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World Applied Programming, Vol (1), No (5), December 2011.

ISSN: 2222-2510
2011 WAP journal.

Performance of WiMAX over WiFi with Reliable QoS

over Wireless Communication Network
Md. Alimul Haque

Yashi Amola

Dr. N. K. Singh

P. G. Department of Physics
V. K. S. University
Ara 802301, India

Department of Information
& Communication Technology
MIT, Manipal, India

P. G. Department of Physics
V. K. S. University
Ara 802301, India

Abstract: Providing strong security is necessary for any wireless access networks. The latest broadband
access network implementation are based on WiMAX and LTE, since they well structured QoS
mechanisms and security architecture to support all kinds of fixed, mobile and multihop network users.
Wireless networks are generally less efficient and irregular compared to wired networks, which make
quality of service (QoS) provision a bigger challenge for wireless communications. The wireless
medium has limited bandwidth, higher packet error rate, and higher packet overheads that in total to
limit the capacity of the network to offer guaranteed QoS. In response to the increasing QoS challenge
in wireless networks, researchers have made significant modifications in Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) in the
legacy IEEE 802.11 standards to make possible QoS to end users. The design constraints at several
layers of the IEEE 802.11 restrict its capacity to deliver guaranteed QoS. Recently, the IEEE 802.16
standard, also known as worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), has emerged as
the strongest contender for broadband wireless technology with promises to give guaranteed QoS to
wireless application end users over wifi wireless technology. This paper tries to explain the
performance issues of WiMax over WiFi wireless communication in the term of wireless network
security, design and management which upgrading the upcoming wireless communication technology
over a wide region.
Key word: WiMAX WiFi WLAN Wireless Networks QoS Security


Wireless access techniques are continuously expanding their transmission bandwidth, coverage, and Quality of
Service (QoS) support in recent years. With the huge market success of Wireless Local Area Networks
(WLANs) (IEEE 802.11), the new-generation wireless technique, WiMAX (IEEE 802.16) has now been
standardized and deployed. WiMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. WiMAX
technology enables ever-present communication ofwireless broadband service for fixed and/or mobile users, and
became a truth in 2006 when Korea Telecom started the use of a 2.3 GHz version of mobile WiMAX service
called WiBRO in the Seoul metropolitan area to offer high performance communication for data and video over
wireless communication. The WiMAX Forum is an industry-led non-profit organization which has more than
570 member companies including service providers, equipment vendors, chip vendors and content providers. Its
primary mission is to ensure interoperability among IEEE 802.16 based .The air interface of WiMAX technology
is based on the IEEE 802.16 standards. In particular, the current Mobile WiMAX technology is mainly based on
the IEEE 802.16e which specifies the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) air interface
and provides support for mobility [1].
The network specifications of mobile WiMAX devices are include the end-to-end networking specifications and
network interoperability specifications. The Network Working Group (NWG) within the WiMAX Forum is
responsible for these network specifications, some of which involve Access Service Network (ASN) control and
data plane protocols, Connectivity Services Network (CSN), ASN profiles, mobility support, Authentication,
Authorization and Accounting (AAA) interworking with other technologies, and various services such as
Location-Based Service (LBS), Multicast and Broadcast Service (MCBCS) etc.
IEEE 802.11 WLAN, or WiFi, is possibly the most widely accepted broadband wireless networking technology,
providing the highest transmission rate among standard wireless networking technologies. Todays WiFi
devices, based on IEEE 802.11a and 802.11g, provide transmission rates up to 54 Mbps and new standard of


Md. Alimul Haque et al., World Applied Programming (WAP), Vol (1), No (5), December 2011.

IEEE 802.11n which supports up to 600Mbps transmission rates. The transmission range of a typical WiFi
device is up to 100m but its exact transmission range varies. It depend upon the transmission power, surrounding
environments, and others parameters. The 802.11 devices operate in unlicensed bands at 2.4 and 5 GHz, where
the exact available operate bands is varies according to county.


The aim behind Wireless Broadband technology is the support of mobile clients within a certain range as well as
the provision of a wireless network infrastructure in places where wired networks are not feasible or possible.
The three most important broadband wireless technologies are IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.16, and Wireless Mesh
Network (WMN).
Wi-Fi or Wireless Fidelity connects to the internet at high speeds. Wi-Fi enabled devices operate in unlicensed
spectrum. They use radio technologies within the range of an access point for data communication as shown in
Figure. 1[2]

Figure.1 Wireless Fidelity

WiMAX, an acronym for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications

technology that provides fixed and fully mobile internet access. The related sub-categories are:
1. 802.16-2004, also known as 802.16d, refers to the working party that has developed that standard. Since
it has no support for mobility it is sometimes referred to as "Fixed WiMAX".
2. 802.16e-2005, also known as 802.16e, is an amendment to 802.16-2004. It introduced support for
mobility, among other things, and is therefore also known as "Mobile WiMAX".
3. 802.16j-2009 is the Multihop Relay specification for 802.16 as shown in Figure. 2[3]


Md. Alimul Haque et al., World Applied Programming (WAP), Vol (1), No (5), December 2011.



