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Instant Immersion Spanish

Audio Course Guide

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Instant Immersion Spanish


Disc 1
Welcome to the Spanish Series.
In this series of lessons you will learn useful vocabulary for common situations you might encounter in a
Spanish speaking country, as well as some grammar basics for using your Spanish. In each lesson you will be
introduced to New Grammar topics as well as a short list of vocabulary you can use in a particular situation.
You will have opportunities to repeat and practice this vocabulary and the grammar you have learned as well
as to answer questions using these structures. At the end of each lesson you will hear and repeat a conversation
that might take place in a situation involving the vocabulary and grammar from that lesson. Enjoy the lessons,
as you listen see if you can spot cognates, which are words that are similar in English and in Spanish. This will
help you understand words you may not have heard before in Spanish.
Also, take every opportunity you can to study vocabulary. Useful ways to do this might be to use new
vocabulary in a sentence or to try to and name as many things and people around you as you can.
Welcome to Lesson 1:
In this lesson you will learn the names of the letters in the Spanish alphabet and how to pronounce them, as well
as some important things about pronouncing certain types of words.
First lets practice the Spanish alphabet. There are 28 letters in the Spanish alphabet; the letter w (doble ve) is
not a letter that occurs in native Spanish words. When you use a dictionary, you will want to remember that the
letter ll, written as l-l, is alphabetized separately and after l, written as a single l. Also, in some dictionaries the
letter ch, written c-h, is alphabetized as two separate letters, but in most dictionaries (especially older ones) ch
is considered one letter, alphabetized between c and d.
Okay, now lets repeat the names of the Spanish letters and some words that feature them. You will hear a pause
after each word and letter; thats your chance to repeat what you hear. Each word will then be translated into
English.
The English letter a is called a

ave

ave

The English letter b is called b (or sometimes b grande)

bird
bao

bao

The English letter c is called c

casa

casa

house

The English letters c-h are called ch

champ

champ

shampoo

The English letter d is called d

dama

dama

lady

The English letter e is called e

edad

edad

age

The English letter f is called f

fecha

fecha

date (calendar)

The English letter g is called g

gafas

gafas

glasses

The English letter h is called h

helado

helado

ice cream

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bath

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Disc 1
The English letter i is called i

idea

idea

idea

The English letter j is called j

jabn

jabn

soap

The English letter k is called k

kilmetro

kilmetro

kilometer

(note: the metric system is generally used in most Spanish-speaking countries)


The English letter l is called l

lago

lago

lake

The English letters l-l are called ll

llave

llave

key

The English letter m is called m

mesa

mesa

table

The English letter n is called n

nada

nada

nothing

The English letter n written with a tilde (or wavy line) on top is called
ame

ame

yam

The English letter o is called o

ojo

ojo

eye

The English letter p is called p

plato

plato

plate

The English letter q is called q

queso

queso

cheese

The English letter r is called r

ro

ro

river

The English letter s is called s

sal

sal

salt

The English letter t is called t

todo

todo

everything

The English letter u is called u

uva

uva

grape

The English letter v is called v (or v chica) (v chica is used to differentiate v from b grande)
vista

vista

view

The English letter x is called x (very few Spanish words begin with x. It occurs within many words, such as
taxi.
The English letter y is called y

yema

yema

egg yolk

The English letter z is called z

zapato

zapato

shoe

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Disc 1
Now repeat the names of the letters once more.
a b c ch d e f g h i j k l ll m n o p q r s t u v x y z
Okay, now that youve learned the alphabet, lets talk about how these letters are pronounced. First, the vowels;
vowels in Spanish have a consistent pronunciation, rather than varying as do English vowels. Single vowels in
Spanish are pronounced just like their names: a , e , i , o , u.
Combinations of two vowels are common
in Spanish, too. Some of these combinations are pronounced as one syllable rather than two separate ones, for
example:
The combination a-i is pronounced ai as in baile

dance

The combination a-u is pronounced au as in causa

cause

The combination i-a is pronounced ia as in Francia

France

The combination i-o is pronounced io as in radio

radio

The combination i-u is pronounced iu as in ciudad

city

The combination u-a is pronounced ua as in agua

water

The combination u-e is pronounced ue as in fuego

fire

The combination u-i is pronounced ui as in ruinas

ruins

The combination i-e is pronounced ie as in tienda

store

Now that youve learned the vowel sounds of Spanish, lets talk about the consonants.
The sound of b is somewhat like an English b only softer; dont press your lips all the way together. This
sound occurs in bao
bath and jabn soap
C has two sounds; before the letters o, a, and u, it sounds like English k, as in taco or casa
house.
Before e or i, c sounds like English s, as in cerca
near by or cine cinema. (In many regions of
Spain, c before e or i sounds like the English t-h in bath.)
D sounds rather like the English t-h in then, as in dama lady and edad age
F is like English f, as in fecha date
G, like c, has two different sounds depending on what letter follows it. Before o, a, and u, g makes a [g]
sound, as in the words gafas glasses, lago lake or amigo
friend. Before e or i, g makes the sound [h], as in gente people and region region
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H is always silent in Spanish.
J is pronounced [h], as in jabn soap
K is like English k, as in kilmetro kilometer
L sounds like English l, as in lago lake
Ll makes the sound [y], as in llave key. Some Spanish speakers pronounce this letter as [j].)
M is pronounced like m in English, as in mesa table
N is pronounced like n in English, as in nada nothing
is pronounced [ny], as in ame yam and ao year
P is similar to English p, as in plato plate or copa wineglass
Q, as in English, q is always followed by u. q-u is pronounced [k], as in queso cheese
R between vowels sounds somewhat like an English d, but softer, as in caro
expensive and hora
hour, or time. In other positions, r makes a rolling trill sound, as in regalo
present and libro
book. Between vowels, this same rolling sound is spelled as double r or rr, as in the word barrio
neighborhood.
S sounds like a soft English s, as in sal

salt

T is similar to t in English, as in the word

taco

V chica makes the same sound as b grande, as in vino

wine

X makes either a [ks] sound, as in taxi taxi or a [h] sound, as in Mxico Mexico
Y is generally pronounced the same way as ll, as in the word yema egg yolk. In isolation, it is
pronounced [ee]; this letter by itself is the Spanish word for and.
Z sounds like a soft English s, as in zapato shoe (this letter is also pronounced as a soft t-h sound in
parts of Spain.)

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Disc 1
Knowing how letters sound in Spanish will help you recognize cognates, which are words that are similar to
English words. They may be spelled alike to some extent, yet sound very different. Can you identify the English
cognate of the following Spanish words?
Hospital
Radio
Restaurante
Recepcin
Msica
Aeropuerto
Suter
Hamburguesa
Televisin
Banco

Hospital
Radio
Restaurant
Reception
Music
Airport
Sweater
Hamburger
Television
Bank

There are lots of cognates between Spanish and English; be on the lookout for them.
One more thing youll need to know to pronounce Spanish words correctly is where the stress falls in a word.
As an example of why the stress is important, consider the words suspect and suspect in English. One is a
noun, suspect, and the other is a verb, suspect. Yet the only difference in pronunciation is where the word is
stressed. There are pairs of words like this in Spanish, as well. When you repeat words as you listen to these
tapes, pay attention to where the stress falls. There are three simple rules, which will allow you to correctly
stress any word you see written but have not yet heard. These rules are as follows:
1) If the last letter of a word is n, s, or any vowel, word stress falls on the next-to-last syllable, as in:
Agua - water, chicle - gum, bao - bath, platos - plate, atlas - atlas
and in hablan, which means they speak.
2)

If the last letter of a word is any consonant other than n or s , stress falls on the final syllable, as in:
Coliflor - cauliflower, frijol - bean, pared - wall, and nariz-nose

3)

Any word that does not follow these 2 rules has a written accent over the stressed syllable. Some
examples of words needing written accents are:
Jabn - soap, kilmetro - kilometer, francs - French, and man - peanut
(the written accent may also be used to distinguish otherwise identical words; for instance, s with an
accent written over the i means yes, si without an accent means if.)

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Disc 1
Can you tell which of these words would need a written accent?
Llave
no
Mxico
yes, (Mxico needs a written accent over the since it does not stress according to the first rule.)
Ruinas
no
Agua
no
Mesa
no
Msica
yes, (msica needs a written accent over the since it is not stressed according to the first rule.)
Vista
no
Recepcin yes, (recepcin needs a written accent over the since it is not stressed according to the first
rule.)
Okay, lets review: Can you remember the letters of the alphabet? This time youll hear a pause for your answer
before each letter: a, b, c, ch, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, ll, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, x, y, z
Great. Now see if you can tell how the following words would be spelled (if you are able, write them down after
you hear them):
Ao
Mesa
Frijol
Jabn
Chicle
Agua
Edad
Ruinas
Kilmetro

ao (a- -o)
mesa (m-e-s-a)
frijol (f-r-i-j-o-l)
jabn (j-a-b--n) (Did you notice o con acento, that means o with an accent)
chicle (c-h-i-c-l-e)
agua (a-g-u-a)
edad (e-d-a-d)
ruinas (r-u-i-n-a-s)
kilmetro (k-i-l--m-e-t-r-o)

OK, lets see if you can remember some of the vocabulary youve heard so far. Try to answer the question
Cmo se dice? How does one say?
Cmo se dice ?
Cmo se dice ?
Cmo se dice ?
Cmo se dice ?
Cmo se dice ?
Cmo se dice ?
Cmo se dice ?
Cmo se dice ?
Cmo se dice ?
Cmo se dice ?
Cmo se dice ?
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Cauliflower
Bathroom
Key
Soap
Salt
Plate
Table
Water
Music
wine

coliflor
bao
llave
jabn
sal
plato
mesa
agua
msica
vino
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Disc 1
Well done. Now, listen to this brief conversation. Dont worry about the grammar; youll learn more about that
in subsequent lessons. The first time you hear the conversation, just listen. The 2nd time, repeat what you hear.
The 3rd time through, the conversation will be translated for you.
A: Qu es?
B: Es coliflor
A: Coliflor?
B: S, coliflor. Es bueno, no?
A: Ms o menos. Necesita sal. Y los frijoles son muy picantes!
B: S, necesito agua.
A: Hay agua en la mesa.
B: Gracias.
A: No hay de que.
A: Qu es?
B: Es coliflor
A: Coliflor?
B: S, coliflor. Es bueno, no?
A: Ms o menos. Necesita sal. Y los frijoles son muy picantes!
B: S, necesito agua.
A: Hay agua en la mesa.
B: Gracias.
A: No hay de que.
A:Qu es? (What is it?)
B: Es coliflor (Its cauliflower)
A: Coliflor? (Cauliflower?)
B: S, coliflor. (Yes, cauliflower) Es bueno, no? (Its good isnt it?)
A: Ms o menos. Necesita sal. (More or less, it needs salt) Y los frijoles son muy picantes! (And the
beans are very spicy)
B: S, necesito agua. (Yeah, I need water)
A: Hay agua en la mesa. (There is water on the table)
B: Gracias. (Thanks)
A: No hay de que. (Dont mention it)
This is the end of lesson 1.
In lesson 2 you will learn some common greetings, as well as some Spanish verbs and how to use them.
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Disc 2
Welcome to lesson 2.
In this lesson, you will learn:
-some ways to greet people and say goodbye
-how to ask someones name, and how someone is doing
-how to use the verbs estar and llamarse
-the subject pronouns of Spanish and how to use them
There are various ways to greet someone in Spanish. Try repeating these:
Hola

Hello

Buenos das

Good morning

Buenas tardes

Good afternoon

When you meet someone new, you might say mucho gusto (pleased to meet you). You could also say
encantado if you are a man or encantada if you are a woman (this is another way to express pleased to meet
you).
You might wonder why there are two forms, encantado, and encantada. These words are adjectives, and
adjectives in Spanish are said to agree with the nouns they modify, they can be singular or plural, as well as
masculine or feminine. The idea of masculine and feminine is fairly straightforward with nouns that refer
to people, such as hombre (man) and mujer (woman); hombre is masculine, and mujer is feminine. However,
all other nouns in Spanish also have gender, which is best thought of as a grammatical property of nouns in
Spanish. English nouns do not have this particular property.
So, when meeting someone new, a woman might say she is enchanted, encantada, while a man would use
the masculine form of this adjective, encantado.
Did you notice that das in the greeting buenos das is modified by the form buenos, while tardes in buenas
tardes is modified by the form buenas? Thats because das is a plural masculine noun, while tardes is a plural
feminine noun. You will learn more about agreement in lesson 3.
Okay, now that you know how to greet someone in Spanish, lets learn how to ask for a persons name. To ask
one person, who is a new acquaintance, this question, say:
Cmo se llama? This is used as Whats your name? but it literally means How do you call yourself?
Cmo is the question how. Se llama is a formal 2nd person singular form of the verb llamarse, to call
oneself.
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Disc 2
In English, to is used to mark the basic verb form that doesnt agree with any particular subject, such as
you or he. This basic form is called the infinitive. In Spanish, such verb forms are marked by an ar, -er,
or ir ending, for example hablar to talk, comer to eat and vivir to live. So what about the se in llamarse?
Some verbs in Spanish are whats called reflexive; their infinitives have a se at the end to indicate this. This
se is roughly parallel to oneself in English.
When the form of a verb is changed to agree with a subject, this process is known as conjugation and the
changed form is a conjugated form. For example, the present tense conjugation of the verb to be in English
is:
I am
You are
He is
She is

we are
yall are
they are

Note that there are really only 3 present-tense forms of the verb to be; am, are, and is. And most English verbs
have even fewer forms! However, as you will see, there are 6 present-tense forms of each verb in Spanish.
In the case of llamarse, these forms are:
Me llamo
Te llamas
Se llama

nos llamamos
os llamis
se llaman

These forms correspond to different possible subjects. However, it is important to remember that me, te, se,
nos, os, se are not subject pronouns. These are actually the corresponding forms of the reflexive se on the
infinitive. Note that when a reflexive verb is conjugated, the proper form of se is placed before the conjugated
verb form. So, if me, te, se, nos, os, se are not subject pronouns, what are the subject pronouns of Spanish?
Well learn them next.
Subjects can be 1st person (if they include the speaker, like I or we), 2nd person (if they include the person being
spoken to, like you or yall), or 3rd person (used when speaking about others, like she, he, or they). Subjects
can also be singular or plural, and in Spanish, 2nd person subjects can be formal or informal, as well. In these
lessons, verb forms will be given according to the standard Spanish subject pronouns, which are:
Yo, I
T, you (singular informal)
Ud., you (singular formal)
l, he
Ella, she

nosotros, we
vosotros, you (plural informal)
Uds., you (plural formal)
ellos, they (masculine or mixed gender)
ellas, they (feminine)

Ud. and Uds. are often abbreviated as u-d and u-d-s, respectively.
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Disc 2
Nosotros has a feminine form nosotras that is used if we are all women, as does vosotros, which becomes
vosotras if yall are all women. You may be wondering why, with so many subject pronouns, there are only
6 conjugated present-tense forms of verbs. The answer is that the third person singular verb form is used, not
only with l he and ella she, but also with Ud., the formal singular you. Likewise, the plural 3rd person verb
form is used with ellos, ellas, and Uds.
So how does one know which forms of you to use? In most Spanish-speaking countries, the singular t form
is used with friends and children, while the singular Ud. form is used with a person you have just met or with
someone older than you. (In Argentina and some other countries, a vos form is used instead of the informal t
form, but we do not use the vos form in these lessons.) In the plural, a similar distinction is maintained between
the informal vosotros and the formal Uds. forms if you are in Spain; in Latin America, however, the vosotros
form is not used. When in Latin America, use the Uds. form when addressing a group of people both in formal
and informal situations.
Do you remember the subject pronouns of Spanish? See if you can list them.
You should have listed
Yo, t, usted, l, ella, nosotros, vosotros, ustedes, ellos, and ellas
If we put the conjugated forms of llamarse together with appropriate subject pronouns, they sound like this:
yo me llamo
t te llamas
Ud. se llama
l se llama
ella se llama

nosotros nos llamamos


vosotros os llamis
Uds. se llaman
ellos se llaman
ellas se llaman

It is important to remember that subject pronouns are most often omitted in Spanish, unless they are needed
to clarify or emphasize who the subject is. As an example, here is a partial conversation. Listen and repeat
(escucha y repite).
A: Buenos das. Good day.
B: Hola. Cmo se llama Ud.? Hello. What is your name?
A: Me llamo Mara. Y Ud.? My name is Mary. And you?
B: Me llamo Patricia. My name is Patricia.
A: Mucho gusto. Nice to meet you.
B: Encantada. Nice to meet you.

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Disc 2
Note that Ud. was included to clarify the subject of the 3rd person verb form, but yo was omitted since the
subject is clear from the verb form in this case. Listen and repeat again (escucha y repite otra vez):
A: Buenos das.
B: Hola. Cmo se llama Ud.?
A: Me llamo Mara. Y Ud.?
B: Me llamo Patricia.
A: Mucho gusto. .
B: Encantada.
Now check your memory again; can you remember all of the conjugated forms of the verb llamarse?
Try to list them.
You should have listed:
me llamo
te llamas
se llama

nos llamamos
os llamis
se llaman

OK, now that youve met someone and asked for his or her name, lets learn how to ask how your new
acquaintance is doing. You already know the word for how, cmo, but youll need another verb for this
question. The infinitive of this new verb is estar; it is translated as to be in English and is used to talk about
location as well as states or conditions of people and things. The present-tense forms of estar are:
estoy
ests
est

I am
you are
he or she is

estamos
estis
estn

we are
youll are
they are

So, you might ask a new acquaintance, Cmo est Ud.? or ask a friend, Cmo ests?. A very informal way
to ask this, similar to asking Whats up? in English, is to ask Qu tal? This idiomatic expression has only
one form.
Now can you list the conjugated forms of estar.
You should have listed:
estoy
ests
est

estamos
estis
estn

Now lets talk about how one might answer the question Cmo ests?. Here are some ways you might be
feeling when someone asks:

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Disc 2
Bien
Muy bien
As-as
Mal
Muy mal

well
very well
so so
badly
very badly

You might also wish to thank the person for asking, by saying gracias Thank you or muchas gracias
Thank you very much.
Now lets see how much you remember. How would you answer these words and questions?
Buenas tardes. If you said hola or buenas tardes in return, thats right! How about:
Cmo se llama Ud.? If you said me llamo and your name, thats great! Now try:
Mucho gusto. Did you say mucho gusto in return? Great! If youre a woman, you might also have said
encantada, or encantado if youre a man. OK, how would you answer:
Cmo ests? You might have said estoy bien or estoy as-as. If youre doing very well, you probably said
estoy muy bien.
Now you can have a brief conversation with someone in Spanish. But theres one thing missing: how will you
say goodbye after the conversation is finished? Here are some possibilities:
Adis
Hasta luego
Nos vemos
Chao

Goodbye
Until later
See you (literally, well see each other)
Bye

Lets see how much of this you can remember. How does one say (Cmo se dice?):
I am well, thank you.
How are you all?
Good afternoon.
Her name is Mary.
Until later!

