 seconds after each commercial break. It contains moderate violence. Currently.34 Slovenia • PG: Children under 6 may watch this program/film. the age of 15 (15 on a red circle)) video and computer games must display the following sig• 17 (Program not suitable for children/teens under nage: the age of 17 (17 on a red circle)) • Family: This is a program/film that does not contain These ratings are used only on a few TV stations.

Programmes that receive this rating will almost certainly have adult themes. lifestyle shows. which has no icon. sib-ee-se ii-sang sicheong-ga): This rating is for programs that may deemed inappropriate for those younger than 12. This program usually involves programs designed for children or families. frequent use of strong language and disturbing scenes of violence. all programs except domestic dramas (which had been enforced since November 2002) has required to have a rating system. Usually used for animations that have stronger themes or violence then those designed for children. MBC. • • All ( 가. A rating disclaimer is displayed on the start of the program for five seconds explaining “Because this program is not appropriate for children/youth under X years old. The programs that have this rating may include moderate or strong adult themes. parental discretion is advised"( X / . 15 is introduced. and it started with only four classifications which are All. news. 7 (7 가. a broadcaster may apply a rating. In 2007. Most programs have to be rated. and talk shows on OTA (over-the-air) TV (KBS. Since 2007. education/culture shows. this rating is the most used rating for TV. This rating does not have an icon. chil-se ii-sang sicheong-ga): This rating is for programming that may contain material inappropriate for children younger than 7. and parental discretion should be used.* [39] Example of Korean TV rating icons. or for reality shows that have mild violence. and that parental discretion should be used.36 South Korea The South Korean television rating system has been in force since 2000. Even if it qualifies for being exempt. 13 and 19. Ratings are displayed every ten minutes. for 30 seconds. and parental discretion should be used. Some cartoon programming not deemed strictly as “educational”. with a size of at least 1/20 of the screen. SOUTH KOREA (The R18 rating does not refer to child or animal pornography̶as this is totally banned by the Film and Publication Board. • Exempt (no icon or name): This rating is only for knowledge based game shows. Additional symbols: • D (Drugs)* [38] • V (Violence)* [38] • N (Nudity)* [38] • P (Prejudice) [38] * • S (Sex)* [38] • L (Language)* [38] 2. • 15 (15 가. sports that excludes MMA or other violent sports.I . except the “exempt”rating below. If the program is rated“19”. this rating is commonly applied to live events where the occurrence of inappropriate dialogue is unpredictable. • 19 (19 가. language. Examples include most dramas. either on the upper-left or upper-right corner of the screen. themes. sib-o-se ii-sang sicheong-ga): This rating is for programs that contain material that may be inappropriate for children under 15. 19-rated programming cannot air during the hours of 7:00AM to 9:00AM. 7. sexual situations. In February 2001. SBS). and in black writing on a yellow circle with a white outline.2.36. and 1:00PM to 10:00PM. Mo-deun yeonryeong si-cheong-ga): This rating is for programming that is appropriate for all ages. Disclaimer or rating icons are not needed. documentary shows.) 33 • 12 (12 가. sexual inference. and many American TV shows/dramas on Cable TV channels like OCN and OnStyle. rating 13 was changed into 12 and a new rating. sib-gu-se ii-sang sicheong-ga): This rating is for programs that are intended for adults only. This does not apply to the“All”rating. and other programs that Korea Communications Standards Commission recognizes. and films rated “G”or “PG”in North America may fall into the 7 category. current topic discussion shows. the icon must be displayed for the entire duration of the program. and violence. and after commercial breaks. or language. As with the TV-MA rating in North America.

It is a red rectangle that appears next to or below the TV channel logo and for the whole duration of the show. years old..40 Thailand • 12 or +12 : Recommended for people older than 12 In Thailand. in the language of the • Primary . South Korean television ratings do not include content descriptors or viewer advisories as they do in other nations. • Restricted category (" 限" 級): For adults only and people under 18 years of age must not watch. and 15 ratings. Recommended for all ages. TELEVISION CONTENT RATING SYSTEMS peu-ro-geu-raem eun“X: se-mi-man ui eo rin-i/cheongso nyeon-i si cheong hagi e bu-jeok jeol ha-meu robo hoja ui si cheong-ji doga pir-yo han peu-ro-geu-raem ipnida) for 7. 2006 alongside a movie ratings for movies. 2. The programmes can be shown on television between 10:00 p. “All”and“19”ratings have a different disclaimer.39 Taiwan Taiwanese rating system for television programs was introduced in 1999 and there are four symbols: • General audiences category (" 普" 級): For all ages. and 5:00 a. the following text appears on the whole screen right before the content is aired. but can be watched by those who are under the recommended age if parental guidance is provided.34 CHAPTER 2.m. channel: “This program contains scenes that may hurt sensitive people. Rating symbols are shown all the programme or when it begins (also after broadcasting adverts). • PG 18 . and after 6. • i (Recomendado especialmente para la infancia).m. the content can be shown on television between 8:30 p. The program under this rating can only be broadcast after 10:00 p. 2.m. therefore the red symbol will be displayed.” Those contents are usually aired after 10:00 p.m. which say“This program is suitable for all ages"( ) and “This program is not suggested for youths under the age of 19"( 19 ) respectively.37 Spain These are the symbols of the Spanish rating system for television programs: • TP (Todos los públicos). a television rating system was introduced in years old.m.m.content suitable for people aged 13 and above.content suitable for people aged above 18 years old. • Parental guidance category (" 輔" 級): Not suitable for people under 12 years of age. • 7 or +7 : Recommended for people older than 7 years old. and TP is never shown). the television rating was revised. and 5:00 a. Moreover. Parental guidance is required for people aged 12 but under 18. Years ago.. • 7i or +7i : Recommended for kids older than 7 years old.m.content suitable for children between 6– 12 years old • General . .m. all ratings were shown only al the beginning. Under the new guideline. the so-called ′Free TV′ channels have to label their programmes and reschedule their • 18 or +18 : Recommended for people older than 18 shows to comply in the following categories: years old.m. The ratings are therefore used in a broader sense. depending on the rating and the hour (12 and over are always shown.. People aged 6 but under 12 require guidance from accompanying adults to watch.content suitable for general audiences • PG 13 . In September • 16 or +16 : Recommended for people older than 16 2013. On '+18' rated programs.38 Switzerland The Swiss system only contains one symbol which is used for content unsuitable for children and young teenagers. Specially recommended for preschoolers and kids.00 a. those who are younger that 18 must be provided with parental guidance. '18' or '+18' rated programs are not allowed to be shown on free to air television before 10. 12. 2. Under this category. a brief warning tone can also be heard.00 p. and before 6:00 a.content suitable for primary school aged children • Children . • Protected category (" 護" 級): Not suitable for children under 6 years old. 2.

There are also content informations which indicate violence/horror. In it there are scenes with nudity.m. In it program there are fragments.m. • TV-Y7 – This program is designed for children age • Yellow Triangle: children must view this program 7 and above. The ratings are the following: 35 • Red Square: this program is only for adult viewers. sports competitions. Suitable for all 2.43. News programs. May only be broadcast between 9:30 p. and 5:00 a. horrors. some comedies and dramas.* [40] drama films. mystical films. Acrestrictions. some action and mystical films.m.). These programs broadcast late at night (11 p. cartoons. and 5:00 a. religious ceremonies and commercial communication broadcasts are exempt from the content rating system.m. To it category related family films. • 13+ – Suitable for ages 13 and over. a practice criticised by rights group as nanny-state censorship and ridiculed by some Netizens for its confusing standards. TV programmes in Thailand are already labelled by certain system of categories. 2.41 Turkey The TV content rating system in Turkey was introtuced by RTÜK in 2006. or violence. Green circle can be shown for only the first three minutes. drug use. 2. Programs Programs rated TV-Y7 are designed for children age 7 with this rating usually broadcast in the evening (6 and older. It can be some action films with big violence level and excessive bloodshed. May only be broadcast between 0:00 a. These designations must be in the lower right corner.–5 a. Shown at the beginning of the program/movie and after every commercial break. Main article: TV Parental Guidelines • 7+ – Suitable for ages 7 and over.m.* [40] Ukrainian TV content rating was adopted on 15 September 2003.m.42 Ukraine • TV-Y – This program is designed to be appropriate for all children.43 United States ages. • Genel İzleyici – General audience. Shown (family symbol) at the beginning of the program/movie and after every commercial break. Programs rated TV-Y are designed to be appropriate for Listed below are designations of Ukraine classification: all children. Shown for the whole duration of the program/movie (may be translucent). It is: action films.content unsuitable for children and youngsters. which unsuitable for children..m. it is not necessarily a dangerous film for children to view. cording to the FCC. UNITED STATES • Adults . • 18+ – Suitable for ages 18 and over.2.m.). It somewhat looks like Poland's former ratings.m. sexuality and negative examples. including children from ages 2–6. horror films.–5 a. concerts. . but other marks must be present over the time of this programs. and can be viewed on TV only between 12:00 a. But if there is a red square in the lower right corner of the screen. frighten younger children”. The thematic elements portrayed in programs with this rating are specifically designed for a very • Green Circle: this program does not have age young audience. The FCC implies that it“may be more appropriate for children who have acquired the developmental p. programs are “not expected to comedies. Shown for the whole duration of the program/movie (may be translucent).* [40] with parents.

• TV-PG – This program contains material that parents may find unsuitable for younger children. and little or no sexual dialogue or situations. The FCC warns that “Parents are cautioned to exercise some care in monitoring this program and are cautioned against letting children under the age of 14 watch unattended.” * [40] The thematic elements portrayed in programs with • TV-14 – This program contains some material that many parents would find unsuitable for children under 14 years of age.* [40] Programs rated TV-14 may contain some material that parental guardians may find unsuitable for children under the age of 14.”* [40] . TELEVISION CONTENT RATING SYSTEMS this rating contain little or no violence. The FCC states that “this rating does not signify a program designed specifically for children.”* [40] The thematic elements portrayed in programs with this rating may include 'comedic violence'. no strong language.* [40] Programs rated TV-G are generally suitable for all ages. or may be frightening or confusing for children under the age of 7.* [40] and are generally more intense or guardians may find inappropriate for young children. • TV-G – Most parents would find this program suitable for all ages. most parents may let younger children watch this program unattended. combative than other programs rated TV-Y7.* [41] skills needed to distinguish between make-believe and reality.36 CHAPTER 2.* [40] Programs given the“FV”content descriptor exhibit more Programs rated TV-PG contain material that parental 'fantasy violence'.

informational. the content matters generally get more intensive. according to the FCC.44 Venezuela Television content in Venezuela is regulated by the Law on Social Responsibility on Radio and Television (Ley de Responsabilidad Social en Radio y Televisión).). The violence descriptor was used for TV-Y7 programs until the creation of the 'FV' descriptor in 1997. It is mandatory for all Venezuelan television station to broadcast a short presentation. viewed by adults. • Afghanistan Some thematic elements. before the broadcast of • TV-MA – This program is specifically designed to be any programs. As the rating increases pertaining to the age. etc. designated with an alphabetic letter: • Germany • D – Suggestive dialogue (Not used with TV-MA) • Iran • L – Coarse language • Iraq • S – Sexual content • Japan • V – Violence • Pakistan • FV – Fantasy violence (exclusive to TV-Y7) • E/I – Educational & Informative (usually used for childrens' programs . the rating was divided into three. The 'suggestive dialogue' descriptor is used for TV-PG • Saudi Arabia • Papua New Guinea • Timor Leste • North Korea • Vietnam • Morocco • United Kingdom .Exclusive to TV-Y and TV-Y7) Up to four content descriptors can be applied alongside an applied rating. where the type viewed by adults and therefore may be unsuitable for of program (recreational. “may call for parental guidance and/or the program may contain • Denmark one or more of the following”sub-ratings. This rating is seldom used by broadcast networks or local television stations due to FCC re. although certain networks may choose the rate their TV-MA programs with the descriptor.2. children under 17. made by the same channel. Programs rated may only be broadcast at certain times. depending on the kind of suggestive content featured in a program (with the exception of the “FV”sub-rating.2. mixed. VENEZUELA 37 and TV-14 rated programs only. sex Programs rated TV-MA are usually designed to be and/or violence) and lastly the rating of the program. although it is commonly ings Systems applied to television programs featured on certain cable channels (especially premium services such as HBO and Showtime) for both mainstream and pornographic pro• People's Republic of China grams.* [40] type of production (domestic or national independent) elements include containing (such as language.44. health.45 Countries Without TV Ratstrictions on program content. Some content may be unsuitable for children under 17. due to its sole applicable use for children's programs). TU means for all ages. SU means parental guidance for young viewers and A for mature viewers. As of 2013. while the DLSV sub-ratings are only used with the TV-14 and TV-MA ratings. 2. introduced in January 2003.