This section introducing the essential properties WiMAX/WiFi system and then provides a description of
network performance and comparison between mobility and transmission speed.
A. WiMAX Technology
WiMax, a broadband wireless access technology, is used to deliver a high data rate for residential and enterprise
use in a line-of-sight as well as in non-lineof- sight [4]. WiMax provides wireless connectivity over a large
distance as compared to other wireless technologies with the help different modulation techniques and different
sorts of directional antennae. It provides a last mile solution to other receivers and with better coverage.

Figure. 3: Wireless Broadband (WiMAX) 802.16

WiMax provides a cost effective fixed wireless solution alternative to wired DSL and cable. It also provides the
lower cost broadband access solution in the areas without having DSL and cable [5]. In figure 2.0, different
applications of WiMax are to be shown. The success of WiMax is to provide broadband connectivity up to
certain extent with last mile solution and low cost infrastructure. It provides always broadband best connected
facility to users and different applications. It is used to connect different hot-spots like schools, buildings, public
community halls with the same data rate with high coverage. It is also used to provide a broadband facility to the
areas where there is no accessibility via DSL cables, fibre optics to get Internet access. The WiMax Forum is an
organization for providing interoperability among WiMax products through standardization and certification.


Md. Alimul Haque et al., World Applied Programming (WAP), Vol (1), No (5), December 2011.

The Benefits of using WiMAX

1. WiMAX technology can be quickly deployed to remote locations where the reach of copper networks is
limited. It is relatively cheaper also.
2. When compared to GSM and 3G, WiMAX produces DSL like speeds and operates at greater distances at
lower cost.
3. WiMAX offers uploading of large files.
4. WiMAX enables operators to offer triple-play services such as voice, data and video.
5. WiMAX provides features that businesses need. These include
- Quality of Service (QoS) which determines if a wireless technology can successfully deliver high value
services such as voice and video
- Toll-quality which is a voice call having quality comparable to that of an ordinary long distance call,
originally placed over circuit-switched public telephone network .
- Bandwidth at a low cost - WiMax provides fixed and mobile technology. WiMax promises a low cost, high
bandwidth 4G technology.
6. NASA would like to utilize WiMAX relay stations, based on the evolving WiMAX 802.16j standard, to
extend coverage and increase data throughput and to determine the feasibility of using IEEE 802.16
(WiMAX) as the communication protocol for lunar surface extra-vehicular activity (EVA) communications
7. WiMax may be used to manage Application Layer Threats

B. WiFi Technology
IEEE 802.11 WLAN, or WiFi, is probably the most widely accepted broadband wireless networking technology,
providing the highest transmission rate among standard-based wireless networking technologies. Todays WiFi
devices, based on IEEE 802.11a and 802.11g , provide transmission rates up to 54 Mbps and, further, a new
standard IEEE 802.11n, which supports up to 600Mbps, is being standardized. The transmission range of a
typical WiFi device is up to 100m, where its exact range varies depending on the transmission power, the
surrounding environments, and others. The 802.11 devices operate in unlicensed bands at 2.4 and 5 GHz, but the
accurate available bands depend on each county.
The Benefits of using Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi is a cost-effective and convenient alternative to a wired network.


Wi-Fi provides increased mobility to their users.


Cost associated with wiring cables and connectors is eliminated.


Ability to access Internet information in meeting rooms and other locations in the office gives ready
information to the employees and increases the productivity.


Doctors, Lawyers, Airline travellers and other professionals view Wi-Fi as a very effective tool to get
information readily. Members of a project can communicate with one other and keep one other informed
of their progress in addition to also getting information from the Internet.


Wi-Fi helps in increasing revenues in Businesses like restaurants and other public places by creating
hotspots to attract customers. This can be achieved at a low cost by a one time investment in the Wi-Fi


Connection to Wi-Fi by employees and guest visitors does not present any technical difficulty.


Wi-Fi is useful in space exploration, it is quite likely that space explorers may be carting around Wi-Fienabled PCs.



Here we present a summary of the security mechanisms for authentication, key derivation and management,
confidentiality, and integrity procedures applied in WiFi and WiMAX networks.