Estoy bien gracias.


Cmo estn ustedes?
Buenas tardes.
Se llama Mara.
Hasta luego.

How about some of the nouns you heard in lesson 1? Challenge yourself with these:
Cmo se dice?
Cmo se dice?
Cmo se dice?
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Soap
Water
Wine

jabn
agua
vino
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Disc 2
Cmo se dice?
Cmo se dice?
Cmo se dice?
Cmo se dice?
Cmo se dice?

Salt
Table
Key
Bean
Kilometer

sal
mesa
llave
frijol
kilmetro

Muy bien! Ahora, escucha y repite (listen and repeat):


Es jabn?
No, es champ.
Es un lago?
No, es un ro.
Es agua?
No, Es vino!
Son ames?
S, son ames.
Ud. es mdica?
S, soy mdica.
Somos todos mdicos aqu.

Is it soap?
No, its shampoo.
Is it a lake?
No, its a river.
Is it water?
No, its wine.
Are they yams?
Yes, theyre yams
Are you a doctor?
Yes, I am a doctor.
We are all doctors here.

Did you notice that forms of to be in these sentences were not translated with estar, but rather with a different
verb? The infinitive of this other verb is ser. When to be is used to identify people, places and things, the verb
ser is used instead of estar.
These are the present tense forms of ser:
soy
eres
es

I am
You are
He or she is

somos
sois
son

We are
Youll are
They are

Now practice a few sentences using these forms. Cmo se dice? (How does one say?):
They are keys.
Is is water?
We are ladies
Its shampoo.
Theyre birds.

Son llaves.
Es agua?
Somos damas.
Es champ.
Son pjaros.

Now repeat those sentences in Spanish:


Son llaves.
Es agua?
Somos damas.
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Disc 2
Es champ.
Son pjaros.
Bien! Can you list the conjugated present-tense forms of ser?
You should have listed:
soy
eres
es

somos
sois
son

One way you can use ser to identify people is to associate them with their professions or occupations, as in soy
mdica. Mdica is the feminine form of the noun doctor. The masculine form of the noun is mdico. Here are
some other people you might meet. Some are cognates, and you may be able to guess their meanings.

Escucha y repite:
profesor
profesora
estudiante
jefe
jefa
empleado
empleada
cliente
conductor
conductora
piloto
pilota
asistente
asistente de vuelo
mesero
mesera
hombre de negocios
mujer de negocios
turista
Xavier es hombre de negocios.
Soy la jefa.
Somos empleados del banco.
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teacher
teacher
student
boss
boss
employee
employee
client
driver
driver
pilot
pilot
assistant
flight attendant
waiter
waitress
business man
business woman
tourist
Xavier is a business man.
I am the boss.
We are employees of the bank.
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Disc 2
Son Uds. meseros?
Eres asistente de vuelo?
Sois estudiantes, no?

Are you waiters?


Are you a flight attendant?
You are all students, right?

Ahora, Cmo se dice?


We are students.
He is a teacher.
Are they flight attendants?
She is a doctor.
I am a tourist.

Somos estudiantes.
Es professor.
Son asistentes de vuelo?
Ella es mdica.
Soy turista.

Thats great! Did you notice that a in these sentences doesnt have a word translating it in the Spanish
version? Thats because the equivalent of a, the indefinite article, is generally not used in Spanish when
identifying someones occupation, as in Manuel es piloto.
So, now you know two different ways to translate the verb to be in Spanish. The way it is used in a sentence
will determine whether you should translate it as ser or estar. Which verb is used to identify something? ser is
used. Which verb is used to ask someone how he or she is doing, as in how are you today? estar is used. And
which verb is used when identifying someones occupation? Ser is used.
OK, lets put it all together. Here is a conversation between two friends and a third person unknown to one of
them. Most of the vocabulary will be familiar to you.
A: Hola, Ana. - Hi Ana!
B. Buenos das, Carmen. Cmo ests? - Hello Carmen, how are you?
A: Muy bien, gracias. Y t? - Very well thanks, and you?
B: Bien, gracias. - Well, thank you.
A: Ana, te quiero presentar a Jaime Ramrez. - Ana, Id like to introduce you to Jaime Ramrez. l es un
amigo de mi familia. - He is a friend of my family.
B: Mucho gusto, Jaime. - Pleased to meet you Jaime.
C: Mucho gusto. Ud. se llama Ana, no? - Pleased to meet you. Your name is Ana, right?
B: S, Ana Tapia. Cmo est Ud. hoy? - Yes, Ana Tapia. How are you today?

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B: Estoy bien, gracias. Y Ud.? - I am fine thank you. And you?
C: Bien, gracias. Es Ud. estudiante aqu? - Well, thank you. Are you a student here?
B: S, soy estudiante de filosofa. -Yes, I am a student of philosophy.
C: De filosofa? Qu interesante! - Philosophy, how interesting!
B: S, en mi opinin es muy interesante. -Yes, in my opinion, its very interesting Y Ud.? Qu estudia?
And you? What are you studying?
C: Estudio qumica. - I am studying chemistry.
A: Ay! Perdn, Ana, tenemos una clase en 5 minutos.- Oops, excuse me Ana, we have a class in five minutes
B: Es la clase de arte? - Is it the art class?
A: S, estudiamos la obra de Goya hoy. - Yes, we are studing the work of Goya today.
B: Bien, nos vemos luego. - OK, we will see you later.
C: Adis, Ana. Mucho gusto. - Bye Ana, pleased to meet you.
B: Igualmente.- Same here.
A: Chao! nos vemos!. - Bye, see you later.
B: Chao, Carmen. - Chao, Carmen.
Now, repeat the conversation again, this time without the translation.
A: Hola, Ana.
B. Buenos das, Carmen. Cmo ests?
A: Muy bien, gracias. Y t?
B: Bien, gracias.
A: Ana, te quiero presentar a Jaime Ramrez. l es un amigo de mi familia.
B: Mucho gusto, Jaime.
C: Mucho gusto. Ud. se llama Ana, no?
B: S, Ana Tapia. Cmo est Ud. hoy?
B: Estoy bien, gracias y Ud.?
C: Bien, gracias. Es Ud. estudiante aqu?
B: S, soy estudiante de filosofa.
C: De filosofa? Qu interesante!
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B: S, en mi opinin es muy interesante. Y Ud.? Qu estudia?
C: Estudio qumica.
A: Ay! Perdn, Ana, tenemos una clase en 5 minutos.
B: Es la clase de arte?
A: S, estudiamos la obra de Goya hoy.
B: Bien, nos vemos luego.
C: Adis, Ana. Mucho gusto.
B: Igualmente.
A: Chao! nos vemos! .
B: Chao, Carmen. .
You will hear the conversation once more without pauses.
A: Hola, Ana.
B. Buenos das, Carmen. Cmo ests?
A: Muy bien, gracias. Y t?
B: Bien, gracias.
A: Ana, te quiero presentar a Jaime Ramrez. l es un amigo de mi familia.
B: Mucho gusto, Jaime.
C: Mucho gusto. Ud. se llama Ana, no?
B: S, Ana Tapia. Cmo est Ud. hoy?
B: Estoy bien, gracias.Y Ud.?
C: Bien, gracias. Es Ud. estudiante aqu?
B: S, soy estudiante de filosofa.
C: De filosofa? Qu interesante!
B: S, en mi opinin es muy interesante Y Ud.? Qu estudia?
C: Estudio qumica.
A: Ay! Perdn, Ana, tenemos una clase en 5 minutos. .
B: Es la clase de arte?
A: S, estudiamos la obra de Goya hoy.
B: Bien, nos vemos luego.
C: Adis, Ana. Mucho gusto.
B: Igualmente.
A: Chao! nos vemos!.
B: Chao, Carmen.
Ahora, contesta la pregunta:
Cmo se llaman las personas?
Cmo est Carmen?
Es Jaime un amigo de Ana?
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Se llaman Ana, Carmen y Jaime.


Carmen est bien.
No, es un amigo de Carmen.
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Es Carmen una amiga de Ana?
Es Ana estudiante?
Es la clase de Carmen y Jaime una
clase de filosofa?

S, Carmen es una amiga de Ana.


S, es estudiante.
No, es una clase de arte.

This is the end of lesson 2.


In lesson 3, you will learn more about gender and agreement, and learn to talk about where people are from
and to describe people and things. You will also learn some useful Spanish verbs.

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Welcome to lesson 3.
In this lesson, you will learn:
-more about gender and agreement in Spanish
-how to use articles
-some new nouns and adjectives
-how to talk about where someone is from and what language/s someone speaks
-some regular Spanish verbs and how to use them
First, lets talk more about agreement. As youve seen, verbs agree with subjects both in English and in Spanish.
They agree in person and number. In Spanish, there is also a type of agreement between nouns and
adjectives, as mentioned in lesson 2. An adjective agrees with the noun it describes in number and in gender.
The articles a/an, some and the also agree with nouns in a similar way. Here are the different forms of these
articles in Spanish:
Forms of a or some
un
(un is masculine, singular)
una
(una is feminine, singular)
unos (unos is masculine, plural)
unas (unas is feminine, plural)
Escucha y repite:
un libro
una tienda
unos taxis
unas playas

a book
a store
some taxis
some beaches

Forms of the
el
(el is masculine, singular)
la
(la is feminine, singular)
los
(los is masculine, plural)
las
(las is feminine, plural)
Escucha y repite:
el libro
la tienda
los taxis
las playas

the book
the store
the taxis
the beaches

Now how about some more nouns to go with these articles? Here are some common ones you might wish to
use.
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Escucha y repite:
un hombre
un chico
un hotel
un autobs
un taxi
un restaurante
un edificio

a man
a boy
a hotel
a bus
a taxi
a restaurant
a building

una mujer
una chica
una playa
una calle
una habitacin
una tienda
una casa

a woman
a girl
a beach
a street
a hotel room
a store
a house

Many feminine nouns end in a, though there are exceptions, such as un mapa, un da, and many nouns ending in
-ema or -ama, for example el drama the drama and el problema the problem. Likewise, many nouns ending
in o are masculine; a common exception is la mano the hand. The best way to know if a noun is masculine or
feminine is to learn that information whenever you learn a new noun; learn a noun along with its article.
To make a noun or adjective plural in Spanish, add s to the word if it ends in a vowel and e-s if the word ends in
a consonant. Here are some plurals of nouns you heard earlier:
El hombre/ los hombres
La mujer/ las mujeres
El taxi/ los taxis
La habitacin/ las habitaciones
Un edificio/ unos edificios
Una tienda/ unas tiendas
Ahora, escucha y repite:
Es un restaurante excelente.
La noche en la playa es bella, no?
Cmo son las habitaciones?
Es un edificio grande.
Son chicos buenos.
Eres una mujer muy inteligente.
Lets see how many things and people you remember. Cmo se dice?
a boy
a girl
a street
a house
a beach
a building
a store
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un chico
una chica
una calle
una casa
una playa
un edificio
una tienda
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a woman
a man
a hotel room

una mujer
un hombre
una habitacin

Muy bien! Ahora, escucha y repite:


Es una tienda buena.
Its a good store.
Es un hombre viejo.
Hes an old man.
Soy una mujer trabajadora.
I am a hard working woman.
Son chicos inteligentes.
They are intelligent boys.
Es una habitacin bella, no?
Its a beautiful room, isnt it?
These sentences give more information about things and people by using adjectives. Lets practice some
adjectives that you can use to describe the nouns youve learned. Many adjectives have different masculine and
feminine forms, although some do not. In these lessons, whenever a new adjective has different masculine and
feminine forms, you will hear both. Almost all adjectives have a plural form ending in s or es. Escucha y repite:
Bello/ bella
Interesante
Grande
Joven
Perezoso/a
Inteligente
Bueno/a
El Mejor

beautiful
interesting
large
young
lazy
intelligent
good
best

feo/ fea
aburrido/ aburrida
pequeo/a
viejo/a
trabajador/a
tonto/a
malo/a
peor

ugly
boring
small
old
hard working
foolish
bad
worst

Most adjectives in Spanish occur following the nouns they modify, for example:
Una tienda pequea
Una casa bella
Un hombre inteligente
Un edificio grande
Las playas bellas
Los chicos jvenes
Unas tiendas buenas
El restaurante mejor

A small store
A beautiful house
An intelligent man
A large building
The beautiful beaches
The young boys
Some good stores
The best restaurant

These adjectives are usually used to describe characteristics of people or things. When the verb to be is used to
describe the characteristics of people or things, ser is used rather than estar. Do you remember the forms of ser?
Try to list them,
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Disc 3
You should have listed:
soy
eres
es

somos
sois
son

Here are some examples of sentences using ser to describe the characteristics of someone or something:
El edificio es bello,no?
Eres muy inteligente.
Las chicas son perezosas.
Bernardo no es muy inteligente.
Soy trabajadora.
Las habitaciones son pequeas.

The building is beautiful, isnt it?


You are very intelligent.
The girls are lazy.
Bernardo is not very intelligent.
I am hard working.
The hotel rooms are small.

Ahora Cmo se dice?


The house is old.
The store is large.
They are young women.
I am old. (o/a)

La casa es vieja.
La tienda es grande.
Son mujeres jvenes.
If you are a man you would have said soy viejo while a woman
would say soy vieja

Muy bien! You already know that ser is used to identify people and things, for example in Es vino or Son
mdicos. Another example of how ser can be used to identify is when you ask or tell where someone is from.
Here are two new words youll use to ask that question:
de
dnde?

(de is a preposition, meaning to or from)


(dnde? means where)

So, to ask where a new acquaintance is from, you might say:


De dnde es Ud.?
Note that the word order in this question corresponds to from where are you? The informal version is
De dnde eres?
Here are some country names that one might use to answer this question:

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Escucha y repite:
Los EE.UU.
Espaa
La Argentina
Inglaterra
Italia
China

The United States


Spain
Argentina
England
Italy
China

Mxico
el Canad
Francia
Alemania
el Per
Japn

Mexico
Canada
France
Germany
Peru
Japan

Some of these country names are commonly used with the article, though most are not. Of course there are
many others! So if you are from the US, how would you answer the question De dnde es Ud?. If you said
Soy de los Estados Unidos youre right!
That means I am from the United States.
Ahora, escucha y repite:
Somos de Japn.
Eres del Canad?
Son Uds. de Alemania?
Francisco es de Espaa.
Ella es de Italia.
Los chicos jvenes son de la Argentina.
Did you notice that from Canada was translated as del Canad? When de directly precedes the masculine
singular article el, the contraction del is formed.
You might also want to ask what language or languages a person speaks. Using the formal Ud. form, this
question would be:
Qu idiomas habla?
Informally, the question would be Qu idiomas hablas?
Qu ? is the question what? and un idioma is a language. This question also uses hablar, to speak or to talk.
Hablar is whats known as a regular verb; it is conjugated in the same way as many other regular verbs in
Spanish. You already know two Spanish verbs that are irregular, ser and estar. There are 3 types of regular verbs
in Spanish; next well learn how to conjugate verbs of one type, and some examples of this type.
First, lets take a closer look at an infinitive. A Spanish infinitive consists of 2 parts, the root and the infinitive
ending. In the case of hablar, the root is habl- (h-a-b-l) and the ending is ar, spelled a-r. This ending is
characteristic of one of the 3 types of regular verbs; their infinitives end in ar and their conjugated forms have
the same set of endings, as well. What are the conjugated forms of such verbs? Lets take hablar as an example
to illustrate.
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To conjugate hablar first remove the infinitive ending ar. Then add the appropriate conjugated endings
according to the subject, which are:
-o for the yo form
-as (a-s) for the t form
-a for the Ud. form
-a for the l form
-a for the ella form

-amos (a-m-o-s-) for the nosotros form


-is (-i-s) for the vosotros form
-an for the Uds. form
-an for the ellos form
-an for the ellas form

So, once conjugated, the present tense forms of hablar sound like this:
hablo I speak, I am speaking
hablamos we speak
hablas you speak, you are speaking
hablis yall speak
habla he/she/it speaks
hablan they speak
Note that the present tense forms of Spanish verbs can be translated either with the simple present in English or
the present progressive that is hablo can be translated as I speak or as I am speaking.
Here are some other regular verbs that are conjugated in the same way:
Bailar
to dance
Caminar
to walk
Comprar
to buy
Desear
to want or desire
Escuchar
to listen to
Llamar
to call (vs. llamarse).
You will notice that this infinitive lacks the reflexive marker se that we saw in the reflexive llamarse to call
oneself.
Mirar
to look at, or to watch
Pagar
to pay
Tomar
to take (as in tomar el autobs, to take the bus)
Trabajar
to work
Necesitar
to need
There are many more! The majority of Spanish verbs are in this category. In addition to regular verbs ending
in ar, there are two other types of regular verbs in Spanish: those whose infinitives end in er (e-r), and those
ending in ir (i-r).

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You will learn some verbs of those two types later in this lesson. Now try applying the ar conjugation to a
couple of different verbs. Can you list the 6 forms of tomar, to take?
You should have listed:
tomo
tomas
toma

tomamos
tomis
toman

Great! How about necesitar, to need?


You should have listed:
necesito
necesitas
necesita

necesitamos
necesitis
necesitan

And can you list the forms of hablar?