LifeSiteNews. DZMM. Artículo 2o. SBS Codes of Practice. Políticas de Comunicação. Rated PG”. Nations in Transit 2007: Democratization from Central Europe to Eurasia.38 2. [24] [25] [7] “Content Rating Practical Guide” (PDF). [4] Special Broadcasting Service. Classificação Indicativa: Notícias (in Portuguese). Retrieved 20 February 2012. 8 July 2004 [17] Comisión Nacional de Televisión. Rating. Manila Bulletin. Artículo 2o. Comisión Nacional de Televisión.' ilulunsad ng MTRCB”(in Tagalog). “MTRCB revises rating system for TV shows”. [9] “Canadian television networks begin rating system”. [23] Matabuena. [11] For further details. Contenido del Mensaje – Acuerdo 4 de 1997. 12 December 2011. Retrieved 200901-15. Règles d'usage de la signalétique jeunesse [19] Until November 2012.com. 3 April 1997 15. [18] Conseil Supérieur de l'Audiovisuel . Marinel (6 October 2011). [6] “Sociedade apoia multa por descumprimento de classificação indicativa”.46 See also • Motion picture rating system • Video game content rating system 2. Retrieved 29 July 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2011.47 References [1] Jeannette Goehring (2007). [26] [8] “TV Rating System Building Citizenship on the Small Screen” (PDF). [2] Australian Broadcasting Corporation (2007). SBS Codes of Practice.) [5] Australian Subscription Television and Radio Association (2007).ca. 3 April 1997 [35] “Sinalização de emissão explicação para sites versão 2” . CHAPTER 2. 29 September 1997. Although broadcast media remained dependent on private financing in 2006. p. 2006.jingiel “Film dla wszystkich”.ru/2010/12/31/deti-inform-dok. 13 February 1997 [16] Germán Yances Peña. Concepto 54A de 2004 – Concepto respecto de los contenidos que constituyen programación infantil. [14] Comisión Nacional de Televisión. first in Yerevan in January 2006 and then nationwide in June.1998 rok”. 2012. ISBN 978-0-932088-26-0. Rowman & Littlefield.TVP 1 .Pani Edyta Wojtczak zapowiada film“Pluton”. [22] Cruz. 26 November 2011. ABC Code of Practice: March 2007. must be displayed pursuant ABNT norms (NBR 15290) and is optional for shows with rating equal or inferior to PG-10. YouTube. the pictogram Déconseillé aux moins de 10 ans used to disappear after a few minutes. nirepaso ng MTRCB” (in Tagalog). Agência de Notícias dos Direitos da Infância (ANDI). [10] “CAB-Broadcaster Manual for Classification and Icon Use”. YouTube. Retrieved 28 July 2013. TELEVISION CONTENT RATING SYSTEMS [15] Comisión Nacional de Televisión. item 4. Philippine Daily Inquirer.5: Classification Categories. advertising revenue is rising̶encouraged by the introduction of a television rating system. [32] “Stary system klasyfikacji programów pod względem przeznaczenia wiekowego na TVN”. Retrieved 29 July 2013.rg. The information in Brazilian sign language. Retrieved 14 February 2012. Julien Merced (6 October 2011). [31] “Canal+ Polska . 13 February 1997 [36] http://www. DZMM. Artículo Pornografía – Acuerdo 17 de 1997.”. Retrieved 29 July 2013.1992 rok”. “Revised TV classifications launched by MTRCB”. Titles and Qualification. (Section 4. Retrieved 2012-06-11. 23 June 2005 [12] Introduction of Colombian television rating system [34] “Rozporządzenie Krajowej Rady Radiofonii i Telewizji z dnia 12 lipca 2011 r. YouTube. (French) [20] Law concerning TV ratings (in Hungarian) [21] “Classfication ng TV ratings. Retrieved 27 October 2011. [29] “Bagong rating na 'Strong Parental Guidance. Ministério da Justiça/Brazilian National Secretariat of Justice/Department of Justice. Horario de Emisón cel Artículo Institucional – Acuerdo 4 de 1997. Retrieved 2012-06-11. Aviso Sobre el Contenido de los Programas – Acuerdo 17 de 1997. [30] “DAWNA TELEWIZJA . [28] “MTRCB TV Rating Classification: Rated SPG”. YouTube. refer to the Canadian Association of Broadcasters Code of Ethics and Voluntary Code Regarding Violence in Television Programming [33] “Rozporządzenie Krajowej Rady Radiofonii i Telewizji z dnia 23 czerwca 2005 r. Cab-acr.”.html [37] Slovenian media law . Retrieved 27 October 2011. Subscription Broadcast Television Codes of Practice 2007. 93. [27] “MTRCB TV Rating Classification: YouTube. Decision from the Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel.12 July 2011 [13] Comisión Nacional de Televisión. Artículo 4o. [3] Special Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 2012-06-11.

“TV ?" (in Korean). 2000. Film and Publication Board. 6 May 2009. 22 January 2010. 39 . Retrieved 2014-09-10.2. Retrieved 24 July 2013. [40] “V-chip: Viewing Television Responsibly”. Federal Communications Commission.47. Federal Communications Commission. Su-jin (2009-11-10). Retrieved 2009-06-25. [39] Kim. . REFERENCES [38] “May 2009 Classification Guidelines” (PDF) (Press release). Retrieved 24 July 2013. The TV Parental Guidelines. FCC V-chip. [41]“Understanding the TV Ratings”.

Most of these systems are associated with and/or sponsored by a government.043 (passed in 2005) states that the National Council of Children. partial or full nudity.3. Rating checking and approval is part of the game localization when they are being prepared for their distribution in other countries or locales. and are sometimes part of the local motion picture rating system. For the educational examination in Explanations of specific ratings are available in corresponding use in the UK. than non-players.* [1] and as such calls have been made to“fix”the existing rating systems. Further. Several studies have found that video games do not contribute to these problems.* [2] Video game content rating systems can be used as the basis for laws that cover the sales of video games to minors.3. numerous researchers have proposed potential positive effects of video games on aspects of social and cognitive development and psychological well-being.1 Comparison • Spring Green : Aimed at young audiences. Video games have also been studied for links to addiction and aggression. such as their resistance to distraction. several groups have argued that few if any scientifically proven studies exist to back up these claims. A video game content rating system is a system used for the classification of video games into suitabilityrelated groups. violent and gory scenes. The law 26. portrayal of criminal behavior or other provocative and objectionable material. Youth and Family ('Consejo • Blue : Restricted exclusively to an older audience. virtual sex.* [8] • Yellow : Parental guidance is suggested. Argentina • Brown : Restricted exclusively to an older audience unless accompained by an adult. cies that assigns age ratings.1 Regional and national less accompanied by an adult. The utility of such ratings has been called into question by studies that publish findings such as 90% of teenagers claim that their parents “never”check the ratings before allowing them to rent or buy video games. their sensitivity to information in the peripheral vision and their ability to count briefly presented objects. and that the video game industry has become an easy target for the media to blame for many modern day problems. Adolescencia y la Familia') in coordination with the National Institute of Cinema • Black : Restricted to adults only. • Orange : Not recommended for a younger audience but not restricted. These rating systems have also been used to voluntarily restrict sales of certain video games by stores.* [9]* [10]* [11] The Argentine 40 .3 Rating systems • Red : Restricted exclusively to an older audience un.* [3] 3.* [4]* [5]* [6] Furthermore. • Lime Green : All ages may play. 3.Chapter 3 Video game content rating system “12+" redirects here. video games have been the subject of argument between leading professionals and restriction and prohibition. such as the German retailer Galeria Kaufhof's removal of all video games rated 17+ by the USK following the Winnenden school shooting. see Eleven plus exam. 3. such as in Australia.2 Initial controversy Similar to other forms of media. Nacional de la Niñez. and Audiovisual Arts will be the government agen• Light Grey : Other rating. but exist for films.* [7] It has been shown that action video game players have better hand-eye coordination and visuo-motor skills. Often these bouts of criticism come from use of debated topics such as video game graphic violence. drug use. articles.

RATING SYSTEMS 41 Game Developer Association (Asociación de Desarrol. Finnish Centre for Media Education Qualification and Audiovisual Media was merged with National Audiovisual Archive to form National Audiovisual Insti* The Department of Justice.* [17] Australia Main article: Australian Classification Board Finland The Australian Classification Board (CB) is a statutory classification body formed by the Australian Government which classifies films.* [12]* [13]* [14] age range based on the games content. The Classification Board was originally incorporated in the Office of Film and Literature Classification (OFLC) which was dissolved in 2006.tute. sale or hire in Australia since its establishment in 1970.* [16] The age rating does not indicate the difficulty of the game or the skill required to play it. video games and publications for exhibition.Iran agement Regulations. Only material intended to be accessible to minors (those under 18 years of age) is subject to classification before being released to the public.ja kuvaohjelmakeskus. television programs and interactive games.3.* [15] Europe Main article: Pan European Game Information Pan European Game Information (PEGI) is a European video game content rating system established to help European parents make informed decisions on buying computer games with logos on games boxes. trained by the Centre. Rating. The AttorneyGeneral's Department now provides administrative support to the Board. It was developed by the Interactive Software Federation of Europe (ISFE) and came into use in April 2003. Brazil Main article: Department of Justice. in Swedish Centralen för mediefostran och bildprogram (both: MEKU)) is an official institution of the Finnish Ministry of Education. is Germany's software rating organization founded in 1994. Titles and Qual. a set of rules to which every publisher using the PEGI system is contractually committed. Titles and In January 2014. Films and television programmes are classified by authorized classifiers. [18] ification ('DJCTQ') (Departamento de Justiça. it replaced many national age rating systems with a single European system.3. The PEGI system is now used in more than thirty countries and is based on a code of conduct. games and television programs in Brazil. also translated as Game Software Rating Man. is a video game content rating Main article: Entertainment Software Rating Association system used in the Taiwan.by five age categories and eight content descriptors that ladores de Videojuegos Argentina) was critical of the advise the suitability and content of a game for a certain law. It is controlled Germany by the Ministry of Justice (Ministério da Justiça). Títulos e Qualificação in Portuguese) rates films. The classifiers usually work within the media industry. PEGI self-regulation is composed Entertainment Software Rating Association (Persian: ‫( )اﺳﺮا‬ESRA) is a governmental video game content rating system that is used in Iran. Games that cannot be rated are considered illegal and cannot be sold. Japan Computer Entertainment Rating Organization Main article: Computer Entertainment Rating Organization The Computer Entertainment Rating Organization (特定⾮営利活動法⼈コンピュータエンターテイ ンメントレーティング機構 Tokutei Hieiri Katsudō Hōjin Konpyūta Entāteinmento Rētingu Kikō) (CERO) is . Game Software Rating Regulations (電腦軟體分級 辦法). Decisions made by the Board may be reviewed by the Australian Classification Review Board. It is responsible for the age-ratings of films. Main article: Unterhaltungssoftware Selbstkontrolle Republic of China Main article: Game Software Rating Regulations Unterhaltungssoftware Selbstkontrolle (USK) (SelfMonitoring of Entertainment Software). Classificação. Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media (in Finnish Mediakasvatus. Rating. sex films do not need to be classified (but they have to be marked clearly with the age limit 18).