Md. Alimul Haque et al., World Applied Programming (WAP), Vol (1), No (5), December 2011.

From the security description in sections WiFi and WiMAX, and with the aid of the following Table 1, it is easy
to conclude that WiMAX security is much stronger than it is in WiFi. One of the reasons of course is the large
areas that WiMAX covers, and therefore, such conditions demand secure operational conditions of the network,
which requires strong security mechanisms.
On the other hand WiFi undoubtedly covers small areas comparing to WiMAX but many WiFi network
deployments in companies, industries, agencies and in many cases domestic users, handle valuable confidential
information that cannot be compromised. In this case, WiFi security is demanded to be as strong in performance
as it happens with the WiMAX mechanisms. Having said that, it is apparent that WEP and WPA security, with
RC4 encryption and shared-key authentication, is not adequate to provide guaranteed confidentiality, integrity
and secure user-authentication.
On the other hand, the Robust Security Network Association (RSNA) with the 802.11i and the WPA2 does
provide a secure wireless network operation, and it is the only security mechanism in WiFi that operates with
AES encryption, CCMP integrity mechanisms, key derivation and management with EAPOL, and secured userauthentication with the 802.1X protocol, that resembles with the strong mechanisms that WiMAX uses[7].




Md. Alimul Haque et al., World Applied Programming (WAP), Vol (1), No (5), December 2011.


Md. Alimul Haque et al., World Applied Programming (WAP), Vol (1), No (5), December 2011.



When constructing integrated WiMAX/WiFi networks, one of the most challenging issues facing network
designers is that of designing efficient links and Medium Access Control (MAC) layer protocols to optimize the
QoS between the WiMAX and the WiFi components of the architecture [8]. Several researchers have recently
proposed QoS provisioning mechanisms for integrated WiMAX/WiFi systems. QoS framework for 802.16/802.11
internetworking applications designed to map the QoS requirements of an application originating in an IEEE
802.11e network to an IEEE 802.16 network. Similarly, a QoS control protocol was also presented to support an
integrated QoS for converged networks comprising WiMAX and WiFi systems[9,10]. To meet QoS, Researcher
evaluates proposed efficient and unified connection-oriented architecture for integrating WiMAX and WiFi
technologies in broadband wireless networks [11]. In the proposed approach, a new wireless Access Point (AP)
device, designated as WiMAX/WiFi AP (W2-AP), is developed to manage the WiMAX/WiFi interface.

Figure.4 Integrated WiMAX/WiFi Network structure.

In Figure 4 presents a classical example of the integrated WiMAX/WiFi network architecture. As shown in figure,
a single WiMAX Base station BS, operating in a licensed band, serves both multiple WiMAX Subscriber Stations
(SSs) and multiple W2-APs within its coverage area. In other words, the WiMAX system provides broadband
wireless access to multiple W2-AP devices in a point-to-multipoint (PMP) topology. Each WiFi network is
connected to the WiMAX BS through a WiMAX/WiFi (W2)-AP. The connection between the BS and a SS is


Md. Alimul Haque et al., World Applied Programming (WAP), Vol (1), No (5), December 2011.

dedicated to a single user. However, the connection between the BS and each W2-AP is shared amongst all the
nodes within the Wireless LAN served by the W2-AP. As a result, the WiMAX network guarantee secured
communications service for connecting multiple scattered WiFi nodes to the Internet.


WiMAX technology reflects the general trend in the communications industry toward unified packet-based voice
and data networks. Fundamental benefits of this transition are reduced operation cost, improved network
optimization, and better management of changes. The followings are some of the major benefits of WiMAX are,

Wireless: By using a WiMAX system, no longer have to use expensive cables.

High bandwidth: WiMAX can provide shared data rates of up to 70Mbps.
Long range: WiMAX compared to existing wireless technologies is the range. WiMAX has a
communication range of up to 40 km.
Flexible architecture: WiMAX supports several systems architectures, including point-to-point, point-tomultipoint, and ubiquitous coverage.

In the light of this study it seems that WiMAX is an excellent component to other wireless technologies that are
designed to work in the LAN(WiFi) or that offer wider exposure but with more limited capacity(GSM, CDMA,
UMTS, EDO). WiMAX security is much stronger than WiFi. One of the reasons of course is the large areas that
WiMAX covers, and therefore such conditions demand secure operational conditions of the network, which requires
strong security mechanisms. The strengths of WiMAX lie in its ability to address the requirements of modern
telecommunications networks and the commitment that has been shown to its development and wide acceptance by a
number of leading equipment vendors and service providers.


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