You should have listed:
hablo
hablas
habla

hablamos
hablis
hablan

Excelente! Ahora, Cmo se dice?


Where are you from? (t/Ud.)
De dnde eres? De dnde es?
I am from Spain.
Soy de Espaa.
They are from the US.
Son de los Estados Unidos.
To take
Tomar
We take the bus.
Tomamos el autobus.
To need
Necesitar
To listen
Escuchar
Pablo needs to listen.
Pablo necesita escuchar.
We need to take the bus.
Necesitamos tomar el autobus.
What language do you speak? (t/Ud.) Qu idioma habla? Qu idioma hablas?
Muy bien! In order to answer the question Qu idiomas hablas?, youll need to know the names of some
languages. Here are a few commonly spoken ones:
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el espaol
el ingls
el alemn
el mandarino
el hebreo

Spanish
English
German
Mandarin
Hebrew

el italiano
el francs
el rabe
el portugus
el japons

Italian
French
Arabic
Portuguese
Japanese

OK, Cmo se dice?


I speak Spanish?
They speak English.
Do you (Ud.) speak French?
We speak Portuguese.

Hablo espaol
Hablan ingls
Habla Ud. francs?
Hablamos portugus

Bueno, ahora contesta la pregunta:


De dnde eres? Soy de (plus the name of where you are from for example, soy de Mxico)
Hablas italiano? S, hablo italiano. No, no hablo italiano.
Tomas el autobs? S, tomo el autobs. No, no tomo el autobs.
Trabajas mucho? S, trabajo mucho. No, no trabajo mucho.
Escuchas msica ahora? S, escucho msica ahora. No, no escucho msica. ahora
Miras mucha televisin? S, miro mucha televisin. No, no miro mucha televisin.
Eres hombre o mujer? Soy hombre or Soy mujer.
Excelente! Now that you know how to use regular ar verbs in Spanish, lets see how the regular er and ir verbs
work. Their present-tense endings are very similar, in fact only the nosotros and vosotros forms have different
endings for these two verb types. First, lets look at a regular verb ending in er, comer
To conjugate comer first remove the infinitive ending er. Then add the appropriate conjugated endings
according to the subject, which are:
-o for the yo form
-es (e-s) for the t form
-e for the Ud. form
-e for the l form
-e for the ella form

-emos (e-m-o-s) for the nosotros form


-is (-i-s) for the vosotros form
-en for the Uds. form
-en for the ellos form
-en for the ellas form

So, once conjugated, the present tense forms of comer sound like this:
como
comes
come
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I eat
you eat
he/she eats

comemos
comis
comen

we eat
yall eat
they eat
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Here are some other regular verbs that are conjugated in the same way:
Aprender
Beber
Comprender
Creer
Leer

To learn
To drink
To understand
To believe
To read

See if you can list the present-tense forms of beber.


You should have listed:
bebo
bebes
bebe

bebemos
bebis
beben

Now try leer.


You should have listed:
leo
lees
lee

leemos
leis
leen

Muy bien! The verb creer (to believe or to think) is often followed by the word que, meaning that, and a
phrase, as in Creo que ella habla ingles. How would you say, I think that he understands?
Creo que
comprende
OK, Cmo se dice ?
We drink wine?
They understand English.
I think that they understand English.
Hes learning Spanish.

Bebemos vino.
Comprenden ingles.
Creo que comprenden ingles.
l aprende espaol.

Bueno, ahora contesta la pregunta:


Lees muchos libros? S, leo muchos libros. No, no leo muchos libros.
Aprendes espaol? S, aprendo espaol
Comes mucha pizza? S, como mucha pizza. No, no como mucha pizza.
Comprendes japons? S, comprendo japons. No, no comprendo japons.
OK, now lets look at a regular verb ending in ir, vivir (to live).

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To conjugate vivir first remove the infinitive ending ir. Then add the appropriate conjugated endings according
to the subject, which are the same as those for er verbs except in the nosotros and vosotros forms:
-o for the yo form
-es (e-s) for the t form
-e for the Ud. form
-e for the l form
-e for the ella form

-imos (i-m-o-s) for the nosotros form


-s (-s) for the vosotros form
-en for the Uds. form
-en for the ellos form
-en for the ellas form

So, once conjugated, the present tense forms of vivir sound like this:
vivo
vives
vive

I live
you live
he/she lives

vivimos
vivs
viven

we live
you all live
they live

Here are some other regular verbs that are conjugated in the same way:
Abrir
Asistir
Decidir
Escribir

To open
To attend (Asistir is usually followed by prep. a)
To decide
To write

See if you can list the present-tense forms of decidir.


You should have listed:
decido
decides
decide

decidimos
decids
deciden

The verb vivir is often followed by the word en, meaning in, and a place, as in Vivo en el Canad. How would
you say, They live in Mexico?
Viven en Mxico
Muy bien! Ahora, Cmo se dice?
I write well in English.
Do you (t) live in England?
They open the store.
We decide.

Escribo bien en ingles.


Vives en Inglaterra?
Abren la tienda.
Nosotros decidimos.

Bueno, ahora contesta la pregunta:


Vives en los Estados Unidos?
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Disc 3
S, vivo en los Estados Unidos. No, no vivo en los Estados Unidos
Escribes bien? S, escribo bien. No, no escribo bien.
Asistes a clase? S, asisto a clase. No, no asisto a clase.
Excelente! Ahora, escucha y repite la conversacin:
En una fiesta: At a party
A: Hola. - Hi.
B: Hola, Cmo ests? - Hi, how are you?
A: Bien, gracias. Me llamo Antonio. - Fine thanks. My name is Antonio.
B: Mucho gusto Antonio. Me llamo Ins. - Pleased to meet you Antonio. My name is Ins.
A: Encantado. De dnde eres, Ins? - Pleased to meet you. Where are you from Ins?
B: Soy mexicana, de Oaxaca. Y t? - I am Mexican, from Oaxaca. And you?
A: Soy de Los Angeles. - I am from Los Angeles.
B: De veras? Qu interesante. - Really? How interesting! Hablas ingls entonces? So, you speak English?
A: S, hablo ingls, espaol y japons. - Yes, I speak English, Spanish and Japanese.
B: Hablas japons? - You speak Japanese?
A: S, trabajo para una compaa multinacional en LA - Yes, I work for a multinational company in LA y a
veces necesito hablar japons en mi trabajo. and sometimes I need to speak Japanese in my work.
B: Qu bien! - How nice!Yo hablo un poquito de ingls, pero no mucho. - I speak a little bit of English, but
not much Escucho mucha msica en ingls. - I listen to lots of music in English.
A: S? Qu tipo de msica escuchas? - Oh yeah, what type of music you listen to?
B: Escucho muchos tipos,- I listen to lots of types, trabajo en una tienda de msica. - I work in a music store.
A veces es muy aburrido, pero escucho mucha msica buena.- Sometimes its really boring, but I listen to a
lot of good music. Comprendo un poquito de ingls, pero no lo leo ni lo escribo - I understand a little bit of
English, but I do not read or write it. T lees y escribes japons? - Do you read and write Japanese?
A: Un poco, s. - A little yes.
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B: Comes mucha comida japonesa? - Do you eat a lot of Japanese food?
A: S, creo que es excelente. - Yes, I think its great!
B: Qu fascinante es tu trabajo, no? - Your work is so fascinating, isnt it?
A: Para m, s. Hablo con muchas personas interesantes. - For me yes, I talk to lots of
interesting people.
B: Pues, Ins, deseas caminar en la playa un poco? - So, Ins, would you like to walk on the beach a little
O deseas bailar?- or would you like to dance?
B: Gracias, deseo caminar un poco. - Thanks, I would like to walk a little. La playa aqu es muy bella! - The
beach here is really beautiful.
A: S, y la noche tambin. Vamos. - Yes, and the night is too. Lets go.
Now repeat again without the translation:
A: Hola.
B: Hola, Cmo ests?
A: Bien, gracias. Me llamo Antonio.
B: Mucho gusto Antonio. Me llamo Ins.
A: Encantado. De dnde eres, Ins?
B: Soy mexicana, de Oaxaca. Y t?
A: Soy de Los Angeles.
B: De veras? Qu interesante. Hablas ingls entonces?
A: S, hablo ingls, espaol y japons.
B: Hablas japons?
A: S, trabajo para una compaa multinacional en LA y a veces necesito hablar japons en mi trabajo.
B: Qu bien! Yo hablo un poquito de ingls, pero no mucho. Escucho mucha msica en ingls.
A: S? Qu tipo de msica escuchas?
B: Escucho muchos tipos trabajo en una tienda de msica. A veces es muy aburrido, pero escucho mucha
msica buena Comprendo un poquito de ingls, pero no lo leo ni lo escribo. T lees y escribes japons?
A: Un poco, s.
B: Comes mucha comida japonesa?
A: S, creo que es excelente.
B: Qu fascinante es tu trabajo, no?
A: Para m, s. Hablo con muchas personas interesantes. Pues, Ins, deseas caminar en la playa un poco?
O deseas bailar?
B: Gracias, deseo caminar un poco. La playa aqu es muy bella!
A: S, y la noche tambin. Vamos.
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Heres the same conversation without pauses.
A: Hola.
B: Hola, Cmo ests?
A: Bien, gracias. Me llamo Antonio.
B: Mucho gusto Antonio. Me llamo Ins.
A: Encantado. De dnde eres, Ins?
B: Soy mexicana, de Oaxaca. Y t?
A: Soy de Los Angeles.
B: De veras? Qu interesante. Hablas ingls entonces?
A: S, hablo ingls, espaol y japons
B: Hablas japons?
A: S, trabajo para una compaa multinacional en LA (y a veces necesito hablar japons en mi trabajo).
B: Qu bien! Yo hablo un poquito de ingls, pero no mucho. Escucho mucha msica en ingls.
A: S? Qu tipo de msica escuchas?
B: Escucho muchos tipos trabajo en una tienda de msica. A veces es muy aburrido, pero escucho mucha
msica buena. Comprendo un poquito de ingls, pero no lo leo ni lo escribo. T lees y escribes japons?
A: Un poco, s.
B: Comes mucha comida japonesa?
A: S, creo que es excelente.
B: Qu fascinante es tu trabajo, no?
A: Para m, s. Hablo con muchas personas interesantes. Pues, Ins, deseas caminar en la playa un poco? O
deseas bailar?
B: Gracias, deseo caminar un poco. La playa aqu es muy bella!
A: S, y la noche tambin. Vamos.
Ahora, contesta la pregunta:
Cmo se llaman las personas?
De dnde es Antonio?
Dnde trabaja Antonio?
Qu idiomas habla Antonio?
Cree Antonio que la comida japonesa es mala?

Se llaman Ins y Antonio.


Es de Los Angeles.
Trabaja en una compaa multinacional.
Habla ingls, espaol y japons.
No, cree que es buena.

Dnde trabaja Ins?


Es muy interesante el trabajo de Ins?
Habla japons Ins?
Ella escribe o lee ingls?

Trabaja en una tienda de msica.


No, es muy aburrido.
No, ella no habla japons.
No, no lee ni escribe ingls.
[ni is the word for nor]

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Disc 3
Cmo es la playa, en la opinin de Ins?
Qu desea Ins, caminar o bailar?

Es muy bella.
Desea caminar un poco.

This is the end of lesson 3.


In lesson 4, you will learn some new irregular verbs, numbers from 1-100, and how to talk about the weather, as
well as how to ask and give directions.

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Disc 4
Welcome to lesson 4.
In this lesson, you will learn (en esta leccin vas a aprender):
-how to talk about the weather
-how to talk about where people are going and what they are doing
-the numbers from 1-100 and how to talk about age in Spanish
-some important irregular verbs and how to conjugate them and
-useful vocabulary for asking for or following directions
First, lets talk about the weather. To do this well need a new verb, hacer to do/ make. Hacer is an irregular
verb, which means it does not follow the same pattern as regular verbs do when they are conjugated. In the
present tense, only the yo form of the verb hacer is different from those of a regular er verb. These are the
present-tense conjugated forms of hacer:
hago I am doing, I am making
haces you are doing, you are making
hace he/she is doing or making

hacemos we are doing or making


hacis you all are doing or making
hacen they are doing or making

In addition to meaning to do or to make, hacer is used idiomatically in the 3rd person singular to talk about
many types of weather. Here are some types of weather you might encounter it is important to remember that
explicit subject or pronouns are never used in these expressions. Escucha y repite:
Hace calor. Its hot (literally this expression means it makes heat).
(calor, fro, sol and so forth are actually nouns rather than adjectives.)
Hace mucho calor
Hace fro
Hace mucho fro
Hace fresco
Hace sol
Hace viento
Hace buen tiempo
Hace mal tiempo
est nublado
est despejado
est lloviendo
llueve
est nevando
nieva
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Its very hot


Its cold
Its very cold
Its cool
Its sunny
Its windy
Its nice weather
Its bad weather
Its cloudy
Its clear
Its raining
It rains, or its raining
Its snowing
It snows, or its snowing
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Disc 4
If you want to know what the weather is like in a certain place or at a certain time, you can use the question
Qu tiempo hace?
Do you remember the forms of hacer? See if you can list them.
You should have listed:
hago
haces
hace

hacemos
hacis
hacen

Bueno, ahora, Cmo se dice?


Its cold
Its hot
Its really hot
Its raining
Its windy
Its cloudy

Hace fro
Hace calor
Hace mucho calor
Llueve or est lloviendo
Hace viento
Est nublado

OK, ahora contesta la pregunta:


Qu tiempo hace? Your answer should tell what the weather is like where you
are. Hace fro? Hace sol? Est lloviendo?
Weather changes with the seasons. You might want to know, for example, what the weather is like in the winter,
or in the month of June. To ask those questions, youll need to know the names of the months and seasons in
Spanish. Escucha y repite:
Los meses
enero
febrero
marzo
abril
mayo
junio
julio
agosto
septiembre
octubre
noviembre
diciembre
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The months
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
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Disc 4
Las estaciones
la primavera
el verano
el otoo
el invierno

The seasons
spring
summer
autumn
winter

En el Canad, hace mucho fro en diciembre. In Canada, its very cold in December
Qu tiempo hace en Los Angeles en el verano? What is the weather like in Los Angeles in the summer?
Hace mucho calor en el verano.
Its very hot in the summer.
En la Argentina, llueve mucho en julio.
In Argentina, it rains a lot in July.
Es invierno en la Argentina en julio!
Its winter in Argentina in July.
En Alaska, nieva mucho en invierno.
In Alaska, it snows a lot in the winter.
As you might have guessed, youll also use hacer if you want to ask what someone is doing. Can you figure out
how to ask What are you doing? If you said Qu haces? or Qu hace?, youre right!
Ahora, escucha y repite:
Qu haces?
Llamo a Laura.
Qu hacen Uds.?
Escuchamos msica venezolana.
Qu hace Ud.?
Leo una novela.
Qu hace Pablo?
Abre la puerta.
Qu hacis?
Escribimos cartas postales.
Qu hacen los chicos?
Miran la televisin.
Qu hacemos?
Vamos a la playa!

What are you doing?


I am calling Laura.
What are you all doing?
We are listening to Venezuelan music.
What are you doing?
I am reading a novel.
What is Pablo doing?
He is opening the door.
What are you all doing?
We are writing postcards
What are the boys doing?
They are watching TV.
What are we doing?
We are going to the beach!

The last sentence, Vamos a la playa! uses another irregular verb, the verb ir, which means to go. These are the
present-tense forms of ir:
voy
vas
va

Instant Immersion

I am going
you are going
he/she is going

vamos
vais
van

we are going
you all are going
they are going

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To tell where someone is going, follow the correct form of ir with the preposition a, meaning to, for example:
Adnde vas?
Voy a la tienda.

To where are you going?


I am going to the store.

Whenever a directly precedes the masculine singular article el, the two form a contraction, al, as in
Vamos al restaurante.
Vas al hotel?

We are going to the restaurant.


Are you going to the hotel?

Now see if you can list the forms of ir.


You should have listed:
voy
vas
va

vamos
vais
van

Bueno. Cmo se dice?


Were going to the beach.
Are you (vosotros) going to Madrid?
Theyre going to a restaurant.
Im going to the hotel.

Vamos a la playa.
Vais a Madrid?
Van a un restaurante.
Voy al hotel.

As in English, the verb meaning to go can also be used to refer to future actions in Spanish. To do this, use the
appropriate conjugated form of ir, followed by the preposition a and the infinitive that expresses the desired
action. Here are some examples: escucha y repite:
Voy a tomar el autobs.
Vas a trabajar hoy?
Vamos a aprender espaol.
Dolores va a vivir en Guadalajara.
Vais a comer pronto?
Pablo y Ana van a bailar salsa.

I am going to take the bus.


Are you going to work today?
We are going to learn Spanish.
Dolores is going to live in Guadalajara.
Are you all going to eat soon?
Pablo and Ana are going to dance salsa.

Ahora contesta la pregunta:


Vas a trabajar hoy? S, voy a trabajar hoy. No, no voy a trabajar hoy.
Vas a mirar televisin? S, voy a mirar televisin. No, no voy a mirar televisin
Vas a comer pronto? S, voy a comer pronto. No, no voy a comer pronto.
Vas a ir a Mxico en marzo? S, voy a ir a Mxico en marzo. No, no voy a ir a Mxico en marzo.
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Disc 4
Lets say you want to answer the question Vas a ir a Mxico en marzo? and give a specific date. To do that
youll need to know some numbers; youll hear those shortly. Numbers also come in handy when youre talking
about someones age. Escucha y repite:
Cuntos aos tienes? (literally this question is asking how many years do you have)
Tengo 20.
(literally, I have twenty)
In Spanish, one does not talk about being a certain age, but rather about having a certain number of years. The
verb meaning to have in Spanish is tener, which is another irregular verb. These are the present-tense forms of
tener:
Tengo
tienes
tiene

I have
you have
he/she has

tenemos
tenis
tienen

we have
you all have
they have

Escucha y repite:
Tengo muchos amigos.
Tienes una pregunta?
Tenemos las llaves.
Ana y Marcos tienen una clase ahora.