visual Information Harmful to Their Health and Development novels. Tuhituhinga) is the government agency in New Zealand that is responsible for classification of all films. It was created by the Films. or Sofurin)* [20] is an incorporated association that rates PC games (dating sims. It was established in July 2002 as a branch of Computer Entertainment Supplier's Association. publications. maintaining a title that has described the government officer in charge of censorship in New Zealand since 1916. and eroge) in Japan. CHAPTER 3. visual novels. (New Zealand) Ethics Organization of Computer Software The Ethics Organization of Computer Software (⼀般社 団法⼈コンピュータソフトウェア倫理機構 Ippan Shadan Hōjin Konpyūta Sofutowea Rinri Kikō) (EOCS. The Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) is a self-regulatory organization that assigns age and content ratings. videos.* [22] . A governmental organization. N 436-ФЗ «О защите детей от информации. VIDEO GAME CONTENT RATING SYSTEM Philippines Main article: Movie and Television Review and Classification Board The Movie and Television Review and Classification Board (Filipino: Lupon sa Pagrerepaso at Paguuri ng Sine at Telebisyon.42 an organization that rates video games and PC games (except dating sims. visual novels. and Publications Classification Act 1993 (FVPC Act). The Office of Film and Literature Classification (OFLC. sale or hire in Russia since 1 September 2012. The Ministry of Culture provides administrative support Main article: Office of Film and Literature Classification to the classification. and is an independent Crown Entity* [21] in terms of the Crown Entities Act 2004. and some video games in New Zealand.United Kingdom lines. abbreviated as MTRCB) is a Philippine government agency responsible for the clasContents Soft Association Main article: Soft On sification and review of Video games. 436-FZ of 201012-23 “On Protecting of Children from Information Harmful to Their Health and Development”(Russian: Федеральный закон Российской Федерации от 29 декабря 2010 г. video games and publications for New Zealand exhibition. Demand § Content Soft Association Russia The Contents Soft Association (コンテンツ・ソフト 協同組合 Kontentsu Sofuto Kyōdō Kumiai) (CSA)* [19] Further information: On Protecting Children from is a cooperative that rates PC games (dating sims. and eroge) in Japan. South Korea Main article: Game Rating Board North America Main article: Entertainment Software Rating Board The Game Rating Board ( Geimmul Deung-Geub-Wiwonhoe) (GRB) is the South Korean video game content rating board. television programs and video games in Singapore. which classifies films. Māori: Te Tari Whakaropu Tukuata. Singapore Main article: Media Development Authority Media Development Authority (Chinese: 媒体发展管 理局) (MDA) is a statutory board of the Singapore Government which regulates films. The head of the OFLC is called the Chief Censor. replacing various film classification acts. enforces industry-adopted advertising guide. See also: The Age classification of information products is a new statutory classification set of rules formed by the Russian Government after enacting in September 2012 a Federal Law of Russian Federation no. and ensures responsible online privacy principles for computer and video games and other entertainment Further information: British Board of Film Classification software in Canada and the United States. the GRB rates video and computer games to inform customers of the nature of game contents. and became an officially recognized non-profit organization in 2003. and eroge) in Japan with levels of rating that informs the customer of the nature of the product and for what age group it is suitable. причиняющей вред их здоровью и развитию»). Videos.

[20] “EOCS /⼀般社団法⼈コンピュータソフトウェア 倫理機構オフィシャルウェブサイト". [19] " コンテンツ・ソフト協同組合". Countries filled with gradients are using several rating Latin American Integration Association. London Video Standards Council.6.html [9] Kaverna (2005-07-19). 41. An introduction to film studies. 2004 [5]“It's Not the Media”.5 See also • Video game controversy • Mobile software content rating system • Internet Content Rating Association 3. REFERENCES The British Board of Film Classification (BBFC). and Transportation. 2013. Retrieved 2008-07-13.043 . Retrieved 2009-12-19. Karen Sternheimer. This role was previously undertaken by the BBFC. 2005) ESRB PEGI OFLC (AU) [14] Mirror of the ADVA's press release OFLC (NZ) GRB CERO VET USK DJCTQ BBFC/ELSPA ESRA various/różne [15] “Game Software Rating Management Regulations”.“How to Fix the Ratings System: A former game rater lists six ways to bolster the Entertainment Software Rating Board. [13] ADVA at the Wayback Machine (archived October 24. [4]“Video Violence: Villain or Victim?". Retrieved 19 September 2013.043 regula los videojuegos” (in Spanish).Los videojuegos deben llevar la leyenda “La sobreexposición es perjudicial para la salud"" (in Spanish). originally British Board of Film Censors. sus partes y accesorios. Guy Cumberbatch.”Electronic Gaming Monthly 227. the Games Rating Authority (GRA).What do the labels mean?". Retrieved January 8. SaberDerecho. The VSC uses the PEGI ratings system to rate games. “Los videojuegos. . systems. El Cronista.“Six Wonderful Things about Games”. is a nongovernmental organisation.com. Retrieved 2008-08-27. [22] ESRB FAQ [23] Nelmes. 3. Taiwan Game Software Rating Information.* [23] It has a statutory requirement to classify videos and DVDs. Games featuring strong pornographic content or ancillary minigames to be included with a DVD feature will still be rated by the BBFC. funded by the film industry and responsible for the national classification of films within the United Kingdom. p. It no longer has responsibility for rating video games in the UK. Games released in the UK are rated by the VSC's games rating arm. 18 March 2009. Contents Soft Association. Der Spiegel (in German). the Video Standards Council (VSC) became the sole UK statutory video games regulator for the UK. David Walsh (2000-03-21). Digital Game Rating Committee.3.nature. 2003 [6] Benedetti.“Ley 26. Westview. 30-32.com/nature/journal/v423/n6939/full/ nature01647. “Why search our souls when video games make such an easy scapegoat?". 2005-07-17. [18] “Kansallinen audiovisuaalinen instituutti” (in Finnish). bbfc. The image below presents outdated usage of various video game content rating systems around the world. Ethics Organization of Computer Software (EOCS). [3] “Kaufhof schafft Filme und Spiele für Erwachsene ab” . [11] “Juguetes. 3DGames. [7] Radoff. United States Senate” (PDF).* [24] In July 2012. Capítulo 95 del SA. Retrieved January 8. [8] http://www. 43 [2] Jerry Bonner (April 2008). 3. Retrieved 28 January 2014. This role has been passed to the Video Standards Council using its games rating arm the Games Rating Authority (GRA).6 References [1] Dr. [12] Gustavo Arballo (2006-03-15). Jill (2003). Retrieved 201002-06.” (in Spanish). [21] “Censorship in New Zealand”. ISBN 0-415-26268-2. MSNBC. Science. Routledge. Jon (2009-12-08). “The Impact of Interactive Violence on Children: Testimony submitted to the Committee on Commerce. [24] “The Video Standards Council”. 2013.4 Usage [10] “Ley 26. parte final: su regulación en Argentina” (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 March 2009. [16] PEGI Website [17] “PEGI Pan European Game Information . juegos y artículos para recreo o deporte. Winda (2008-02-18).

biz/articles/ tiga-responds-to-byron-review • http://www.biz/articles/ ELSPA-concerned-by-Byron-proposals • http://www.44 3.esrb.org/ratings/ratings_guide. VIDEO GAME CONTENT RATING SYSTEM .7 External links • Video games ratings face overhaul • http://www.jsp CHAPTER 3.gamesindustry.gamesindustry.

4.1. Archive.* [3] 4. unlike other systems. with Apple and Google being notable tem which is tailored to users of mobile software.1 Existing systems 4.1. nudity Apple's rating system for the App Store follows the fol. ESRB.4 Amazon Store On the Amazon Appstore.launched in 2011. “CTIA And ESRB Debut App Rating System. “Guidance Suggested”is for recommendation that parents should give guidance to pre-teens/children.1 Apple App Store • 4+ 4. No Buy-In From Google Or Apple”. • High maturity CTIA Mobile Application Rating System [3] Chris Velazco (November 29.com: Angry Birds Rio HD (Fire Edition): Appstore for Android (click “guidance suggested”for information on rating system). The CTIA .or other content only suitable for adult audiences”. 2011). it does not give age guidance. collaborated with the ESRB to largely apply ESRB's rating system to mobile devices. “MaMain article: App Store (iOS) ture”is recommended to be suitable for mature audiences. abstentions from subscribing companies.* [2] It was [4] Amazon.* [4] lowing rubric: 4.2 Comparison • 9+ Google Play cannot be compared with other rating systems such as the ESRB and the Nokia Store because. an industry trade group. Google.1. • 12+ • 17+ Apps rated 17+ are prohibited from purchase by younger users. • Medium maturity [2] “CTIA Mobile Application Ratings System with ESRB” . graphic violence. 4.3 45 . “All Ages”is for all ages.1.Chapter 4 Mobile software content rating system A mobile software content rating system is a rating sys.3 See also 4.4 References • Low maturity [1] “Application Content Ratings”. Adult is“advertisements. Google Play only describes the material contained in a program.2 Google Play • Internet Content Rating Association Main article: Google Play • Video game content rating system Google Play uses the following rubric:* [1] • Everyone 4.The Wireless Association. Techcrunch.

MOBILE SOFTWARE CONTENT RATING SYSTEM 4.46 CHAPTER 4.5 External Links • Google .Control what types of apps can be downloaded • ESRB Ratings .