I have many friends


Do you have a question?
We have the keys.
Ana and Marcos have a class now.

Now see if you can list the forms of tener.


You should have listed:
tengo
tienes
tiene

tenemos
tenis
tienen

Remember the question Cuntos aos tienes? Un ao is a year, Cuntos is the question how much? or how
many? and it works like an adjective. It will agree with the noun it modifies in gender and number, as in these
examples:
Cunto dinero tienes?
Cuntos aos tiene Federico?
Cunta televisin miran las chicas?
Cuntas habitaciones desea Ud.?

Instant Immersion

How much money do you have?


How old is Federico?
How much TV do the girls watch?
How many hotel rooms do you desire?

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Disc 4
In order to answer questions like these, youll need to know some numbers. Lets start with the numbers from
1-30.
Escucha y repite:
Los nmeros de 0-30
0 (zero) 1 (one) 2 (two) 3 (three) 4 (four) 5 (five) 6 (six) 7 (seven) 8 (eight) 9 (nine) 10 (ten) 11 (eleven) 12
(twelve) 13 (thirteen) 14 (fourteen) 15 (fifteen) 16 (sixteen) 17 (seventeen) 18 (eighteen) 19 (nineteen) 20
(twenty) 21(twenty one) 22(twenty two) 23 (twenty three) 24 (twenty four) 25 (twenty five) 26 (twenty six) 27
(twenty seven) 28 (twenty eight) 29 (twenty nine) 30 (thirty)
Lets repeat those again without the translation:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30
Now see if you can list the numbers from 0-10:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Now try counting from 10-20:
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ok, how about counting from 20 to 30:
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Did you notice that the numbers in the twenties are essentially twenty and one, twenty and two, and so on?
The numbers in the thirties through nineties work the same way. Now lets count by tens from 30 to 100.
Escucha y repite:
30 (thirty) 40 (forty) 50 (fifty) 60 (sixty) 70 (seventy) 80 (eighty) 90 (ninety) 100 (hundred)
Repeat once more without the translation:
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
The number 100 is pronounced cien when in isolation, but ciento when followed by additional numbers, as
in ciento uno, ciento veinte, and so forth. OK, can you count by 10s from 0-100? This time youll hear each
number after a pause, so you can check your pronunciation.
0, 10, 20, 30 , 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100
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Disc 4
Now lets do a few addition and subtraction problems. Ms means more or plus, while menos means less or
minus.
Cuntos son 10 + 5 15
20 + 10 30
3 + 8 11
40 + 60 100
55 4 51
80 10 70
99 2 97
18 3 15
Great! At this point, you should be able to answer the question Cuntos aos tienes? The verb tener is used in
a number of idiomatic expressions like this in which the verb to be is generally used in English. Here are some
common expressions of this type. Escucha y repite:
Tener hambre
To be hungry (literally, to have hunger)
(As with the weather expressions, these expressions use nouns where in English you would use adjectives)
Tener sed
To be thirsty
Tener sueo
To be sleepy
Tener que
To have to
(Tener que will be followed by an infinitive describing what it is one has to do)
Tener suerte
To be lucky
Tener calor
To be hot
Tener fro
To be cold
Tener miedo de
To be afraid of
Tienes hambre?
Tenemos mucha suerte.
Los chicos tienen fro.
Uds. tienen sed?

Are you hungry?


We are very lucky.
The boys are cold.
Are you all thirsty?

Ahora contesta la pregunta:


Cuntos aos tienes? Tengo .....
(followed by a number expressing your age, for example; Tengo treinta y cinco)
Tienes que trabajar hoy? S, tengo que trabajar hoy. No, no tengo que trabajar hoy.
Tienes hambre ahora? S, tengo hambre ahora. No, no tengo hambre ahora
Tienes sueo ahora? S, tengo sueo ahora. No, no tengo sueo ahora.

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Disc 4
Heres another question. Can you tell what this question is asking?
Adnde vas?
Thats right, Adnde vas? means Where are you going?
Some possible answers to this question are:
Voy a casa.
Voy al trabajo.
Voy a la tienda.

I am going home.
I am going to work.
I am going to the store.

Of course, there are lots of places you might like to go. What if you dont know how to get where youre going?
In this section, youll learn the names of some places around town, and how to ask for directions.
First, here are the names of some places in town you might want to visit.
Escucha y repite:
La agencia de turismo
El almacn
El ayuntamiento
El banco
El centro
El cine
La farmacia
El hotel
La iglesia
El mercado
El museo
El parque
El supermercado

The tourism agency


The department store
The city hall
The bank
Downtown
The movie theater
The pharmacy, or the drugstore
The hotel
The church
The market
The museum
The park
The supermarket

When you want to ask about the location of something or someone, youll use the verb estar, for instance in
Dnde est la iglesia? (Where is the church?). Another verb you can use is quedar, then your question would
be Dnde queda la iglesia? Try asking the location of these places:
Cmo se dice?
Where is the museum?
Where is city hall?

Dnde est el museo? or Dnde queda el museo?


Dnde est el ayuntamiento? or Dnde queda el
ayuntamiento?
Where is the market?
Dnde est el mercado? or Dnde queda el mercado?
Where is the tourism agency?
Dnde est la agencia de turismo? or Dnde
queda la agencia de turismo?
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Disc 4
Ahora contesta la pregunta:
Vas al cine mucho? S, voy al cine mucho. No, no voy al cine mucho.
Compras vino en el supermercado? S, compro vino en el supermercado. No, no compro vino en el
supermercado.
Vives en el centro? S, vivo en el centro. No, no vivo en el centro.
Vas al parque mucho? S, voy al parque mucho. No, no voy al parque mucho.
Dnde compras medicina? Compro medicina en la farmacia.
Dnde miras mucha arte? Miro mucha arte en el museo.
OK, now suppose that you ask someone for directions to a place youd like to visit. Here are some words and
phrases that person might use to answer your question.
Escucha y repite:
Siga por esta calle
Siga derecho
Siga recto
Doble a la derecha
Doble a la izquierda
Cruce la calle

Continue along this street


Continue straight ahead
Continue straight ahead
Turn to the right
Turn to the left
Cross the street

Una cuadra
Una manzana
Una bocacalle
Una esquina
Un semforo
Perdn
Medio/a

A block
A block
An intersection
A corner
A traffic light
Excuse me.
Half

OK, if someone gave you the following directions, what would you do?
Cruce la calle
Doble a la derecha
Doble a la derecha en la esquina
Siga derecho
Siga derecho una cuadra y media
En la bocacalle, cruce la calle

Instant Immersion

You will cross the street


You will turn to the right
Turn to the right at the corner
Continue straight ahead
Continue forward ahead a block and a half
At the intersection, cross the street

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Disc 4
Something else that might come in handy when giving or following directions is a few prepositions.
Escucha y repite:
Cerca de
Lejos de
Al lado de
Enfrente de
Detrs de

Close to
Far from
Next to
In front of
Behind

Cmo se dice?
The bank is in front of the city hall.
Where is city hall?
The supermarket is not far from here.
We are in front of the park.
The movie theater is next to the hotel.
The pharmacy is on the corner.

El banco est enfrente del ayuntamiento.


Dnde est el ayuntamiento?
El supermercado no est lejos de aqu.
Estamos enfrente del parque.
El cine est al lado del hotel.
La farmacia est en la esquina.

Excelente! Ahora, escucha y repite la conversacin:


A: Perdn, seor. Buenas tardes - Excuse me, sir. Good afternoon.
B: Buenas tardes - Good afternoon.
A: Dnde est el museo? -Where is the museum? Est cerca de aqu? - Is it close to here?
B: No est lejos. - Its not far. Siga dos cuadras por esta calle. - Continue two blocks along this street.
Hay una bocacalle. - There is an intersection.
A: Sigo a la bocacalle. - I continue to the intersection.
B: S, en la bocacalle doble a la derecha. - Yes, at the intersection turn right.
A: A la derecha? - To the right?
B: S, siga dos cuadras ms. - Yes, continue two more blocks. Hay un banco en la esquina. - There is a bank
on the corner.
A: Un banco? Qu bueno! - A bank. Thats great! Necesito cambiar dinero.- I need to exchange money.
B: S, el banco est en la esquina, en el edificio viejo. - Yes, the bank is on the corner, in the old building.
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A: Gracias. Y hay una farmacia cerca de aqu? - Thank you, and is there a pharmacy close to here?
A: S, hay dos. - Yes, there are two. Una queda una cuadra al norte del banco. One is one block to the north
of the bank.
B: Al norte del banco. - To the north of the bank.
B: S, y para llegar a la otra, - Yes, and to get to the other doble a la izquierda en la bocacalle, - turn left at
the intersection y siga media cuadra ms. - and continue half a block further.
A: A la izquierda en la bocacalle.- To the left at the intersection.
B: S, donde est el semforo. - Yes, where the traffic light is
A: Pero el banco est a la derecha. - But the bank is to the right.
B: Correcto. - Correct.
A: Muchas gracias, seor. - Thank you very much sir.
B: No hay de que. Adis. - Dont mention it, good bye.
A: Adis. - Good bye.
This time you will hear the conversation again without the translation.
A: Perdn, seor. Buenas tardes.
B: Buenas tardes.
A: Dnde est el museo? Est cerca de aqu?
B: No est lejos. Siga dos cuadras por esta calle. Hay una bocacalle.
A: Sigo a la bocacalle.
B: S, en la bocacalle doble a la derecha.
A: A la derecha?
B: S, siga dos cuadras ms. Hay un banco en la esquina.
A: Un banco? Qu bueno! Necesito cambiar dinero.
B: S, el banco est en la esquina, en el edificio viejo.
A: Gracias. Y hay una farmacia cerca de aqu?
A: S, hay dos. Una queda una cuadra al norte del banco.
B: Al norte del banco.
B: S, y para llegar a la otra, doble a la izquierda en la bocacalle, y siga media cuadra ms.
A: A la izquierda en la bocacalle.
B: S, donde est el semforo.
A: Pero el banco est a la derecha.
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Disc 4
B: Correcto.
A: Muchas gracias, seor.
B: No hay de que. Adis.
A: Adis.
You will hear the conversation one more time, this time without pauses.
A: Perdn, seor. Buenas tardes.
B: Buenas tardes.
A: Dnde est el museo? Est cerca de aqu?
B: No est lejos. Siga dos cuadras por esta calle. Hay una bocacalle.
A: Sigo a la bocacalle.
B: S, en la bocacalle doble a la derecha.
A: A la derecha?
B: S, siga dos cuadras ms. Hay un banco en la esquina.
A: Un banco? Qu bueno! Necesito cambiar dinero.
B: S, el banco est en la esquina, en el edificio viejo.
A: Gracias. Y hay una farmacia cerca de aqu?
A: S, hay dos. Una queda una cuadra al norte del banco.
B: Al norte del banco.
B: S, y para llegar a la otra, doble a la izquierda en la bocacalle, y siga media cuadra ms.
A: A la izquierda en la bocacalle.
B: S, donde est el semforo.
A: Pero el banco est a la derecha.
B: Correcto.
A: Muchas gracias, seor.
B: No hay de que. Adis.
A: Adis.
Ahora contesta la pregunta:
Qu busca la mujer?
Est cerca o lejos el museo?
Adnde va la mujer para cambiar dinero?
Queda el banco en un edificio nuevo?
Qu est una cuadra al norte del banco?
Dnde est el semforo?

Busca el museo
El museo est cerca.
Va al banco
No, queda en un edificio viejo.
Una farmacia est una cuadra al norte del banco
Est en la bocacalle.

This is the end of lesson 4.


In lesson 5, you will learn the names of the days of the week, and how to tell the date.
More numbers and lots of vocabulary you can use while shopping.
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Disc 5
Welcome to lesson 5.
Bienvenidos a leccin 5. En esta leccin vas a aprender:
-the days of the week and how to tell the date
-more numbers
-how to use haber, a very irregular verb
-how to use verbs with a stem change, a common irregularity and
-useful vocabulary for shopping (when you are studying vocabulary, some useful things to try
are: naming things in your home, in the store or elsewhere or making up a sentence or definition using the word
in Spanish).
Bueno. Primero, contesta la pregunta:
Qu mes es?
Qu estacin es?
Qu da es?

You should have given the current month, for exemple Es junio.
In our example, the answer would probably be Es verano.
To answer the question Qu da es? youll need to know the days of the week.

Aqu estn los das de la semana:


lunes
martes
mircoles
jueves
viernes
sbado
domingo
La semana

Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
The week

Cmo se dice?
Cmo se dice?
Cmo se dice?
Cmo se dice?

Today is Tuesday
Its Friday
The week

Hoy es martes
Es viernes
La semana

OK, lets say you also want to know the date. You can use the question Cul es la fecha? to find out. Cul is
the question which and it also has a plural form, cules. La fecha, as you may recall, is the date. Escucha y
repite:
el ao.
la fecha.
Cul es la fecha.?
Instant Immersion

the year
the date
What is the date?
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Disc 5
To tell the date in Spanish, the structure you will use is equivalent to Its the 10 of May, en espaol Es el 10
de mayo. If its the 1st of the month, use primero (first) instead of uno; otherwise, just use the numbers youve
already learned.
Cmo se dice?
Today is the 4th of September.
Its the 13th of January.
Is it the 19th of August?

Hoy, es el cuatro de septiembre.


Es el trece de enero.
Es el diecinueve de agosto?

Muy bien! Now say you also want to talk about what year it is. How would you ask the question What year
is it? If you said Qu ao es?, thats right! Of course, to talk about years, youll need to know a few more
numbers. Ahora, vas a aprender ms nmeros. Escucha y repite:
100 (hundred), 200 (two hundred), 300 (three hundred), 400 (four hundred), 500 (five hundred), 600 (six
hundred), 700 (seven hundred), 800 (eight hundred), 900 (nine hundred), 1000 (thousand), 2000 (two thousand),
3000 (three thousand), 4000 (four thousand), 5000 (five thousand)
Cuntos son

100 + 450
1000 + 200
2000 + 313
600 + 100

550
1200
2313
700

These larger numbers may also come in handy while shopping, depending on the exchange rate and the value
per unit of the currency youre using. Next, youll practice some other vocabulary that might be useful while
shopping. First, here are some things you could be looking for in a store:
Escucha y repite:
Un mapa
Una gua turstica
La pelcula
Un rollo de pelcula
Unas pilas
Unas bateras
Un sombrero
La locin bronceadora
Una botella de agua
Las sandalias
Una toalla
El traje de bao
Una camiseta
Un suter
Un paraguas
Instant Immersion

a map
a tourist guide
the film
a roll of film
batteries
batteries
a hat
sunblock
a bottle of water
sandals
a towel
the bathing suit
a T-shirt
a sweater
an umbrella
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Disc 5
Los zapatos
las aspirinas
una vendita
un vendaje
unos fsforos
un imperdible
una revista
un peridico
un telfono pblico
la gua telefnica
por favor

shoes
aspirins
an adhesive bandage
a bandage
matches
a safety pin
a magazine
a newspaper
a public telephone
the phone book
please

Cmo se dice?
A bathing suit
I need a bathing suit.
We need some aspirins.
Do you (Uds) have a safety pin?
Where is the film?

Un traje de bao
Necesito un traje de bao.
Necesitamos unas aspirinas.
Tienen un imperdible?
Dnde est la pelcula?

Ahora contesta la pregunta:


Qu son cinco cosas que traes a la playa?
Here are some possible answers: un rollo de pelcula, una botella de agua, locin bronceadora, una toalla, un
traje de bao, unas sandalias, un sombrero.
Qu buscas si tienes sed?
Busco una botella de agua.
Qu necesitas si tienes fro?
Necesito un suter.
Qu necesitas comprar si est lloviendo? Necesito comprar un paraguas.
There are different kinds of stores you could visit, depending on what you need to buy. You already know 4 of
these types of stores:
La farmacia
El mercado
El supermercado
El almacn
El quiosco
La tienda de ropa
La zapatera
La droguera
La droguera
La frutera
Instant Immersion

The pharmacy
The market
The supermarket
The department store
The kiosk or newsstand
The clothing store
The shoe store
The drugstore
The drugstore
The fruit store
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You will find that the ending era is added to many types of products in the name of the store that sells
those products.
You should have recognized La farmacia, El mercado, El supermercado, and El almacn. Here are some other
words and expressions that might be handy while shopping:
caro/a
barato/a
de venta
Ir de compras
aceptar
pagar
la tarjeta de crdito
el efectivo
los cheques de viajero
el dinero
la caja

expensive
cheap or inexpensive
on sale
to go shopping
to accept
to pay
credit card
cash
travellers checks
Money
the cashier

Aceptar and pagar are regular ar verbs.


Cmo se dice?
To go shopping
I want to go shopping.
Were going to the supermarket.
The shoes are expensive.
Do you (Uds) accept credit cards?
Hes going to pay in cash.
Do you (t) have money?

Ir de compras
Deseo ir de compras.
Vamos al supermercado.
Los zapatos son caros.
Aceptan tarjetas de crdito?
Va a pagar en efectivo.
Tienes dinero?

Bien, ahora contesta la pregunta:


Dnde compras aspirinas?
Dnde compras zapatos?
Pagas mucho con tarjeta de crdito?
Vas de compras mucho?

Compro aspirinas en la farmacia o compro aspirinas en la


droguera.
Compro zapatos en la zapatera.
S, pago mucho con tarjeta de crdito. No, no pago mucho con
tarjeta de crdito.
S, voy de compras mucho. No, no voy de compras mucho.

Excelente! Lets say youre looking for something specific in the store, like a map. You could use the Uds.
form of tener to ask whether there are any maps available, as in Tienen mapas?. Another, very common way to
ask such questions is to use the very irregular verb haber. Only the 3rd person singular form of this verb is used
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Disc 5
as a main verb; that form in the present tense is hay. Hay is translated as there is or there are. It is similar in
meaning to the verb existir. The thing which exists follows the verb haber, both in questions and in statements.
Here are some examples. Escucha y repite:
Hay mapas?
Hay pilas? Necesito pilas para mi radio.
Hay venditas?
Hay muchos edificios grandes aqu.
Hay un sombrero en la mesa.
Hay un supermercado en el centro.

Are there maps?


Are there batteries? I need batteries for my radio.
Are there adhesive bandages?
There are many large buildings here.
There is a hat on the table.
There is a supermarket downtown.

Cmo se dice?
There are good stores here.
Is there a bottle of water on the table?
Are there bathing suits?
There are bathing suits behind the towels.

Hay buenas tiendas aqu.


Hay una botella de agua en la mesa?
Hay trajes de bao?
Hay trajes de bao detrs de las toallas.

Ahora, escucha y repite la pregunta:


Cunto cuesta el sombrero?

How much does the hat cost?

This question uses a new verb, costar (to cost). Costar is whats known as a stem-changing verb. In this type
of verb, the endings are the same as those of regular verbs. However, the final vowel sound of the stem or
root of these verbs changes in some of its conjugated forms. Listen to the present-tense conjugation of costar:
cuesto
cuestas
cuesta

costamos
costis
cuestan

Did you notice that the o of the stem changed to the sound ue in all forms except nosotros and vosotros? This
is the pattern that the change in vowel sound will always follow with such verbs. It is also true that this change
occurs only when the vowel in question is in the stressed syllable of the conjugated form. Listen again to the
forms of costar and see if you can hear where the stress falls:
cuesto
cuestas
cuesta

costamos
costis
cuestan

If you are using a dictionary, the dictionary will indicate when a verb is a stem-changing verb. The change from
o to ue is one of 3 common types of stem change. Here are a few other verbs with this same type of change:

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poder
dormir
volver
devolver

to be able to (poder is always followed by infinitive)


to sleep
to go back (used with people)
to return (to give back, used with things)

See if you can list the conjugated forms of dormer (to sleep).
You should have listed:
duermo
dormimos
duermes
dorms
duerme
duermen
Great! How about poder (to be able to)?
You should have listed:
puedo
podemos
puedes
podis
puede
pueden
Two other types of stem-change are quite common. One is the change from e to ie, as occurs in these verbs:
querer
to want
(querer can be followed by a noun or the infinitive of another verb)
preferir
to prefer
recomendar
to recommend
pensar
to think
As an example of this type, here are the present-tense forms of querer (to want):
quiero
quieres
quiere

queremos
queris
quieren

Can you conjugate preferir (to prefer)?


You should have listed these forms:
prefiero
prefieres
prefiere

preferimos
prefers
prefieren

Another common stem change is from e to i, as occurs in these verbs:


pedir
servir
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to ask for or to request


to serve
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As an example of this type, here are the present-tense forms of servir (to serve):
sirvo
sirves
sirve

servimos
servs
sirven

Now, can you conjugate pedir (to ask for)?


You should have listed these forms:
pido
pides
pide

pedimos
peds
piden

Bueno, ahora, Cmo se dice?


Im asking for aspirins.
How much does the hat cost?
We can pay in cash.
You (vosotros) can buy a map here.
Can I buy a tourist guide here?
They are sleeping in the hotel room.
Do you want to go shopping?
He prefers to shop in the supermarket.

Pido aspirinas.
Cunto cuesta el sombrero?
Podemos pagar en efectivo.
Podis comprar un mapa aqu.
Puedo comprar una gua turstica aqu?
Duermen en la habitacin.
Quieres ir de compras?
Prefiere ir de compras en el supermercado.

OK, ahora contesta la pregunta:


Quieres ir de compras?
S, quiero ir de compras. No, no quiero ir de compras.
Prefieres ir al cine o mirar televisin?
Prefiero ir al cine. Prefiero mirar televisin.
Puedes hablar espaol?
S, puedo hablar espaol. No, no puedo hablar espaol.
Duermes mucho?
S, duermo mucho. No, no duermo mucho.
Hay muchos parques donde vives?
S, hay muchos parques donde vivo. No, no hay muchos
parques donde vivo.
Compras zapatos en una zapatera o en un almacn?
Compro zapatos en la zapatera o Compro
zapatos en un almacn.
One other place you may want to visit while youre out shopping is the post office, el correo. Here is some
vocabulary that would be useful in the post office. Escucha y repite:
el correo
una carta
una tarjeta postal
el franqueo
un sello
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post office/ mail


a letter
a postcard
the postage
a stamp
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una estampilla
un apartado de correos
un bolgrafo
mandar
enviar

a stamp
a PO box
a pen
to send
to send

Ahora, Cmo se dice?


I want to send a letter.
Where can I buy a postcard?
Do you (Ud.) have a pen?
I need stamps.
How much is the postage?
Can we buy stamps here?

Deseo enviar una carta o Quiero enviar una carta.


Dnde puedo comprar una tarjeta postal?
Tiene Ud. un bolgrafo?
Necesito sellos o necesito estampillas
Cunto es el franqueo?
Podemos comprar estampillas aqu? o Podemos comprar sellos
aqu?

Excelente! Ahora, escucha y repite la conversacin:


En la tienda:
A: Buenos das.- Good day.
B: Buenos das, seorita. A la orden. - Good day, seorita. Can I help you?
A: Busco una gua turstica, por favor. - I am looking for a tourist guide, please. Quiero visitar las ruinas y
otros sitios histricos. - I want to visit the ruins and other historic sites.
B: S seorita. -Yes, seorita. Tenemos 4 guas difererentes. -We have four different guides. Aqu estn. Here they are.
A: Cul de las 4 recomienda Ud.? - Which of the four do you recommend?
B: Creo que esta gua es la mejor. - I think this guide is the best.
A: Bueno. Cunto cuesta? - Ok, how much is it?
B: 120. - One twenty.
A Bien, tambin necesito un mapa local. - Ok, I also need a local map.
B: Hay un mapa excelenteaqu. - There is an excellent map there.
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A: Gracias. Y hay sombreros? - Thank you. Do you have hats?
B: S, pero no muchos. - Yes, but not many. Estn detrs de las camisetas, all. -They are behind the Tshirts, over there.
A: Excelente. Y hay pelcula? - Excellent! Is there some film?
B: S, aqu al lado de las revistas. - Yes, here next to the magazines.
A: Bueno, necesito un rollo de 24, tipo 200. - OK, I need a roll of 24, 200. Gracias. Y voy a comprar este
sombrero, tambin. - Thank you, and I am going to buy this hat too.
B: Muy bien, seorita. - Very well, seorita. Va Ud. al parque Carabobo? - Are you going to Carabobo
park?
A: S, quiero ver especialmente el lago ornamental y las estatuas. - Yes, I specially want to see the
ornamental lake and the statutes.
B: El parque es muy bello. - The park is very beautiful. Tambin recomiendo la catedral. - I also
recommend the cathedral es del ao 1790. - it is from 1790. La arquitectura es maravillosa. - The
architecture is marvelous.
A: S, tambin deseo ir a la catedral. - Yes, I also want to go the cathedral. Est en el centro, no? - Its
downtown, right?
B: S, Seorita. Al sur de la plaza. - Yes, seorita, to the south of the plaza.
A: Gracias. cunto por todo? - Thank you. How much for everything?
B: A ver1250. - Let me see, 1250.
A: Bien. Aceptan tarjetas de crdito? - OK, do you accept credit cards?
B: Claro, Seorita. - Yes, we do, seorita.
A: Aqu est. - Here it is.
B: Gracias, un momento. Firme aqu, por favor. Gracias. - Thank you, one moment. Sign here please.
Thank you.
A: Gracias a Ud. adis. - Thank you, good bye.
B: Adis. - Good bye.
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This time you will hear the same conversation without the translation
En la tienda:
A: Buenos das.
B: Buenos das, seorita. A la orden.
A: Busco una gua turstica, por favor. Quiero visitar las ruinas y otros sitios histricos.
B: S seorita. Tenemos 4 guas difererentes. Aqu estn.
A: Cul de las 4 recomienda Ud.?
B: Creo que esta gua es la mejor.
A: Bueno. Cunto cuesta?
B: 120.
A: Bien, tambin necesito un mapa local.
B: Hay un mapa excelenteaqu.
A: Gracias. Y hay sombreros?
B: S, pero no muchos Estn detrs de las camisetas, all.
A: Excelente. Y hay pelcula?
B: S, aqu al lado de las revistas,
A: Bueno, necesito un rollo de 24, tipo 200. Gracias. Y voy a comprar este sombrero, tambin.
B: Muy bien, seorita. Va Ud. al parque Carabobo?
A: S, quiero ver especialmente el lago ornamental y las estatuas.
B: El parque es muy bello. Tambin recomiendo la catedral es del ao 1790. La arquitectura es maravillosa.
A: S, tambin deseo ir a la catedral. Est en el centro, no?
B: S, seorita. Al sur de la plaza.
A: Gracias. Cunto por todo?
B: A ver1250.
A: Bien. Aceptan tarjetas de crdito?
B: Claro, seorita.
A: Aqu est.
B: Gracias, un momento Firme aqu, por favor. Gracias.
A: Gracias a Ud. adis.
B: Adis.
This time you will hear the same conversation without pauses.
En la tienda
A: Buenos das.
B: Buenos das, seorita. A la orden.
A: Busco una gua turstica, por favor. Quiero visitar las ruinas y otros sitios histricos.
B: S seorita. Tenemos 4 guas difererentes. Aqu estn.
A: Cul de las 4 recomienda Ud.?
B: Creo que esta gua es la mejor.
A: Bueno. Cunto cuesta?
B: 120.
A: Bien, tambin necesito un mapa local.
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B: Hay un mapa excelenteaqu.
A: Gracias. Y hay sombreros?
B: S, pero no muchos Estn detrs de las camisetas, all.
A: Excelente. Y hay pelcula?
B: S, aqu al lado de las revistas,
A: Bueno, necesito un rollo de 24, tipo 200. Gracias. Y voy a comprar este sombrero, tambin.
B: Muy bien, seorita. Va Ud. al parque Carabobo?
A: S, quiero ver especialmente el lago ornamental y las estatuas.
B: El parque es muy bello. Tambin recomiendo la catedral es del ao 1790. La arquitectura es maravillosa.
A: S, tambin deseo ir a la catedral. Est en el centro, no?
B: S, seorita. Al sur de la plaza.
A: Gracias. Cunto por todo?
B: A ver1250.
A: Bien. Aceptan tarjetas de crdito?
B: Claro, seorita.
A: Aqu est.
B: Gracias, un momento Firme aqu, por favor. Gracias.
A: Gracias a Ud. adis.
B: Adis.
Ahora, contesta la pregunta:
Busca. Una gua turstica, un mapa local, un sombrero y un rollo
de pelcula.
Cunto cuesta la gua turstica?
Cuesta 120.
Hay sombreros en la tienda?
S, hay sombreros en la tienda.
Dnde estn los sombreros?
Estn detrs de las camisetas.
Dnde est la pelcula?
La pelcula est al lado de las revistas.
La seorita va a visitar el parque Carabobo?
S, va a visitar el parque Carabobo.
Es feo el parque?
No, es bello.
De qu ao es la catedral?
Es de 1790.
Dnde est la catedral?
Est en el centro, al sur de la plaza.
Cunto cuesta todo?
1250.
Qu son 3 cosas que busca la seorita?

This is the end of lesson 5.


In lesson 6, you will learn lots of vocabulary you can use in a restaurant, some common verbs with irregular yo
forms, and how to use an impersonal expression to say what one does.
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Welcome to lesson 6.
Bienvenido a leccin 6. En esta leccin vas a aprender:
-lots of vocabulary related to restaurants and food
-some verbs with irregular yo forms
-how to use a common construction to talk impersonally about what people do
Qu hay en la mesa? Primero, vas a aprender vocabulario de la mesa.
Escucha y repite:
un vaso
una taza
una copa
un plato
una servilleta
una cuchara
un tenedor
un cuchillo
la sal
la pimienta
el azcar
el pan
la mantequilla

a glass
a cup
a wine glass
a plate
a napkin
a spoon
a fork
a knife
the salt
the pepper
sugar
bread
butter

Bueno. Cmo se dice?


A fork
I need a fork.
A napkin
A glass
We want two glasses of water, please.
Sugar
Is there sugar on the table?
The salt
It needs salt.

Un tenedor
Necesito un tenedor.
Una servilleta
Un vaso
Queremos dos vasos de agua, por favor.
Azcar
Hay azcar en la mesa?
La sal
Necesita sal.

Necesitar is one useful verb in a restaurant. Here are a few other verbs that might come in handy. Escucha y
repite:
traer
pedir
servir
dejar
Instant Immersion

to bring
to ask for or to order
to serve
to leave (as in leave something behind)
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ordenar
atender

to order
to wait on

Ordenar and dejar are regular ar verbs. As you know, servir and pedir have a stem change from e to i. Atender
also has a stem change, from e to ie. The verb traer has an irregular yo form in the present tense. These are the
conjugated forms of traer (to bring):
traigo
traes
trae

traemos
trais
traen

Cmo se dice?
Im bringing the plates.
Traigo los platos.
Hes bringing a fork.
Trae un tenedor.
Are they going to bring napkins? Van a traer servilletas?
A number of other verbs in Spanish are also irregular only in the 1st person singular in the present. You already
know one such verb; can you remember which one it is? Thats right, hacer is irregular only in the yo form,
hago. Here are five other verbs that are irregular only in the yo form of the present tense:
salir
poner
ver
saber
conocer

to leave or to go out of a place


to put
to see
to know information
to be acquainted with people or places

So how are these verbs conjugated? First, salir (to leave):


salgo
sales
sale

salimos
sals
salen

Poner (to put), sounds like this:


pongo
pones
pone

ponemos
ponis
ponen

This is the present-tense conjugation of ver (to see):


veo
ves
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vemos
veis
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ve

ven

Here is the conjugation of saber (to know as in know information):


s
sabes
sabe

sabemos
sabis
saben

And this is the present-tense conjugation of conocer (to be acquainted with):


conozco
conoces
conoce

conocemos
conocis
conocen

Can you list the yo forms of each of the following verbs?


hacer
traer
salir
poner
ver
saber
conocer

hago
traigo
salgo
pongo
veo
s
conozco

Thats great! Ahora, Cmo se dice?


They will bring wine.
We leave on Thursday.
Do you know what you will do?
Im putting the water on the table.
Do you (vosotros) see the museum?
He knows Mara.

Van a traer vino.


Salimos el jueves.
Sabes que vas a hacer?
Pongo el agua en la mesa.
Vis el museo?
Conoce a Mara.

In the last sentence, Conoce a Mara, did you wonder where the a came from? This is known as the personal a,
or la a personal. Anytime the object of a verb is a person, it will be preceded by an a. Here are some examples
of sentences where the a personal is used preceding a person who is the object of a verb:
Escucha y repite:
Puedo ver a ellos.
Conozco a muchas personas interesantes.
Conoces a Pedro?
Miro a los chicos.
Escuchamos al jefe.
Instant Immersion

I can see them.


I know many interesting people.
Do you know Pedro?
I am watching the boys.
We listen to the boss.
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Veis mucho a Sandra?

Do you all see Sandra much?

Now, try repeating these other things and people you might encounter in a restaurant:
el mesero
the waiter
la mesera
the waitress
el cocinero
the cook
la cocinera
the cook
una silla
a chair
el men
the menu
la cuenta
the bill
la propina
the tip
un entrems
an appetizer or starter
una ensalada
a salad
la sopa
the soup
el plato principal
the main dish
un postre
a dessert
una bebida
a drink
una comida
a meal
el desayuno
breakfast
el almuerzo
lunch
la cena
dinner
la comida
the food
(comida is used as food or a meal)
As far as tipping, it is common for a certain amount, usually 10%, to be automatically added to your bill as a
tip. Do you remember how to say the tip in Spanish? Thats right, the tip is la propina. Check your bill for an
amount listed as servicio; this would be the amount of tip already added. If the service was good, feel free to
add another 5% or so. It is very common to leave the smaller coins you receive in change as an additional tip.
Bueno. Cmo se dice?
We need a waiter.
I want salad.
Is the soup good?
Can you (Ud.) bring a chair, please?
They are leaving the tip.
They serve an excellent dessert here.

Necesitamos a un mesero.
Quiero ensalada.
Es buena la sopa?
Puede Ud. traer una silla, por favor?
Dejan la propina.
Sirven un postre excelente aqu.

Ahora contesta la pregunta:


Normalmente comes un postre?
S, normalmente como un postre. No, normalmente no como un postre.
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En general, dejas una propina grande?
S, dejo una propina grande. No, no dejo una propina grande.
Eres mesero o mesera?
If you are a man: S, soy mesero. No, no soy mesero.
If you are a woman: Si, soy mesera. No, no soy mesera.
Comes mucha ensalada?
S, como mucha ensalada. No, no como mucha ensala.
Dnde ves la lista de comida en un restaurante?
Veo la lista de comida en el men.
En general, pides sopa o ensalada?
Pido sopa o Pido ensalada.
Muy bien! Ahora, escucha y repite:
Se permite fumar?
Se sirve tamales aqu?
Se paga en la caja?
Se compra zapatos en la zapatera.

Does one permit smoking?


Does one serve tamales here?
Does one pay at the cashier?
One buys shoes in the shoe store.