Cyphoidbombfanciesbonusballs. FlyingToaster. Sam Hocevar. ShelfSkewed. Funnysheep. Sherool. Artegorov201. ExploringMic. Patrick. Cleduc. Omicronpersei8. Gizzakk. IGeMiNix. Radagast. Hyperhippy92. Sjö. Truckerr. Plankhead. IMSoP. Skew-t. ElSaxo. Tabletop. Snakeman5001. MartinVillafuerte85. Seba5618. Aiman abmajid. Terence. Kuru. Loyalmoonie. SPKx. DumbBOT. Stan 75004. Drew88. CmdrObot. SchuminWeb. Daniel Brockman. Takharii. Krystoffer. Jackieboy87. Trusilver. Drbreznjev. president of Aytein Inodur. Wezzo. Cymru. Shami de Arĝento. Sillygostly. Deathawk. StormContent. Armando12. Jergen.1 Text • Motion picture rating system Source: http://en. Beardfrun. Abu-Dun. Suidafrikaan. TonyW. Gerakibot. Foveaux. Some Color Mage. VolkovBot. Fumitol. Baseballmes. Betty Logan. KConWiki. Seegoon. PaulSayers. R a fff. Arsenikk. JustAGal. Garygoh884. Yuriybrisk. William Avery. Itskirankumar. Mariosamus. JhsBot. Sky Harbor. Jusjih. WebTV3. Astronaut. Geniac. LTSC1980. IainP. FlaBot. OrphanBot. Mungo Kitsch. Trivialist. 5102 Back. Danorton. MC10. Diti. The Merciful. Merqurial. Chuq. Spe88. UBeR. Tedius Zanarukando. Quarl. Dadasas. Modemac. AnomieBOT. Stepshep. Diannaa. MoonMetropolis. Wavehunter. CyberGhostface. Mikesc86. New Super Mario Bros. Cattus. Confrico. Gliktch. Syferus. MartinBot.basketball game in Israel. Lenin and McCarthy. Woohookitty. Remember the dot. KellyAna. Wohoo. Bovineboy2008. Faster2010. Koveras. Virdi. DoISmellBurning. Powstini. Yowuza. Iamkirankumar. Modemac. Helpful Pixie Bot. KokoroTechnix. Konman72. Froglich. Spidey104. Kiteinthewind. Eanwee98. Дарко Максимовић. Ezzex. Viakenny. Mwilso24. Juliancolton Alternative. Threegee. Socks 01. Jack Greenmaven. Kung fu-ck. MegA. Hydrogen Iodide. Rayman60. Kold Duff. Roger McCoy. Denisarona. Pseudomonas. Closedmouth. Canihuan300. TaerkastUA. Wassupwestcoast. Piano non troppo. Aytein Inodur. Seeright. Dennis Brown. Denelson83. NES Wii. Snoopy'07-EN. The Track Master. FrescoBot. Bluespots. MarnetteD. LaaknorBot. XuxiRawe22. Empoor. Chobot. D6. SieBot. KLLvr283. Curpsbot-unicodify. Julianortega. Moocowsrule. TKLM. Jastein. PookeyMaster. VirgemAos80Anos. Unreal7. Tom Morris. Ike9898. Jeff G. N5iln. Brandon5485. Timothyhouse1. Chmod007. Appraiser. Sun Creator. JamesAM. Gothika (usurped). Pol098.wikipedia. . DocWatson42. OneWeirdDude. Monkbot. HeartofaDog. Khairul hazim. Cruminator. GoingBatty. CNash. Drew R. Furrykef. Bill37212. Free Bear. Suffusion of Yellow. Oknazevad. Andycjp. Siptol. Martarius. Secret Saturdays. ChesterG. JunoLindhagen.4. MuZemike. Wavelength. TaalVerbeteraar. C3F2k. Lee M. Misteroonova. H2O amazing and Anonymous: 1140 • Television content rating systems Source: http://en. Dale Arnett. Spliced 21. Cacao43. Kane112. Archaicmana. FairuseBot. Tarquin. Excirial. Scottandrewhutchins. The JPS. Demetrius02. KiwikidCP7. September 1988. Citicat. IPodAddict181. Mr. Azu Jeuk's back!. Martin villafuerte85. TowerDragon. Crboyer. Mathmo. Dogman15. JamesLucas. Messer Sebald. Bobsky. WorkingBeaver.. Jarble. J. Epicgenius. H3llBot. Wolfpackfan72. Linkyblinky. Savserte. The Anome. Jim1138. Simon Peter Hughes. Lotpis. Felipefgf. GoRight. MrFawwaz. Colenso. Most Daring: Cheating Death .com. Ironfistofanarchy. Manwiththemasterplan. Flyer22. TVwatcher53. Survivor Island. John of Reading. Full-date unlinking bot. Drelago. Saint-Paddy. Nouniquenames. Crazy Ivan. JayseWeaver. Oregonerik. Crushthor. ChuispastonBot. Wiki Wikardo. UltimatePyro. Psyclet. Live!. Corington. Tregoweth. DandanxD. Mauls. Abdul Qayyum Ahmad. BG19bot. YurikBot. 23skidoo.org/wiki/Television%20content%20rating%20systems?oldid=636465275 Contributors: The Anome. Thomas Blomberg. Erisie. Alphaboi867. Vprajkumar. BIL. SuperSaiyanGodzilla. GreatWhiteNortherner. Maremmano. Gridlock Joe. Banbury. Holek.J. GoryBlizzard. Aaronkavo. Epbr123. Mogism. Festivefrog. S. Ounyai. JSH-alive. JDCMAN. Mbssbs. WikiDao. Mb1000. Rwiggum. Gurch. Leemsy.Forrester. ^demon. 1234567890Number.wikipedia. AltoGeek. Rejectwater. ImageRemovalBot. Rmosler2100. C777. Ryanasaurus0077. Azurih. Jefflhlee. Wikitürkçe. The Shadow-Fighter. Djungelurban. Cerberus584. Hugo Dufort. Smyth. Xxpor. Fantastic fred. Whoop whoop pull up. Ὁ οἶστρος. Euchiasmus. K4PennTom. L Kensington.delanoy. Hqb. Ndboy. RainbowOfLight.Finn. Marianocecowski. The Thing That Should Not Be. Taarten. Seicer. Mark Lungo. CyberSkull. Pairadox. Oscar León. Wolfkeeper. Hierophantasmagoria. Dewritech. Kcordina. AfricaTanz. Rjwilmsi. Steinberger.R. R. Tregoweth. Captain Cornwall. Jay-r101. Tapir2001. R'n'B. Moonchïld9. Tassedethe. Welsh. Pengo. WadeSimMiser. Giraffedata. 718 Bot. Hurvinekisking. Evercat. Addbot. HdEATH. EoGuy. ClueBot. Steingrimur GH. Yepadoodah01. Egerboy. Varlaam. Shlomke. Katalaveno. Mrceleb2007. DeadEyeArrow. Widr. MuhdNurHidayat. Alansohn. Jenkins. Grayshi. Nunkaghak. BényeiTomi. Nick Number. John Vandenberg. JaconaFrere. Jimmy Pitt. Kiddie Techie. Sangerullo. VoABot II. John. Quanyails. Cassowary. McSly. SPQRobin. Tomballguy. Rfc1394. Canada. Limetolime. Me Three. Colonies Chris. Veldin963. Sonicthemeatball. Relaxus. QuiteUnusual. Inzaghi206. Hydrargyrum. Salvio giuliano. Ajm81. Kosher Fan. Frecklefoot.org/wiki/Motion%20picture%20rating%20system?oldid=637779008 Contributors: Brion VIBBER. Sdiablo. SkylineEvolutionIII. Katieh5584. Yobot. Niduzzi. Ikescs. D1152029. TheBearPaw. Mmcneish. HawkFromHell. Senator2029. LittleDan. Robert McClenon. Wongm. Jjba. A. Collywobbles. VeronicaPR. John123521. The Rogue Penguin. Cyclonenim. Cyde. Discospinster. PK2. Svetovid. Redvers. Kurowoofwoof111. FatM1ke. Grayfell. The Colclough. TheValentineBros. Frecklefoot. Man nguyen100. Drklrdbill. Wilderness93. Capricorn42. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES. AhEmo. BlueMario1016.6 Text and image sources. Steinninn. Toon05. Andrewpmk. KylieTastic. F. Dominictroc. H2ppyme. Hinrik. Niceguyedc. Latitude0116. and licenses 4. SF007. Brookjones. Shaw. Æbleskive. MeltBanana. Johnny Au. Kinou. Oberst. Unidyne. Davidm617617. Ingolfson. RazorShotter. Only. Soren121. Versus22. Redlock. AND LICENSES 47 4. Mr. Kasirbot. Azu Jeuk. Antandrus. Vernedel. SD6-Agent. *drew. Canukki33. contributors. The monkeyhate. Computer97. Walkiped. Asasa64. ChicosBailBonds. Goldieribbit. Areatius. Responsible?. Nightshadz. Cmdrjameson. SwisterTwister. Gab 95.Monniaux. SmackBot. AntiSpamBot. Jeandré du Toit. Ipen77cp. Kalleboo. RedBot. Jnestorius. Djmex9205. Baa. FlamingSilmaril. Taejo. Megara. David Ganey. Mlang. MarcusBritish. 2mcm. AshFR. Sroc. Waverthy. Norby001. BotKung. Cbfcindia. Brandon. Jblick 12340001327. LilHelpa. Yhau. Jemkogen. Hnc197. JackSparrow Ninja. Hadal. Ccacsmss. Wyatt915. Anthis Sackith. Undead warrior. Milkunderwood. Zachrysm. Zilog Jones. Graugaardm. Cleared as filed. Tedickey. Ryanasaurus007. GenericUser372661. ChomanBaby. Trublu. Austin R. Biruitorul. ClueBot NG. Avoided. Poldavo. Someguy1221. Brison09. Jeffrey Smith.6. Jeodesic. Darragh1. UltraEdit. Pixeltoo. Floydoid. Jahsonic. Souvalou. EmausBot. Mewtwowimmer. Gwaur. Punk1234567890. Kcdtsg. Jakes18. Night Gyr.. Paul Erik. Japanesevehicles100. Anon515. WMKJ. Preeeemo. Otonabee. Cpl. Parmadil. Pharaoh of the Wizards. Betacommand. Selket. Hairy Dude. PJ Pete. Livajo. CarmelitaCharm. Gabriel mark. M. Jheald. One Of Seven Billion. PenguinJockey. Ranel5310. Runningfridgesrule. Chris the speller. MorderKaj. Woolfy123. Junkcops. Peter Harriman. Phil websurfer@yahoo. McAusten. Jonghyunchung. Infrogmation. Catpowerzzz. GABaker. SoxBot III. Comedian. WGFblj. DS021899. Newkai. Ianjones50. Estoy Aquí. Icairns. Branddobbe. TheSun. Hifrommike65. Nawanan. Szyslak. Ewlyahoocom. Jamyskis. Igoldste. The Wednesday Island. Anlome. Carly1376. Rtucker913. Lordy1937. Floaterfluss. WikiSpliced. Bboundy. Mild Bill Hiccup. Pratyya Ghosh. ZappaOMati. Rodrigogomesmajor. WooTisI. Steven Muhadi. Deewiant. Erkan Yilmaz. Phuzion. SnakeChess5. DumZiBoT. Tamajared. ZhBot.6. РоманСамороков. Trentyoung1. Azumanga1. CambridgeBayWeather. TheMindsEye. David. JSmith9579. Masher oz. ChrisGualtieri. MegX. Nichalp. Smith. Wonk619. Phuntsok2000. Ctbolt. Madang1965. All Hallow's Wraith. Don-Don. CONTRIBUTORS.S. Icedog. 2. ColCol34. AlexiusHoratius. . BD2412. Mgiganteus1. Naruttebayo. Bigturnip. Wisekwai. First Echelon. Ecemaml. Howl2000. Leedeth. TheLimbicOne. Adimovk5. WPSamson. Arjayay. Wuhwuzdat. Marcoseduardo. Spiky Sharkie. Sintaku. Mandarax. Tuankiet65. 10000noodles. Tonyman1996. Masamage. Fonzy. Mechagio. Guy9374isback2. Nillanilla3ee. North Atlanticist Usonian. Birombi. Pirios. SuperArticleGuy. Siwelb. ShortShadow. Pcb21. Ajmint. RollKeeper. Boyhere.lass. SmangosBubbles.Punishment. Msw1002. Moviemad. ActivExpression.