These sentences use a grammatical construction called el se impersonal (the impersonal se), which is used to
express the same idea as the impersonal one or you or they of English. An impersonal marker se occurs before
the verb, which is in the 3rd person singular. Sometimes this construction can also be interpreted as a passive; for
example, se habla espaol, might be interpreted either as an impersonal statement, one speaks Spanish, or as a
passive, Spanish is spoken. Here are the examples you heard earlier, without the translation (the verb permitir
is a cognate meaning to permit). Listen to how the se construction is used.
Escucha y repite:
Se permite fumar?
Se sirve tamales aqu?
Se paga en la caja?
Se compra zapatos en la zapatera.
Muy bien! Now, see if you can answer these questions about what people in general do. Youll want to know
that usar is a regular ar verb meaning to use. Deber is a regular er verb that means something like to ought to.
It is often followed by an infinitive.
Ahora contesta la pregunta:
Dnde se compra aspirinas?
Se compra aspirinas en la farmacia o se compra aspirinas en la droguera.
En la mesa, dnde se pone el tenedor?
Se pone el tenedor a la izquierda del plato.
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En un restaurante,se debe fumar en el bao?
No, no se debe fumar en el bao.
Qu se necesita para comer sopa?
Se necesita una cuchara para comer sopa.
Qu se necesita para tomar vino?
Se necesita una copa para tomar vino.
Cuando se paga la cuenta,qu se deja para la mesera?
Se deja una propina para la mesera.
Excelente! If youre going to be eating in a restaurant, of course youll want to know a variety of words for
different types of food. Lets start with some basic groceries (unos comestibles bsicos). Escucha y repite:
productos lcteos
la leche
el queso
la crema
el helado
la nata
el yogur

dairy products
milk
cheese
cream
ice cream
whipped cream
yogurt

los aves
los huevos
el pollo
el pato

poultry
eggs
chicken
duck

las carnes
el bistec
la carne de res
el cerdo
el jamn

meats
steak
beef
pork
ham

pescados y mariscos
el pescado
el atn
el salmn
el lenguado
los camarones
los calamares
el cangrejo
la langosta

fish and shellfish


fish
tuna
salmon
sole
shrimp
squid
crab
lobster

las legumbres
los frijoles

legumes
beans

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Disc 6
las nueces
los cacahuetes/ los manes
la mantequilla de cachuete/
la mantequilla de man
las lentejas

nuts
peanuts
peanut butter
peanut butter
lentils

las verduras
las espinacas
la lechuga
los guisantes
las papas
las zanahorias
los esprragos
el apio
la cebolla
el ajo

vegetables
spinach
lettuce
peas
potatoes
carrots
asparagus
celery
onion
garlic

las frutas
el aguacate
las fresas
el tomate
la banana
el limn
las uvas
la naranja
la toronja
la manzana

fruits
avocado
strawberries
tomato
banana
lemon
rapes
orange
grapefruit
apple

That was a lot of vocabulary! Here is the list again for you to practice, without the translation.
productos lcteos
la leche
el queso
la crema
el helado
la nata
el yogur

las legumbres
los frijoles
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los aves
los huevos
el pollo
el pato

las carnes
el bistec
la carne de res
el cerdo
el jamn

pescados y mariscos
el pescado
el atn
el salmn
el lenguado
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las nueces
los cacahuetes/ los manes
la mantequilla de cachuete/de man
las lentejas
las verduras
las espinacas
la lechuga
los guisantes
las papas
las zanahorias
los esprragos
el apio
la cebolla
el ajo

los camarones
los calamares
el cangrejo
la langosta
las frutas
el aguacate
las fresas
el tomate
la banana
el limn
las uvas
la naranja
la toronja
la manzana

OK, now see if you can pick the item in each group that doesnt fit. Which one doesnt belong? (Cul no
pertenece?):
Las espinacas, las zanahorias, el limn, la cebolla
Los frijoles, el lenguado, los camarones, el atn
La leche, el pato, el helado, el yogur
El aguacate, la banana, las fresas, el jamn

-el limn
-los frijoles
-el pato
-el jamn

Great! Now see how many items from each category you can name. After a pause, you will hear a number of
possible items.
productos lcteos
la leche
el queso
la crema
el helado
la nata
el yogur

los aves
los huevos
el pollo
el pato

las legumbres
los frijoles
las nueces
los cacahuetes/ los manes
la mantequilla de cachuete/de man
las lentejas
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las carnes
el bistec
la carne de res
el cerdo
el jamn
los pescados y mariscos
el pescado
el atn
el salmn
el lenguado
los camarones
los calamares
el cangrejo
la langosta
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las verduras
las espinacas
la lechuga
los guisantes
las papas
las zanahorias
los esprragos
el apio
la cebolla
el ajo

las frutas
el aguacate
las fresas
el tomate
la banana
el limn
las uvas
la naranja
la toronja
la manzana

Ahora contesta la pregunta:


Es la leche un lquido o un slido?
Es la manzana una verdura o una fruta?
Es el pollo una carne o un ave?
Es una naranja una legumbre o una fruta?

La leche es un lquido
La manzana es una fruta
El pollo es un ave
Una naranja es una fruta

Excelente, ahora sabes mucho vocabulario que puedes usar para hablar de comidas, no? Vas a aprender ms
en leccin 7. Quieres practicar un poco ms ahora?
Escucha y repite la conversacin.
En casa de Miguel, l, Luisa y Anita preparan una fiesta. - At Miguels house, he, Luisa and Anita are
preparing a party.
M: Gracias por ayudarme. - Thank you for helping me.
L: De nada Miguel, yo pienso que hacer una fiesta es muy divertido. - Your welcome Miguel, I think having a
party is really fun. No piensas que s Anita? - Dont you think so Anita?
A: Claro que s. - Oh, yes. Yo voy a preparar la msica. - I am going to get the music ready. Prefieren
msica Rock o un poco de salsa? - Do you prefer Rock music or a little salsa.
M: Bueno, se debe escuchar msica latina en una fiesta no? - Well, one should listen to latin music in a
party, dont you think?
L: S, estoy de acuerdo. - Yes, I agree. Miguel, dnde pongo los vasos? - Miguel, where should I put the
glasses?
M: Aqu, al lado de los platos. - Here, next to the plates. Gracias por traer el helado para postre, Luisa.
- Thanks for bringing the ice cream for dessert, Luisa. Creo que lvaro trae la torta. - I think lvaro is
bringing the cake.
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L: Muy bien.- OK, good. Y Rita trae sus tamales famosos,no? - And Rita is bringing her famous tamales?
Se come mejor en tus fiestas que un restaurante Miguel. - One eats better in your parties than in a
restaurant Miguel.
M: Pues comer es una de mis actividades favoritas. - Well, eating is one of my favorite activities. Qu
piensas, debo hacer el guacamole ahora? - What do you think, should I make the guacamole now?
L: S como no. - Sure, why not. Cmo estn los aguacates?- How are the avocados?
M: Creo que estn perfectos - I think they are perfect. Puedes cortar unos tomates por favor? - Could you
cut some tomatoes, please?
L: Seguro que s, y una cebolla tambin, no? - Sure, and an onion too, right?
M: S un poco. - Yes, a little bit. Tal vez media cebolla. - Maybe half an onion
L: No hay problema. - No problem.
A: Qu puedo hacer yo? -What can I do? La msica est lista. - The music is ready.
M: Bueno, puedes abrir una botella de vino, si quieres. - Well, you can open a bottle of wine, if you like.
A. Tinto o blanco?- Red or white?
M: Tinto por favor - Red, please. Ms tarde, podemos abrir el blanco si es necesario. Later, we can open the
white if it is necessary.
A: Bien. - OK.
L: Miguel dnde est el cuchillo? - Miguel, where is the knife?
M: Est con los tenedores. - Its with the forks. All al lado del horno. - There, next to the oven.
L: S ahora lo veo. - Yes, now I see it.
(knock knock)
A: Miguel, creo que alguien est a la puerta. - Miguel, I think that someone is at the door.
M: Claro, debe ser Marina. - Oh, that should be Marina. Voy a ver. - Ill go see.
A: Luisa, conoces a Marina? - Luisa, do you know Marina?
L: No, pero voy a conocer a ella ahora, no? - No, but I am going to meet her now, right?
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A. S, claro. - Thats true. Es muy buena persona. - She is a really nice person.
This time you will hear the conversation with pauses for you to repeat but without the translation
En casa de Miguel, l, Luisa y Anita preparan una fiesta.
M: Gracias por ayudarme.
L: De nada Miguel, yo pienso que hacer una fiesta es muy divertido. No piensas que s Anita?
A. Claro que s. Yo voy a preparar la msica. Prefieren msica Rock o un poco de salsa?
M: Bueno, se debe escuchar msica latina en una fiesta no?
L: S, estoy de acuerdo. Miguel, dnde pongo los vasos?
M: Aqu, al lado de los platos. Gracias por traer el helado para postre, Luisa. Creo que lvaro trae la torta.
L: Muy bien. Y Rita trae sus tamales famosos, no? Se come mejor en tus fiestas que un restaurante Miguel.
M: Pues comer es una de mis actividades favoritas. Qu piensas, debo hacer el guacamole ahora?
L: S como no. Cmo estn los aguacates?
M: Creo que estn perfectos. Puedes cortar unos tomates por favor?
L: Seguro que s, y una cebolla tambin, no?
M: S un poco. Tal vez media cebolla.
L: No hay problema.
A: Qu puedo hacer yo? La msica est lista.
M: Bueno, puedes abrir una botella de vino, si quieres.
A. Tinto o blanco?
M: Tinto por favor. Ms tarde, podemos abrir el blanco si es necesario.
A: Bien.
L: Miguel dnde est el cuchillo?
M: Est con los tenedores. All al lado del horno.
L: S ahora lo veo.
(knock knock)
A: Miguel, creo que alguien estn a la puerta.
M: Claro, debe ser Marina. Voy a ver.
A: Luisa, conoces a Marina?
L: No, pero voy a conocer a ella ahora, no?
A. S, claro. Es muy buena persona.
Now listen to the conversation again without pauses
En casa de Miguel, l, Luisa y Anita preparan una fiesta
M: Gracias por ayudarme.
L: De nada Miguel, yo pienso que hacer una fiesta es muy divertido. No piensas que s Anita?
A. Claro que s. Yo voy a preparar la msica. Prefieren msica Rock o un poco de salsa?
M: Bueno, se debe escuchar msica latina en una fiesta no?
L: S, estoy de acuerdo. Miguel, dnde pongo los vasos?
M: Aqu, al lado de los platos. Gracias por traer el helado para postre, Luisa. Creo que lvaro trae la torta.
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L: Muy bien. Y Rita trae sus tamales famosos, no? Se come mejor en tus fiestas que un restaurante Miguel.
M: Pues comer es una de mis actividades favoritas. Qu piensas, debo hacer el guacamole ahora?
L: S como no. Cmo estn los aguacates?
M: Creo que estn perfectos. Puedes cortar unos tomates por favor?
L: Seguro que s, y una cebolla tambin, no?
M: S un poco. Tal vez media cebolla.
L: No hay problema.
A: Qu puedo hacer yo? La msica est lista.
M: Bueno, puedes abrir una botella de vino, si quieres.
A. Tinto o blanco?
M: Tinto por favor. Ms tarde, podemos abrir el blanco si es necesario.
A: Bien.
L: Miguel dnde est el cuchillo?
M: Est con los tenedores. All al lado del horno.
L: S ahora lo veo.
(knock knock)
A: Miguel, creo que alguien estn a la puerta.
M: Claro, debe ser Marina. Voy a ver.
A: Luisa, conoces a Marina?
L: No, pero voy a conocer a ella ahora, no?
A. S, claro. Es muy buena persona.
Ahora, contesta la pregunta:
Cmo se llaman las tres personas?
Dnde hacen una fiesta?
Piensa Luisa que hacer una fiesta es aburrido?
Cul de los tres prepara la msica?
Qu tipo de msica quiere escuchar Miguel?

Se llaman Miguel, Luisa y Anita.


Hacen una fiesta en casa de Miguel.
No, Luisa piensa que hacer una fiesta es divertido.
Anita prepara la msica.
Miguel quiere escuchar msica latina, en particular,
quiere escuchar salsa.
Qu trae Rita?
Rita trae unos tamales. Trae sus tamales famosos.
Qu es una de las actividades favoritas de Miguel? Comer es una de las actividades favoritas de Miguel.
Qu plato se hace con aguacate, tomate y cebolla? El guacamole se hace con aguacate, tomate y cebolla.
Que tipo de vino abre Anita?
Anita abre el vino tinto.
Cmo es Marina en la opinin de Anita?
Anita cree que Marina es muy buena persona.
This is the end of lesson 6.
In lesson 7, you will learn more words and expressions you can use in a restaurant as well as other vocabulary
that will be helpful in traveling. You will also learn clothing vocabulary, and review reflexive and stem changing
verbs.
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Welcome to lesson 7.
Bienvenido a leccin 7. En esta leccin vas a aprender:
-

more food vocabulary, this time dishes you might see on a menu
a bit about meals and mealtimes in Spanish-speaking countries
vocabulary and information to help you find a place to stay while traveling
clothing vocabulary, and vocabulary related to various activities

Primero, vas a aprender ms vocabulario de comida. Aqu estn unos platos que se ven en un men.
Escucha y repite:
El desayuno
la bollera
los churros
la tostada
la mermelada
el caf
el caf con leche
el tocino
las salchichas
los huevos fritos
los huevos revueltos
el jugo de naranja
el t
El almuerzo y la cena
la tortilla
la ensalada mixta
la ensalada rusa
el filete de lenguado
la chuleta de cerdo
medio pollo asado
los espaguetis
el arroz
la hamburguesa
las papas fritas
el pur de papas
un sandwich de atn

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Breakfast
assorted rolls and breads
a fried sweet bread
toast
marmalade or jam
coffee
coffee with milk
bacon
sausages
fried eggs
scramble eggs
orange juice
tea
Lunch and dinner
(In Mexico, una tortilla is probably what youre used to seeing: a flat cake made
of flour or perhaps corn, or sometimes fried. In Spain is more like an omelet, a
dish of eggs, potatoes and onion.)
a mixed salad
coleslaw
filet of sole
pork chop
half a roasted chicken
spaguetti or sometimes pasta in general
rice
hamburger
french fries
mashed potatoes
a tuna sandwich

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Unas caractersticas de comida
al horno
al vapor
a la plancha
asado/a
frito/a
bien cocinado/a
medio cocinado/a
crudo/a
agrio/a
amargo/a
dulce
salado/a

Some characteristics of food


baked
steamed
grilled
roasted
fried
well cooked
half or partially cooked
raw
sour
bitter
sweet
salty

Ahora, contesta la pregunta:


Bebes caf?
S, bebo caf. No, no bebo caf.
Prefieres caf o t?
Prefiero caf - Prefiero t.
Comes huevos?
S, como huevos. No, no como huevos.
Prefieres los huevos fritos o revueltos?
Prefiero los huevos fritos/revueltos.
Comes pollo?
S, como pollo No, no como pollo.
Prefieres el pollo asado o frito?
Prefiero el pollo asado/frito.
Prefieres comer un sandwich de atn o una hamburguesa? Prefiero comer un sandwich de atn/hamburguesa.
Prefieres arroz o pur de papas?
Prefiero arroz/ pur de papas
Prefieres la comida salada o la comida dulce?
Prefiero la comida salada/dulce
Excelente! Ahora tienes mucho vocabulario que puedes usar en un restaurante.
You will find that, just a some of the foods you eat are different in Spanish-speaking countries, the times
of meals and what is generally eaten at each meal may not be the same as what you are used to. Generally
speaking, breakfast tends to be eaten a bit later, perhaps between 8 and 10:00. In Spanish-speaking countries,
meats and eggs are not often part of breakfast; instead, it is more common to have breads or pastries with jam or
butter, usually with coffee. Overall, it is very common for people to spend a little more time at meals, as well.
They are social occasions just as much as they are opportunities to enjoy food.
Lunch is usually the largest meal of the day. It is eaten in the mid-to-late afternoon, often between 2 and 4.
Many businesses close for 2 to 3 hours in the afternoon while people enjoy their meal, then open again until
perhaps 7 or 8 in the evening. In many places it is customary to go out after work, around 7 or 8, for drinks and
snacks.
Dinner is usually a late, light meal. Una tortilla espaola is eaten at dinner or sometimes as a snack, rather than
being a breakfast dish like the omelet. Some type of eggs, perhaps with meat or a salad, and bread, might be a
light evening meal. This meal is eaten usually between 9 and 11 pm.
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Disc 7
When you visit a Spanish-speaking country, youll need to do more than eat! For one thing, youll need a place
to stay. In a moment you will hear a short description, in Spanish, of hotels in Hispanic countries. You will hear
it twice, and then answer a few questions about the information. First, here are a few new vocabulary items that
will help you understand the description:
Escucha y repite:
el alojamiento
el servicio de cuarto
las comodidades
los pases hispanos
alquilar
quedarse

lodging
room service
amenities
Hispanic countries
to rent
to stay

As you probably noticed quedarse is a reflexive verb.


Hay diferentes tipos de alojamiento en pases hispanos. En muchos pases, no hay nada exactamente como
el motel norteamericano. Hay hoteles de varias categoras, caras o baratas. Los hoteles caros tienen ms
comodidades, como televisin, servicio de cuarto y restaurantes buenos. En Espaa, hay pensiones. En
una pensin, una familia alquila unos cuartos de su casa o apartamento. Las pensiones normalmente son muy
baratas. Tambin, si necesitas quedarte en el pas por mucho tiempo, puedes alquilar un apartamento o casa.
Hay diferentes tipos de alojamiento en pases hispanos. En muchos pases, no hay nada exactamente como
el motel norteamericano. Hay hoteles de varias categoras, caras o baratas. Los hoteles caros tienen ms
comodidades, como televisin, servicio de cuarto y restaurantes buenos. En Espaa, hay pensiones. En
una pensin, una familia alquila unos cuartos de su casa o apartamento. Las pensiones normalmente son muy
baratas. Tambin, si necesitas quedarte en el pas por mucho tiempo, puedes alquilar un apartamento o casa.
Ahora, contesta la pregunta:
Hay muchos moteles en pases hispanos?
No, no hay muchos moteles en pases hispanos.
Prefieres un hotel caro o barato?
Prefiero un hotel caro/barato.
Qu son dos o tres comodidades que un hotel puede tener?
Servicio de cuarto, un restaurante, y televisin.
Si vas a Espaa, quieres quedarte en una pensin?
S, quiero quedarme en una pensin. No, no quiero quedarme en una pensin.
Muy bien hecho! Ahora, vas a aprender ms vocabulario relacionado con el alojamiento.