Ivysaur. Savserte. Carly1376. Tristancater08. Tbone762. Kevin23. NorthernThunder. Bobo192. Jnelson09. Redsox00002. Lateg. Firsfron. MikeWazowski. Lightmouse. HooK 666.bmp. Virus326. Question Person. FrescoBot. Fuhghettaboutit. Swampire. Sillygostly. Jamesnp. Kickee. Martpol. Luspari. Sdharty4. Icedog. DImfeld. Fsenne. Donner60. Sampi. DocWatson42. Popular1. AndreniW. The Lizard Wizard. DumZiBoT. BruceKanee. Pokelady. Denelson83. Curps. Odder. Pim Diffy smokes. Marcellus. SoSaysChappy. ItsAlwaysLupus. Maelwys.000 Volts. Bie04036. Pedro. Acalamari. Al923. Ndboy. Biasoli.. DrLove0378. Geraldo Perez. NoseNuggets. WikiDan61. TUFKAAP. Lizardlking. Perplexing. Jeffklein. Île flottante. FunPika. Ics139fv. Swimboy1. Dix Rox. Hajiru. Jumping cheese. The Polish. KylieTastic. Teemeah. Tomballguy. SuperSausage01. LilHelpa. Gunmetal Angel. Adoniscik. Ricky81682. ProfPolySci45. Saltywood. Warregubbi. Mentifisto. StephenDawson. Loyalmoonie. Mark Lungo. Ersad. JoeSperrazza. AgentPeppermint. Fantastic fred. McRed. SmackBot. Marino ha. Mjbyars1. Some11no. Ks7. Tezero. MrFawwaz. TheArmadillo. Gurch. Kold Duff. Guayabitos1. JAnDbot. Kuru. Meaty85203. MartinBot.. Tittie juice. DudeWithAFeud. I love reptiles. 386sky. Bubblegumashley8. Mnts. ColouredSpots. Rtyuire5. Greggreggreg. 220 of Borg. Amit6. Elite Wizzerd. Xezbeth. Miguel Bernal. Angeldeb82. Jdude222. EoGuy. BlazeTheMovieFan. Stupipedia. RHaworth. Anthis Sackith. Wikipelli. ImageRemovalBot. Meganesia. Kym0118. Paulisdead. MegX. PL290. Akin12255. Pim Diffy said ain't in one episode of Phil of the Future. Brenont. MastCell.1. MC10. Brison09. Gatotsu911. Stewie814. Mewtwowimmer. Games97. BlueAzure. Rwiggum. Sangerullo. clown will eat me. Armageddon1994. Khairul hazim. Kenfeisel. 10. Dicklyon. RxS. Ryanasaurus0077. Piecemealcranky. Joolz. Vasko444. Viakenny.henrique. Deku-Scrub. DWaterson. Nathmelb. Kanabekobaton. Glen. V v p. Arbor to SJ. Rapido. RotlinkBot. Koavf. Cadiomals. Furik. Svgalbertian. Wybot. Ha Mool. Crazynas. LucianRusu. Amateur55. Jackollie. Pomte. Croth. Haku raja. TXiKiBoT. Zyxwv99. TobeBot. J4lambert. JamieS93. Marianian. Oicumayberight. Garr1984. Tenzan.lass. Cbfcindia. Spiky Sharkie. Ateshyurdakul. NeonMerlin. Jon vs. Pagrashtak. Matty-chan. 718 Bot. Siwelb. Raijinili. 98E. Lotpis. TENMONKEYCHESE2000.com. MrTwig. RandomAct. RajDzn and Anonymous: 995 • Video game content rating system Source: http://en. North Atlanticist Usonian. Rcsprinter123. White 720. White Ash. Bykergrove. Bgnkid. Sillygostly. R6MaY89. Hlm Z. CounterVandalismBot.48 CHAPTER 4. Sebastian789. Kold Duff. MartinVillafuerte85. Davodd. Materialscientist. RexNL. WGFblj. KiwikidCP7. LukeTheSpook. Dysproseum. Ianjones50. WayKurat. Highschooler35. OriPod.roan. 1B6. Peter Vogel. Bunbox3000. Ollie the Magic Skater. Felipefgf. Mstrkingdom. Ravave. Afker. NES Wii. Pol098. Sojulia. Dunkin11. TaerkastUA. SilverPlaqueVII. Before My Ken. MARKELLOS. Addbot. Siptol. Mr. Balweyn1977. Fasouzafreitas. VeryVerily. Red Alien. Kjinho. God of Pie. SD6-Agent. Elandy2009. AnomieBOT. Opraco. DZGuymed. Sven Manguard. Andycjp. MannyShiznit. Kamaki. Fredrik. RA0808. Reubot. Epic Failure. Minstral. BattyBot. ONUnicorn. Spudbroth.delanoy. Bobobogirlnaru. Truco. TaerkastUA. Night Gyr. Betacommand. NiciVampireHeart. GoingBatty. Giraffedata. NEOhidra. Ajplmr. MusikAnimal. Captain-tucker. Poccil. Pacific Coast Highway. 79Bottles. Detron. Camhusmj38. Mboverload. 23W. Mjs1991. TBone777. Jackjhan107. Flyer22. Nonewworldorder. Dangaz. WizardDuck. This user has left wikipedia. Rjwilmsi. Bolt. TOttenville8. Mrschimpf. Hallpriest9. Andrew T. ClueBot. @pple. Welsh. Comedian. SpongeSebastian. Virtu- . TheDJ. Y2u7. RubySS. Luckas-bot.thomson. Tastilazo. Minna Sora no Shita. Psychonaut. Ejl. Sfmammamia. Ryoga Godai. The JPS. РоманСамороков. Cymru. Brandon5485. Mario500. Modghaly. Shaunkok. Chiak. R'n'B. Scotty1. BD2412. Mpetrozzo@mac. EmausBot. Blakegripling ph. Ranel5310. Miteshvasa. Ianlopez1115. ElSaxo. Rdunn.org/wiki/Video%20game%20content%20rating%20system?oldid= 633939486 Contributors: Voidvector. SkylineEvo. Pan Sola. Kumpayada. Talkingbirds. MelbourneStar. Moviemad. Wezzo. Carlwev. Johndoe85839. Wow560. Howard the Duck. Freakmighty. ChrisGualtieri. SuperSaiyanGodzilla. Cmdrjameson. Mgcsinc. Volapükian. Pratama26. Snakeman5001. Nono64. Milton Stanley. Pyrofork. FrescoBot. Martarius. Hibernian. Lukynicol. Jovianeye. NuKeUrFooD. Ryanasaurus007. JasonHaddad. HRoestBot. Wiki8883. *drew. Holek. Brandon J. Starwind Amada. Bigwhiteyeti. Tyler McHenry. JordoCo. PaulGorman. Gobelet. Xqbot. TJ Reyes. Supernerd 10. FMAFan1990. Ktwdallas. MystBot. BG19bot. Bogsat. Werieth. TheClerksWell. Mike Halterman. TangentCube. The Moneycruncher. Epbr123. SaxofoneDL. Betty Logan. Chris7551. Davem timshel. Melkast. Cyndaquazy. Vanished user j3roijqwkskjf5kr. Pinethicket. Marioman22. Kyljys. Yobot. DASHBotAV. Sir Lemming. Smurfy. Helpful Pixie Bot. Vanished user 82345ijgeke4tg. Kelly Martin. Martarius. Krator. Gatedear. Adidinata. YUL89YYZ. Sameboat.123. Addbot. Kogsquinge. Sulmac. Snapscan1236.96. Robbieraeful. Jim1138. Sfan00 IMG. Julianortega. Ndboy. A Nobody. Minker. Nuttycoconut. Wraithdart. Ekabhishek. Angiex3-2. Hannah. Bacr13. Shirik. Woohookitty. Jomkung. Jhskg7843hjskdyg7843ythiul43h. Lordofthe9. Seancron. BasFey. Can't sleep. J. Graham87. OtisTyler. Dewritech. Katiker. Kjinho213. Nanominori. LC. Obhave. Cowcow548. Jagarin. W guice. Pedro96. Naddy. Dxtrfn80. Don Cuan. TreyTateM. ChazBeckett. El Monterrey. SuperFlash101. Nick Number. Jschnur. CoinVaultLover. DtD. Sebk22. IRP. Farosdaughter. ClueBot. Erasmussen. TSKitazawa. Phuntsok2000. Chuunen Baka. Slgrandson. Babedacus. Dlrohrer2003. Ladsgroup. Francisco97. The Iconoclast. Rich Farmbrough. Louis Waweru. Phorque. Tweet01. Viakenny. One Of Seven Billion. NJChristian07. Corvus cornix. Optakeover. Gracenotes. Holek. AnomieBOT. ElinorD. Guroadrunner. OverlordQ. ClueBot NG. Luckas-bot. ^demon. Silentaria. User27091. FatM1ke. Jvlm. IRISZOOM. Tutv. Avnjay. Dewritech. Hibou8. ハニカチ王⼦. DarkPhysician. Bporter28. MOBILE SOFTWARE CONTENT RATING SYSTEM Saltine. H3llBot. Daydream898598. DerBorg. Arjayay. CosmicMonkey. Harryboyles. Vegaswikian. Lemonflash. Jarble. 2679D. Charles Nguyen. Alexbot. Otto4711. Ungvichian. XLerate. Discospinster. Aisteco. Booksworm. BG19bot. KJS77. Boogie314. Rodrigo paixao.Lau.Nostalgia. Fruit. Mrath. AntiSpamBot. Torc2. Seryo93. Matthew Cantrell. Jerryobject. Grstain. NottNott. SevenEleven44. JoJan. Beland. Pojanji. Happyone2. Connor Kent. Hamham31. CTZMSC3. Tim1357. Kathar. C3F2k. Demokra. Imdanumber1. SuperMarioMan. OnePieceMaster5000. Raichu. Riotrocket8676. Newlysouth. Funnysheep. Buddyboggs1982. Ryulong. Kennythebucher23. Nhellviktor. Wikipedia on the moon. AndrewHowse. Lineslarge. WhiteNight7. Fratrep. Jalanb. JustAGal. Hl. Blake-. CanisRufus. KiwiNeko14. Yono. Darkpower. Smyth. Brianreading. Surachit. CJMiller. BlueMario1016. Terrillja. Grr. Explorer319. Chrisj8910. Stickguy. Bgwhite. Sun Creator. Omoder. Mogism. SuperArticleGuy. Coolgokid. Kungfu2187.wikipedia. Urhixidur.GUARDS! THESE FOOLS ARE TRYING TO STIZEAL MAH' ALCHOHOL!. DocWatson42. HalJor. WikitanvirBot. Amirobot. Automatedmusic. Bbb2007. Adimovk5. LinDrug. Peeperman. Tibor. Frozenpork. Al1976. Tiger white. Liz. Alai. Trivialist. King Azu Jeuk. Cassowary. Swalot. Helpful Pixie Bot. Bovineboy2008. Rodrigogomespaixao. Ohconfucius. Quarl. GageSkidmore.. ViperSnake151. Watch37264. Monkbot. Vernedel. James2001. FlyingPenguins. Denisarona. CJM 494. X201. PK2. Martin villafuerte85. Wikikone. Vrmlguy. Hu. J Milburn. Champlax. Lizafreak. EpicWikipedian. DBigXray. Calmer Waters. Icedog. In-Correct. EmausBot. Ccacsmss. Grayshi. IronGargoyle. Funnysheep. SassoBot. Nicksh. Keen Esquivias. CmdrObot. Tomballguy. Ugncreative Usergname. Phuntsok2000. Husond. Llewelyn MT. Acs4b. Lkinkade. Kiddie Techie. Justin1276536. Mdwh. NAHID. IluvLovato123. OrphanBot. Duncharris. Fandelasketchup. Magioladitis. Algeyblenkinsop. Cliff smith. BotKung. LilHelpa. Slon02. TzarchickenIII. CR85747. Sintaku. Sadads. Eeddwwiinnwwaass. Skenizo. Angrysockhop. Abesboy7. Thepulse2007. ArielGold. Rjwilmsi. Peter. Reywas92. ExploringMic. Oknazevad. Hubertgs. Frungi. Dpmuk. T-borg. Zerueu. Carnildo. Cam486. NameIsRon. J0lt C0la. Jonghyunchung. Ughhhg. Ian. Donaldd23. PK2. 23skidoo. Klltr. Iridescent. UnicornTwilight. De728631. Alansohn. Chris the speller. Arcandam. Asenine. Punk1234567890. Leakeyjee. Azumanga1. Spongesquid. Gargargarrick. Kojozone. TheValentineBros. Thecrabman. Babajazz!. Tentinator. Kaiconan. JuJube. Paralympic. Mr. Harryboyles. BlueMario1016. Mild Bill Hiccup. Ferfrans SOAR. Orphan Wiki. WikitanvirBot. Georgia guy. Davidhorman. Boyhere. Parcly Taxel. MpegMan. Baseballmes. Linkyblinky. NSR. Marcus2. Piercetheorganist. Dark Shikari. MrFawwaz. The737dude. Jb0000000000. Curb Chain. StormContent. Sammysallie1. Elipongo. AxG. JamesHenstridge. Billy Liakopoulos. IT DoNT. JKos12. Mikanojo. Worldaz. Donmccullen. Arseny1992. Garyzx.. Jim1138. Smjg. ClueBot NG. Justinhful. Jasonfitz. IXella007. Superdude972. Andrewpmk. Fat chxi. Ttc817. Zzuuzz. Philg88. Dantheman531. ST47. CITDHOS. Jprg1966.