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Escucha y repite:
el armario
el botones / el mozo
una cama sencilla
una cama matrimonial
una habitacin con bao
una ducha
un hotel de lujo
una estrella
un hotel de 2, 3 o 4 estrellas
el / la husped
la pensin completa
la recepcin
confirmar
reservar
reservar con anticipacin
una vista
un gimnasio
una piscina
una alberca
completo/a
desocupado/a
una reservacin
una cocina
una sala
un balcn
un cuarto/
una recmara
un/a camarero/a
la televisin a cable
un telfono
un reloj despertador
una computadora
una mquina fax
el estacionamiento
un apartamento

the closet
the bellhop
a single bed
a double bed
a room with a bathroom
a shower
a luxury hotel
a star
a 2, 3, or 4-star hotel
the guest
room and full board
the reception
to confirm
to reserve
to reserve in advance
a view
a gym
a pool
a pool
full (as in no vacancy)
vacancy
a reservation
a kitchen
a living room
a balcony
a room or a bedroom
a bedroom
a maid or cleaning person
cable TV
a telephone
an alarm clock
a computer
a fax machine
parking
an apartment

Ahora, Cmo se dice?


A shower
A room with a shower
A four star hotel
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Una ducha
Una habitacin con ducha
Un hotel de cuatro estrellas
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A balcony
Un balcn
Does the apartment have a balcony? Tiene un balcn el apartamento?
Parking
Estacionamiento
Is there parking?
Hay estacionamiento?
A view
Una vista
I want a room with a view, please.
Quiero una habitacin con vista, por favor.
I have a reservation.
Tengo una reservacin.
I need to rent an apartment.
Necesito alquilar un apartamento.
Ahora, contesta la pregunta:
Es importante tener un botones en el hotel?
S, es importante tener un botones en el hotel.
No, no es importante tener un botones en el hotel
Es importante tener televisin a cable?
S, es importante tener televisin a cable. No, no es importante tener televisin a cable.
Qu son 5 comodidades que un hotel puede tener?
Un hotel puede tener servicio de cuarto, un restaurante, televisin, una computadora, un gimnasio, una piscina,
un botones y estacionamiento.
Normalmente haces una reservacin cuando vas a un hotel?
S, hago una reservacin cuando voy a un hotel. No, no hago una reservacin cuando voy a un hotel.
Normalmente usas un reloj despertador?
S, uso un reloj despertador. No, no uso un reloj despertador.
Prefieres tener los servicios de una camarera o no?
S, prefiero tener los servicios de una camarera. No, no prefiero tener los servicios de una camarera.
While you are visiting, youll naturally want to leave the hotel and do other things. Here are some activities you
might want to pursue.
Escucha y repite:
sacar fotos
comprar recuerdos
visitar ruinas
hacer una gira
jugar al golf
pescar
nadar
nadar en el mar
bailar en una discoteca
hacer ejercicio
salir con amigos
caminar
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take pictures
buy souvenirs
visit ruins
take a tour
to play golf
to fish
to swim
to swim in the sea
to dance in a disco
to exercise
to go out with friends
to walk
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dar un paseo
asistir a un concierto
esquiar
tomar el sol
visitar sitios histricos
asistir a una iglesia
escuchar msica local
montar a caballo
acampar
bucear
escalar montaas

to take a walk
to attend a concert
to ski
to sun bathe
to visit historic sites
to attend church
to listen to local music
to ride a horse
To camp
to scuba dive
to go mountain climbing

Ahora Cmo se dice?


I want to fish.
Where can I play golf?
We are going to swim in the ocean.
You (Uds.) should visit the ruins.
Do you (t) want to scuba dive?
Where can we ride a horse?
I prefer to camp on the beach.
We should dance in a disco.
Pedro wants to take a tour.
Im going to take pictures.
Do they want to attend the church?
Are you (vosotros) going to buy souvenirs?

Quiero pescar.
Dnde puedo jugar golf?
Vamos a nadar en el mar.
Uds. deben visitar las ruinas.
Quieres bucear?
Dnde podemos montar en caballo?
Prefiero acampar en la playa.
Debemos bailar en la discoteca.
Pedro quiere hacer una gira.
Voy a sacar fotos.
Quieren ellos asistir a la iglesia?
Vis a comprar recuerdos?

Ahora, contesta la pregunta:


Dnde se toma el sol?
Se toma el sol en la playa.
Se esqua en las montaas o en el parque?
Se esqua en las montaas.
Qu son 3 actividades que se hace en el agua?
3 actividades que se hacen en el agua son esquiar, bucear,
nadar.
Qu se hace en un gimnasio?
Se hace ejercicio.
Compras muchos recuerdos cuando visitas otro pas?
S, compro muchos recuerdos cuando visito otro
pas. No, no compro muchos recuerdos cuando visito otro pas.
Prefieres dar un paseo en el parque o en el centro?
Prefiero dar un paseo en el parque.
Prefiero dar un paseo en el centro.
All of these activities should keep you pretty busy. At some point, youll probably want to stop for a snack and
maybe something to drink. Try repeating these words related to snacks, sweets and beverages.

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Escucha y repite:
merendar
to snack
un pastel
a pastry
una galleta
a cookie
las palomitas
popcorn
los dulces
candies
una tarta
a pie
una torta
a cake
un flan
a custard
una merienda
a snack
una bebida
a drink
tomar un trago
to have an alcoholic drink
la cerveza
beer
el vino tinto
red wine
el vino blanco
white wine
el jerez
sherry
la limonada
lemonade
el agua mineral
mineral water
un refresco
a soft drink
el chocolate
chocolate (this is chocolate in general and also hot chocolate)
otro/a
another
(otro is an adjective which will agree with the noun it modifies, it is never used with a form of un, una, unos,
unas)
Bueno, escucha y repite:
Debemos merendar ahora.
Quiero tomar una copa de vino.
Otra cerveza, por favor.
Quiero otro pastel. Son muy buenos!
Hay limonada?
Juan come muchos dulces.

We should have a snack now.


I want to drink a glass of wine.
Another beer, please.
I want another pastry. They are really good.
Is there any lemonade?
Juan eats a lot of sweets.

Ahora, contesta la pregunta:


Qu meriendas mucho?
Your answer will vary, you might have said meriendo galletas, meriendo palomitas,or possibly meriendo fruta.
Tomas mucha cerveza?
S, tomo mucha cerveza. No, no tomo mucha cerveza.
Qu son tres bebidas que no tienen alcohol?
La limonada, el agua, los refrescos, el chocolate, el caf y el t.
Prefieres vino tinto o vino blanco?
Prefiero vino tinto/blanco.
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Great! When youre getting ready to take a trip, one thing you need to know is what sort of clothing to take with
you. The weather is one thing youll want to consider; do you remember how to ask what the weather is like? If
you said, Qu tiempo hace?, thats right. You might also ask the question, Cmo es el clima? Of course, what
you pack will also depend on your planned activities. Here are some garments you might need to have along:
Escucha y repite:
el abrigo
los bluejeans
la camiseta
el jersey
los pantalones
los pantalones cortos
la sudadera
el vestido
las medias
la blusa
la camisa
los calcetines
la corbata
el traje
el traje de bao
la falda
el suter
la chaqueta
llevar
vestirse
el algodn
la lana
la seda
el polister
el cuero

overcoat
jeans
t-shirt
pullover
pants
shorts
sweats or a sweatshirt
dress
hose or stockings
blouse
shirt
socks
tie
the suit
bathing suit
skirt
sweater
jacket
to wear (llevar is a regular ar verb)
to dress or get dressed
cotton
wool
silk
polyester
leather

(when expressing what something is made of, you will use the preposition de before the material, for example,
la blusa es de seda, the blouse is made of silk)
blanco/a
negro/a
rojo/a
rosado/a
verde
azul
amarillo/a
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white
black
red
pink
green
blue
yellow
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anaranjado/a
morado/a
gris
marrn
claro/a
oscuro/a
el color

orange
purple
gray
brown
light (as in light color)
dark
the color

Bueno, cmo se dice?


A dress
She is wearing a dress.
The blouse
Is it a silk blouse?
An overcoat
Youre (t) going to need an overcoat.
They are wearing wool suits.
A brown sweater.
Im looking for a brown sweater.
Are there any shorts?
We prefer to wear shorts.
Do you all (Uds.) have jackets?
You should bring jackets.

Un vestido
Lleva un vestido.
La blusa
Es una blusa de seda?
Un abrigo
Vas a necesitar un abrigo.
Llevan trajes de lana.
Un suter marrn.
Busco un suter marrn.
Hay pantalones cortos?
Preferimos llevar pantalones cortos.
Tienen chaquetas?
Deben traer chaquetas.

Muy bien hecho! Ahora, escucha y repite la conversacin:


En el centro:
R: Prximo quiero ir al museo de bellas artes. - Next, I want to go to the art museum. Tienen una coleccin
de Velzquez que deseo ver. - They have a collection of Velazquez that I want to see.
J: Pero Raquel, ya es la hora del almuerzo. - But Raquel, its already lunch time. No podemos comer
primero? - Can we eat first? Tengo hambre y quiero sentarme un rato. I am hungry and want to sit down
for a minute.
R: Bien, Juanita. - Ok, Juanita. Hay un restaurante bueno cerca de aqu, - There is a good restaurant near
here, mm Creo que queda por aqu. - hmm I think it is this way.
J: Chvere. - Cool. Despus de comer voy a estar lista para el museo. - After eating Ill be ready for the
museum. De veras, a esta hora no sabemos si est abierto el museo. - Really, at this hour we dont know if
the museum is open.

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R: S, buen punto. - Yeah, good point. Tambin necesito pasar por una farmacia antes de volver al hotel. - I
also need to go by a pharmacy before going back to the hotel.
J: Bien, se dice que hay un lago ornamental en el parque que se debe ver. - Ok, they say there is an
ornamental lake in the park that you have to see. Y hay unas plantas raras tambin. - And there are some
rare plants too. Si hay tiempo debemos visitar el parque. If there is time we should visit the park.
R: Buena idea. - Good idea. Hace muy buen tiempo hoy. - Its really nice weather today. Bueno, aqu
estamos. - Ok, here we are. Este es el restaurante que buscamos. This is the restaurant we are looking for.
En el restaurante:
J: Voy a pedir el lenguado con esprragos. - I am going to order the sole with the asparagus. Y una ensalada
Csar .- And a cesar salad. Y para tomar, una copa de vino blanco. - And to drink, a glass of white wine.
R: Yo siempre pido el mismo plato aqu. - I always order the same thing here. Sirven unos espaguetis con
camarones y salsa de aguacate que me encantan. - They serve spaghettis with shrimp and avocado sauce
that its just delightful. Debemos pedir una botella de vino blanco? - Should we order a bottle of white
wine. Quiero tomar un poco tambin. - I would like to have a little too.
J: S, cmo no. - Sure why not. Hay buenos postres aqu? - Are there good desserts here?
R: S, hay varios, - Yes, there are various ones, pero, no debes comer el almuerzo primero? - but, shouldnt
you eat lunch first.
J: S, pero tengo mucha hambre. - Yes, but I am really hungry.
R: Pues hay unos paquetes de azcar en la mesa que puedes comer. - Well, there are some sugar packets on
the table that you can eat.
J: J, muy cmico. - Ha, very funny. Dnde est el mesero? - Where is the waiter?
R: Aqu viene. - Here he comes. No te preocupes. - Dont worry.
Now repeat the conversation again, without the translation.
R: Prximo quiero ir al museo de bellas artes. Tienen una coleccin de Velzquez que deseo ver.
J: Pero Raquel, ya es la hora del almuerzo. No podemos comer primero. Tengo hambre y quiero sentarme un
rato.
R: Bien, Juanita. Hay un restaurante bueno cerca de aqu, mm Creo que queda por aqu.
J: Chvere. Despus de comer voy a estar lista para el museo. De veras, a esta hora no sabemos si est
abierto el museo.
R: S, buen punto. Tambin necesito pasar por una farmacia antes de volver al hotel.
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J: Bien, se dice que hay un lago ornamental en el parque que se debe ver. Y hay unas plantas raras tambin.
Si hay tiempo debemos visitar el parque.
R: Buena idea. Hace muy buen tiempo hoy. Bueno, aqu estamos. Este es el restaurante que buscamos.
En el restaurante:
J: Voy a pedir el lenguado con esprragos. Y una ensalada Csar. Y para tomar, una copa de vino blanco.
R: Yo siempre pido el mismo plato aqu. Sirven unos espaguetis con camarones y salsa de aguacate que me
encantan. Debemos pedir una botella de vino blanco? Quiero tomar un poco tambin.
J: S, cmo no. Hay buenos postres aqu?
R: S, hay varios, pero, no debes comer el almuerzo primero?
J: S, pero tengo mucha hambre.
R: Pues hay unos paquetes de azcar en la mesa que puedes comer
J: J, muy cmico. Dnde est el mesero?
R: Aqu viene. No te preocupes.
Listen to the conversation once more without the pauses.
En el centro:
R: Prximo quiero ir al museo de bellas artes. Tienen una coleccin de Velzquez que deseo ver.
J: Pero Raquel, ya es la hora del almuerzo. No podemos comer primero. Tengo hambre y quiero sentarme un
rato.
R: Bien, Juanita. Hay un restaurante bueno cerca de aqu, mm Creo que queda por aqu.
J: Chvere. Despus de comer voy a estar lista para el museo. De veras, a esta hora no sabemos si est
abierto el museo.
R: S, buen punto. Tambin necesito pasar por una farmacia antes de volver al hotel.
J: Bien, se dice que hay un lago ornamental en el parque que se debe ver. Y hay unas plantas raras tambin.
Si hay tiempo debemos visitar el parque.
R: Buena idea. Hace muy buen tiempo hoy. Bueno, aqu estamos. Este es el restaurante que buscamos.
En el restaurante:
J: Voy a pedir el lenguado con esprragos. Y una ensalada Csar. Y para tomar, una copa de vino blanco.
R: Yo siempre pido el mismo plato aqu. Sirven unos espaguetis con camarones y salsa de aguacate que me
encantan. Debemos pedir una botella de vino blanco? Quiero tomar un poco tambin.
J: S, cmo no. Hay buenos postres aqu?
R: S, hay varios, pero, no debes comer el almuerzo primero?
J: S, pero tengo mucha hambre.
R: Pues hay unos paquetes de azcar en la mesa que puedes comer
J: J, muy cmico. Dnde est el mesero?
R: Aqu viene. No te preocupes.

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Ahora, contesta la pregunta:
Adnde quiere ir Raquel?
Raquel quiere ir al museo.
Qu coleccin de arte quiere ver Raquel?
Raquel quiere ver la coleccin de Velzquez.
Hay un restaurante bueno que queda cerca?
S, hay un restaurante bueno que queda cerca
Qu ms quiere hacer Raquel antes de volver al hotel?
Raquel quiere pasar por una farmacia.
Y qu sitio quiere visitar Juanita?
Juanita quiere visitar el parque.
Qu pide Juanita en el restaurante?
Juanita pide lenguado con esprragos, una ensalada
Csar y una copa de vino blanco.
Hay buenos postres en este restaurante?
S, hay varios.
This is the end of lesson 7.
In lesson 8, you will learn vocabulary to help you get from place to place, and how to talk about the time. You
will also learn several new verbs, and the forms and uses of object pronouns in Spanish.

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Welcome to lesson 8.
Bienvenido a leccin 8. En esta leccin vas a aprender:
-vocabulary that will help you travel from place to place
-some new verbs you can use to express how things affect yourself and others
-the forms and uses of object pronouns in Spanish
Primero, vas a aprender ms vocabulario que puedes usar para viajar. Viajar es un verbo regular de tipo ar.
Cmo se dice viajar en ingls? Viajar significa to travel.
Escucha y repite:
El autobs
The bus
la parada de autobs
the bus stop
la estacin de autobs
the bus station
el boleto
ticket
el billete (spain)
ticket
(el billete is typically used in Spain, while el boleto is used elsewhere)
el pasaje
the fair or passage
la sala de espera
the waiting room
el/la pasajero/a
the passenger
la taquilla
the ticket office
subir a
to board
subir al autobs
to board the bus
bajar de
to get off/descend from)
bajar del autobs
to get off the bus
hacer cola
to stand in line
El tren
la estacin de tren
el andn
la salida
la llegada
llegar
el asiento
el equipaje
la maleta
hacer un viaje
viajar
la primera clase
la clase turstica
la seccin de fumar
la seccin de no fumar
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The train
the train station
the platform
departure
arrival
to arrive
seat
luggage
the suitcase
to take a trip
to travel
first class
economy class
smoking section
non-smoking section
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Bueno. Cmo se dice?
A ticket (There are 3 possibilities.)
I need to buy a ticket to Quito.
To get on the bus.
They are getting on the bus.
The waiting room
Is she in the waiting room?
We are standing in line.
Arrivals
Departures
To take a trip
I am taking a trip to Japan in July.
Do you (t) have luggage?

Un boleto, un billete o un pasaje


Necesito comprar un boleto a Quito.
Subir al autobus.
Suben al autobus.
La sala de espera
Est ella en la sala de espera?
Hacemos cola.
Llegadas
Salidas
Hacer un viaje
Hago un viaje a Japn en julio.
Tienes equipaje?

Ahora, contesta la pregunta:


Viajas mucho?
S, viajo mucho. No, no viajo mucho.
Prefieres tomar el autobs o el tren?
Prefiero tomar el autobs. Prefiero tomar el tren.
Viajas normalmente en la clase turstica o en la primera clase?
Viajo normalmente en la clase turstica. Viajo normalmente en la primera clase.
Cuando viajas, tomas mucho equipaje?
S, cuando viajo tomo mucho equipaje. No, cuando viajo no tomo mucho equipaje.
Dnde se sube al tren?
Se sube al tren en el andn.
Prefieres la seccin de fumar o la seccin de no fumar?
Prefiero la seccin de fuma Prefiero la seccin de no fumar.
Dnde se compra un boleto?
Se compra un boleto en la taquilla.
Cmo se llama una persona que viaja en tren o bus?
Una persona que viaja en tren o bus se llama un pasajero o una pasajera.
Adnde quieres hacer un viaje?
Your answer will vary:
You should have said: Quiero hacer un viaje followed by the place you want to go.
!Excelente! Ahora escucha y repite esta pregunta:
A qu hora sale el tren?
Did you guess that A qu hora? means at what time? This question is asking at what time the train leaves. A is
used to express at when talking about the time. Notice that the word for hour, hora, is used when telling time.
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La hora is a feminine noun; this is important to know if its one oclock, because the feminine una will be used
rather than the masculine uno. Here are some possible answers about the trains departure time.
El tren sale a la una.
El tren sale a las ocho.
Sale a las cinco en punto.
Sale a las cuatro y media.
Sale a las tres y veinte de la tarde.
Sale a las once de la noche.
Sale a las nueve y cuarto de la maana.

The train leaves at one.


The train leaves at eight.
It leaves at 5 on the dot.
It leaves at 4:30.
It leaves at 3:20 in the afternoon.
It leaves at 11:00 at night.
It leaves at 9:15 in the morning.

There are a few things to notice about these examples. One is that the article la or las is always used before the
hour. When is la used as opposed to las? Thats right, when its 1:00, or 1:20 or 1:15, etc. For all other hours,
the plural las is used. Also, there is some additional vocabulary you might want to know.
Escucha y repite:
y cuarto
y media
en punto
menos cuarto
el medioda
la medianoche
de la maana
de la tarde
de la noche

fifteen after
thirty (as in eight thirty)
on the dot
a quarter till
noon
midnight
in the morning
in the afternoon
at night

When you want to express a number of minutes after the hour, use y. When you want to express a number of
minutes before the hour, use menos. But so far weve only talked about saying at what time something happens.
Thats not quite the same as telling what time it is. Here are two questions you might ask to find out the current
time:
Qu hora es?
Qu horas son?
Either one is fine. Did you notice what verb is used to tell what the hour is? Thats right, ser. The third person
singular is used with 1:00, or with noon or midnight, while other hours require the 3rd person plural, as in these
examples:
Qu hora es?
Son las tres.
Es la una y media.
Son las cinco y cuarto de la tarde.
Es medioda en punto.
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Son las ocho menos cinco de la maana.
Now you know how to find out the current time, as well as when your train or bus will be leaving. But perhaps
youre very adventurous and independent, and would prefer to rent a car. Heres some vocabulary that might
come in handy in that case:
Escucha y repite:
El coche
el carro
el camin
conducir
una licencia de conducir
la gasolina
el parabrisas
llenar el tanque
limpiar
la bomba
el motor
la puerta/
la portezuela
el limpiaparabrisas
la ventanilla
la placa
el bal
las llantas
la carretera
la entrada
la salida
roto/rota
un problema
un accidente
ayudar
una desviacin
el peaje

The car
the car
the truck
to drive
a drivers license
gasoline
the windshield
fill the tank
to clean
the gas station
the motor
the door
the door
the windshield wiper
the window
the license plate
the trunk
the tires
the freeway
entrance
exit
broken
a problem
an accident
to help
a detour
the toll or the toll booth

Bueno. Cmo se dice?


A car
We need to rent a car.
The tank
To fill the tank.
Will he fill the tank?
A toll booth
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Un coche o un carro
Necesitamos alquilar un carro/coche
El tanque.
Llenar el tanque
Va a llenar el tanque?
Un peaje
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Theres a toll both.
A detour
Is there a detour?
The freeway
Theres an accident on the freeway.
Theres a problem with the motor.

Hay un peaje
Una desviacin
Hay una desviacin?
La carretera
Hay un accidente en la carretera.
Hay un problema con el motor.

Ahora, escucha y repite:


Te gusta conducir, o prefieres tomar el autobs?
Do you like to drive or do you prefer to take the bus?
Me gusta conducir. Es ms conveniente.
I like to drive. Its more convenient.
These phrases used a regular ar verb, gustar. Gustar doesnt really mean to like; its meaning is closer to to
be likeable. So when you use gustar and verbs similar to it, the thing you or someone else likes, is really the
subject of the verb. The verb will agree with it, not with you. That subject is affecting you; you are the object of
the verb. Listen again to the question and answer, this time with a more literal translation:
Te gusta conducir, o prefieres tomar el autobs?
Is driving likeable to you or do you prefer to take the bus?
Me gusta conducir. Es ms conveniente.
To drive is likeable to me, it is more convenient
The subject of the verb gustar in these sentences is conducir, to drive/driving. This is why the verb is in the 3rd
person singular form, gusta. It agrees with the subject verb. Most of the time in English, when a verb acts as a
subject, we use the gerund, the ing form (as in Skiing is fun). In this case Spanish always uses the infinitive. In
both languages, when a verb is used as a subject, the conjugated verb is in the 3rd person singular form: Skiing
is fun, Esquiar es divertido. Due to its meaning, gustar is usually used in 3rd person forms.
Recall that when something is likeable to you, you are the object of that verbal action. You are an indirect
object, in particular; you would not say it is likeable me, but rather it is likeable to me. The presence of to
in English, indicates an indirect object. Words like me, him, her, them are object pronouns of English. Unlike
English object pronouns, you will see that Spanish object pronouns are placed before the conjugated verb in
a sentence. Earlier you learned the subject pronouns of Spanish; now listen to the indirect object pronouns of
Spanish. These will sound familiar to you, since most of them have the same forms as the reflexive pronouns.
However, their function is different.
Escucha y repite:
me
te
le
Instant Immersion

to me
to you (t)
to you (Ud.)
to him/her/it

nos
os
les

to us
to you (vosotros)
to you (Uds.)
to them
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Here are those forms again without the translation:
me
nos
te
os
le
les
As you can see, sometimes the 3rd person object pronouns are ambiguous. To clarify who the object really is,
you can use a followed by the person who is the object. Listen to these examples (the question quin is asking
who or whom):
No le gusta viajar en la clase turstica.
It is not pleasing to someone to travel in economy class.
A quin no le gusta?
To whom it is not pleasing?
A Roberto. Siempre viaja en la primera clase.
To Roberto. He always travels in first class
Pues, a m, me gusta mucho. Es menos caro y es divertido.
Well, to me its very likeable. Its less expensive and its fun.
Here are the indirect object pronouns again with the accompanying phrases that spell out to whom:
me a m
te a ti
le a Ud.
a l/ella

nos a nosotros
os a vosotros
les a Uds.
a ellos/ellas

Now try answering these questions about things that may or may not be likeable to you. Notice that whenever
the likeable thing is plural, the verb form is plural as well.
Te gusta viajar?
S, me gusta viajar. No, no me gusta viajar.
Te gusta tomar el tren?
S, me gusta tomar el tren. No, no me gusta tomar el tren.
Te gusta el vino?
S, me gusta el vino. No, no me gusta el vino.
Te gusta la ensalada?
S, me gusta la ensalada. No, no me gusta la ensalada.
Te gustan los hoteles caros?
S, me gustan los hoteles caros. No, no me gustan los hoteles caros.
Te gustan las fresas?
S, me gustan las fresas. No, no me gustan las fresas.
Muy bien hecho! Here are some other verbs that work the same way as gustar.
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encantar
interesar
molestar
disgustar
sorprender
agradar

to be very enjoyable
to be interesting
to be annoying
to disgust or be disgusted
to surprise or be surprising
to be agreeable

Ahora, Cmo se dice?


Driving is very enjoyable to me.
Are cars interesting to you (vosotros)?
The desserts here are likeable to us.
Hamburgers are disgusting to Mariela.
Is the bill surprising to you (t)?
Sunbathing is pleasing to them.
Waiting in line is not likeable to me.

Me encanta conducir.
Os interesan los coches/carros?
Nos gustan los postres aqu.
A Mariela le disgustan las hamburguesas.
Te sorprende la cuenta?
Les agrada tomar el sol.
No me gusta hacer cola.

Muy bien! There are other verbs, more easily translated into English, which also require indirect object
pronouns. Two very common ones are dar (to give) and decir (to say or tell). Both of these verbs are irregular.
First, lets practice the conjugation of dar; dar has an irregular yo form.
doy
das
da

damos
dais
dan

Decir has an irregular yo form and a stem change from e to i. These are the present-tense forms of decir:
digo
dices
dice

decimos
decs
dicen

Bueno, Cmo se dice?


Im giving a present to you (t).
(a present is un regalo) Te doy un regalo.
Are you (t) going to give Susana a ticket?
Le vas a dar un boleto a Susana?
He will tell us the price (el precio).
Nos dir el precio.
Were telling you (vosotros) that you should go.
Os decimos que debis ir.

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Great work! OK, now you know a lot about traveling by car, bus, or train, but if you want to go a very long
distance, youll probably prefer to travel by plane, or viajar por avin.
Escucha y repite este vocabulario relacionado con viajar por avin:
el avin
la linea area
el aeropuerto
la aduana
el/la aduanero/a
el/la asistente de vuelo
el maletero
la puerta
facturar el equipaje
hacer la maleta
a maleta
la ventana
el pasillo
la escala
hacer escala
la demora
la llegada
la salida
la pista
el cinturn de seguridad
la bandeja
el chaleco de salvavidas
el vuelo

the plane
the airline
the airport
customs
the customs agent
the flight attendant
the porter or sky cap
the gate
to check luggage
to pack
the suitcase
the window
the aisle
a stop
to make a stop (this refers to a schedule stop on route to your final
destination)
the delay
the arrival
the departure
the runway
the safety belt
the tray
the lifesaving vest
the flight

Bueno. Cmo se dice?


The flight
At what time does the flight leave?
To check luggage.
We need to check 3 suitcases.
Customs
Does one have to stand in line in customs?
The aisle
I prefer a seat on the aisle.
The gate
From which gate does the flight leave?
The airport
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El vuelo
A qu hora sale el vuelo?
Facturar el equipaje.
Necesitamos facturar 3 maletas.
la aduana
Se tiene que hacer cola en la aduana?
El pasillo
Prefiero un asiento en el pasillo.
La puerta
De cul puerta sale el vuelo?
El aeropuerto
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I need to go to the airport.

Necesito ir al aeropuerto.

Ahora, contesta la pregunta:


Cuando viajas,facturas mucho equipaje?
S, facturo mucho equipaje. No, no facturo mucho equipaje.
Te molesta hacer escala en un vuelo?
S, me molesta hacer escala en un vuelo.
No, no me molesta hacer escala en un vuelo.
Te molesta cuando hay una demora de dos horas?
S, me molesta cuando hay una demora de dos horas.
No, no me molesta cuando hay una demora de dos horas.
Te gusta viajar por avin?
S, me gusta viajar por avin. No, no me gusta viajar por avin.
Prefieres un vuelo que sale por la maana o por la tarde?
Prefiero un vuelo que sale por la maana.
Prefiero un vuelo que sale por la tarde.
Quin ayuda con el equipaje en el aeropuerto?
El maletero ayuda con el equipaje en el aeropuerto.
Muy bien hecho! Ahora, escucha y repite:
Francisco, tienes los boletos?
S, yo los tengo.
Van a hacer las reservaciones?
S, las van a hacer el lunes.
Conoces a Mara?
S, la conozco.
Ves el avin?
S, lo veo. Est en la pista.

Francisco, do you have the tickets?


Yes, I have them.
Are they going to make the reservations?
Yes, they are going to make them on Monday .
Are you acquainted with Maria?
Yes, I know her.
Do you see the plane?
Yes, I see it. Its on the runway.

In the preceding examples, all of the answers replace the object of the verb from the question with an object
pronoun. However, these are not indirect object pronouns, they are direct object pronouns. Notice that there
was no preposition to in the English translation of these object pronouns. Only the 3rd person forms of direct
object pronouns are different form those of indirect object pronouns. Like indirect object pronouns, direct object
pronouns are placed before the conjugated verb in a sentence. These are the forms of direct object pronouns:
me me
te you (t)
lo you (Ud.)
him/it (m)
la you (Ud.)
her/it (f)
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nos us
os you (vosotros)
los you (Uds.)
them (m)
las you (Uds.)
them (f)
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Disc 8
Lets hear those pronouns again without the translation:
me
nos
te
os
lo
los
la
las
Here are the example sentences you heard earlier, this time without the translation.
Escucha y repite:
Francisco, tienes los boletos?
S, yo los tengo.
Van a hacer las reservaciones?
S, las van a hacer el lunes.
Conoces a Mara?
S, la conozco.
Ves el avin?
S, lo veo. Est en la pista.
Muy bien, now as you listen and repeat the following conversation see if you can pick out different types of
object pronouns.
En un taxi: In a taxi:
P: Rafael, hay mucho trfico! - Rafael, there is a lot of traffic. Vamos a perder el avin. -We are going to
miss the plane.
R: No vamos a perder el avin, Paloma. -We are not going to miss the plane Paloma. No te preocupes. Dont worry.
P: Tienes los boletos? - Do you have the tickets?
R: S, los tengo. -Yes, I have them.
P:A qu hora sale el vuelo? - At what time does the flight leave?
R: A las once y veinticinco. - At 11:25.
P: Y qu hora es? - And what time is it?
R: Ahora son las diez menos cuatro. - It is four till ten now. Est bien! Debes concentrarte en el viaje. - Its
fine! You should concentrate on the trip.

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Disc 8
P: Bueno - Well. Nos vamos a quedar en Puerto la Cruz por 3 das, verdad? - We are going to stay in
Puerto la Cruz for 3 days, right?
R: S, tenemos reservaciones en el Hotel Caribe. Es un buen hotel, de 4 estrellas. - Yes, we have reservations
in the Hotel Caribe. Its a good hotel, 4 stars.
P: Tiene piscina, no? - It has a pool right?
R: Claro, y jacuzi y un gimnasio. - Yes, and a jacuzzi and a gym.
P: Nuestra habitacin tiene vista? - Does our room have a view?
R: S, amor. - Yes, dear. Tiene una vista al mar. - It has a view of the sea.
P: Y de Puerto la Cruz vamos a Chichiriviche, no? - And from Puerto la Cruz we go to Chichiriviche,
right?
R: S, podemos tomar un autobs o conducir. - Yes, we can take a bus or drive
P: Entonces debemos alquilar un coche, porque no me gusta tomar el autobs. - Then, we should rent a car
because I dont like taking the bus. T lo puedes conducir -You can drive it. Tienes tu licencia? - Do you
have your license?
R: S, la tengo. - Yes, I have it. Tienes tu pasaporte? - Do you have your passport?
P: S, lo tengo est en mi bolsa. - Yes, I have it. It is in my purse. Hace mucho calor en Chichiriviche, no?
- Its really hot in Chichiriviche, isnt it?
R: S, hace mucho calor y mucho sol. -Yes, it is very hot and very sunny.
P: Excelente. Excellent Tengo muchos pantalones cortos y faldas cortas. - I have lots of shorts and short
skirts. Tambin traigo tres trajes de bao y varias sandalias.- I am also bringing 3 bathing suits and various
sandals.
R: De veras? Pero despus de salir de Chichiriviche, vamos a las montaas. - But, after we leave
Chichiriviche, we are going to the mountains.
P: Claro, por eso traigo pantalones de lana y botas y unos suteres. - Yes, that is why I am bringing wool
pants, and boots and some sweaters. Y tengo mi abrigo. - And I have my overcoat.
R: Todo eso? - All that? Ahora entiendo por qu t tienes 3 maletas y yo solamente una. - Now, I understand
why you have 3 suitcases and I only have one.
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Disc 8
P: Pero, Rafael, se tiene que estar preparado. - But, Rafael one has to be prepared.
R: Claro, Paloma. Right Paloma Y t ests muy bien preparada. - And you are very well prepared.
This time just listen to the conversation.
En un taxi:
P: Rafael, hay mucho trfico! Vamos a perder el avin.
R: No vamos a perder el avin, Paloma. No te preocupes.
P: Tienes los boletos?
R: S, los tengo.
P:A qu hora sale el vuelo?
R: A las once y veinticinco.
P: Y qu hora es?
R: Ahora son las diez menos cuatro. Est bien! Debes concentrarte en el viaje.
P: Bueno Nos vamos a quedar en Puerto la Cruz por 3 das, verdad?
R: S, tenemos reservaciones en el Hotel Caribe. Es un buen hotel, de 4 estrellas.
P: Tiene piscina, no?
R: Claro, y jacuzi y un gimnasio.
P: Nuestra habitacin tiene vista?
R: S, amor. Tiene una vista al mar.
P: Y de Puerto la Cruz vamos a Chichiriviche, no?
R: S. Podemos tomar un autobs o conducir.
P: Entonces debemos alquilar un coche, porque no me gusta tomar el autobs. T lo puedes conducir. Tienes
tu licencia?
R: S, la tengo. Tienes tu pasaporte?
P: S, lo tengo est en mi bolsa. Hace mucho calor en Chichiriviche, no?
R: S, hace mucho calor y mucho sol.
P: Excelente. Tengo muchos pantalones cortos y faldas cortas. Tambin traigo tres trajes de bao y varias
sandalias.
R: De veras? Pero despus de salir de Chichiriviche, vamos a las montaas.
P: Claro, por eso traigo pantalones de lana y botas y unos suteres. Y tengo mi abrigo.
R: Todo eso? Ahora entiendo por qu t tienes 3 maletas y yo solamente una.
P: Pero, Rafael, se tiene que estar preparado.
R: Claro, Paloma. Y t ests muy bien preparada.

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Disc 8
Ahora, contesta la pregunta:
Paloma dice que van a perder el avin
Rafael los tiene.
El vuelo sale a las 11:25
Son las diez menos cuatro.
Se van a quedar por tres das en
Puerto la Cruz, en el Hotel Caribe.
Tiene piscina el hotel?
S, el hotel tiene piscina.
Y tiene vista la habitacin?
S, la habitacin tiene vista. Tiene una vista al mar.
A Paloma le gusta tomar el autobs?
No, a Paloma no le gusta tomar el autobs.
Qu tiempo hace en Chichiriviche?
Hace mucho calor y mucho sol.
Quin trae ms equipaje? Cuntas maletas trae? Paloma trae ms equipaje, trae 3 maletas.
Quin dice que van a perder el avin?
Quin tiene los boletos?
A qu hora sale el vuelo?
Y qu hora es?
Dnde se van a quedar ellos por 3 das?

This is the end of lesson 8.


Congratulations! (Felicidades). Ahora sabes mucho espaol y puedes hablar bien verdad?
Muchas gracias por escoger estas lecciones.
Adis.

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