Matthew with Inkscape based on directive 10/2012. Matthew with Inkscape based on Hungarian law CLXXXV. (III.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/15_cinema.svg License: Public domain Contributors: 10/2012.org/wikipedia/en/d/dd/Canadian_TV_Ratings.svg Source: http://upload. (III. Geraldo Perez. • File:6_icon_B_(Hungary).wikimedia.JPG License: Cc-by-sa-3.org/wikipedia/commons/3/32/18_icon_B_%28Hungary%29.svg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bb/CPT-12AP. Mike Jun.org/wikipedia/en/1/1b/BBFC_ratings. Original artist: Entidade Reguladora para a Comunicação Social (ERC) • File:CPT-16.png Source: http://upload.png License: Public domain Contributors: IFCO's website Original artist: IFCO • File:16_icon_B_(Hungary). 28.) NMHH Original artist: This image was created by me. 28.6. (III. Altekk and Anonymous: 158 • Mobile software content rating system Source: http://en.wikimedia.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/CPT-16. évi CLXXXV.) NMHH.svg License: Public domain Contributors: 2010.svg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f6/18_home_video.svg Source: http://upload. Loyalmoonie. 28.png Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6f/CPT10AP. (III.png License: GFDL Contributors: ERC.svg License: Public domain Contributors: 2010. BG19bot. of 2010.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2f/12_icon_B_%28Hungary%29. évi CLXXXV. Areind1715.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/6_icon_TV_%28Hungary%29.org/wikipedia/commons/0/08/12_cinema. 28.png Source: http://upload.png License: Public domain Contributors: IFCO's website Original artist: IFCO • File:16_cinema.wikimedia. Shadowgun master. Lugia2453.) NMHH. Kyle7355.wikimedia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: 10/2012. of 2010.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Miketheman123 (talk) (Uploads) • File:CPT-12AP.wikimedia.png License: Public domain Contributors: IFCO's website Original artist: IFCO • File:18_home_video. • File:6_icon_TV_(Hungary). (III.org/wikipedia/commons/8/86/18_icon_TV_%28Hungary%29.) NMHH.svg Source: http://upload. Matthew with Inkscape based on directive 10/2012. EverythingGeography.png Source: http://upload. törvény Original artist: This image was created by me. Matthew with Inkscape based on directive 10/2012.org/wiki/Mobile%20software%20content%20rating%20system? oldid=633589475 Contributors: Icedog.wikipedia. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES.org/wikipedia/commons/8/85/16_icon_TV_%28Hungary%29.JPG Source: http://upload. • File:18_cinema.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e7/6_icon_B_%28Hungary%29. BillyBeau.svg License: Public domain Contributors: 2010. combined. (III.wikimedia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: 10/2012. Original artist: Entidade Reguladora para a Comunicação Social (ERC) • File:CPT-T. 123johnpaul.6. (III.wikimedia. törvény Original artist: This image was created by me.png License: Public domain Contributors: IFCO's website Original artist: Irish Film Classification Office (IFCO) • File:18_icon_B_(Hungary). • File:16_icon_TV_(Hungary).png Source: http://upload. Matthew with Inkscape based on Hungarian law CLXXXV.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7/16_icon_B_%28Hungary%29. törvény Original artist: This image was created by me. • File:15_cinema.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia. Censortive.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/15_home_video.2 Images • File:12_cinema.png Source: http://upload. Lgnmrshllhlms2 and Anonymous: 2 4.wikimedia.png Source: http://upload.png Source: http://upload.) NMHH.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work.png License: ? Contributors: Logos from several sources * <a href='#cite_note-1'>[1]</a>* <a href='#cite_note-2'>[2]</a>* <a href='#cite_note-3'>[3]</a>.png License: GFDL Contributors: ERC.svg Original artist: Dsmurat (talk · contribs) • File:BBFC_ratings. Original artist: Entidade Reguladora para a Comunicação Social (ERC) • File:CPT10AP.png Source: http://upload. • File:Ambox_important. Matthew with Inkscape based on directive 10/2012.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d8/18_cinema. • File:12_icon_TV_(Hungary).) NMHH Original artist: This image was created by me.4. Crossswords. évi CLXXXV. 28.wikimedia. 28.png Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/4/49/12_home_video.wikimedia.png Source: http://upload. (III.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/Ambox_important. Original artist: Entidade Reguladora para a Comunicação Social (ERC) • File:Canadian_TV_Ratings. Shadowgun master.wikimedia.wikimedia.wikimedia.wikimedia.png Source: http://upload.png License: GFDL Contributors: ERC.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload. RayneVanDunem. • File:18_icon_TV_(Hungary).svg License: Public domain Contributors: 10/2012. 28. Matthew with Inkscape based on Hungarian law CLXXXV.) NMHH Original artist: This image was created by me.wikimedia. MenoBot II. scaled and vectorised for the purpose of readability Original artist: ? .svg Source: http://upload. based off of Image:Ambox scales.org/wikipedia/commons/1/12/CPT-T. Yoyogudgeon.svg License: Public domain Contributors: 2010.png License: Public domain Contributors: IFCO's website Original artist: IFCO • File:12_home_video. évi CLXXXV. törvény Original artist: This image was created by me. of 2010.svg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/8/80/12_icon_TV_%28Hungary%29.png License: Public domain Contributors: IFCO's website Original artist: IFCO • File:15_home_video.png License: GFDL Contributors: ERC. CONTRIBUTORS.wikimedia.png License: Public domain Contributors: IFCO's website Original artist: IFCO • File:12_icon_B_(Hungary).wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7c/16_cinema.) NMHH Original artist: This image was created by me. 28. BattyBot.wikimedia. of 2010. Matthew with Inkscape based on Hungarian law CLXXXV. AND LICENSES 49 alRash.wikimedia.

free for use • File:Dkcensurfri.org/wikipedia/en/4/42/Canadianratings.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Dkcensurfri. and Jakub Steiner (although minimally).svg Source: http://upload.dk/Boern_og_unge/Medieraadet/Film/Symbolerne. Classificação.gif Source: http://upload.nl/upload/download_pc/7.gif License: CC0 Contributors: http:// www.asp?Team=\protect\__ xunadd_text_character:nN{\textbraceleft}{{}77F31505-3EC7-4E8A-A2F0-183F6EFE5CC4} Original artist: Departamento de Justiça.wikimedia.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/d/d6/Dutch_rating_discrimination.wikimedia.kijkwijzer.aspx Original artist: Det danske medieråd .gif License: CC0 Contributors: http:// www.50 CHAPTER 4.org/wikipedia/en/3/3e/Dutch_rating_scary.nl/pagina.wikimedia. Títulos e Qualificação • File:Dkcensur11.svg License: Fair use Contributors: The logo is from the http://www.nl/upload/download_pc/7.svg License: Fair use Contributors: http://www.svg License: Fair use Contributors: http://www.wikimedia.br/Classificacao/main.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/19/Dutch_rating_12.org/wikipedia/commons/3/33/Dkcensuralle.png License: Public domain Contributors: http://portal.wikimedia.kijkwijzer.gif Source: http://upload.svg Source: http://upload.dk/Boern_og_unge/Medieraadet/Film/Symbolerne.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.org/wikipedia/commons/4/42/Dutch_rating_6.svg License: Fair use Contributors: The logo is from the http://www.nl/upload/download_pc/7.wikimedia.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/Dkcensur7.dk Original artist: medierådet .kijkwijzer.gov.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload.nl/pagina.aspx Original artist: Det danske medieråd .wikimedia.wikimedia.dk/Boern_og_unge/Medieraadet/Film/Symbolerne.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6e/Dutch_rating_16.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2a/Dutch_rating_AL.pdf Original artist: Nederlands Instituut voor de Classificatie voor Audiovisueel Materiaal (NICAM) • File:Dutch_rating_9. And according to the meta-data in the file.png Source: http://upload.aspx Original artist: Det danske medieråd .svg Source: http://upload.dfi.org/wikipedia/en/7/7e/Dutch_rating_language.php?id=15 website.gif License: CC0 Contributors: www.org/wikipedia/en/7/71/Classificationsau.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.svg: Nederlands Instituut voor de Classificatie voor Audiovisueel Materiaal (NICAM) • File:Dutch_rating_AL.nl/pagina.org/wikipedia/en/7/7c/Dutch_rating_sex.free for use • File:Dkcensur7.dfi. Original artist: ? • File:Dutch_rating_sex.wikimedia. Original artist: ? • File:Dutch_rating_scary.wikimedia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Eigenes Werk (own work) based on logo by Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle der Filmwirtschaft Original artist: Infanf .wikimedia.png Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/Dkcensur11.wikimedia.kijkwijzer.free for use • File:Dkcensur15.wikimedia.nl/upload/download_pc/7.png License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Classificationsau.pdf Original artist: ? • File:Dutch_rating_violence.svg Original artist: Dutch_rating_6.nl/pagina.gif License: CC0 Contributors: http: //www.wikimedia.wikimedia.gif Source: http://upload.pdf Original artist: Nederlands Instituut voor de Classificatie voor Audiovisueel Materiaal (NICAM) • File:Dutch_rating_discrimination.svg Source: http://upload.svg Source: http://upload.png Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/Dkcensur15.dk/Boern_og_unge/Medieraadet/Film/Symbolerne.wikimedia.kijkwijzer.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a6/FSK_ab_16_logo.kijkwijzer.svg Source: http://upload.kijkwijzer.png License: Fair use Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Classificação_Indicativa_-_2006.org/wikipedia/en/f/f2/Edit-clear.kijkwijzer.php?id=15 website.svg Source: http://upload.svg License: Fair use Contributors: The logo is from the http://www.php?id=15 website.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b3/Classifica%C3%A7%C3% A3o_Indicativa_-_2006.org/wikipedia/commons/b/ba/FSK_ab_12_logo_Dec_2008.svg License: Fair use Contributors: The logo is from the http://www. Original artist: ? • File:Edit-clear.free for use • File:Dutch_rating_12.gif Source: http://upload.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Eigenes Werk (own work) based on logo by Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle der Filmwirtschaft Original artist: Infanf • File:FSK_ab_16_logo.pdf Original artist: ? • File:Dutch_rating_language.php?id=15 website.nl/upload/download_pc/7.svg Source: http://upload.svg Source: http://upload.gif License: CC0 Contributors: http:// www.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.pdf Original artist: Nederlands Instituut voor de Classificatie voor Audiovisueel Materiaal (NICAM) • File:Dutch_rating_16.svg Source: http://upload. MOBILE SOFTWARE CONTENT RATING SYSTEM • File:Canadianratings.aspx Original artist: Det danske medieråd .svg License: Public domain Contributors: The Tango! Desktop Project.kijkwijzer.pdf Original artist: Nederlands Instituut voor de Classificatie voor Audiovisueel Materiaal (NICAM) • File:Dutch_rating_6.nl/upload/download_pc/7.mj.kijkwijzer. medieraadet.dfi.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Eigenes Werk (own work) based on logo by Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle der Filmwirtschaft Original artist: Infanf • File:FSK_ab_12_logo_Dec_2008.svg Source: http://upload. specifically:“Andreas Nilsson.free for use • File:Dkcensuralle.svg License: Public domain Contributors: • Dutch_rating_6.org/wikipedia/en/2/2f/Dutch_rating_violence.svg Source: http://upload. Original artist: ? • File:Dutch_rating_drugs.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Dutch_rating_9.svg Source: http://upload.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.org/wikipedia/en/a/af/Dutch_rating_drugs. Original artist: The people from the Tango! project.” • File:FSK_ab_0_logo_Dec_2008.wikimedia.dfi.org/wikipedia/commons/b/ba/FSK_ab_0_logo_Dec_2008.gif Source: http://upload.

id/ lamanbahasa/sites/default/files/UU_2009_24.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Flag_of_Chile.wikimedia.wikimedia. http://www.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9a/Flag_of_Bulgaria.riigikantselei.svg License: Public domain Contributors: • File based on the specification given at [1].svg Source: http://upload. User:Zscout370 • File:Flag_of_Finland.gov.org/wikipedia/en/b/ba/Flag_of_Germany.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Flag_of_Colombia.wikimedia. Blue colour changed by User:PeepP to match the image at [1].org/wikipedia/commons/c/ca/Flag_of_Iran.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b7/Flag_of_Europe.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/Flag_of_Iceland.svg Source: http://upload.pdf) Original artist: Drawn by User:SKopp.gov.svg Source: http://upload.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Islandic National Flag Original artist: Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason.svg License: Public domain Contributors: • Flags of the World – Hungary Original artist: SKopp • File:Flag_of_Iceland.svg Source: http://upload.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Based on: http://www.wikimedia.htm and an English translation / interpretation at URL http://flagspot.4.wikimedia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:Madden • File:Flag_of_Estonia.bg/cgi-bin/e-cms/vis/vis. • File:Flag_of_Argentina.svg License: Public domain Contributors: URL http://www.svg Source: http://upload.svg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/FSK_ab_18_logo_Dec_2008. User:Nightstallion.kemdiknas.gv.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload. • File:Flag_of_Europe.6.wikimedia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia. CONTRIBUTORS.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Law: s:id:Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 24 Tahun 2009 (http://badanbahasa.wikimedia.JPG Source: http://upload.svg License: Public domain Contributors: The flag of Bulgaria.go.html Original artist: Various • File:Flag_of_Ireland.wikimedia. rewritten by User:Gabbe • File:Flag_of_Iran.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9f/Flag_of_Indonesia.wikimedia.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_Greece.svg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/en/b/b9/Flag_of_Australia.svg Source: http://upload. Original artist: Kcdtsg. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_Germany.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.wikimedia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Eigenes Werk (own work) based on logo by Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle der Filmwirtschaft Original artist: Infanf • File:FSK_ab_6_logo_Dec_2008.bmlv.pl?s=001&p=0034&n= 000005&g= as: Original artist: SKopp • File:Flag_of_Canada.isiri.svg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9c/Flag_of_Denmark.svg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8f/Flag_of_Estonia.svg Source: http://upload. User:Dbenbenn.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia. User:Jeltz.(talk) • File:Flag_of_Hong_Kong. User:-xfi-.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Flag_of_Ireland.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bc/Flag_of_Finland.svg Source: http://upload.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Eigenes Werk (own work) based on logo by Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle der Filmwirtschaft Original artist: Infanf • File:FilmRatings.wikimedia.wikimedia. Zscout370 and others • File:Flag_of_India.svg Source: http://upload.protocol.svg Source: http://upload.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_Brazil.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Drawn by User:SKopp Original artist: ? .org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/Flag_of_Hong_Kong.svg Source: http://upload.jpg License: CC0 Contributors: Own work.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/Flag_of_Hungary. User:Funakoshi.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: SKopp • File:Flag_of_Colombia.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1978/19780380 Original artist: Drawn by User:SKopp • File:Flag_of_France.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5c/Flag_of_Greece.org/wikipedia/en/4/41/Flag_of_India.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_Indonesia.org/wikipedia/en/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.org/portal/files/std/1.svg Source: http://upload.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_Chile. Original artist: User:Verdy p.finlex. AND LICENSES 51 • File:FSK_ab_18_logo_Dec_2008.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e9/FSK_ab_6_logo_Dec_2008.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/Film_and_video_classification_ratings_issued_ by_the_Media_Development_Authority_of_Singapore_on_15_July_2011.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_Austria.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Flag_of_Argentina.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/c/cf/Flag_of_Canada. User:Paddu. The colors are specified at http://www.wikimedia.ar/bandera_colores.wikimedia.shtml Original artist: User:SKopp • File:Flag_of_Belgium_(civil).at/abzeichen/dekorationen.html Original artist: Tao Ho • File:Flag_of_Hungary.svg Source: http://upload.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_Bulgaria.org/wikipedia/en/c/c3/Flag_of_France.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload.htm Original artist: (Vector graphics by Dbenbenn) • File:Flag_of_Australia.net/flags/ir'.svg License: Public domain Contributors: own code Original artist: (of code) cs:User:-xfi.wikimedia.government.manuelbelgrano.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Drawn by User:SKopp Original artist: SKopp • File:Flag_of_Denmark.ee/?id=73847 Original artist: Originally drawn by User:SKopp.hk/flags/chi/r_flag/index.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/Flag_of_Austria.svg Source: http://upload.svg Source: http://upload.

Communications and the Arts. image by Wikimedia Commons users • File:Flag_of_South_Korea.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d3/Flag_of_Kazakhstan. pp.svg Source: http://upload.html#imgs Original artist: Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1910.org/wikipedia/commons/2/20/Flag_of_the_Netherlands.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0f/Flag_of_Maldives.aspx?c_id=13050 Original artist: Various • File:Flag_of_South_Africa.52 CHAPTER 4.svg Source: http://upload.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_Switzerland.mch.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_Kazakhstan.org/wikipedia/en/9/9e/Flag_of_Japan.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Turkish Flag Law (Türk Bayrağı Kanunu). Vítor Luís Rodrigues.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_Singapore.il/MFA/History/Modern%20History/Israel%20at%2050/The%20Flag%20and%20the%20Emblem Original artist: • File:Flag_of_Italy.svg Source: http://upload.govt.svg Source: http://upload.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia. Text (in Turkish) at the website of the Turkish Historical Society (Türk Tarih Kurumu) Original artist: David Benbennick (original author) • File:Flag_of_the_Netherlands.org/wikipedia/en/9/9a/Flag_of_Spain. http://www.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www. 5.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Flag_of_Thailand.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/Flag_of_South_Africa.svg Source: http://upload.05) Original artist: Various • File:Flag_of_Spain.pt/pt/republica/simbolos/bandeiras/index.wikimedia. Construction and color guidelines (Russian/English) ← This site is not exist now.aspx.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://jorgesampaio.06.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_Japan.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.html Original artist: Drawn by User:SKopp.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3e/Flag_of_New_Zealand. Hugh Jass and many others • File:Flag_of_Nigeria.wikimedia. Singapore: Ministry of Information. MOBILE SOFTWARE CONTENT RATING SYSTEM • File:Flag_of_Israel.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_Norway.org/wikipedia/commons/6/66/Flag_of_Malaysia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d4/Flag_of_Israel. Colors from the book: (2001).org/wikipedia/commons/8/84/Flag_of_Latvia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Flag_of_Norway.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload.svg Source: http://upload.svg Source: http://upload.svg License: domain Contributors: Create based on the Malaysian Government Website (archive version) Original artist: SKopp.org/wikipedia/commons/7/73/Flag_of_Malta.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload.svg Source: http://upload. The National Symbols Kit.com/pages/pantone/colorfinder.svg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/Flag_of_Mexico.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: user:Nightstallion • File:Flag_of_Malta. generic design).mfa. construction sheet Original artist: -xfi• File:Flag_of_Latvia. Schedule 1 . Zscout370 and Ranking Update Public • File:Flag_of_Maldives.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Dbenbenn • File:Flag_of_Portugal.wikimedia.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Flag_of_the_Philippines.presidencia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Flag_of_the_ People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg Source: http://upload.hk/flags/eng/n_flag/ design. redrawn by User:Denelson83 and User:Zscout370 • File:Flag_of_the_Philippines.(2012.gov.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Ordinance Act of the Law concerning the National Flag of the Republic of Korea.svg Source: http://upload. 2893 of 22 September 1983.wikimedia.pantone.svg Source: http://upload. this specific vector set: see sources) • File:Flag_of_Russia.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/Flag_of_Turkey.wikimedia.nz/files/NZ%20Flag%20-%20proportions.svg Source: http://upload.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Zscout370 • File:Flag_of_the_People'{}s_Republic_of_China.svg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5c/Flag_of_Portugal.org/wikipedia/commons/4/48/Flag_of_Singapore.wikimedia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: The design was taken from [1] and the colors were also taken from a Government website Original artist: User:Achim1999 .svg License: Public domain Contributors: The drawing was based from http://app.org/wikipedia/commons/7/79/Flag_of_Nigeria.wikimedia. Law nr.svg Source: http://upload.svg Source: http://upload. 9 April 2006 • File:Flag_of_New_Zealand.National flag Original artist: Flag design by Frederick Brownell.org/wikipedia/en/f/f3/Flag_of_Russia.JPG Original artist: Zscout370.svg License: Public domain Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape Original artist: Alex Covarrubias.wikimedia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Drawn by SKopp Original artist: Latvija • File:Flag_of_Malaysia.arquivo.wikimedia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Per specifications in the Constitution of South Africa.wikimedia. António Martins-Tuválkin (2004.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Zscout370 • File:Flag_of_Turkey.wikimedia.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_Sweden.sg/who/42/National-Flag.www.svg License: CC0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_Mexico.wikimedia. ISBN 8880968010 Pantone 032 shade from http://www.gov.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/Flag_of_Switzerland.svg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/en/0/03/Flag_of_Italy.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload.protocol.org/wikipedia/en/4/4c/Flag_of_Sweden.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/09/Flag_of_South_Korea.wikimedia.wikimedia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: PDF Colors Construction sheet Original artist: User:Marc Mongenet Credits: • File:Flag_of_Thailand.svg License: Public domain Contributors: own code.svg Source: http://upload.

wikimedia.wikimedia. transferred to Commons by User:Magnus Manske using CommonsHelper.svg License: Public domain Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape Original artist: Pz • File:Polish_tv_rating_system_16_2011.wikipedia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/PG_home_video.svg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/Flag_of_the_United_ Arab_Emirates. AND LICENSES 53 • File:Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China.svg License: Public domain Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape Original artist: Pz • File:Quebecratings.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload.svg License: Public domain Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape Original artist: Pz • File:Polish_tv_rating_system_bo_2011.svg Source: http://upload.hu (vectorized retrospectively by User:Perhelion for the Commons:Graphic Lab/Illustration workshop) • File:GenPat_mtrcb.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/90/GenPat_mtrcb.PNG License: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from en.fr/ Original artist: inconnu • File:New_NBC_film_ratings.my/images/maklumat_bahagian/LPF/klasifikasi1.org/wikipedia/commons/8/83/KoreanTVrating.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/29/Moins16.) NMHH.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Peeperman • File:KN_icon_B_(Hungary).wikimedia.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Moins12.PNG Source: http://upload.svg License: Public domain Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape Original artist: Pz • File:Polish_tv_rating_system_7_2011.png Source: http://upload. 28.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_the_United_States.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia. • File:KoreanTVrating.svg Source: http://upload.csa.wikimedia.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7f/Pg_cinema.svg License: Public domain Contributors: 10/2012.wikimedia.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Moins10.wikimedia.wikimedia. CONTRIBUTORS.hu/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/kisfiu-piktogram.wikimedia. Later version(s) were uploaded by Foveaux at en.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/GY_icon_TV_%28Hungary%29.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/Flag_placeholder.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.fr/ Original artist: inconnu • File:Moins16.wikimedia.png License: Public domain Contributors: IFCO's website Original artist: IFCO • File:General_home_video.wikimedia. (III.wikipedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/General_home_video.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/KN_icon_B_%28Hungary%29.png Source: http://upload.png Source: http://upload. Original artist: Original uploader was Socks 01 at en.wikipedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/Moins18.jpg License: Fair use Contributors: http://www.wikimedia.jpg Original artist: Ministry of Home Affairs • File:Moins10.) NMHH Original artist: This image was created by me. transferred to Commons by User:FSII using CommonsHelper.svg Source: http://upload.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http: //www.jpg License: GFDL Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:NzfilmratingS.csa.svg Source: http://upload.4.jpg Original artist: Twice.png Source: http://upload. 28.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http: //www.png License: Public domain Contributors: IFCO's website Original artist: IFCO • File:Pg_cinema.moha.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http: //www.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/9/93/Polish_tv_rating_system_7_ 2011.png License: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from en.png License: Public domain Contributors: IFCO's website Original artist: IFCO • File:Greek_TV_rating_system_-_Suitable_for_all_ages.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/Polish_tv_rating_system_ 18_2011.svg Source: http://upload.png Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/General_cinema.png Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f0/New_NBC_film_ratings.png Source: http://upload. • File:PG_home_video.csa.org/wikipedia/commons/1/13/Polish_tv_rating_system_ bo_2011.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/Greek_ TV_rating_system_-_Suitable_for_all_ages.wikipedia • File:Malaysian_film_classification_logos.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http: //www.wikipedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/Polish_tv_rating_system_ 16_2011.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/Flag_of_the_Republic_of_ China.svg Source: http://upload. Original uploader was Kjinho213 at en.svg Source: http://upload.png License: ? Contributors: Source: MTRCB Original artist: Author: MTRCB • File:General_cinema.svg Source: http://upload.png License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ? . Matthew with Inkscape based on directive 10/2012.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/NzfilmratingS.wikimedia.gov.org/wikipedia/commons/3/30/Polish_tv_rating_system_ 12_2011.jpg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/en/a/a4/Flag_of_the_United_States.fr/ Original artist: inconnu • File:Moins12.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload.svg License: Public domain Contributors: [1] Original artist: User:SKopp • File:Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Flag_placeholder. (III.csa.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.svg Source: http://upload. Original artist: User:Kjinho213.svg License: Public domain Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape Original artist: Pz • File:Polish_tv_rating_system_18_2011.org/wikipedia/en/d/d5/Quebecratings.svg Source: http://upload.fr/ Original artist: inconnu • File:Moins18.png License: Public domain Contributors: IFCO's website Original artist: IFCO • File:Polish_tv_rating_system_12_2011.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://twice.wikimedia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Andrwsc • File:GY_icon_TV_(Hungary).org/wikipedia/en/9/93/Malaysian_film_classification_ logos.jpg Source: http://upload. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES.6.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload.

wikimedia.wikimedia.jpg Source: http://upload.png Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ a4/Republic_Of_Korea_Broadcasting-TV_Rating_System%2815%29. Original artist: WhiteNight7 at Korean Wikipedia • File:Republic_Of_Korea_Broadcasting-TV_Rating_System(ALL).svg Source: http://upload.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from ko.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://upload. Original artist: WhiteNight7 at Korean Wikipedia • File:SPG-MTRCB_English.wikimedia.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ac/X_icon_B_%28Hungary%29.svg Source: http://upload. 28.svg Source: http://upload.png Original artist: White_circle_in_blue_background.wikimedia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: • White_triangle_in_orange_background.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c3/TV-14_icon.svg Source: http://upload. • File:White_square_in_purple_background.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from ko.svg Source: background.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/TVcontenidoPeru18.svg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5e/TV-G_icon. 28.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload.wikipedia to Commons by Teemeah. Matthew with Inkscape based on directive 10/2012. Original artist: WhiteNight7 at Korean Wikipedia • File:Republic_Of_Korea_Broadcasting-TV_Rating_System(15).svg Source: http://upload.svg License: Cc-by-sa-3.png Original artist: White_X_in_red_background.svg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/ 6/6c/Republic_Of_Korea_Broadcasting-TV_Rating_System%287%29.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Federal Communications Commission (FCC) • File:TV-MA_icon.svg Source: http://upload.wikipedia to Commons by Teemeah.jpg Source: http://upload.svg Source: http://upload.png Original artist: White_triangle_in_orange_background.jpg Source: http://upload.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from ko.png: Sermac.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload.) NMHH Original artist: This image was created by me. Based on Image:Question book.wikimedia.wikipedia to Commons by Teemeah. • File:X_icon_B_(Hungary).svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Federal Communications Commission (FCC) • File:TV-PG_icon. svg License: Public domain Contributors: • White_X_in_red_background.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Wikiperuvian • File:Vegamcensorcertificate-1.com/vegam-home.wikimedia.svg Source: purple_background.) NMHH.svg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/2/28/White_X_in_red_background.wikimedia.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Wikiperuvian • File:TVcontenidoPeruAPT.wikimedia.54 CHAPTER 4.gif License: Fair use Contributors: From: http://www.png: Sermac.svg Original artist: Selecting and filling of the countries: Holek (talk · contribs) • File:White_X_in_red_background.wikimedia. MOBILE SOFTWARE CONTENT RATING SYSTEM • File:Question_book-new.svg License: Public domain Contributors: 10/2012.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/White_circle_in_blue_ • White_circle_in_blue_background.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/White_triangle_in_ orange_background.png Original artist: White_square_in_purple_background.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9a/TV-PG_icon.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ e2/Republic_Of_Korea_Broadcasting-TV_Rating_System%28ALL%29.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/TV-Y_icon.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e1/White_square_in_ • White_square_in_purple_background. Original artist: WhiteNight7 at Korean Wikipedia • File:Republic_Of_Korea_Broadcasting-TV_Rating_System(7).org/wikipedia/en/b/bf/Vegamcensorcertificate-1.wikipedia to Commons by Teemeah.org/wikipedia/commons/3/35/TVcontenidoPeru14.jjartgallery.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Wikiperuvian • File:TVcontenidoPeru18.png: Sermac.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Federal Communications Commission (FCC) • File:TV-G_icon.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Federal Communications Commission (FCC) • File:TVcontenidoPeru14.org/wikipedia/en/9/99/Question_book-new.org/wikipedia/commons/3/34/TV-MA_icon.5 pl Contributors: based on Image:BlankMap-World6.org/wikipedia/commons/7/75/Video_game_rating_ systems_map. • File:White_triangle_in_orange_background.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f2/ Republic_Of_Korea_Broadcasting-TV_Rating_System%2812%29. .wikimedia.wikimedia.png: Sermac. (III.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Federal Communications Commission (FCC) • File:TV-Y7_icon.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bb/TVcontenidoPeruAPT.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://upload.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.svg Source: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/7/ 78/Republic_Of_Korea_Broadcasting-TV_Rating_System%2819%29.org/wikipedia/en/d/de/SPG-MTRCB_English.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Federal Communications Commission (FCC) • File:TV-Y_icon.wikipedia to Commons by Teemeah.png created by User:Equazcion Original artist: Tkgd2007 • File:Republic_Of_Korea_Broadcasting-TV_Rating_System(12).svg Source: http://upload.svg License: CC BY-SA 2.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from ko. (III.png License: ? Contributors: MTRCB Original artist: MTRCB • File:TV-14_icon.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from ko.wikimedia.wikimedia.wikimedia.gif Source: http://upload. Original artist: WhiteNight7 at Korean Wikipedia • File:Republic_Of_Korea_Broadcasting-TV_Rating_System(19).wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/TV-Y7_icon. • File:White_circle_in_blue_background.0 Contributors: Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator.html Original artist: ? • File:Video_game_rating_systems_map.

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES. AND LICENSES 4. CONTRIBUTORS.6.6.3 Content license • Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 55 .4.

Related Interests